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Sample records for subdiffraction structured illumination

  1. Super-resolution differential interference contrast microscopy by structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianling; Xu, Yan; Lv, Xiaohua; Lai, Xiaomin; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2013-01-14

    We propose a structured illumination differential interference contrast (SI-DIC) microscopy, breaking the diffraction resolution limit of differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. SI-DIC extends the bandwidth of coherent transfer function of the DIC imaging system, thus the resolution is improved. With 0.8 numerical aperture condenser and objective, the reconstructed SI-DIC image of 53 nm polystyrene beads reveals lateral resolution of approximately 190 nm, doubling that of the conventional DIC image. We also demonstrate biological observations of label-free cells with improved spatial resolution. The SI-DIC microscopy can provide sub-diffraction resolution and high contrast images with marker-free specimens, and has the potential for achieving sub-diffraction resolution quantitative phase imaging.

  2. Joint reconstruction strategy for structured illumination microscopy with unknown illuminations

    CERN Document Server

    Labouesse, Simon; Idier, Jérôme; Bourguignon, Sébastien; Negash, Awoke; Liu, Penghuan; Sentenac, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The blind structured illumination microscopy (SIM) strategy proposed in (Mudry et al., 1992) is drastically revisited in this paper, unveiling the mechanism that drives the super-resolution in the method. A much improved numerical implementation is also provided for the reconstruction problem under the image positivity constraint. This algorithm rests on a new preconditioned proximal iteration faster than existing solutions, paving the way to 3D and real-time 2D reconstruction.

  3. Review of interferometric spectroscopy of scattered light for the quantification of subdiffractional structure of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhang, Di; Subramanian, Hariharan; Capoglu, Ilker; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2017-03-01

    Optical microscopy is the staple technique in the examination of microscale material structure in basic science and applied research. Of particular importance to biology and medical research is the visualization and analysis of the weakly scattering biological cells and tissues. However, the resolution of optical microscopy is limited to ≥200 nm due to the fundamental diffraction limit of light. We review one distinct form of the spectroscopic microscopy (SM) method, which is founded in the analysis of the second-order spectral statistic of a wavelength-dependent bright-field far-zone reflected-light microscope image. This technique offers clear advantages for biomedical research by alleviating two notorious challenges of the optical evaluation of biomaterials: the diffraction limit of light and the lack of sensitivity to biological, optically transparent structures. Addressing the first issue, it has been shown that the spectroscopic content of a bright-field microscope image quantifies structural composition of samples at arbitrarily small length scales, limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector, without necessarily resolving them. Addressing the second issue, SM utilizes a reference arm, sample arm interference scheme, which allows us to elevate the weak scattering signal from biomaterials above the instrument noise floor.

  4. Structured illumination microscopy using photoswitchable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Liisa; Mandula, Ondrej; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    In fluorescence microscopy the lateral resolution is limited to about 200 nm because of diffraction. Resolution improvement by a factor of two can be achieved using structured illumination, where a ine grating is projected onto the sample, and the final image is reconstructed from a set of images taken at different grating positions. Further resolution improvement can be achieved by saturating the transitions involved in fluorescence emission. Recently discovered photoswitchable proteins undergo transitions that are saturable at low illumination intensity. Combining this concept with structured illumination, theoretically unlimited resolution can be achieved, where the smallest resolvable distance will be determined by signal-to-noise ratio. This work focuses on the use of the photoswitchable protein Dronpa with structured illumination to achieve nanometre scale resolution in fixed cells.

  5. Construction of an instant structured illumination microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Curd, Alistair; Cleasby, Alexa; Makowska, Katarzyna; York, Andrew; Shroff, Hari; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in biological imaging is to capture high-resolution images at fast frame rates in live cells. The “instant structured illumination microscope” (iSIM) is a system designed for this purpose. Similarly to standard structured illumination microscopy (SIM), an iSIM provides a twofold improvement over widefield microscopy, in x, y and z, but also allows much faster image acquisition, with real-time display of super-resolution images. The assembly of an iSIM is reasonably complex, involv...

  6. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  7. Structured illumination microscopy of a living cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M; Wicker, Kai; Mandula, Ondrej; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2009-07-01

    Due to diffraction, the resolution of imaging emitted light in a fluorescence microscope is limited to about 200 nm in the lateral direction. Resolution improvement by a factor of two can be achieved using structured illumination, where a fine grating is projected onto the sample, and the final image is reconstructed from a set of images taken at different grating positions. Here we demonstrate that with the help of a spatial light modulator, this technique can be used for imaging slowly moving structures in living cells.

  8. Wide-field subdiffraction RESOLFT microscopy using fluorescent protein photoswitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentker, Miriam A; Bock, Hannes; Hofmann, Michael; Jakobs, Stefan; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W

    2007-03-01

    Subdiffraction fluorescence imaging is presented in a parallelized wide-field arrangement exploiting the principle of reversible saturable/switchable optical transitions (RESOLFT). The diffraction barrier is overcome by photoswitching ensembles of the label protein asFP595 between a nonfluorescent off- and a fluorescent on-state. Relying on ultralow continuous-wave intensities, reversible protein switching facilitates parallelized fast image acquisition. The RESOLFT principle is implemented by illuminating with intensity distributions featuring zero intensity lines that are further apart than the conventional Abbe resolution limit. The subdiffraction resolution is verified by recording live Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with asFP595. The obtained resolution of 50 nm ( approximately lambda/12) is limited only by the spectroscopic properties of the proteins and the imperfections of the optical implementation, but not on principle grounds. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Implementation of an incoherent 3D patterned illumination design in a structured illumination microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. V.; Taylor, C.; Doblas, A.; Shabani, H.; Patwary, N.; Saavedra, G.; Preza, C.

    2017-02-01

    A novel 3D patterned illumination system using an incoherent light source has potential benefits for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) such as lowered intensity requirements and tunable modulating frequency. The illumination system, based on a coherent source, a set of parallel slits and a beam-splitting Fresnel biprism, generates localized interference fringes with a continuously-tunable range of lateral and axial spatial frequency combinations that are not easily accessible using other existing methods of generating structured illumination. Here we present adaptation of this system to a wide-field fluorescence microscope that tests its suitability for SIM imaging. Numerical simulations and experimental data are used to compare theoretical and practical system properties. Results demonstrate that theoretically predicted illumination properties can be used to select system design parameters and accurately produce specific illumination properties at the microscope sample plane. As part of an imaging system, this illumination approach may improve the applicability of super-resolution SIM to a greater variety of samples.

  10. Structural compensation enhancement method for nonuniform illumination images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Guan, Ye-Peng

    2015-04-01

    A structural compensation enhancement method is proposed to resolve the issue of nonuniform illumination image enhancement. A logarithmic histogram equalization transformation (LHET) is developed for improving the contrast of image and adjusting the luminance distribution. A structural map of illumination compensation is produced with a local ambient light estimation filter. The enhanced image is obtained by nonlinearly fusing the LHET result, reflection component, and structural map of illumination compensation. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed method has the ability of two-way adjustment for brightness. Furthermore, the proposed method can effectively enhance the nonuniform illumination images with a balance between visibility and naturalness. Extensive experimental comparisons with some state-of-the-art methods have shown the superior performance of the proposed method.

  11. Super-resolution thermographic imaging using blind structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther

    2017-07-01

    Using an infrared camera for thermographic imaging allows the contactless temperature measurement of many surface pixels simultaneously. From the measured surface data, the structure below the surface, embedded inside a sample or tissue, can be reconstructed and imaged, if heated by an excitation light pulse. The main drawback in active thermographic imaging is the degradation of the spatial resolution with the imaging depth, which results in blurred images for deeper lying structures. We circumvent this degradation by using blind structured illumination combined with a non-linear joint sparsity reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate imaging of a line pattern and a star-shaped structure through a 3 mm thick steel sheet with a resolution four times better than the width of the thermal point-spread-function. The structured illumination is realized by parallel slits cut in an aluminum foil, where the excitation coming from a flashlight can penetrate. This realization of super-resolution thermographic imaging demonstrates that blind structured illumination allows thermographic imaging without high degradation of the spatial resolution for deeper lying structures. The groundbreaking concept of super-resolution can be transferred from optics to diffusive imaging by defining a thermal point-spread-function, which gives the principle resolution limit for a certain signal-to-noise ratio, similar to the Abbe limit for a certain optical wavelength. In future work, the unknown illumination pattern could be the speckle pattern generated by a short laser pulse inside a light scattering sample or tissue.

  12. SIMToolbox: a MATLAB toolbox for structured illumination fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížek, Pavel; Lukeš, Tomáš; Ovesný, Martin; Fliegel, Karel; Hagen, Guy M

    2016-01-15

    SIMToolbox is an open-source, modular set of functions for MATLAB equipped with a user-friendly graphical interface and designed for processing two-dimensional and three-dimensional data acquired by structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Both optical sectioning and super-resolution applications are supported. The software is also capable of maximum a posteriori probability image estimation (MAP-SIM), an alternative method for reconstruction of structured illumination images. MAP-SIM can potentially reduce reconstruction artifacts, which commonly occur due to refractive index mismatch within the sample and to imperfections in the illumination. SIMToolbox, example data and the online documentation are freely accessible at http://mmtg.fel.cvut.cz/SIMToolbox. ghagen@uccs.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Improved-resolution millimeter-wave imaging through structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayei, Ali; Kavehvash, Zahra; Shabany, Mahdi

    2017-05-20

    A resolution-improved active millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging structure, based on the theory of structured illumination, is proposed in this paper. The structured illumination is a well-defined concept for surpassing the diffraction limit in optical microscopy, where imposing grating patterns on the targeted object could help in moving the object frequency spectrum along the desired direction in the spatial frequency domain. This frequency shift helps in passing different parts of the object's frequency spectrum through the diffraction filter. The combination of resultant images provides a framework to pass a wider frequency band of the object, thereby achieving super-resolution. This idea has not yet been employed for MMW image resolution improvement due to practical limitations in producing the desired grating patterns. Therefore, a desired fringe pattern is produced here and tailored for a MMW imaging system through antenna array synthesis. In the proposed scheme, the structured illumination has been implemented for improving the MMW image resolution. Furthermore, an adaptive approach has been proposed in order to generalize the structure for resolution improvement in all required directions in a very fast manner. Electromagnetic simulation results show at most twofold improvement in the image resolution through the proposed MMW imaging structure.

  14. Structured illumination microscopy for vibrational molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kozue; Palonpon, Almar F.; Smith, Nicholas I.; Chiu, Liang-da; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Raman microscopy is a powerful tool for analytical imaging. The wavelength shift of Raman scattering corresponds to molecular vibrational energy. Therefore, we can access rich chemical information, such as distribution, concentration, and chemical environment of sample molecules. Despite these strengths of Raman microscopy, the spatial resolution has been a limiting factor for many practical applications. In this study, we developed a large-area, high-resolution Raman microscope by utilizing structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to overcome the spatial resolution limit. A structured line-illumination (SLI) Raman microscope was constructed. The structured illumination is introduced along the line direction by the interference of two line-shaped beams. In SIM, the spatial frequency mixing between structured illumination and Raman scattering from the sample allows access to the high spatial frequency information beyond the conventional cut-off. As a result, the FWHM of 40-nm fluorescence particle images showed a clear resolution enhancement in the line direction: 366 nm in LI and 199 nm in SLI microscope. Using the developed microscope, we successfully demonstrated high-resolution Raman imaging of various kinds of specimens, such as few-layer graphene, graphite, mouse brain tissue, and polymer nanoparticles. The high resolution Raman images showed the capability to extract original spectral features from the mixed Raman spectra of a multi-component sample because of the enhanced spatial resolution, which is advantageous in observing complex spectral features. The Raman microscopy technique reported here enables us to see the detailed chemical structures of chemical, biological, and medical samples with a spatial resolution smaller than 200 nm.

  15. 3D endoscopic imaging using structured illumination technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Nguyen, Hieu; Wang, Zhaoyang; Kang, Jin U.

    2017-02-01

    Surgeons have been increasingly relying on minimally invasive surgical guidance techniques not only to reduce surgical trauma but also to achieve accurate and objective surgical risk evaluations. A typical minimally invasive surgical guidance system provides visual assistance in two-dimensional anatomy and pathology of internal organ within a limited field of view. In this work, we propose and implement a structure illumination endoscope to provide a simple, inexpensive 3D endoscopic imaging to conduct high resolution 3D imagery for use in surgical guidance system. The system is calibrated and validated for quantitative depth measurement in both calibrated target and human subject. The system exhibits a depth of field of 20 mm, depth resolution of 0.2mm and a relative accuracy of 0.1%. The demonstrated setup affirms the feasibility of using the structured illumination endoscope for depth quantization and assisting medical diagnostic assessments

  16. Super-resolved Mirau digital holography by structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjkhani, Yasaman; Charsooghi, Mohammad A.; Akhlaghi, Ehsan A.; Moradi, Ali-Reza

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we apply structured illumination toward super-resolved 3D imaging in a common-path digital holography arrangement. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) provides non-invasive 3D images of transparent samples as well as 3D profiles of reflective surfaces. A compact and vibration-immune arrangement for DHM may be obtained through the use of a Mirau microscope objective. However, high-magnification Mirau objectives have a low working distance and are expensive. Low-magnification ones, on the other hand, suffer from low lateral resolution. Structured illumination has been widely used for resolution improvement of intensity images, but the technique can also be readily applied to DHM. We apply structured illumination to Mirau DHM by implementing successive sinusoidal gratings with different orientations onto a spatial light modulator (SLM) and forming its image on the specimen. Moreover, we show that, instead of different orientations of 1D gratings, alternative single 2D gratings, e.g. checkerboard or hexagonal patterns, can provide resolution enhancement in multiple directions. Our results show a 35% improvement in the resolution power of the DHM. The presented arrangement has the potential to serve as a table-top device for high resolution holographic microscopy.

  17. Structured white-light illumination for diagnostic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, P.; Brandes, A.; Frenner, K.; Kienle, A.; Osten, W.

    2013-04-01

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important technology for non-invasive, in vivo medical diagnostics. It enables the high-resolution recording of two-dimensional tomograms or three-dimensional volumes of biological tissue. Two mechanisms help separating the signal from the scattering background. First, reflected or backscattered light from outside the focal spot is suppressed by confocal discrimination. Additionally, the signal modulation is enhanced due to identical optical path lengths of both branches of the white light interferometry setup. Since the OCT relies on the interference between reference light and scattered light, this method cannot be readily extended for fluorescence measurements. An alternative approach is the confocal fluorescence microscopy, which uses confocal microscopy to suppress the fluorescent light from outside the focal spot. Hence, only the fluorescent light in the focal plane, which is 3 to 4 magnitudes lower in intensity than the excitation light, is detected. However, the surrounding area is illuminated with full intensity, which might cause photo-bleaching. There are also other promising approaches such as the two-photon excitation microscopy or fluorescence lifetime microscopy, which we will not cover in more detail. For fluorescence measurements of strongly-scattering samples such as biological tissue but also for technical surfaces, we propose a structured white-light illumination. We present two different approaches for the sample illumination utilizing a white light laser or a white light LED, respectively. We show first simulations of the individual illumination setups and their impact on the scattering within the sample. Furthermore, we investigated the distribution of the fluorescent light that reaches the detection part of the device when excited within a scattering medium, for this purpose we implemented a novel fast-converging algorithm for conditional fluence rate in our Monte Carlo algorithm.

  18. Assessing resolution in live cell structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšil, Jakub; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) is a powerful super-resolution technique, which is able to enhance the resolution of optical microscope beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. In the last decade, numerous SIM methods that achieve the resolution of 100 nm in the lateral dimension have been developed. The SIM setups with new high-speed cameras and illumination pattern generators allow rapid acquisition of the live specimen. Therefore, SIM is widely used for investigation of the live structures in molecular and live cell biology. Quantitative evaluation of resolution enhancement in a real sample is essential to describe the efficiency of super-resolution microscopy technique. However, measuring the resolution of a live cell sample is a challenging task. Based on our experimental findings, the widely used Fourier ring correlation (FRC) method does not seem to be well suited for measuring the resolution of SIM live cell video sequences. Therefore, the resolution assessing methods based on Fourier spectrum analysis are often used. We introduce a measure based on circular average power spectral density (PSDca) estimated from a single SIM image (one video frame). PSDca describes the distribution of the power of a signal with respect to its spatial frequency. Spatial resolution corresponds to the cut-off frequency in Fourier space. In order to estimate the cut-off frequency from a noisy signal, we use a spectral subtraction method for noise suppression. In the future, this resolution assessment approach might prove useful also for single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) live cell imaging.

  19. Detection of grating asymmetries by phase-structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, M. L.; Peterhänsel, S.; Buchta, D.; Frenner, K.; Osten, W.

    2017-06-01

    The characterization of nanoscale grating asymmetries is an indispensable prerequisite for improving the accuracy of process control in modern semiconductor lithography. Model-based scatterometry is the state-of-the-art optical waferinspection technique. We suggest to extend it by coherent phase-structured illumination. The resulting intensity and phase profiles are evaluated in the far-field image plane. By means of rigorous simulations, it has already been demonstrated that the use of phase-structured illumination increases the sensitivity towards any kind of grating asymmetry including asymmetric sidewall angles (SWAs), floor tilts, asymmetric top and bottom roundings, and even overlay errors. Furthermore, it is possible to determine both the absolute value and the sign (magnitude and direction) of an asymmetry. In this paper, we will recapitulate the evaluation strategy and summarize the most important simulation results. Subsequently, we will present first proof-of-principle measurements obtained by digital off-axis holography. A direct comparison between simulation and measurement demonstrates the validity of the suggested approach.

  20. Sub-diffraction imaging with total internal reflection fluoresence (TIRF) microscopy by stochastic photobleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huanqing; Wang, Yifan; Kuang, Cuifang; Ge, Jianhong; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is widely used in fluorescent imaging. Evanescent wave fields generated by the internal reflection are used to illuminate the sample, and only fluorophores within a thickness of 100 nm thick from the surface are activated, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. Sub-diffraction imaging with TIRF microscopy by stochastic photobleaching is studied. Each fluorophore can be localized from the recorded streaming followed by image subtraction. This method can yield contrast-enhanced images with a higher SNR and improve the lateral resolution to approximately 120 nm.

  1. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.

  2. Single-image structured illumination using Hilbert transform demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Zachary R.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2017-05-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) achieves sectioning at depth by removing undesired light from out-of-focus planes within a specimen. However, it generally requires at least three modulated images with discrete phase shifts of 0, 120, and 240 deg to produce sectioning. Using a Hilbert transform demodulation, it is possible to produce both sectioning and depth information relative to a reference plane (i.e., a coverslip) using only a single image. The specimen is modulated at a known frequency, and the unmodulated portion of the image is estimated. These two components are used to provide a high-quality sectioned image containing both axial and lateral information of an object. The sectioning resolution with a single image is on par with that of a control three-image SIM. We are also able to show that when used with three images of discrete phase, this method produces better contrast within a turbid media than the traditional SIM technique. Because the traditional SIM requires alignment of three different phases, small differences in optical path length can introduce strong artifacts. Using the single-image technique removes this dependency, greatly improving sectioning in turbid media. Multiple targets with various depths and opaqueness are considered, including human skin in vivo, demonstrating a quick and useful way to provide noninvasive sectioning in real time.

  3. Error correcting coding-theory for structured light illumination systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    Intensity discrete structured light illumination systems project a series of projection patterns for the estimation of the absolute fringe order using only the temporal grey-level sequence at each pixel. This work proposes the use of error-correcting codes for pixel-wise correction of measurement errors. The use of an error correcting code is advantageous in many ways: it allows reducing the effect of random intensity noise, it corrects outliners near the border of the fringe commonly present when using intensity discrete patterns, and it provides a robustness in case of severe measurement errors (even for burst errors where whole frames are lost). The latter aspect is particular interesting in environments with varying ambient light as well as in critical safety applications as e.g. monitoring of deformations of components in nuclear power plants, where a high reliability is ensured even in case of short measurement disruptions. A special form of burst errors is the so-called salt and pepper noise, which can largely be removed with error correcting codes using only the information of a given pixel. The performance of this technique is evaluated using both simulations and experiments.

  4. Structured illumination microscopy and correlative microscopy to study autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeon, Laure-Anne; Barois, Nicolas; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lafont, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy is a predominant eukaryotic mechanism for the engulfment of "portions" of cytoplasm allowing their degradation to recycle metabolites. The autophagy is ubiquitous among the life kingdom revealing the importance of this pathway that appears more complex than previously thought. Several reviews have already addressed how to monitor this pathway and have highlighted the existence of new routes such as the LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) and the non-canonical autophagy. The principal difference between autophagosomes and LAP vacuoles is that the former has two limiting membranes positives for LC3 whereas the latter has one. Herein, we propose to emphasize the use of correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) to answer some autophagy's related questions. The structured illumination microscopy (SIM) relatively easy to implement allows to better observe the Atg proteins recruitment and localization during the autophagy process. While LC3 recruitment is performed using light microscopy the ultrastructural morphological analysis of LC3-vacuoles is ascertained by electron microscopy. Hence, these combined and correlated approaches allow to tackle the LAP vs. autophagosome issue. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Xing; Yang, Yanlong; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua

    2015-09-01

    In merits of super-resolved resolution and fast speed of three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning capability, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has found variety of applications in biomedical imaging. So far, most SIM systems use monochrome CCD or CMOS cameras to acquire images and discard the natural color information of the specimens. Although multicolor integration scheme are employed, multiple excitation sources and detectors are required and the spectral information is limited to a few of wavelengths. Here, we report a new method for full-color SIM with a color digital camera. A data processing algorithm based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) color space is proposed, in which the recorded color raw images are processed in the Hue, Saturation, Value color channels, and then reconstructed to a 3D image with full color. We demonstrated some 3D optical sectioning results on samples such as mixed pollen grains, insects, micro-chips and the surface of coins. The presented technique is applicable to some circumstance where color information plays crucial roles, such as in materials science and surface morphology.

  6. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  7. Line scan--structured illumination microscopy super-resolution imaging in thick fluorescent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Ondrej; Kielhorn, Martin; Wicker, Kai; Krampert, Gerhard; Kleppe, Ingo; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2012-10-22

    Structured illumination microscopy in thick fluorescent samples is a challenging task. The out-of-focus fluorescence background deteriorates the illumination pattern and the reconstructed images suffer from influence of noise. We present a combination of structured illumination microscopy with line scanning. This technique reduces the out-of-focus fluorescence background, which improves the modulation and the quality of the illumination pattern and therefore facilitates the reconstruction. We present super-resolution, optically sectioned images of a thick fluorescent sample, revealing details of the specimen's inner structure.

  8. Live-cell monochromatic dual-label sub-diffraction microscopy by mt-pcSOFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwé, S; Vandenberg, W; Dedecker, P

    2017-06-29

    We expand photochromic super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (pcSOFI) to monochromatic dual-channel sub-diffraction microscopy. Multi-tau (mt-)pcSOFI unmixes spectrally identical reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) based on their blinking kinetics. We show that mt-pcSOFI can be used to simultaneously image two structures in living cells with existing RSFPs and the newly developed ffDronpa-F.

  9. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  10. Investigating the performance of reconstruction methods used in structured illumination microscopy as a function of the illumination pattern's modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, H.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Preza, C.

    2016-03-01

    Surpassing the resolution of optical microscopy defined by the Abbe diffraction limit, while simultaneously achieving optical sectioning, is a challenging problem particularly for live cell imaging of thick samples. Among a few developing techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) addresses this challenge by imposing higher frequency information into the observable frequency band confined by the optical transfer function (OTF) of a conventional microscope either doubling the spatial resolution or filling the missing cone based on the spatial frequency of the pattern when the patterned illumination is two-dimensional. Standard reconstruction methods for SIM decompose the low and high frequency components from the recorded low-resolution images and then combine them to reach a high-resolution image. In contrast, model-based approaches rely on iterative optimization approaches to minimize the error between estimated and forward images. In this paper, we study the performance of both groups of methods by simulating fluorescence microscopy images from different type of objects (ranging from simulated two-point sources to extended objects). These simulations are used to investigate the methods' effectiveness on restoring objects with various types of power spectrum when modulation frequency of the patterned illumination is changing from zero to the incoherent cut-off frequency of the imaging system. Our results show that increasing the amount of imposed information by using a higher modulation frequency of the illumination pattern does not always yield a better restoration performance, which was found to be depended on the underlying object. Results from model-based restoration show performance improvement, quantified by an up to 62% drop in the mean square error compared to standard reconstruction, with increasing modulation frequency. However, we found cases for which results obtained with standard reconstruction methods do not always follow the same trend.

  11. Structured-illumination reflectance imaging for enhanced detection of subsurface tissue bruising in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, a novel method of fresh bruise detection was developed using a structured illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. The SIRI system projects sinusoidal patterns of illumination onto samples, and image demodulation is then used to recover depth-specific information through var...

  12. Structured illumination for stress reduction gloss reduction and 3 dimensional patterning of photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretsopoulos, Chris; Ganahl, Peter; Scranton, Alec

    2009-11-01

    ``Structured illumination'' method is based upon a two-stage illumination process in which a photoactive polymer is first illuminated in a pattern of light and dark regions. During this structured illumination stage, unreacted monomer from the dark region will migrate in response to the polymerization and the resulting shrinkage thereby preventing the development of stress. At the end of the structured illumination stage, the system contains patterned regions of stress-free polymer among pools of unreacted monomer. After a specified duration of structured illumination, the second, flood cure, stage begins. Here the entire system is illuminated to achieve a consistently high conversion throughout the coating. Experimental results confirm that over 90% of the polymerization shrinkage stress can be eliminated using this approach. A further benefit of this method is the production of 3 dimensional curved objects that can be photo-patterned with simple mask structures. This is in contrast to steep walled structures produced by conventional photolithography. The resulting polymer has been used to reduce gloss in surface coatings without the need of using additives, and to make micro scale 3D features and optical elements and microstructures.

  13. Holographically generated structured illumination for cell stimulation in optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Felix; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Torres, Maria Leilani; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Klapper, Simon; Busskamp, Volker

    2017-06-01

    In Optogenetics, cells, e.g. neurons or cardiac cells, are genetically altered to produce for example the lightsensitive protein Channelrhodopsin-2. Illuminating these cells induces action potentials or contractions and therefore allows to control electrical activity. Thus, light-induced cell stimulation can be used to gain insight to various biological processes. Many optogenetics studies, however, use only full field illumination and thus gain no local information about their specimen. But using modern spatial light modulators (SLM) in conjunction with computer-generated holograms (CGH), cells may be stimulated locally, thus enabling the research of the foundations of cell networks and cell communications. In our contribution, we present a digital holographic system for the patterned, spatially resolved stimulation of cell networks. We employ a fast ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon SLM to display CGH at up to 1.7 kHz. With an effective working distance of 33 mm, we achieve a focus of 10 μm at a positioning accuracy of the individual foci of about 8 μm. We utilized our setup for the optogenetic stimulation of clusters of cardiac cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and were able to observe contractions correlated to both temporal frequency and spatial power distribution of the light incident on the cell clusters.

  14. Speckle dynamics for dual-beam optical illumination of a rotating structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    An out-of-plane rotating object is illuminated with two spatially separated coherent beams, giving rise to fully developed speckles, which will translate and gradually decorrelate in the observation plane, located in the far field. The speckle pattern is a compound structure, consisting of random...... speckles modulated by a smaller and repetitive structure. Generally, these two components of the compound speckle structure will move as rigid structures with individual velocities determined by the characteristics of the two illuminating beams. Closed-form analytical expressions are found for the space......- and time-lagged covariance of irradiance and the corresponding power spectrum for the two spatially separated illuminating beams. The present analysis is valid for propagation through an arbitrary ABCD system, though the focus for the experimental evaluation is far-field observations using an optical...

  15. Increasing the space-time product of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy by means of two-pattern illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inochkin, F. M.; Pozzi, P.; Bezzubik, V. V.; Belashenkov, N. R.

    2017-06-01

    Superresolution image reconstruction method based on the structured illumination microscopy (SIM) principle with reduced and simplified pattern set is presented. The method described needs only 2 sinusoidal patterns shifted by half a period for each spatial direction of reconstruction, instead of the minimum of 3 for the previously known methods. The method is based on estimating redundant frequency components in the acquired set of modulated images. Digital processing is based on linear operations. When applied to several spatial orientations, the image set can be further reduced to a single pattern for each spatial orientation, complemented by a single non-modulated image for all the orientations. By utilizing this method for the case of two spatial orientations, the total input image set is reduced up to 3 images, providing up to 2-fold improvement in data acquisition time compared to the conventional 3-pattern SIM method. Using the simplified pattern design, the field of view can be doubled with the same number of spatial light modulator raster elements, resulting in a total 4-fold increase in the space-time product. The method requires precise knowledge of the optical transfer function (OTF). The key limitation is the thickness of object layer that scatters or emits light, which requires to be sufficiently small relatively to the lens depth of field. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented. Experimental results are obtained on the SIM setup with the spatial light modulator based on the 1920x1080 digital micromirror device.

  16. Illuminating the structure and function of Cys-loop receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2008-01-01

    transitional and steady state conformations and serves as a real time correlate of the channel structure and its function. Voltage-clamp fluorometry experiments on Cys-loop receptors have yielded a large body of data concerning the mechanisms by which agonists, antagonists and modulators act on these receptors...... insight into the structure of Cys-loop receptors. However, data from these experiments only provide 'snapshots' of the proteins under investigation. They cannot provide information about the various conformations the protein adopts during transition from the closed to the open and desensitized states...

  17. Depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer based on structured light illumination and Fourier transform interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan; Matsudaira, Paul T.; So, Peter T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer can provide depth resolved imaging both in the spatial and the spectral domain. Images acquired through a standard imaging Fourier transform spectrometer do not have the depth-resolution. By post processing the spectral cubes (x, y, λ) obtained through a Sagnac interferometer under uniform illumination and structured illumination, spectrally resolved images with depth resolution can be recovered using structured light illumination algorithms such as the HiLo method. The proposed scheme is validated with in vitro specimens including fluorescent solution and fluorescent beads with known spectra. The system is further demonstrated in quantifying spectra from 3D resolved features in biological specimens. The system has demonstrated depth resolution of 1.8 μm and spectral resolution of 7 nm respectively. PMID:25360367

  18. Low-noise phase imaging by hybrid uniform and structured illumination transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhui; Shanker, Aamod; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura; Barbastathis, George

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrate a new approach to the transport of intensity equation (TIE) phase retrieval method which uses structured illumination to improve low-frequency noise performance. In the hybrid scheme, two phase images are acquired: one with uniform and one with sinusoidal grating illumination intensity. The former preserves the high spatial frequency features of the phase best, whereas the latter dramatically increase the response at low spatial frequencies (where traditional TIE notoriously suffers). We then theoretically prove the design of a spectral filter that optimally combines the two phase results while suppressing noise. The combination of uniformly and structured illuminated TIE (hybrid TIE) phase imaging is experimentally demonstrated optically with a calibrated pure phase object.

  19. Radial super-resolution in digital holographic microscopy using structured illumination with circular symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yujian; Su, Ping; Ma, Jianshe

    2018-01-01

    A method to improve the radial resolution using special structured light is proposed in the field of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A specimen is illuminated with circular symmetrical structured light that makes the spectrum have radial movement, so that high frequency components of the specimen are moved into the passband of the receiver to overcome the diffraction limit. In the DHM imaging system, Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) technology is used to generate the required structured light grating. Then the grating is loaded into a spatial light modulator (SLM) to obtain specific structured illumination. After recording the hologram, digital reconstruction, for the microstructure of a binary optical element that needs to observe radial distribution, the radial resolution of the specimen is improved experimentally compare it with the result of one-dimensional sinusoidal structured light imaging. And a method of designing structured light is presented.

  20. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  1. Chromatin organization at the nuclear periphery as revealed by image analysis of structured illumination microscopy data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Efenberková, Michaela; Sieger, T.; Maninová, Miloslava; Uhlířová, Jana; Hozák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 12 (2017), s. 2066-2077 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-08835Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Structured illumination * Image analysis * Chromation * Nucleus * Histone modification * Nuclear pore complexes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016

  2. Phase imaging for absorptive phase objects using hybrid uniform and structured illumination transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Zhengyun; Barbastathis, George

    2014-11-17

    Transport of intensity equation (TIE) has been a popular and convenient phase imaging method that retrieves phase profile from the measurement of intensity differentials. Conventional 2-shot uniform illumination TIE can give reliable inversion of the phase from intensity in many situations of practical interest; however, it has a null space consisting of fields with non-zero circulation of the Poynting vector. Here, we propose the hybrid illumination TIE method to disambiguate such objects. By comparing the diffraction signals using uniform and structured (sinusoidal) illumination patterns, we obtain a modulation-induced signal that depends solely on the phase gradient. In this way, we also increase signal sensitivity in the low spatial frequency region.

  3. Fast two-snapshot structured illumination for temporal focusing microscopy with enhanced axial resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yunlong; Lin, Wei; Li, Chenglin; Chen, Shih-chi

    2017-01-01

    We present a new two-snapshot structured light illumination (SLI) reconstruction algorithm for fast image acquisition. The new algorithm, which only requires two mutually {\\pi} phase-shifted raw structured images, is implemented on a custom-built temporal focusing fluorescence microscope (TFFM) to enhance its axial resolution via a digital micromirror device (DMD). First, the orientation of the modulated sinusoidal fringe patterns is automatically identified via spatial frequency vector detec...

  4. Optically sectioned wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy enabled by structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsdale, Taylor; Olsovsky, Cory; Rico-Jimenez, Jose J.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Jo, Javier A.; Malik, Bilal H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of structured illumination microscopy to enhance the ability of fluorescence lifetime imaging to resolve fluorescence lifetimes in relatively thick samples that possess distinct but spectrally overlapping fluorescent layers. Structured illumination fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (SI-FLIM) is shown to be able to accurately reconstruct lifetime values in homogenous fluorophore samples (POPOP, NADH, and FAD) as well as accurately measure fluorescent lifetime in two layer models that are layered with NADH/FAD over POPOP, where NADH/FAD and POPOP have spectral overlap. Finally, the ability of SI-FLIM was demonstrated in a hamster cheek pouch ex vivo to show that more accurate lifetimes could be measured for each layer of interest in the oral mucosa (epithelium and submucosa). PMID:28663841

  5. Subdiffraction confinement in dielectric waveguide with extreme anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tingting

    2017-07-01

    All-dielectric slab waveguide filling the core with metamaterials of extreme anisotropy realizes the light transport being confined in a subdiffraction region with substantial energy concentration. The extreme anisotropy makes the evanescent waves in the claddings decay faster and the guided mode tightly localized in the core. Furthermore, the cutoff width can be decoupled from the group velocity of the mode, it can reach zero in the limit of extreme anisotropy but still sustain considerable group velocity. We analyze technically realizable cases and conclude that our work can contribute to improvements of various electromagnetic devices, from visible to microwave frequency regions.

  6. A Guide to Structured Illumination TIRF Microscopy at High Speed with Multiple Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence J; Ströhl, Florian; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2016-05-30

    Optical super-resolution imaging with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a key technology for the visualization of processes at the molecular level in the chemical and biomedical sciences. Although commercial SIM systems are available, systems that are custom designed in the laboratory can outperform commercial systems, the latter typically designed for ease of use and general purpose applications, both in terms of imaging fidelity and speed. This article presents an in-depth guide to building a SIM system that uses total internal reflection (TIR) illumination and is capable of imaging at up to 10 Hz in three colors at a resolution reaching 100 nm. Due to the combination of SIM and TIRF, the system provides better image contrast than rival technologies. To achieve these specifications, several optical elements are used to enable automated control over the polarization state and spatial structure of the illumination light for all available excitation wavelengths. Full details on hardware implementation and control are given to achieve synchronization between excitation light pattern generation, wavelength, polarization state, and camera control with an emphasis on achieving maximum acquisition frame rate. A step-by-step protocol for system alignment and calibration is presented and the achievable resolution improvement is validated on ideal test samples. The capability for video-rate super-resolution imaging is demonstrated with living cells.

  7. Interferometric Spectroscopy of Scattered Light Can Quantify the Statistics of Subdiffractional Refractive-Index Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezyan, L.; Capoglu, I.; Subramanian, H.; Rogers, J. D.; Damania, D.; Taflove, A.; Backman, V.

    2013-07-01

    Despite major importance in physics, biology, and other sciences, the optical sensing of nanoscale structures in the far zone remains an open problem due to the fundamental diffraction limit of resolution. We establish that the expected value of spectral variance (Σ˜2) of a far-field, diffraction-limited microscope image can quantify the refractive-index fluctuations of a label-free, weakly scattering sample at subdiffraction length scales. We report the general expression of Σ˜ for an arbitrary refractive-index distribution. For an exponential refractive-index spatial correlation, we obtain a closed-form solution of Σ˜ that is in excellent agreement with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain solutions of Maxwell’s equations. Sensing complex inhomogeneous media at the nanoscale can benefit fields from material science to medical diagnostics.

  8. Subdiffraction instrumentation development and application to the elucidation of biological systems, thin films, and organic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesoine, Michael D.

    Fluorescence and Raman instrumentation was developed to elucidate morphology, information on local environment, and material properties of target systems. Far-field fluorescence and luminescence spectroscopic measurements were performed using a pulsed super-continuum laser source and detector with high temporal resolution. With this arrangement morphologies of structures were coupled with time-correlated data. Polymeric beads and Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled cellular actin structures of cultured cells were imaged below the diffraction limit using stimulated emission depletion to resolve structures to about 40nm. Lifetime imaging revealed a 2.0 +/- 0.1 ns lifetime for fluorescently-labeled beads in confocal and depletion imaging modes. Depletion imaging was also able to display a change of 2.2 to 2.9 ns for different regions of the cellular actin network of cultured cells with a possible difference in lifetime caused by tryptophan quenching of the dye. Subdiffraction imaging with a resolution of around 40 nm was also accomplished using luminescence depletion of photostable giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots in air. Nanocrystal quantum dots, typically not prone to depletion, exhibited this phenomenon when excited with an energy of 50 pJ and 2 nJ of depletion energy. Luminescence depletion required half the energy compared to stimulated emission depletion to achieve the same resolution limit. The luminescence was depleted by as much as about 92% with no observable photobleaching. Raman measurements of polymer films were performed with 532-nm laser illumination using scanning angle and conventional 180° backscattering modes to determine chemical information. The scanning angle mode achieved an angle resolution of 0.09° and was used to probe a thin layer of polystyrene as well as a diblock copolymer of polystyrene and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). Enhancements to the Raman signals at selected angles lower than the critical angle for total internal

  9. Subdiffraction instrumentation development and application to the elucidation of biological systems, thin films, and organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoine, Michael D [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Fluorescence and Raman instrumentation was developed to elucidate morphology, information on local environment, and material properties of target systems. Far-field fluorescence and luminescence spectroscopic measurements were performed using a pulsed super-continuum laser source and detector with high temporal resolution. With this arrangement morphologies of structures were coupled with time-correlated data. Polymeric beads and Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled cellular actin structures of cultured cells were imaged below the diffraction limit using stimulated emission depletion to resolve structures to ≈40nm. Lifetime imaging revealed a 2.0 ± 0.1 ns lifetime for fluorescently-labeled beads in confocal and depletion imaging modes. Depletion imaging was also able to display a change of 2.2 to 2.9 ns for different regions of the cellular actin network of cultured cells with a possible difference in lifetime caused by tryptophan quenching of the dye. Subdiffraction imaging with a resolution of ≈40 nm was also accomplished using luminescence depletion of photostable giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots in air. Nanocrystal quantum dots, typically not prone to depletion, exhibited this phenomenon when excited with an energy of 50 pJ and 2 nJ of depletion energy. Luminescence depletion required half the energy compared to stimulated emission depletion to achieve the same resolution limit. The luminescence was depleted by as much as ≈92% with no observable photobleaching. Raman measurements of polymer films were performed with 532-nm laser illumination using scanning angle and conventional 180° backscattering modes to determine chemical information. The scanning angle mode achieved an angle resolution of 0.09° and was used to probe a thin layer of polystyrene as well as a diblock copolymer of polystyrene and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). Enhancements to the Raman signals at selected angles lower than the critical angle for total internal reflection

  10. Mapping Molecular Function to Biological Nanostructure: Combining Structured Illumination Microscopy with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (SIM + FLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Görlitz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new microscope integrating super-resolved imaging using structured illumination microscopy (SIM with wide-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM to provide optical mapping of molecular function and its correlation with biological nanostructure below the conventional diffraction limit. We illustrate this SIM + FLIM capability to map FRET readouts applied to the aggregation of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1 in Cos 7 cells following ligand stimulation and to the compaction of DNA during the cell cycle.

  11. Analysis of Crack Image Recognition Characteristics in Concrete Structures Depending on the Illumination and Image Acquisition Distance through Outdoor Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Hyuk-Jin; Yoon, Jae-Chan

    2016-10-06

    The effects of illumination and shooting distance on crack image recognition were investigated by examining cracks in images taken with a camera. In order to examine the effects, images of cracks in a concrete structure taken while varying the illumination and shooting distance in an outdoor environment were analyzed. The images were acquired at a daytime illumination of 52,000 lx and a night illumination of 13 lx. The crack specimen images produced for the experiment were taken by increasing the shooting distance from 5 m to 100 m in each illumination. On the basis of the analysis on the modulation transfer function (MTF) and contrast sensitivity of the crack images, the effects of illumination and shooting distance on the sharpness of the crack images were investigated. The minimum crack widths that can be identified under each illumination were analyzed using MTF10 and Weber contrast 0.1, respectively. It was found that as the shooting distance increases, the effects of illumination on crack recognition become greater.

  12. Analysis of Crack Image Recognition Characteristics in Concrete Structures Depending on the Illumination and Image Acquisition Distance through Outdoor Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of illumination and shooting distance on crack image recognition were investigated by examining cracks in images taken with a camera. In order to examine the effects, images of cracks in a concrete structure taken while varying the illumination and shooting distance in an outdoor environment were analyzed. The images were acquired at a daytime illumination of 52,000 lx and a night illumination of 13 lx. The crack specimen images produced for the experiment were taken by increasing the shooting distance from 5 m to 100 m in each illumination. On the basis of the analysis on the modulation transfer function (MTF and contrast sensitivity of the crack images, the effects of illumination and shooting distance on the sharpness of the crack images were investigated. The minimum crack widths that can be identified under each illumination were analyzed using MTF10 and Weber contrast 0.1, respectively. It was found that as the shooting distance increases, the effects of illumination on crack recognition become greater.

  13. ECV investigation of ion-implanted photosensitive silicon structures for backside illuminated CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, G.; Frolov, D.; Zubkova, A.; Zubkov, V.

    2016-11-01

    Boron implanted Si structures used in back-side illuminated and electron bombarded charge coupled devices (CCD) were investigated by means of electrochemical capacitance- voltage (ECV) profiling. A set of test structures were specially fabricated using various energies and doses of boron implantation, as well as different materials were used as their coating layers: Al and silicon oxide. The concentration profiles of free charge carriers across the sample were experimentally obtained. Further, using Poisson equation and Fredholm equation of the first kind the distribution of free charge carrier concentration and electric field intensity in depth of the samples were calculated. By analyzing and comparison of simulated and experimentally obtained concentration profiles, the recommendations for optimization of sample parameters were proposed aiming at increase of sweeping field and decrease of surface potential impact on charge carrier transport.

  14. Illuminating the Voluminous Subsurface Structures of Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Shelly, David R.

    2017-10-01

    Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park has attracted scientific research for almost a century and a half. Temperature and pressure measurements and video recordings in the geyser's conduit led to proposals of many quantitative eruption models. Nevertheless, information on the processes that initiate the geyser's eruption in the subsurface remained limited. Two new studies, specifically Wu et al. (2017) and Ward and Lin (2017), take advantage of recent developments in seismic data acquisition technology and processing methods to illuminate subsurface structures. Using a dense array of three-component nodal geophones, these studies delineate subsurface structures on a scale larger than previously realized, which exert control on the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser.

  15. Illuminating QCD and Nucleon Structure Through the Study of Hadrons Within Jets at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, James; STAR Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The experiments of the RHIC spin program have provided critical insight into the spin structure of the nucleon, in particular shedding light on the roles played by gluon and sea-quark helicity. Over the last decade, theoretical and experimental engagement of transverse-spin phenomena have unlocked tantalizing opportunities for new insight into nucleon structure, e.g. with higher dimensions in partonic momentum space. STAR data collected in 2011 at √{ s} = 500 GeV and 2012 at 200 GeV reveal the first observations of transverse single-spin asymmetries in the azimuthal distributions of hadrons within jets from polarized proton collisions. These data combined with measurements from deep inelastic scattering and recent phenomenological breakthroughs may illuminate longstanding questions: Do factorization and universality extend to the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) picture in proton+proton collisions, e.g. through the Collins mechanism? How do TMD functions evolve with changing kinematics?

  16. Sub-diffraction limit laser ablation via multiple exposures using a digital micromirror device

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Daniel; Feinaeugle, Matthias; Mills, Benjamin; Grant-Jacob, James; Eason, Robert

    2017-01-01

    SEM images of resulting machined patterns Matlab scripts used to enhance SEM imagesData pertains to Applied Optics paper "Sub-diffraction limit laser ablation via multiple exposures using a digital micromirror device"

  17. Structural Pathways of Cytokines May Illuminate Their Roles in Regulation of Cancer Development and Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila [Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, 34450 Sariyer Istanbul (Turkey); Nussinov, Ruth, E-mail: nussinor@helix.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Sackler Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-03-25

    Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB) is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching—PRISM)

  18. 3D shape measurement of shoeprint impression with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianyu; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun; Chen, Wenjing

    2002-06-01

    The shoeprint impressions of suspect left at the crime scene can sometimes tell investigators what type of shoes to be looked for. These shoeprint impressions as one of the important evidence are useful in the detection of criminals. In this paper we propose a novel technique for identifying and analyzing the 3D characteristics of shoeprint impressions. We also design 3D shoeprint impression analysis system based on the combination the 3D shape measurement with structured illumination and fringe pattern analysis. We give a detail discussion on the principle and configuration of the system. Laboratory experiments show the technique is efficient in the detection of shoeprint and in the offering the reference for judicial evidence.

  19. Fast two-snapshot structured illumination for temporal focusing microscopy with enhanced axial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunlong; Lin, Wei; Li, Chenglin; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2017-09-18

    We present a new two-snapshot structured light illumination (SLI) reconstruction algorithm for fast image acquisition. The new algorithm, which only requires two mutually π phase-shifted raw structured images, is implemented on a custom-built temporal focusing fluorescence microscope (TFFM) to enhance its axial resolution via a digital micromirror device (DMD). First, the orientation of the modulated sinusoidal fringe patterns is automatically identified via spatial frequency vector detection. Subsequently, the modulated in-focal-plane images are obtained via rotation and subtraction. Lastly, a parallel amplitude demodulation method, derived based on Hilbert transform, is applied to complete the decoding processes. To demonstrate the new SLI algorithm, a TFFM is custom-constructed, where a DMD replaces the generic blazed grating in the system and simultaneously functions as a diffraction grating and a programmable binary mask, generating arbitrary fringe patterns. The experimental results show promising depth-discrimination capability with an axial resolution enhancement factor of 1.25, which matches well with the theoretical estimation, i.e, 1.27. Imaging experiments on pollen grain and mouse kidney samples have been performed. The results indicate that the two-snapshot algorithm presents comparable contrast reconstruction and optical cross-sectioning capability than those adopting the conventional root-mean-square (RMS) reconstruction method. The two-snapshot method can be readily applied to any sinusoidally modulated illumination systems to realize high-speed 3D imaging as less frames are required for each in-focal-plane image restoration, i.e., the image acquisition speed is improved by 2.5 times for any two-photon systems.

  20. Active site gate of M32 carboxypeptidases illuminated by crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhaskar; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Ghosh, Biplab; Yadav, Pooja; Kumar, Ashwani; Kundu, Suman; Goyal, Venuka Durani; Makde, Ravindra D

    2017-11-01

    Enzyme gates are important dynamic features that regulate function. Study of these features is critical for understanding of enzyme mechanism. In this study, the active-site gate of M32 carboxypeptidases (M32CP) is illuminated. Only a handful of members of this family have been structurally and functionally characterized and various aspects of their activity and mechanism are yet not clarified. Here, crystal structure of putative M32CP from Deinococcus radiodurans (M32dr) was solved to 2.4Å resolution. Enzymatic assays confirmed its identity as a carboxypeptidase. Open and relatively closed conformations observed in the structure provided supporting evidence for previously hypothesized hinge motion in this family of enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulations of 1.5μs displayed distinct open and closed conformations revealing amplitude of the motion to be beyond what was observed in the crystal structure. Hinge region and anchoring region of this shell-type gate were identified. A small displacement of 3Å and a helical tilt of 9° propagated by the hinge region translates into a 10Å motion at the top of the gate. The dynamics of the gate was supported by our mutagenesis experiment involving formation of disulphide bond across helices of the gate. The nearly inactive mutant enzyme showed 65-fold increase in the enzymatic activity in presence of reducing agent. Further, while a previously proposed structural basis would have led to its classification in subfamily II, experimentally observed substrate length restriction places M32dr in subfamily I of M32CPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structured Illumination-Based Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy for Hemato- and Cyto-Pathology Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieqiao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy utilizes interfering light and the moiré effect to enhance spatial resolution to about a half of that of conventional light microscopy, i.e. approximately 90 nm. In addition to the enhancement in the x and y directions, it also allows enhancement of resolution in the z- direction by the same factor of two (to approximately 220 nm, making it a powerful tool for 3-D morphology studies of fluorescently labeled cells or thin tissue sections. In this report, we applied this technique to several types of blood cells that are commonly seen in hematopathology. Compared with standard brightfield and ordinary fluorescence microscopy images, the 3-D morphology results clearly reveal the morphological features of different types of normal blood cells. We have also used this technique to evaluate morphologies of abnormal erythrocytes and compare them with those recorded on normal cells. The results give a very intuitive presentation of morphological structures of erythrocytes with great details. This research illustrates the potential of this technique to be used in hematology and cyto-pathology studies aimed at identifying nanometer-sized features that cannot be distinguished otherwise with conventional optical microscopy.

  2. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became...

  3. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  4. Development of a multispectral structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system and its application to bruise detection of apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) is a new, promising imaging modality for enhancing quality detection of food. A liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral SIRI system was developed and used for selecting optimal wavebands to detect bruising in apples. Immediately aft...

  5. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy using Lukosz bound apodization reduces pixel negativity at no resolution cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, C.H.; Mai, S.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Stallinga, S.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the reconstructed image in structured illumination microscopy (SIM) depends on various aspects of the image filtering process. To optimize the trade-off between resolution and ringing artifacts, which lead to negative intensities, we extend Lukosz-bound filtering to 3D SIM and derive

  6. Volumetric structured illumination microscopy enabled by tunable focus lens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsdale, Taylor; Malik, Bilal; Olsovsky, Cory; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a volumetric imaging method for biological tissue that is free of mechanically scanning components. The optical sectioning in the system is obtained by structured illumination microscopy (SIM) with the depth of focus being varied by the use of an electronic tunable-focus lens (ETL). The performance of the axial scanning mechanism was evaluated and characterized in conjunction with SIM to ensure volumetric images could be recorded and reconstructed without significant losses in optical section thickness and lateral resolution over the full desired scan range. It was demonstrated that sub-cellular image resolutions were obtainable in both microsphere films and in ex vivo oral mucosa, spanning multiple cell layers, without significant losses in image quality. The mechanism proposed here has the ability to be integrated into any wide-field microscopy system to convert it into a three-dimensional imaging platform without the need for axial scanning of the sample or imaging optics. The ability to axially scan independent of mechanical movement also provides the opportunity for the development of endoscopic systems which can create volumetric images of tissue in vivo.

  7. Optically sectioned wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging endoscopy enabled by structured illumination (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsdale, Taylor; Malik, Bilal H.; Rico-Jimenez, Jose J.; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) system with optical sectioning by structured illumination microscopy (SIM). FLIM measurements were made using a time gated ICCD camera in conjunction with a pulsed nitrogen dye laser operating at 450 nm. Intensity images were acquired at multiple time delays from a trigger initiated by a laser pulse to create a wide-field FLIM image, which was then combined with three phase SIM to provide optical sectioning. Such a mechanism has the potential to increase the reliability and accuracy of the FLIM measurements by rejecting background intensity. SIM also provides the opportunity to create volumetric FLIM images with the incorporation of scanning mechanisms for the sample plane. We present multiple embodiments of such a system: one as a free space endoscope and the other as a fiber microendoscope enabled by the introduction of a fiber bundle. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of such an imaging system by imaging dyes embedded in a tissue phantom.

  8. Live, video-rate super-resolution microscopy using structured illumination and rapid GPU-based parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefman, Jonathan; Scott, Keana; Stranick, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy is a powerful super-resolution method that is capable of achieving a resolution below 100 nm. Each super-resolution image is computationally constructed from a set of differentially illuminated images. However, real-time application of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has generally been limited due to the computational overhead needed to generate super-resolution images. Here, we have developed a real-time SIM system that incorporates graphic processing unit (GPU) based in-line parallel processing of raw/differentially illuminated images. By using GPU processing, the system has achieved a 90-fold increase in processing speed compared to performing equivalent operations on a multiprocessor computer--the total throughput of the system is limited by data acquisition speed, but not by image processing. Overall, more than 350 raw images (16-bit depth, 512 × 512 pixels) can be processed per second, resulting in a maximum frame rate of 39 super-resolution images per second. This ultrafast processing capability is used to provide immediate feedback of super-resolution images for real-time display. These developments are increasing the potential for sophisticated super-resolution imaging applications.

  9. 3D-structured illumination microscopy provides novel insight into architecture of human centrosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F. Sonnen

    2012-08-01

    Centrioles are essential for the formation of cilia and flagella. They also form the core of the centrosome, which organizes microtubule arrays important for cell shape, polarity, motility and division. Here, we have used super-resolution 3D-structured illumination microscopy to analyse the spatial relationship of 18 centriole and pericentriolar matrix (PCM components of human centrosomes at different cell cycle stages. During mitosis, PCM proteins formed extended networks with interspersed γ-Tubulin. During interphase, most proteins were arranged at specific distances from the walls of centrioles, resulting in ring staining, often with discernible density masses. Through use of site-specific antibodies, we found the C-terminus of Cep152 to be closer to centrioles than the N-terminus, illustrating the power of 3D-SIM to study protein disposition. Appendage proteins showed rings with multiple density masses, and the number of these masses was strongly reduced during mitosis. At the proximal end of centrioles, Sas-6 formed a dot at the site of daughter centriole assembly, consistent with its role in cartwheel formation. Plk4 and STIL co-localized with Sas-6, but Cep135 was associated mostly with mother centrioles. Remarkably, Plk4 formed a dot on the surface of the mother centriole before Sas-6 staining became detectable, indicating that Plk4 constitutes an early marker for the site of nascent centriole formation. Our study provides novel insights into the architecture of human centrosomes and illustrates the power of super-resolution microscopy in revealing the relative localization of centriole and PCM proteins in unprecedented detail.

  10. Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Geon; Shin, Seungwoo; Park, YongKeun

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel illumination control technique for optical diffraction tomography (ODT). Various spatial frequencies of beam illumination were controlled by displaying time-averaged sinusoidal patterns using a digital micromirror device (DMD). Compared to the previous method using binary Lee holograms, the present method eliminates unwanted diffracted beams which may deteriorate the image quality of the ODT. We demonstrated the capability of the present method by reconstructing three-dimensional refractive index (RI) distributions of various samples, with high RI sensitivity (\\sigma_\\Delta n = 3.15 +/- 10-4), and reconstructing 3-D RI tomograms of biological samples, which provided quantitative biochemical and morphological information about the samples.

  11. Structured illumination for wide-field Raman imaging of cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Houkai; Wang, Siqi; Zhang, Yuquan; Yang, Yong; Fang, Hui; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2017-11-01

    Although the diffraction limit still restricts their lateral resolution, conventional wide-field Raman imaging techniques offer fast imaging speeds compared with scanning schemes. To extend the lateral resolution of wide-field Raman microscopy using filters, standing-wave illumination technique is used, and an improvement of lateral resolution by a factor of more than two is achieved. Specifically, functionalized surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles are employed to strengthen the desired scattering signals to label cell membranes. This wide-field Raman imaging technique affords various significant opportunities in the biological applications.

  12. csiLSFM combines light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and coherent structured illumination for a lateral resolution below 100 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo-Jui; Perez Meza, Victor Didier; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2017-05-09

    Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) features optical sectioning in the excitation process. It minimizes fluorophore bleaching as well as phototoxic effects and provides a true axial resolution. The detection path resembles properties of conventional fluorescence microscopy. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is attractive for superresolution because of its moderate excitation intensity, high acquisition speed, and compatibility with all fluorophores. We introduce SIM to LSFM because the combination pushes the lateral resolution to the physical limit of linear SIM. The instrument requires three objective lenses and relies on methods to control two counterpropagating coherent light sheets that generate excitation patterns in the focal plane of the detection lens. SIM patterns with the finest line spacing in the far field become available along multiple orientations. Flexible control of rotation, frequency, and phase shift of the perfectly modulated light sheet are demonstrated. Images of beads prove a near-isotropic lateral resolution of sub-100 nm. Images of yeast endoplasmic reticulum show that coherent structured illumination (csi) LSFM performs with physiologically relevant specimens.

  13. Subdiffraction, Luminescence-Depletion Imaging of Isolated, Giant, CdSe/CdS Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoine, Michael D. [Ames Laboratory; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory; Petrich, Jacob W. [Ames Laboratory; Smith, Emily A. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-18

    Subdiffraction spatial resolution luminescence depletion imaging was performed with giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) dispersed on a glass slide. Luminescence depletion imaging used a Gaussian shaped excitation laser pulse overlapped with a depletion pulse, shaped into a doughnut profile, with zero intensity in the center. Luminescence from a subdiffraction volume is collected from the central portion of the excitation spot, where no depletion takes place. Up to 92% depletion of the luminescence signal was achieved. An average full width at half-maximum of 40 ± 10 nm was measured in the lateral direction for isolated g-NQDs at an air interface using luminescence depletion imaging, whereas the average full width at half-maximum was 450 ± 90 nm using diffraction-limited, confocal luminescence imaging. Time-gating of the luminescence depletion data was required to achieve the stated spatial resolution. No observable photobleaching of the g-NQDs was present in the measurements, which allowed imaging with a dwell time of 250 ms per pixel to obtain images with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The mechanism for luminescence depletion is likely stimulated emission, stimulated absorption, or a combination of the two. The g-NQDs fulfill a need for versatile, photostable tags for subdiffraction imaging schemes where high laser powers or long exposure times are used.

  14. Illuminating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Through the support of the NASA SBIR program, Control Vision, Inc. developed novel video techniques for clear, high resolution, real-time imaging of high temperature, high-energy industrial processes, such as welding, plasma arc spraying (coating), arc furnaces, metal casting and refractories (ceramics) melting. The Control Vision systems use reflected laser or strobe illumination, combined with ultra-short exposure times to create video, including the allowance of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) of fast moving powder particles buried within a plasma stream.

  15. Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Shinde, Anant; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination in wide-field fluorescence microscope. In the state of art SIM systems, grating patterns are generally generated by physical gratings or by spatial light modulators such as digital micro mirrors (DMD), liquid crystal displays (LCD). In this study, using a combination of LCD and ground glasses, size controlled randomized speckle patterns are generated as an illumination source for the microscope. Proof of concept of using speckle illumination in SIM configuration is tested by imaging fixed BPAE cells.

  16. Structure and Function of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrF Illuminates a Class of Antimetabolite Efflux Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chia Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. N. gonorrhoeae MtrF is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information is available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of MtrF, revealing a dimeric molecule with architecture distinct from all other families of transporters. MtrF is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to halfway across the membrane bilayer. Each subunit of the transporter contains nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins, posing a plausible pathway for substrate transport. A combination of the crystal structure and biochemical functional assays suggests that MtrF is an antibiotic efflux pump mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs.

  17. G-quadruplex structure and stability illuminated by 2-aminopurine phasor plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Robert; Jameson, David M; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-05-01

    The use of time-resolved fluorescence measurements in studies of telomeric G-quadruplex folding and stability has been hampered by the complexity of fluorescence lifetime distributions in solution. The application of phasor diagrams to the analysis of time-resolved fluorescence measurements, collected from either frequency-domain or time-domain instrumentation, allows for rapid characterization of complex lifetime distributions. Phasor diagrams are model-free graphical representations of transformed time-resolved fluorescence results. Simplification of complex fluorescent decays by phasor diagrams is demonstrated here using a 2-aminopurine substituted telomeric G-quadruplex sequence. The application of phasor diagrams to complex systems is discussed with comparisons to traditional non-linear regression model fitting. Phasor diagrams allow for the folding and stability of the telomeric G-quadruplex to be monitored in the presence of either sodium or potassium. Fluorescence lifetime measurements revealed multiple transitions upon folding of the telomeric G-quadruplex through the addition of potassium. Enzymatic digestion of the telomeric G-quadruplex structure, fluorescence quenching and Förster resonance energy transfer were also monitored through phasor diagrams. This work demonstrates the sensitivity of time-resolved methods for monitoring changes to the telomeric G-quadruplex and outlines the phasor diagram approach for analysis of complex time-resolved results that can be extended to other G-quadruplex and nucleic acid systems.

  18. Genomic data illuminates demography, genetic structure and selection of a popular dog breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Pamela; Sánchez-Molano, Enrique; Clements, Dylan N; Woolliams, John A; Haskell, Marie J; Blott, Sarah C

    2017-08-14

    Genomic methods have proved to be important tools in the analysis of genetic diversity across the range of species and can be used to reveal processes underlying both short- and long-term evolutionary change. This study applied genomic methods to investigate population structure and inbreeding in a common UK dog breed, the Labrador Retriever. We found substantial within-breed genetic differentiation, which was associated with the role of the dog (i.e. working, pet, show) and also with coat colour (i.e. black, yellow, brown). There was little evidence of geographical differentiation. Highly differentiated genomic regions contained genes and markers associated with skull shape, suggesting that at least some of the differentiation is related to human-imposed selection on this trait. We also found that the total length of homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity, ROHs) was highly correlated with inbreeding coefficient. This study demonstrates that high-density genomic data can be used to quantify genetic diversity and to decipher demographic and selection processes. Analysis of genetically differentiated regions in the UK Labrador Retriever population suggests the possibility of human-imposed selection on craniofacial characteristics. The high correlation between estimates of inbreeding from genomic and pedigree data for this breed demonstrates that genomic approaches can be used to quantify inbreeding levels in dogs, which will be particularly useful where pedigree information is missing.

  19. Differences in nuclear DNA organization between lymphocytes, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells revealed by structured illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; Guffei, Amanda; Knecht, Hans; Young, Ian T; Stallinga, Sjoerd; van Vliet, Lucas J; Mai, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    Advances in light microscopy have enabled the visualization of DNA in the interphase nucleus with more detail than is visible with conventional light microscopy. The nuclear architecture is assumed to be different in cancer cells compared to normal cells. In this paper we have studied, for the first time, the organization of nuclear DNA and that of DNA-free space in control lymphocytes, Hodgkin cells and Reed-Sternberg cells using 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM). We have observed detail in these SIM images that was not observed in conventional widefield images. We have measured the size distribution of the DNA structure using granulometry and noted a significant, progressive increase in the amount of sub-micron structures from control lymphocytes to Hodgkin cells to Reed-Sternberg cells. The DNA-free space changes as well; "holes" in the DNA distribution start to appear in the malignant cells. We have studied whether these "holes" are nucleoli by staining for upstream binding factor (UBF), a protein associated with the nucleolus. We have found that the relative UBF content progressively and significantly decreases-or is absent-in the DNA-free space when measured as either the Pearson correlation coefficient with the DNA-free space or as the number of "holes" that contain UBF. Similar differences exist within the population of Reed-Sternberg cells between binucleated and multinucleated cells with four or more subnuclei. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the changes of the nuclear DNA structure in any disease with superresolution light microscopy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hotsphere illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Hoang, Duyen; Liu, Shibin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of hotspheres- environment with abundant high microbial activity- i.e.: rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores, spermosphere and hyphasphere calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere. Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of four hotspheres: Spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and phosphatase were analyzed in the spermosphere and rhizosphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing. Further, manure was placed on surface of rhizoboxes to visualize spatio-temporal distribution of the enzyme activities in detritusphere after 25 days. Biopores were produced by earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) in transparent boxes for 2 weeks and enzyme distribution were measured by zymography thereafter. The developed in situ direct soil zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the root demonstrated plant specific patterns of enzyme distribution: it was uniform and homogenous along the lentil roots, whereas the enzyme activities in maize rhizosphere were higher at the apical or proximal root parts. For the first time were applied "spatial point pattern analysis" to determine

  1. Fast demodulation of pattern images by spiral phase transform in structured-illumination reflectance imaging for detection of bruises in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    A structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system was recently developed in our laboratory for enhanced quality evaluation of horticultural products. It was implemented using a digital camera to acquire reflectance images from food products subjected to sinusoidal patterns (or other simila...

  2. Structured-illumination reflectance imaging coupled with spiral phase transform for bruise detection and three-dimensional geometry reconstruction of apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) is a new, promising imaging technique with enhanced, versatile capabilities for quality evaluation of food products. SIRI enables simultaneous acquisition of higher-contrast/resolution and better depth-controlled intensity and phase images for detec...

  3. Investigation of interface property in Al/SiO2/ n-SiC structure with thin gate oxide by illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. K.; Hwu, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    The reverse tunneling current of Al/SiO2/ n-SiC structure employing thin gate oxide is introduced to examine the interface property by illumination. The gate current at negative bias decreases under blue LED illumination, yet increases under UV lamp illumination. Light-induced electrons captured by interface states may be emitted after the light sources are off, leading to the recovery of gate currents. Based on transient characteristics of gate current, the extracted trap level is close to the light energy for blue LED, indicating that electron capture induced by lighting may result in the reduction of gate current. Furthermore, bidirectional C- V measurements exhibit a positive voltage shift caused by electron trapping under blue LED illumination, while a negative voltage shift is observed under UV lamp illumination. Distinct trapping and detrapping behaviors can be observed from variations in I- V and C- V curves utilizing different light sources for 4H-SiC MOS capacitors with thin insulators.

  4. Demonstration of nanoimprinted hyperlens array for high-throughput sub-diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Minsueop; Lee, Dasol; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Yangdoo; Kim, Kwan; Ok, Jong G.; Rho, Junsuk; Lee, Heon

    2017-04-01

    Overcoming the resolution limit of conventional optics is regarded as the most important issue in optical imaging science and technology. Although hyperlenses, super-resolution imaging devices based on highly anisotropic dispersion relations that allow the access of high-wavevector components, have recently achieved far-field sub-diffraction imaging in real-time, the previously demonstrated devices have suffered from the extreme difficulties of both the fabrication process and the non-artificial objects placement. This results in restrictions on the practical applications of the hyperlens devices. While implementing large-scale hyperlens arrays in conventional microscopy is desirable to solve such issues, it has not been feasible to fabricate such large-scale hyperlens array with the previously used nanofabrication methods. Here, we suggest a scalable and reliable fabrication process of a large-scale hyperlens device based on direct pattern transfer techniques. We fabricate a 5 cm × 5 cm size hyperlenses array and experimentally demonstrate that it can resolve sub-diffraction features down to 160 nm under 410 nm wavelength visible light. The array-based hyperlens device will provide a simple solution for much more practical far-field and real-time super-resolution imaging which can be widely used in optics, biology, medical science, nanotechnology and other closely related interdisciplinary fields.

  5. Two-photon instant structured illumination microscopy improves the depth penetration of super-resolution imaging in thick scattering samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter W; York, Andrew G; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Ingaramo, Maria; Christensen, Ryan; Chitnis, Ajay; Patterson, George H; Shroff, Hari

    2014-09-20

    Fluorescence imaging methods that achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit (super-resolution) are of great interest in biology. We describe a super-resolution method that combines two-photon excitation with structured illumination microscopy (SIM), enabling three-dimensional interrogation of live organisms with ~150 nm lateral and ~400 nm axial resolution, at frame rates of ~1 Hz. By performing optical rather than digital processing operations to improve resolution, our microscope permits super-resolution imaging with no additional cost in acquisition time or phototoxicity relative to the point-scanning two-photon microscope upon which it is based. Our method provides better depth penetration and inherent optical sectioning than all previously reported super-resolution SIM implementations, enabling super-resolution imaging at depths exceeding 100 μm from the coverslip surface. The capability of our system for interrogating thick live specimens at high resolution is demonstrated by imaging whole nematode embryos and larvae, and tissues and organs inside zebrafish embryos.

  6. Gigapixel surface imaging of radical prostatectomy specimens for comprehensive detection of cancer-positive surgical margins using structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Mandava, Sree H.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Luethy, Samuel; Maddox, Michael M.; Lai, Weil; Lee, Benjamin R.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2016-06-01

    Achieving cancer-free surgical margins in oncologic surgery is critical to reduce the need for additional adjuvant treatments and minimize tumor recurrence; however, there is a delicate balance between completeness of tumor removal and preservation of adjacent tissues critical for normal post-operative function. We sought to establish the feasibility of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of the intact removed tumor surface as a practical and non-destructive alternative to intra-operative frozen section pathology, using prostate cancer as an initial target. We present the first images of the intact human prostate surface obtained with pathologically-relevant contrast and subcellular detail, obtained in 24 radical prostatectomy specimens immediately after excision. We demonstrate that it is feasible to routinely image the full prostate circumference, generating gigapixel panorama images of the surface that are readily interpreted by pathologists. VR-SIM confirmed detection of positive surgical margins in 3 out of 4 prostates with pathology-confirmed adenocarcinoma at the circumferential surgical margin, and furthermore detected extensive residual cancer at the circumferential margin in a case post-operatively classified by histopathology as having negative surgical margins. Our results suggest that the increased surface coverage of VR-SIM could also provide added value for detection and characterization of positive surgical margins over traditional histopathology.

  7. Amorphous no more: subdiffraction view of the Pericentriolar Material architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Vito; Agard, David A.; Bo, Huang; Pelletier, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The centrosome influences the shape, orientation and activity of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The pericentriolar material (PCM), determines this functionality by providing a dynamic platform for nucleating microtubules, and acts as a nexus for molecular signaling. While great strides have been made in understanding PCM activity, its diffraction-limited size and amorphous appearance under the electron microscope have limited analysis of its high-order organization. Here, we outline current knowledge of PCM architecture and assembly, emphasizing recent super-resolution imaging studies that revealed the PCM has a layered structure made of fibers and matrices conserved from flies to humans. Notably, these studies debunk the long-standing view of an amorphous PCM and provide a paradigm to dissect the supra-molecular organization of organelles in cells. PMID:24268653

  8. Hotsphere illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of the hotspheres such as rhizosphere, detritusphere, porosphere (including drilosphere and biopores), hyphasphere and spermosphere, calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities in these hotspheres (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of five hotspheres: spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere, drilosphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and leucine amino peptidase were analyzed in the spermosphere, rhizosphere and detritusphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing and 21 days after cutting plant (detritusphere). Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application fluorogenically labelled substrates on the soil surface. Such improvement enabled to visualize enzyme distribution of mycorrhiza hypha on the rhizobox surface. Further, to visualize the 2D distribution of the enzyme activities in porosphere, we placed earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), (drilosphere) and ground beetle species Platynus dorsalis Pont. (Coleoptera; Carabidae), (biopore), in transparent boxes for 2weeks. The developed in situ zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the

  9. Application of structured illumination to gas phase thermometry using thermographic phosphor particles: a study for averaged imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, Florian; Stephan, Michael; Berrocal, Edouard; Albert, Barbara; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is combined with gas phase thermometry measurements using thermographic phosphor (TGP) particles. The technique is applied to a heated jet surrounded by a coflow which is operated at ambient temperature. The respective air flows are seeded with a powder of BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) which is used as temperature-sensitive gas phase tracer. Upon pulsed excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range, the temperature is extracted based on the two-color ratio method combined with SLIPI. The main advantage of applying the SLIPI approach to phosphor thermometry is the reduction of particle-to-particle multiple light scattering and diffuse wall reflections, yielding a more robust calibration procedure as well as improving the measurement accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. For demonstration, this paper focuses on sample-averaged measurements of temperature fields in a jet-in-coflow configuration. Using the conventional approach, which in contrast to SLIPI is based on imaging with an unmodulated laser light sheet, we show that for the present setup typically 40% of the recorded signal is affected by the contribution of multiply scattered photons. At locations close to walls even up to 75% of the apparent signal is due to diffuse reflection and wall luminescence of BAM sticking at the surface. Those contributions lead to erroneous temperature fields. Using SLIPI, an unbiased two-color ratio field is recovered allowing for two-dimensional mean temperature reconstructions which exhibit a more realistic physical behavior. This is in contrast to results deduced by the conventional approach. Furthermore, using the SLIPI approach it is shown that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of up to 2 at 270 °C. Finally, an outlook towards instantaneous SLIPI phosphorescence thermometry is provided.

  10. Optimization of a widefield structured illumination microscope for non-destructive assessment and quantification of nuclear features in tumor margins of a primary mouse model of sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L Fu

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with specific cellular morphological changes, such as increased nuclear size and crowding from rapidly proliferating cells. In situ tissue imaging using fluorescent stains may be useful for intraoperative detection of residual cancer in surgical tumor margins. We developed a widefield fluorescence structured illumination microscope (SIM system with a single-shot FOV of 2.1 × 1.6 mm (3.4 mm(2 and sub-cellular resolution (4.4 µm. The objectives of this work were to measure the relationship between illumination pattern frequency and optical sectioning strength and signal-to-noise ratio in turbid (i.e. thick samples for selection of the optimum frequency, and to determine feasibility for detecting residual cancer on tumor resection margins, using a genetically engineered primary mouse model of sarcoma. The SIM system was tested in tissue mimicking solid phantoms with various scattering levels to determine impact of both turbidity and illumination frequency on two SIM metrics, optical section thickness and modulation depth. To demonstrate preclinical feasibility, ex vivo 50 µm frozen sections and fresh intact thick tissue samples excised from a primary mouse model of sarcoma were stained with acridine orange, which stains cell nuclei, skeletal muscle, and collagenous stroma. The cell nuclei were segmented using a high-pass filter algorithm, which allowed quantification of nuclear density. The results showed that the optimal illumination frequency was 31.7 µm(-1 used in conjunction with a 4 × 0.1 NA objective (v=0.165. This yielded an optical section thickness of 128 µm and an 8.9 × contrast enhancement over uniform illumination. We successfully demonstrated the ability to resolve cell nuclei in situ achieved via SIM, which allowed segmentation of nuclei from heterogeneous tissues in the presence of considerable background fluorescence. Specifically, we demonstrate that optical sectioning of fresh intact thick tissues

  11. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  12. ILLUMINATION RESPONSE OF CDZNTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.

    2011-08-02

    CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are of interest for use as room temperature X- and {gamma}-ray spectrometers. Several studies have focused on understanding the various electronic properties of these materials, such as the surface and bulk resistivities and the distribution of the electric field within the crystal. Specifically of interest is how these properties are influenced by a variety of factors including structural heterogeneities, such as secondary phases (SPs) and line defects as well as environmental effects. Herein, we report the bulk current, surface current, electric field distribution and performance of a spectrometer-grade CZT crystal exposed to above band-gap energy illumination.

  13. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end......-directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  14. Lights illuminate surfaces superluminally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Zhong, Qi; Lilleskov, Elias

    2016-07-01

    When a light bulb is turned on, light moves away from it at speed c, by definition. When light from this bulb illuminates a surface, however, this illumination front is not constrained to move at speed c. A simple proof is given that this illumination front always moves faster than c. Generalized, when any compact light source itself varies, this information spreads across all of the surfaces it illuminates at speeds faster than light.

  15. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  16. Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Roichman, Yael; Arie, Ady

    2016-01-01

    The diffraction limited resolution of light focused by a lens was derived in 1873 by Ernst Abbe. Later in 1952, a method to reach sub-diffraction light spots was proposed by modulating the wavefront of the focused beam. In a related development, super-oscillating functions, i.e. band limited functions that locally oscillate faster than their highest Fourier component, were introduced and experimentally applied for super-resolution microscopy. Up till now, only simple Gaussian-like sub-diffraction spots were used. Here we show that the amplitude and phase profile of these sub-diffraction spots can be arbitrarily controlled. In particular we utilize Hermite-Gauss, Laguerre-Gauss and Airy functions to structure super-oscillating beams with sub-diffraction lobes. These structured beams are then used for high resolution trapping and manipulation of nanometer-sized particles. The trapping potential provides unprecedented localization accuracy and stiffness, significantly exceeding those provided by standard diffrac...

  17. An exact line integral representation of the physical optics scattered field: the case of a perfectly conducting polyhedral structure illuminated by electric Hertzian dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter M.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1995-01-01

    An exact line integral representation of the electric physical optics scattered field is presented. This representation applies to scattering configurations with perfectly electrically conducting polyhedral structures illuminated by a finite number of electric Hertzian dipoles. The positions...... of the source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. The line integral representation yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral; however, it is potentially less time consuming and particularly useful when the physical optics field can be augmented by a fringe wave...... contribution as calculated from physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents. The final expression for the line integral representation is lengthy but involves only simple functions and is thus suited for numerical calculation. To illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  18. Solution structure of CCP modules 10-12 illuminates functional architecture of the complement regulator, factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, Elisavet; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Maciejewski, Mateusz; Soares, Dinesh C; Matis, Ilias; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Herbert, Andrew P; Svergun, Dmitri I; Barlow, Paul N

    2012-12-14

    The 155-kDa plasma glycoprotein factor H (FH), which consists of 20 complement control protein (CCP) modules, protects self-tissue but not foreign organisms from damage by the complement cascade. Protection is achieved by selective engagement of FH, via CCPs 1-4, CCPs 6-8 and CCPs 19-20, with polyanion-rich host surfaces that bear covalently attached, activation-specific, fragments of complement component C3. The role of intervening CCPs 9-18 in this process is obscured by lack of structural knowledge. We have concatenated new high-resolution solution structures of overlapping recombinant CCP pairs, 10-11 and 11-12, to form a three-dimensional structure of CCPs 10-12 and validated it by small-angle X-ray scattering of the recombinant triple-module fragment. Superimposing CCP 12 of this 10-12 structure with CCP 12 from the previously solved CCP 12-13 structure yielded an S-shaped structure for CCPs 10-13 in which modules are tilted by 80-110° with respect to immediate neighbors, but the bend between CCPs 10 and 11 is counter to the arc traced by CCPs 11-13. Including this four-CCP structure in interpretation of scattering data for the longer recombinant segments, CCPs 10-15 and 8-15, implied flexible attachment of CCPs 8 and 9 to CCP 10 but compact and intimate arrangements of CCP 14 with CCPs 12, 13 and 15. Taken together with difficulties in recombinant production of module pairs 13-14 and 14-15, the aberrant structure of CCP 13 and the variability of 13-14 linker sequences among orthologues, a structural dependency of CCP 14 on its neighbors is suggested; this has implications for the FH mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy investigation of three dimensional GaN structures with various crystal facets, doping types, and wavelengths of illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Deeb, Manal; Ledig, Johannes; Wei, Jiandong; Wang, Xue; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Three dimensional GaN structures with different crystal facets and doping types have been investigated employing the surface photo-voltage (SPV) method to monitor illumination-induced surface charge behavior using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Various photon energies near and below the GaN bandgap were used to modify the generation of electron-hole pairs and their motion under the influence of the electric field near the GaN surface. Fast and slow processes for Ga-polar c-planes on both Si-doped n-type as well as Mg-doped p-type GaN truncated pyramid micro-structures were found and their origin is discussed. The immediate positive (for n-type) and negative (for p-type) SPV response dominates at band-to-band and near-bandgap excitation, while only the slow process is present at sub-bandgap excitation. The SPV behavior for the semi-polar facets of the p-type GaN truncated pyramids has a similar characteristic to that on its c-plane, which indicates that it has a comparable band bending and no strong influence of the polarity-induced charges is detectable. The SPV behavior of the non-polar m-facets of the Si-doped n-type part of a transferred GaN column is similar to that of a clean c-plane GaN surface during illumination. However, the SPV is smaller in magnitude, which is attributed to intrinsic surface states of m-plane surfaces and their influence on the band bending. The SPV behavior of the non-polar m-facet of the slightly Mg-doped part of this GaN column is found to behave differently. Compared to c- and r-facets of p-type surfaces of GaN-light-emitting diode micro-structures, the m-plane is more chemically stable.

  20. How do ADARs bind RNA? New protein-RNA structures illuminate substrate recognition by the RNA editing ADARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin M; Beal, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  2. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, J; Parraman, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic pai...

  3. Design and quality metrics of point patterns for coded structured light illumination with diffractive optical elements in optical 3D sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Ralf; Hermerschmidt, Andreas; Fiebelkorn, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Structured light has become a widespread technique for the development of camera-based 3D sensors. The structured illumination provides texture to homogeneous objects and thus allows for the reliable determination of the disparity of each object point in a stereo-camera setting. Even a monocular 3D sensor is possible if the light projector has a fixed relative position to the camera and if the structured light is coded, i.e. the position within the whole light pattern can be reconstructed uniquely from a small local window of the pattern, the uniqueness window. Coded patterns with such a uniqueness property are called Perfect SubMaps (PSM). In our paper we focus on the design and evaluation of the subset of symmetric isolated binary toroidal PSMs (SIBTPSM) for structured light patterns, because of their beneficial properties with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio and the use with laser light sources and DOEs. We define several figures of merit that are relevant for the practical use of PSMs in a 3D sensor: the PSM size, the size of the uniqueness window, the Hamming distance, the density, and the homogeneity. We have created SIBTPSMs using our own dedicated algorithms and have designed and fabricated DOEs that produce these patterns with large fan angles of 61° × 47° when used with near-infrared diode lasers (λ = 830nm). We analyze the influence of these characteristics on the 3D measurement process by theory, simulations, and experiments. The patterns of publicly available DOEs based on SIBTPSMs are used for comparison and reference. Our results show that the PSM width, the uniqueness window size, the minimum and average Hamming distances, and the uniformity have strong impact on either speed or quality of the 3D reconstruction, whereas the point density and the PSM height are of minor importance.

  4. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on single samples allows the variation of mean age with streamflow to be investigated, as observed in the Toenepi Catchment in New Zealand where baseflow mean ages varied from 4 to 155 years depending on flow (Morgenstern et al., 2010).

  5. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ellipticus CW Illumination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept ................................................................................................5 3.2.2 Resistive Loading... Wormhole Feed concept for Ellipticus .....................................................................5 Figure 7. Ellipticus Resistive Loading...Illuminator at Patuxent River NAS. 3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept. The method chosen for driving the radiat- ing gap at the top of the antenna was what Dr

  7. Structured Illumination Microscopy and a Quantitative Image Analysis for the Detection of Positive Margins in a Pre-Clinical Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L Fu

    Full Text Available Intraoperative assessment of surgical margins is critical to ensuring residual tumor does not remain in a patient. Previously, we developed a fluorescence structured illumination microscope (SIM system with a single-shot field of view (FOV of 2.1 × 1.6 mm (3.4 mm2 and sub-cellular resolution (4.4 μm. The goal of this study was to test the utility of this technology for the detection of residual disease in a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma. Primary soft tissue sarcomas were generated in the hindlimb and after the tumor was surgically removed, the relevant margin was stained with acridine orange (AO, a vital stain that brightly stains cell nuclei and fibrous tissues. The tissues were imaged with the SIM system with the primary goal of visualizing fluorescent features from tumor nuclei. Given the heterogeneity of the background tissue (presence of adipose tissue and muscle, an algorithm known as maximally stable extremal regions (MSER was optimized and applied to the images to specifically segment nuclear features. A logistic regression model was used to classify a tissue site as positive or negative by calculating area fraction and shape of the segmented features that were present and the resulting receiver operator curve (ROC was generated by varying the probability threshold. Based on the ROC curves, the model was able to classify tumor and normal tissue with 77% sensitivity and 81% specificity (Youden's index. For an unbiased measure of the model performance, it was applied to a separate validation dataset that resulted in 73% sensitivity and 80% specificity. When this approach was applied to representative whole margins, for a tumor probability threshold of 50%, only 1.2% of all regions from the negative margin exceeded this threshold, while over 14.8% of all regions from the positive margin exceeded this threshold.

  8. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    energy into chemical bonds. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to gain insight in the fundamentals of their reaction mechanisms, chemical behaviour, structure and morphology before, during and after reaction using in situ investigations. In particular, the environmental TEM...... (ETEM) is the instrument of choice employed in this thesis to perform such studies. Typically, photocatalysts work in gaseous or liquid atmosphere upon light illumination. We aim at reproducing their working conditions in situ. The ETEM allows exposing specimens to a controlled gas atmosphere, thus...... the microscope that allows electron microscopy under nonconventional TEM conditions and new kinds of in situ spectroscopy....

  9. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  10. DMD based digital speckle illumination for high resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Anant; Mishra, Ayush; Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Spatially non-uniform illumination patterns have shown significant potential to improve the imaging. Recent developments in the patterned illumination microscopy have demonstrated that the use of an optical speckle as an illumination pattern significantly improves the imaging resolution at the same time reducing the computational overheads. We present a DMD based method for generation of digital speckle pattern. The generated digital speckle and uniform white light illumination are used as two illuminations to acquire images. The image reconstruction algorithm for blind structured illumination microscopy is used to get the high resolution image. Our approach does not require any calibration step or stringent control of the illumination, and dramatically simplifies the experimental set-up.

  11. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research [1]. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) it is possible to obtain deep insight in the structure, composition and reactivity of photocatalysts for their further optimization [2]. We have constructed a novel...... the device inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) in order to allow specimens to be exposed to controlled gas atmospheres during illumination. The holder is presently being used to study a variety of photoreactive materials and structures, including photocatalysts, photonic devices and solar cells. Here, we...... specimen holder capable of shining light onto samples inside the TEM. The holder contains a laser diode and an optical system that guides light onto a sample with maximum power transmission. The source can be changed and tuned, in principle spanning the whole visible and UV spectrum. It is possible to use...

  12. Characterization of analytical figures of merit of a sub-diffraction limited fiber bundle array for SERS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languirand, Eric R.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2016-05-01

    Super resolution chemical imaging can provide high spatial resolution images that contain chemically specific information. Additionally, using a technique such as Raman scattering provides molecular specific information based on the inherent vibrations within the analyte of interest. In this work, commercially available fiber bundle arrays (1mm diameter) consisting of 30,000 individual fiber elements (4μm diameter) that are then modified to obtain surface enhanced Raman scatter are employed. This allows for the visualization of vibrational information with high spatial (i.e. sub-diffraction limited) resolution over the 30,000 individual points of interrogation covering a total imaging diameter of approximately 20μm in a non-scanning format. Using these bundles, it has been shown that dithering can increase the spatial resolution of the arrays further by obtaining several sub-element shifted images. To retain the spatial resolution of such images, cross talk associated with these tpared bundles must be kept at a negligible level. In this paper, a study of luminescent particles isolated in individual fiber wells has been performed to characterize the cross talk associated with these fiber bundles. Scanning-electron microscope (SEM) images provide nanometric characterization of the fiber array, while luminescent signals allow for the quantitation of cross talk between adjacent fiber elements. From these studies negligible cross-talk associated with both untapered and tapered bundles was found to exist.

  13. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  14. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research because of their wide range of applications and great potential for state of the art and future usages [1]. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to give a deep insight in the structure......, composition and operation of photocatalysts and to provide information on the compounds inner arrangement and a fundamental contribution for their further optimization [2]. We want to construct a novel specimen holder capable of shining light onto samples inside the TEM allowing real time in situ experiments...... an Environmental TEM (ETEM) in order to expose the specimen to a controlled gas atmosphere during illumination. The aim is to perform complete and exhaustive characterization of photocatalytic materials under simulated working environment, achieving experimental data on yet uninvestigated aspects. Analysis can...

  15. Resolution enhancement using simultaneous couple illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Martínez Fuentes, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    A super-resolution technique based on structured illumination created by a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) is presented. Single and simultaneous pairs of tilted beams are generated to illuminate a target object. Resolution enhancement of an optical 4f system is demonstrated by using numerical simulations. The resulting intensity images are recorded at a charged couple device (CCD) and stored in the computer memory for further processing. One dimension enhancement can be performed with only 15 images. Two dimensional complete improvement requires 153 different images. The resolution of the optical system is extended three times compared to the band limited system.

  16. Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared Spectroscopy of Individual Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Subdiffraction Limit Vibrational Spectroscopy and Morphological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Amy L; Kirpes, Rachel M; Merzel, Rachel L; Pratt, Kerri A; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Ault, Andrew P

    2017-09-05

    Chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols is an analytical challenge, as aerosol particles are complex chemical mixtures that can contain hundreds to thousands of species in attoliter volumes at the most abundant sizes in the atmosphere (∼100 nm). These particles have global impacts on climate and health, but there are few methods available that combine imaging and the detailed molecular information from vibrational spectroscopy for individual particles <500 nm. Herein, we show the first application of atomic force microscopy with infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) to detect trace organic and inorganic species and probe intraparticle chemical variation in individual particles down to 150 nm. By detecting photothermal expansion at frequencies where particle species absorb IR photons from a tunable laser, AFM-IR can study particles smaller than the optical diffraction limit. Combining strengths of AFM (ambient pressure, height, morphology, and phase measurements) with photothermal IR spectroscopy, the potential of AFM-IR is shown for a diverse set of single-component particles, liquid-liquid phase separated particles (core-shell morphology), and ambient atmospheric particles. The spectra from atmospheric model systems (ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate, succinic acid, and sucrose) had clearly identifiable features that correlate with absorption frequencies for infrared-active modes. Additionally, molecular information was obtained with <100 nm spatial resolution for phase separated particles with a ∼150 nm shell and 300 nm core. The subdiffraction limit capability of AFM-IR has the potential to advance understanding of particle impacts on climate and health by improving analytical capabilities to study water uptake, heterogeneous reactivity, and viscosity.

  17. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  18. Illumination Decomposition for Photograph With Multiple Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Yan, Qingan; Liu, Zheng; Zou, Hua; Xiao, Chunxia

    2017-09-01

    Illumination decomposition for a single photograph is an important and challenging problem in image editing operation. In this paper, we present a novel coarse-to-fine strategy to perform illumination decomposition for photograph with multiple light sources. We first reconstruct the lighting environment of the image using the estimated geometry structure of the scene. With the position of lights, we detect the shadow regions as well as the highlights in the projected image for each light. Then, using the illumination cues from shadows, we estimate the coarse illumination decomposed image emitted by each light source. Finally, we present a light-aware illumination optimization model, which efficiently produces the finer illumination decomposition results, as well as recover the texture detail under the shadow. We validate our approach on a number of examples, and our method effectively decomposes the input image into multiple components corresponding to different light sources.

  19. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  20. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  1. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  2. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  3. Experimental studies of far-field superlens for sub-diffractional optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaowei; Durant, Stéphane; Lee, Hyesog; Pikus, Yuri; Xiong, Yi; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Xiang

    2007-05-28

    Contrary to the conventional near-field superlensing, subwavelength superlens imaging is experimentally demonstrated in the far-field. The key element is termed as a Far-field SuperLens (FSL) which consists of a conventional superlens and a nanoscale coupler. The evanescent fields from the object are enhanced and then converted into propagating fields by the FSL. By only measuring the propagating field in the far-field, the object image can be reconstructed with subwavelength resolution. As an example of this concept, we design and fabricate a silver structured one dimensional FSL. Experimental results show that feature resolution of better than 50nm is possible using current FSL design.

  4. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  5. Virtual illumination grid for correction of uncontrolled illumination in facial images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Face recognition under uncontrolled illumination conditions is still considered an unsolved problem. In order to correct for these illumination conditions, we propose a virtual illumination grid (VIG) approach to model the unknown illumination conditions. Furthermore, we use coupled subspace models

  6. New multicolor illumination system for automatic optical inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guangjie; Ma, Shuyuan; Nie, Xuejun; Tang, Xiaohua

    2010-10-01

    In automatic optical inspection (AOI), the illumination system affects the quality of input images and the result of image processing in the AOI. This paper developed a new multi-color illumination system specially used in the printed circuit board (PCB) inspection to detect a variety of defects in automated optical inspection system. The new illumination system consists of four kinds of colors of light emitting diode (LED) arrays composed of high-density LED surface light source. In order to detect a variety of defects, the radiation angle of the each LED array is different. The system uses a micro-controller to control the four sets of LED arrays, after acquisition of the image, which can self-adjust the light intensity of the illumination system based on the reference and comparison of histogram of the image in real time and can control different color LED array respectively according to the quality of the tested image. This paper analyzed the structural model of the illumination system and designed the control system. The experimental results show that the new illumination system has important performances such as uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity, fast response, lower heat and etc. The system can provide highly stable illumination for the AOI to obtain high-quality images effectively for detect the defects of PCB, and improve the defect detection rate and reduce the defects of the false alarm rate of AOI.

  7. The generation of nano-patterns on a pure silicon wafer in air and argon with sub-diffraction limit nanosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Alok; Sundaram, Vijay M; Wen, Sy-Bor, E-mail: syborwen@tamu.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    Intense nanosecond laser pulses were delivered to sub-diffraction limit spots on pure Si wafers with a near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for possible nanoscale direct patterning. Compared with the previous results obtained with a femtosecond laser, no evidence of nanoscale laser ablation on Si targets was observed even under the maximum allowable laser energy (i.e. before the damage of NSOM probes). The formation of nano-patterns on pure Si wafers with nanosecond laser pulses, which were in the form of protrusions, can be explained as resulting from the melting and recrystallization along with the oxidation of pure Si targets during and after the laser pulses. Note that these nano-protrusions were primarily composed of SiO{sub 2} and nano-crystallized Si (nc-Si).

  8. The Structure of a BamA-BamD Fusion Illuminates the Architecture of the β-Barrel Assembly Machine Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergal, Hans Thor; Hopkins, Alex Hunt; Metzner, Sandra Ines; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-02-02

    The β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) mediates folding and insertion of integral β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria. Of the five BAM subunits, only BamA and BamD are essential for cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of a fusion between BamA POTRA4-5 and BamD from Rhodothermus marinus. The POTRA5 domain binds BamD between its tetratricopeptide repeats 3 and 4. The interface structural elements are conserved in the Escherichia coli proteins, which allowed structure validation by mutagenesis and disulfide crosslinking in E. coli. Furthermore, the interface is consistent with previously reported mutations that impair BamA-BamD binding. The structure serves as a linchpin to generate a BAM model where POTRA domains and BamD form an elongated periplasmic ring adjacent to the membrane with a central cavity approximately 30 × 60 Å wide. We propose that nascent OMPs bind this periplasmic ring prior to insertion and folding by BAM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  10. An Army Illumination Model (AAIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Paso, TX, 2007. 21. Finch , D. M. Atmospheric Light Pollution. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society 1978, 7 (2), 105–117. 22. http...Springs –23.700 133.883 1676389 Australia Brisbane –27.467 153.033 307700 Australia Canberra –35.283 149.133 66291 Australia Darwin –12.467

  11. Illumination methods for optical wear detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jindang; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a study on optical wear detection. The focus of the paper is on the illumination, to optimize the contrast of the images. Various illumination methods are compared: bright field versus dark field illumination, and various kind of light sources: laser light, diffuse

  12. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric effects on active illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scot E. J.; Kansky, Jan E.

    2005-08-01

    For some beam-control applications, we can rely on the cooperation of the target when gathering information about the target location and the state of the atmosphere between the target and the beam-control system. The typical example is a cooperative point-source beacon on the target. Light from such a beacon allows the beam-control system to track the target accurately, and, if higher-order adaptive optics is to be employed, to make wave-front measurements and apply appropriate corrections with a deformable mirror. In many applications, including directed-energy weapons, the target is not cooperative. In the absence of a cooperative beacon, we must find other ways to collect the relevant information. This can be accomplished with an active-illumination system. Typically, this means shining one or more lasers at the target and observing the reflected light. In this paper, we qualitatively explore a number of difficulties inherent to active illumination, and suggest some possible mitigation techniques.

  14. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  15. Micromilled optical elements for edge-lit illumination panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronny, Rahima Afrose; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Nikumb, Suwas

    2013-04-01

    Edge-lit light guide panels (LGPs) with micropatterned surfaces represent a new technology for developing small- and medium-sized illumination sources for application such as automotive, residential lighting, and advertising displays. The shape, density, and spatial distribution of the micro-optical structures (MOSs) imprinted on the transparent LGP must be selected to achieve high brightness and uniform luminance over the active surface. We examine how round-tip cylindrical MOSs fabricated by precision micromilling can be used to create patterned surfaces on low-cost transparent polymethyl-methacrylate substrates for high-intensity illumination applications. The impact of varying the number, pitch, spatial distribution, and depth of the optical microstructures on lighting performance is initially investigated using LightTools™ simulation software. To illustrate the microfabrication process, several 100×100×6 mm3 LGP prototypes are constructed and tested. The prototypes include an "optimized" array of MOSs that exhibit near-uniform illumination (approximately 89%) across its active light-emitting surface. Although the average illumination was 7.3% less than the value predicted from numerical simulation, it demonstrates how LGPs can be created using micromilling operations. Customized MOS arrays with a bright rectangular pattern near the center of the panel and a sequence of MOSs that illuminate a predefined logo are also presented.

  16. Robust Face Recognition Technique under Varying Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussain Shah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of a complex biometrics in the field of pattern recognition due to the constraints imposed by variation in the appearance of facial images. These changes in appearance are affected by variation in illumination, expression or occlusions etc. Illumination can be considered a complex problem in both indoor and outdoor pattern matching. Literature studies have revealed that two problems of textural based illumination handling in face recognition seem to be very common. Firstly, textural values are changed during illumination normalization due to increase in the contrast that changes the original pixels of face. Secondly, it minimizes the distance between inter-classes which increases the false acceptance rates. This paper addresses these issues and proposes a robust algorithm that overcomes these limitations. The limitations are resolved through transforming pixels from non-illumination side to illuminated side. It has been revealed that proposed algorithm produced better results as compared to existing related algorithms.

  17. Improvement of axial excitation confinement in temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy via spatially modulated illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-02-01

    Conventional temporal focusing-based multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) can offer widefield optical sectioning with an axial excitation confinement (AEC) of a few microns. Herein, a developed TFMPEM with a digital micromirror device (DMD), acting as the blazed grating for light spatial dispersion and simultaneous patterned illumination, has been extended to implement spatially modulated illumination at structured frequency and orientation. By implementing the spatially modulated illumination, the beam coverage at the back-focal aperture of the objective lens can be increased. As a result, the AEC can be condensed from 3.0 μm to 1.5 μm in full width at half maximum for a 2-fold enhancement. Furthermore, by using HiLo microscopy with two structured illuminations at the same spatial frequency but different orientation, biotissue images according to the structured illumination with condensed AEC is obviously superior in contrast and scattering suppression.

  18. Illumination correction in psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    An approach to automatically correct illumination problems in dermatological images is presented. The illumination function is estimated after combining the thematic map indicating skin-produced by an automated classification scheme- with the dermatological image data. The user is only required t...

  19. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...

  20. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  1. Reflectance and Illumination Recovery in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Stephen; Nishino, Ko

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of an object in an image encodes invaluable information about that object and the surrounding scene. Inferring object reflectance and scene illumination from an image would help us decode this information: reflectance can reveal important properties about the materials composing an object; the illumination can tell us, for instance, whether the scene is indoors or outdoors. Recovering reflectance and illumination from a single image in the real world, however, is a difficult task. Real scenes illuminate objects from every visible direction and real objects vary greatly in reflectance behavior. In addition, the image formation process introduces ambiguities, like color constancy, that make reversing the process ill-posed. To address this problem, we propose a Bayesian framework for joint reflectance and illumination inference in the real world. We develop a reflectance model and priors that precisely capture the space of real-world object reflectance and a flexible illumination model that can represent real-world illumination with priors that combat the deleterious effects of image formation. We analyze the performance of our approach on a set of synthetic data and demonstrate results on real-world scenes. These contributions enable reliable reflectance and illumination inference in the real world.

  2. Translating Rimbaud's "Illuminations": Games with Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Rimbaud's "Illuminations," one vast word-game, is used as an example of one of the most interesting challenges in translation--the rendering of plays on words. The process is discussed and illustrated by the analysis of numerous segments from "Illuminations." It is concluded that a satisfactory translation is almost impossible.…

  3. Illumination preference, illumination constancy and colour discrimination by bumblebees in an environment with patchy light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Patchy illumination presents foraging animals with a challenge, as the targets being sought may appear to vary in colour depending on the illumination, compromising target identification. We sought to explore how the bumblebee Bombus terrestris copes with tasks involving flower colour discrimination under patchy illumination. Light patches varied between unobscured daylight and leaf-shade, as a bee might encounter in and around woodland. Using a flight arena and coloured filters, as well as one or two different colours of artificial flower, we quantified how bees chose to forage when presented with foraging tasks under patchy illumination. Bees were better at discriminating a pair of similar colours under simulated unobscured daylight illumination than when foraging under leaf-shade illumination. Accordingly, we found that bees with prior experience of simulated daylight but not leaf-shade illumination initially preferred to forage in simulated daylight when all artificial flowers contained rewards as well as when only one colour was rewarding, whereas bees with prior experience of both illuminants did not exhibit this preference. Bees also switched between illuminants less than expected by chance. This means that bees prefer illumination conditions with which they are familiar, and in which rewarding flower colours are easily distinguishable from unrewarding ones. Under patchy illumination, colour discrimination performance was substantially poorer than in homogenous light. The bees' abilities at coping with patchy light may therefore impact on foraging behaviour in the wild, particularly in woodlands, where illumination can change over short spatial scales.

  4. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  5. Novel technique for solar power illumination using plastic optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisami, J.; Kalymnios, D.

    2008-09-01

    Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) were developed almost 3 decades ago. They are mainly used for short haul data communications (up to 1 km with data rates up to 1 Gbps). Over the years, POF has found applications in many other areas including solar energy transport for illumination. In such an application, light is collected from the sun and is directed into a space which needs to be illuminated. The use of fibres and more specifically POF, in daylighting systems, started only a few years ago. Several approaches have been investigated and we have seen the development of a few commercial products. The market however, has not really taken off for these technologies simply because of their enormous price tags. It is important to note that the use of POF in these designs has been limited to the function of POF as the transmission medium only. We propose a novel solar illumination technique using POF as both the light collecting/concentrating mechanism and the transmission medium. By modifying the structure of the fibre, solar light can be directed into the fibre by using an analogous process to fibre side emission but, in the reverse. We shall report on the solar light capturing efficiency of POF as modified by several types of external imperfections introduced onto the fibre. One major advantage of our proposed approach lies in the fact that we aim to eliminate at least one of the two axes of sun tracking that is currently used in existing solar illumination systems.

  6. Influence of illumination on settlement of diatom Navicula sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shan; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong

    2011-11-01

    Diatoms are responsible for biofouling, which causes many problems in various marine industries. This study examined the effects of different light conditions (intensity, incident direction, time of illumination) on the settling behavior of the marine diatom Navicula sp. on glass surfaces. The density of this diatom's settlement on glass was strongly influenced by light conditions. Moreover, very weak light emitted on the bottom of the culture dish could also rapidly inhibit diatom settlement. These phenomena were explained by spatial interference between chloroplast and holdfast-like structures inside the thecae. The holdfast-like structure is observed to be responsible for diatom locomotion and hence the settlement behavior. It was proposed that the interrelation of illumination and attachment of diatoms allowed them to better adapt to the habitat with higher efficiency of attachment and successive reproduction.

  7. Sub-diffraction limit localization of proteins in volumetric space using Bayesian restoration of fluorescence images from ultrathin specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Wang

    Full Text Available Photon diffraction limits the resolution of conventional light microscopy at the lateral focal plane to 0.61λ/NA (λ = wavelength of light, NA = numerical aperture of the objective and at the axial plane to 1.4nλ/NA(2 (n = refractive index of the imaging medium, 1.51 for oil immersion, which with visible wavelengths and a 1.4NA oil immersion objective is -220 nm and -600 nm in the lateral plane and axial plane respectively. This volumetric resolution is too large for the proper localization of protein clustering in subcellular structures. Here we combine the newly developed proteomic imaging technique, Array Tomography (AT, with its native 50-100 nm axial resolution achieved by physical sectioning of resin embedded tissue, and a 2D maximum likelihood deconvolution method, based on Bayes' rule, which significantly improves the resolution of protein puncta in the lateral plane to allow accurate and fast computational segmentation and analysis of labeled proteins. The physical sectioning of AT allows tissue specimens to be imaged at the physical optimum of modern high NA plan-apochormatic objectives. This translates to images that have little out of focus light, minimal aberrations and wave-front distortions. Thus, AT is able to provide images with truly invariant point spread functions (PSF, a property critical for accurate deconvolution. We show that AT with deconvolution increases the volumetric analytical fidelity of protein localization by significantly improving the modulation of high spatial frequencies up to and potentially beyond the spatial frequency cut-off of the objective. Moreover, we are able to achieve this improvement with no noticeable introduction of noise or artifacts and arrive at object segmentation and localization accuracies on par with image volumes captured using commercial implementations of super-resolution microscopes.

  8. The effect of blinds on workplace illuminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenec Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the effect of blinds on the workplace illuminance. The blinds are used to reduce solar load from the sunshine and decrease energy consumption for cooling in the overheated room. With blinds reducing inside illuminance the standards may not be fit and it is necessary add artificial lighting in this cases. It is important to correctly regulate daylight and eventually supplement it with artificial lighting to set the system for minimum energy consumption to meet all standard requirements. This paper presents the basic effect of the blinds on the internal illuminance of the workplace in the laboratory of lighting systems. This paper indicates that with increasing angles of blinds inside illuminance is decreasing.

  9. An illumination system for endoscopic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light...... emanating from the light source to an endoscopic region of examination, and an optical band-rejection filter, wherein the illumination system is adapted to illuminate at least a part of the region of examination by generating autofluorescence in surrounding tissue, and the band-rejection filter is adapted...... to attenuate at least said light source wavelength to a viewer and wherein said light source is the single light source in the illumination system. A further embodiment relates to an endoscope for examining a body cavity comprising tissue, the endoscope comprising a source of light consisting...

  10. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  11. An illuminated flute needle for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, C N; Rosen, P H

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a simple self-illuminated flute needle for internal drainage of subretinal fluid during three-port vitrectomy. This instrument facilitates visualization and drainage through peripheral retinal breaks.

  12. Multicolor white light-emitting diodes for illumination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Solomon W. S.; Chen, Tzer-Perng; Tu, Chuan-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Sung; Tsai, Tzong-Liang; Hsieh, Mario C. C.

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor light emitting diode (LED) has become a promising device for general-purpose illumination applications. LED has the features of excellent durability, long operation life, low power consumption, no mercury containing and potentially high efficiency. Several white LED technologies appear capable of meeting the technical requirements of illumination. In this paper we present a new multi-color white (MCW) LED as a high luminous efficacy, high color rendering index and low cost white illuminator. The device consists of two LED chips, one is AlInGaN LED for emitting shorter visible spectra, another is AlInGaP LED for emitting longer visible spectra. At least one chip in the MCW-LED has two or more transition energy levels used for emitting two or more colored lights. The multiple colored lights generated from the MCW-LED can be mixed into a full-spectral white light. Besides, there is no phosphors conversion layer used in the MCW-LED structure. Therefore, its color rendering property and illumination efficiency are excellent. The Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of the MCW-LED may range from 2,500 K to over 10,000 K. The theoretical General Color Rendering Index (Ra) could be as high as 94, which is close to the incandescent and halogen sources, while the Ra of binary complementary white (BCW) LED is about 30 ~ 45. Moreover, compared to the expensive ternary RGB (Red AlInGaP + Green AlInGaN + Blue AlInGaN) white LED sources, the MCW-LED uses only one AlInGaN chip in combination with one cheap AlInGaP chip, to form a low cost, high luminous performance white light source. The MCW-LED is an ideal light source for general-purpose illumination applications.

  13. The effect of blinds on workplace illuminance

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenec Jiri; Mitas Martin

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the effect of blinds on the workplace illuminance. The blinds are used to reduce solar load from the sunshine and decrease energy consumption for cooling in the overheated room. With blinds reducing inside illuminance the standards may not be fit and it is necessary add artificial lighting in this cases. It is important to correctly regulate daylight and eventually supplement it with artificial lighting to set the system for minimum energy consumption to meet all standard r...

  14. Multispectral and hyperspectral images invariant to illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdani Salekdeh, Amin

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis a novel method is proposed that makes use of multispectral and hyperspectral image data to generate a novel photometric-invariant spectral image. For RGB colour image, an illuminant-invariant image was constructed independent of the illuminant and shading. To generate this image either a set of calibration images was required, or entropy information from a single image was used. For spectral images we show that photometric-invariant image formation is in essence greatly simplif...

  15. Shadow-resistant segmentation based on illumination invariant image transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, H.K.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Robust plant image segmentation under natural illumination condition is still a challenging process for vision-based agricultural applications. One of the challenging aspects of natural condition is the large variation of illumination intensity. Illumination condition in the field continually

  16. Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joong Nam; Shevell, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates color perception in a scene with two different illuminants. The two illuminants, in opposite corners, simultaneously shine on a (simulated) scene with an opaque dividing wall, which controls how much of the scene is illuminated by each source. In the first experiment, the height of the dividing wall was varied. This changed the amount of each illuminant reaching objects on the opposite side of the wall. Results showed that the degree of color constancy decreased when a region on one side of the wall had cues to both illuminants, suggesting that cues from the second illuminant are detrimental to color constancy. In a later experiment, color constancy was found to improve when the specular highlight cues from the second illuminant were altered to be consistent with the first illuminant. This corroborates the influence of specular highlights in surface color perception, and suggests that the reduced color constancy in the first experiment is due to the inconsistent, though physically correct, cues from the two illuminants.

  17. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  18. Increasing the Complexity of the Illumination May Reduce Gloss Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Gunnar; Faul, Franz

    2017-01-01

    We examined in which way gradual changes in the geometric structure of the illumination affect the perceived glossiness of a surface. The test stimuli were computer-generated three-dimensional scenes with a single test object that was illuminated by three point light sources, whose relative positions in space were systematically varied. In the first experiment, the subjects were asked to adjust the microscale smoothness of a match object illuminated by a single light source such that it has the same perceived glossiness as the test stimulus. We found that small changes in the structure of the light field can induce dramatic changes in perceived glossiness and that this effect is modulated by the microscale smoothness of the test object. The results of a second experiment indicate that the degree of overlap of nearby highlights plays a major role in this effect: Whenever the degree of overlap in a group of highlights is so large that they perceptually merge into a single highlight, the glossiness of the surface is systematically underestimated. In addition, we examined the predictability of the smoothness settings by a linear model that is based on a set of four different global image statistics.

  19. Symposium KK, Resonant Optics in Dielectric and Metallic Structures: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larouche, Stephane [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caldwell, Joshua [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Symposium KK focused on the design, fabrication, characterization of novel nanoscale optical resonators and alternative materials for sub-diffraction scale resonant particles. Contributions discussed all aspects of this field, and the organizers had more than 130 contributing participants to this session alone, spanning North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Participants discussed cutting edge research results focused on the structure, physical and optical properties, and ultrafast dynamic response of nanoscale resonators such as plasmonic and dielectric nanoparticles. A strong focus on state-of-the-art characterization and fabrication approaches, as well as presentations on novel materials for sub-diffraction resonators took place. As expected, the sessions provided strong interdisciplinary interactions and lively debate among presenters and participants.

  20. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  1. A miniaturized laser illumination module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, A. T.; Freitag, J.; Dannberg, P.; Hintz, M.; Schädel, M.; Sandhya, V.; Freitag, H.-J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a wafer-based technology for mass production of miniaturized laser units. Heart of the approach is a glass wafer, comprising a metal structure acting as electrical contact, optical aperture and mechanical carrier of up to several thousands of flipped surface emitting laser diodes on one side, and a polymer-on-glass micro optical array on the other side. Mounting and characterization methods performed on wafer level are presented. After separation the size of a single laser unit is as small as 640 x 700 x 1400 μm3 and achieves spot diameters below 1 mm at distance of 120 mm. Performance and excellent cost potential allows for application in optical micro sensors and consumer electronics.

  2. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  3. Realtime global illumination using compressed pre-computed indirect illumination textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Chris; Martin dit Neuville, Antoine; Pedersen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way to render images in real time, with both direct and indirect illumination. Our approach uses precomputed indirect illumination images, produced at certain intervals, which need not be constant. When rendering a scene, the two closest images are then interpolated an...

  4. Tolerancing free-form optics for illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinger, A.; Unterhinninghofen, J.; Junginger, S.; Hofmann, A.

    2011-10-01

    Free form surfaces allow elegant solutions in illumination optics. A complex function of the system can be achieved by a single optical element. Free form elements are usually manufactured by reproduction techniques, such as injection moulding of plastic. Manufacturing tolerances are crucial to maintain the required function while at the same time yielding the lowest possible price. We implemented a Monte Carlo tolerancing method for illumination systems. Tolerances include shape deviations of optical elements and assembly tolerances. In the absence of standards for free form tolerances and illumination optics tolerancing, communication between optics design, manufacturing and testing is often inefficient. In order to enable a highly automated evaluation of part measurement data to assess compliance with tolerances, we developed an approach to combine information from optics design, mechanical construction, manufacturing and testing into one continuous data chain. The research project is granted by the German Ministry of Education and Research.

  5. Hybrid illumination systems for a brigth future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels of cosnsump......Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels...... of cosnsumption of 1990. To really get some savings, further improvements have to be done in the area of illumination systems. Our current research is aiming on fiinding- from an eco-designg perspective- precisly those alternative technological systems. Expected results: Withthe cooperation...

  6. Content adaptive illumination for Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Zheng, Guoan; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-12-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently reported technique, for large field-of-view and high-resolution imaging. Specifically, FP captures a set of low-resolution images, under angularly varying illuminations, and stitches them together in the Fourier domain. One of FP's main disadvantages is its long capturing process, due to the requisite large number of incident illumination angles. In this Letter, utilizing the sparsity of natural images in the Fourier domain, we propose a highly efficient method, termed adaptive Fourier ptychography (AFP), which applies content adaptive illumination for FP, to capture the most informative parts of the scene's spatial spectrum. We validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the reported framework, with both simulated and real experiments. Results show that the proposed AFP could shorten the acquisition time of conventional FP, by around 30%-60%.

  7. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  8. Illumination engineering design with nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Koshel, R John

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together experts in the field who present material on a number of important and growing topics including lighting, displays, solar concentrators. The first chapter provides an overview of the field of nonimagin and illumination optics. Included in this chapter are terminology, units, definitions, and descriptions of the optical components used in illumination systems. The next two chapters provide material within the theoretical domain, including etendue, etendue squeezing, and the skew invariant. The remaining chapters focus on growing applications. This entire field of

  9. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Michael [Lambertville, NJ; Lu, Min-Hao Michael [Lawrenceville, NJ; Weaver, Michael S [Princeton, NJ

    2012-01-24

    An organic light emitting device an a method of obtaining illumination from such a device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient than an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  10. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. 431.202... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs § 431.202 Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. Basic model means, with respect to illuminated exit signs, all units of a given type of...

  11. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  12. Photophysics and photochemistry of horseradish peroxidase A2 upon ultraviolet illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Carvalho, Ana Sofia Leitão; Petersen, Steffen B; Aires de Barros, Maria Raquel; Pinho e Melo, Eduardo

    2007-03-15

    Detailed analysis of the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and blue light illumination of horseradish peroxidase A2, a heme-containing enzyme that reduces H(2)O(2) to oxidize organic and inorganic compounds, is presented. The effects of increasing illumination time on the protein's enzymatic activity, Reinheitzahl value, fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime distribution, fluorescence mean lifetime, and heme absorption are reported. UV illumination leads to an exponential decay of the enzyme activity followed by changes in heme group absorption. Longer UV illumination time leads to lower T(m) values as well as helical content loss. Prolonged UV illumination and heme irradiation at 403 nm has a pronounced effect on the fluorescence quantum yield correlated with changes in the prosthetic group pocket, leading to a pronounced decrease in the heme's Soret absorbance band. Analysis of the picosecond-resolved fluorescence emission of horseradish peroxidase A2 with streak camera shows that UV illumination induces an exponential change in the preexponential factors distribution associated to the protein's fluorescence lifetimes, leading to an exponential increase of the mean fluorescence lifetime. Illumination of aromatic residues and of the heme group leads to changes indicative of heme leaving the molecule and/or that photoinduced chemical changes occur in the heme moiety. Our studies bring new insight into light-induced reactions in proteins. We show how streak camera technology can be of outstanding value to follow such ultrafast processes and how streak camera data can be correlated with protein structural changes.

  13. Measurement of illumination exposure in postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Martin T

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's role in non-seasonal depression. The precise cause of postpartum depression has not been delineated, but it seemed possible that new mothers would spend reduced time in daylight. The goal of this study was to examine the levels of illumination experienced by postpartum mothers and to discover any relationship between light exposure and mood levels experienced during the postpartum period. Methods Fifteen postpartum women, who did not have any baseline indication of depression, wore a wrist device (Actillume for 72 hours to measure their exposure to light. At the end of the recording period, they completed a self-reported measure of mood. The mean light exposure of these postpartum women (expressed as the 24-hour average logarithm of illumination in lux was compared with that of a representative sample of women of comparable age, residence, and seasonal months of recording. Mood levels were then rank-ordered and tested for correlation with light exposure levels. Results There was no significant difference between the amount of light [log10lux] experienced by postpartum (1.01 SD 0.236 and control women (1.06 SD 0.285. Mood was not correlated with illumination in the postpartum sample. Conclusions Postpartum women in San Diego did not receive reduced light, nor was low mood related to low illumination.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.92 - Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guards are not required when the construction of the reflector is such that the bulb is deeply recessed. (2) Temporary lights shall be equipped with heavy duty electric cords with connections and insulation... sources outside the vessel is the only means of illumination, portable emergency lighting equipment shall...

  15. How quick decisions illuminate moral character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Critcher, C.R.; Inbar, Y.; Pizarro, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that people attend to others’ actions in the service of forming impressions of their underlying dispositions. If so, it follows that in considering others’ morally relevant actions, social perceivers should be responsive to accompanying cues that help illuminate actors’

  16. Public illumination manual; Manual de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This work aims to guide in the correct choice and usage of the adequate public illumination equipment. It also aims to help the public authorities in terms of the best economical and technical choice, as well as the adequate maintenance of the equipment in order to obtain the most efficiency and safety with minimum costs 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Lit appearance modeling of illumination systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, R. John

    2002-09-01

    In illumination systems the look and feel are often more important than objective criterion, such as uniformity and efficiency. The reason for this is two fold: the lit appearance often sells an item and substantial variation in the illumination distribution (up to 50%) over a broad region is not noticeable to an observer. Therefore, subjective criterion, such as the lit appearance, typically plays a crucial role in the development of an illumination system. Additionally, by using computer models to ascertain the lit appearance before manufacture of the system, it allows the designer to modify the system while not demanding investment to produce prototypes. I discuss methods of determining the lit appearance for illumination systems. This modeling includes the inclusion of material and surface properties, such as surface finish, spectral transmission, and internal scattering; the response of the human eye; and the amount of rays that must be traced. By archiving the ray data, animations as a function of position and angle can be developed. Examples are developed to highlight the utility of this technique. These examples include taillights for the automotive industry and a backlit LCD screen for a laptop. Animations of these models demonstrate their luminance.

  18. Unsupervised defect segmentation of patterned materials under NIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Escofet, Jaume; Ralló, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    An unsupervised detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in patterned materials (textile, non-woven, paper) that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. Printed materials having a pattern of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the background texture can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera with enough sensitivity to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the pattern in the NIR image facilitates material inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. For woven fabrics, with periodic structure, the algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. For non-woven and random textured materials, the algorithm combines the multiresolution Gabor analysis of the sample image with a statistical analysis of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to each detail. The information of all the channels is merged in a single binary output image where the defect appears segmented from the background. The method is applicable to random, non-periodic, and periodic textures. Since all the information to inspect a sample is obtained from the sample itself, the method is proof against heterogeneities between different samples of the material, in-plane positioning errors, scale variations and lack of homogeneous illumination. Experimental results are presented for a variety of materials and defects.

  19. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2013-12-17

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  20. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  1. Enumeration of illumination and scanning modes from real-time spatial light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, L; Duelli, M; Cohn, R

    2000-12-04

    Using a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in a Fourier transform setup together with fast diffractive optics design algorithms provides a way to automatically generate complex and rapidly changing laser illumination patterns in the far-field. We propose a hierarchical software structure for the adaptive, on-line design of far-field illumination patterns. Using the on-line design system together with camera feedback of the illuminated scene would make it possible to detect and actively laser designate multiple objects in parallel. Possibilities for multispot, arbitrary trajectory scanning and also broad-area speckle-reduced illumination are demonstrated with experimentally measured diffraction pattern sequences from a 120 x 128 pixel phase-only SLM.

  2. Perception of constant illumination across saccadic eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Taiichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1994-01-01

    We examined the tolerance of full-field illuminance changes to perceive constant illumination on the picture across saccades. In the experiment, subjects observed a picture of an actual scene, while the illuminance on the picture was alternated between E and E-ΔE whenever subjects made saccades. The subjects reported whether they noticed any changes in brightness or color in the picture. Thresholds for detecting illumination changes were measured at three illuminance levels. It was shown that the thresholds amounted to 40% decrement of illuminance on average, indicating there exists fairly large tolerance of additional illumination changes across saccades. It was also found that the illumination changes were less noticeable at lower illuminance levels.

  3. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizheng Yi

    Full Text Available Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1 we optimize the surround function; (2 we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques.

  4. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  5. Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Sergey; Dannberg, Peter; Gebhardt, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    LED-optics for homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas - as required for reading lamps or lighting of imagers - employ a primary optics which acts as collimator and a secondary optics for beam shaping, homogenization and relaying the light onto the illuminated plane. Efficient primary optics are realized by concentrators which are either simple reflecting or combined refractivereflective devices. Different design algorithms based on the modelling of the concentrators by Bezier splines were developed: A modification of the edge-ray principle allows the formulation of the merit function in geometrical terms (for instance the divergence after collimator), while a more general algorithm with direct Powell optimization allows for combined optimization criteria like efficiency and homogeneity in near- and/or farfield. Concentrator prototypes were realized by direct diamond-turning into PMMA. Telecentric, homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas is achieved by a subsequent secondary optics with tandem lens array integrators. We describe design rules for array integrator optics derived from a simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential real raytracing is used for the actual optics system design and analysis of aberrations, which deteriorate homogeneity and useful system transmission. We realized miniaturized array integrators with monolithic tandem microlens arrays, which remarkably reduce overall system length compared to light-pipe approaches. Double-sided cylindrical microlens arrays with large fill-factor over 99%, realized by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses, relax system assembly by shifting critical adjustment steps into element manufacturing.

  6. Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Serge; Dannberg, Peter; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2005-08-01

    Efficient homogeneous illumination of rectangular or circular areas with LEDs is a promising application for doublesided microlens arrays. Such illumination schemes employ a primary optics - which can be realized with a concentrator or a collimation lens - and a secondary optics with one or more double-sided microlens arrays and a collection optics for superposing the light from the individual array channels. The main advantage of this design is the achievable short system length compared to integrating lightpipe designs with subsequent relay optics. We describe design rules for the secondary optics derived from simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential raytracing is used for the actual optics system design. Double-sided arrays are manufactured by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. With cylindrical lens arrays we assembled high-brightness RGB-illumination systems for rectangular areas. Hexagonal packed double-sided arrays of spherical lenslets were applied for a miniaturized circular spotlight. Black matrix polymer apertures attached to the lens array helped to avoid unwanted straylight.

  7. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Jurevičius, Jonas; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ˜30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ˜10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.

  8. X-ray imaging microscope with a partial coherent illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2001-12-01

    An x-ray imaging microscopy experiment was performed at the x-ray energy of 8 keV. A Fresnel zone plate (FZP) fabricated by electron-beam lithography technique was used as an objective. Material of the zone structure is tantalum. The experiment was done at the undulator beamline BL47XU of Spring-8. Undulator radiation was monochromatized by passing through a liquid nitrogen cooled Si 111 double crystal monochromator. In order to eliminate speckle-like background noise, a partial coherent illumination was introduced by using a beam diffuser consisted of graphite powder. Beam spread of the illumination with the diffuser was about 35 (mu) rad. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera coupled with a phosphor screen and a microscope objective (x 12 or x 24) was used as an image detector. Converted pixel size with the x 24 lens was 0.5micrometers . Magnification of the x-ray microscope system was set to be 7.61-13. Pitch of 0.6micrometers (0.3 micrometers line and 0.3micrometers space) pattern of the test chart was resolved, and the outermost zone structure of the same type of FZP was observed. Imaging properties are also discussed by using Hopkins optical imaging theory.

  9. Lighting Direction and Visual Field Modulate Perceived Intensity of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E McCourt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When interpreting object shape from shading the visual system exhibits a strong bias that illumination comes from above and slightly from the left. We asked whether such biases in the perceived direction of illumination might also influence its perceived intensity. Arrays of nine cubes were stereoscopically rendered where individual cubes varied in their 3D pose, but possessed identical triplets of visible faces. Arrays were virtually illuminated from one of four directions: Above-Left, Above-Right, Below-Left, and Below-Right (±24.4o azimuth; ±90o elevation. Illumination intensity possessed 15 levels, resulting in mean cube array luminances ranging from 1.31-3.45 cd/m2. A reference array was consistently illuminated from Above-Left at mid-intensity (mean array luminance = 2.38 cd/m2. The reference array’s illumination was compared to that of matching arrays which were illuminated from all four directions at all intensities. Reference and matching arrays appeared in the left and right visual field, respectively, or vice versa. Subjects judged which cube array appeared to be under more intense illumination. Using the method of constant stimuli we determined the illumination level of matching arrays required to establish subjective equality with the reference array as a function of matching cube visual field, illumination elevation, and illumination azimuth. Cube arrays appeared significantly more intensely illuminated when they were situated in the left visual field (p = .017, and when they were illuminated from below (p = .001, and from the left (p = .001. An interaction of modest strength was that the effect of illumination azimuth was greater for matching arrays situated in the left visual field (p = .042. We propose that objects lit from below appear more intensely illuminated than identical objects lit from above due to long-term adaptation to downward lighting. The amplification of perceived intensity of illumination for stimuli

  10. Temporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy with spatially modulated illumination for biotissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Han; Lin, Chun-Yu; Sie, Yong-Da; Hu, Yvonne Yuling; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-05-02

    A developed temporal focusing-based multiphoton excitation microscope (TFMPEM) has a digital micromirror device (DMD) which is adopted not only as a blazed grating for light spatial dispersion but also for patterned illumination simultaneously. Herein, the TFMPEM has been extended to implement spatially modulated illumination at structured frequency and orientation to increase the beam coverage at the back-focal aperture of the objective lens. The axial excitation confinement (AEC) of TFMPEM can be condensed from 3.0 μm to 1.5 μm for a 50 % improvement. By using the TFMPEM with HiLo technique as two structured illuminations at the same spatial frequency but different orientation, reconstructed biotissue images according to the condensed AEC structured illumination are shown obviously superior in contrast and better scattering suppression. Picture: TPEF images of the eosin-stained mouse cerebellar cortex by conventional TFMPEM (left), and the TFMPEM with HiLo technique as 1.09 μm-1 spatially modulated illumination at 90° (center) and 0° (right) orientations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Model-based reconstruction for illumination variation in face images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel method to correct for arbitrary illumination variation in the face images. The main purpose is to improve recognition results of face images taken under uncontrolled illumination conditions. We correct the illumination variation in the face images using a face shape model, which

  12. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  13. THE RELATION BETWEEN VISUAL ACUITY AND ILLUMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, S

    1928-01-20

    1. Visual acuity varies in a definite manner with the illumination. At low intensities visual acuity increases slowly in proportion to log I; at higher intensities it increases nearly ten times more rapidly in relation to log I; at the highest illuminations it remains constant regardless of the changes in log I. 2. These variations in visual acuity measure the variations in the resolving power of the retina. The retina is a surface composed of discrete rods and cones. Therefore its resolving power depends on the number of elements present in a unit area. The changes in visual acuity then presuppose that the number of elements in the retina is variable. This cannot be true anatomically; therefore it must be assumed functionally. 3. To explain on such a basis the variations of visual acuity, it is postulated that the thresholds of the cones and of the rods are distributed in relation to the illumination in a statistical manner similar to that of other populations. In addition the rods as a whole have thresholds lower than the cones. Then at low intensities the increase in visual acuity depends on the augmentation of the functional rod population which accompanies intensity increase; and at higher intensities the increase in visual acuity depends on the augmentation of the functional cone population. The number of cones per unit foveal area is much greater than the number of rods per unit peripheral area, which accounts for the relative rates of increase of rod and cone visual acuity with intensity. At the highest illuminations all the cones are functional and no increase in visual acuity is possible. 4. If this division into rod visual acuity and cone visual acuity is correct, a completely color-blind person should have only rod visual acuity. It is shown by a study of the data of two such individuals that this is true. 5. The rod and cone threshold distribution has been presented as a purely statistical assumption. It can be shown, however, that it is really a

  14. A study about illumination and colors vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toadere, Florin, E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we propose a software algorithm which can simulate the human eyes colors view. We present a spectral image processing algorithm, in which we use the color checker spectral image, the human eyes cones spectral sensitivity and the spectral power distribution for light sources. We use three spectrums of real lamps, made by EG and G PerkinElmer: sunlight 5500K, xenon flash and xenon CW, and three CIE light standard sources: D65, CIE A and F7. In order to validate the functionality of the algorithm we simulate the color checker picture hues difference, under different illuminations generate with the light spectrums presented in this paper.

  15. Light engine for an illumination device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a light engine for an illumination device, the light engine defining an output gate and being configured to output light from said output gate; wherein the light engine comprises: one or more light sources defining a light-emitting area; a concave reflector...... configured to receive light from the light-emitting area and to direct light from respective portions of the light-emitting area to form a converging beam that converges towards a beam spot at the output gate....

  16. Microplasma light tiles: thin sheet lamps for general illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, J. G.; Park, S.-J.; Herring, C. M.; Bulson, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Flat, thin and lightweight lamps providing spatially uniform and dimmable illumination from active areas as large as 400 cm2 are being developed for general illumination and specialty applications. Comprising an array of low-temperature, nonequilibrium microplasmas driven by a dielectric barrier structure and operating at pressures of typically 400-700 Torr, these lamps have a packaged thickness luminance values beyond 26 000 cd m-2 with a luminous efficacy approaching 30 lm W-1. Third generation lamps, presently in limited production, offer a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4100 K interval and a colour rendering index of 80. Current lamps employ Xe2 (λ ~ 172 nm) as the primary emitter photoexciting a mixture of phosphors, and the pressure dependence of the wavelength-integrated fluorescence from the electronically excited dimer has been investigated with a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer. In contrast to other promising lighting technologies, the decline in luminous efficacy of microplasma lamps with increasing power delivered to the lamp is small. For a 6 × 6 inch2 (~225 cm2) lamp, efficacy falls luminance) is raised from 2000 cd m-2 to > 10 000 cd m-2.

  17. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such, complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach......, integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are combined in order to obtain an illumination invariant face localization. The proposed method is an integrated......, is sufficient. There is no need to build complex models for illumination. As a result, this paper has presented a simple and efficient method for face modeling and face alignment in order to increase the performance of face localization by means of the proposed illumination invariant AIA method for face...

  18. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  19. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-22

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  20. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  1. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  2. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  3. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  4. Ozone formation from illuminated titanium dioxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Eugenia; George, Christian; D'Anna, Barbara; Doussin, Jean-François; Jammoul, Adla; Wang, Junnan; Eyglunent, Grégory; Solignac, Géraldine; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2010-06-23

    The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) decomposition on illuminated TiO(2) surfaces has been widely studied, but little is known about the subsequent formation of non-nitrogen containing products. In this study, TiO(2) coated glass surfaces and TiO(2) films with nitrate anions (either premixed with TiO(2) as KNO(3) or deposited from gaseous NO(x)) are irradiated with broad-band light. Upon irradiation, detected gas phase products include NO(2), HNO(2), and O(3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals the production of O(3) from TiO(2) surfaces. By surface charge transfer reactions, nitrate anions are oxidized into nitrate radicals and their photochemistry (almost in the visible) leads to O(3) formation, enhancing the oxidizing power of these surfaces.

  5. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  6. Illumination Criteria in Imaging System Design for Security Applications,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    conjunction with pole spacing and distance from the critical area to be illuminated . Streetlights or roadway luminaires are characterized by their light...found best suited for perimeter illumination , when CCTV is employed, are the floodlights and the -o 4, , streetlights (roadway luminaires). The...A882 521 MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA FIB 13/1 ILLUMINATION CRITERIA IN IMAGING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SECURITY APP--ETC(U) DEC 79 A J GRAFF, P NESGBEDA, T

  7. Transport illumination: health risks for personnel and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Kaptsov; V.N. Deinego

    2016-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the transport illumination and the risks of the negative impact of LED lighting on the health of operators, drivers and passengers have been investigated. The transport illumination is a subject of the longitudinal research of the light effect of the beam and signal lights on driver’s reaction and dazzle. The study of the vehicles’ light effect on passengers’ health was not carried out because for the illuminating of the passenger compartments the incandescent bulbs we...

  8. An Active Illumination and Appearance (AIA) Model for Face Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, Muhittin; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition systems are typically required to work under highly varying illumination conditions. This leads to complex effects imposed on the acquired face image that pertains little to the actual identity. Consequently, illumination normalization is required to reach acceptable recognition...... rates in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates the face identity and illumination models under the widely used Active Appearance Model framework as an extension to the texture model in order to obtain illumination-invariant face localization...

  9. Transport illumination: health risks for personnel and passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic aspects of the transport illumination and the risks of the negative impact of LED lighting on the health of operators, drivers and passengers have been investigated. The transport illumination is a subject of the longitudinal research of the light effect of the beam and signal lights on driver’s reaction and dazzle. The study of the vehicles’ light effect on passengers’ health was not carried out because for the illuminating of the passenger compartments the incandescent bulbs were used, the characteristics of which are well known. Increasing of the duration of trips, their intensity and the replacement of incandescent lamps to LED lamps makes these studies more urgent. Particular attention is drawn on the fact that the transport system transports millions of passengers and children who are regularly exposed to excessive doses of blue light. The blue light time exposure is more than an hour per trip within the city and more than 5 hours during travel between the cities. The specialists of N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS have indicated that modern white LEDs have expressed emission band in blue spectrum 440-460 nm that is entirely attributable to the spectrum of action of retinal photochemical damage and its pigment epithelium. Such extensive emission poses a hazard to the eyes of children and adolescents, because their crystalline lenses are almost twice as transparent in the dark-blue and blue spectrum area than those in adults. Retinal photochemical damage develops in distant time and can cause gradual, irreversible visual impairment. The risks of negative impact especially increase in the application of blue LED for interior lighting passenger vehicles. It was demonstrated that at the retinal cells’ affection by the excessive dose of the blue light the consequences have delayed character. The results of the accelerated assessment of the retina damage in Japanese quils (Сoturnix japonica. The eyes of

  10. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  11. Wide-field fundus imaging with trans-palpebral illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toslak, Devrim; Thapa, Damber; Chen, Yanjun; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Chan, R. V. Paul; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-02-01

    In conventional fundus imaging devices, transpupillary illumination is used for illuminating the inside of the eye. In this method, the illumination light is directed into the posterior segment of the eye through the cornea and passes the pupillary area. As a result of sharing the pupillary area for the illumination beam and observation path, pupil dilation is typically necessary for wide-angle fundus examination, and the field of view is inherently limited. An alternative approach is to deliver light from the sclera. It is possible to image a wider retinal area with transcleral-illumination. However, the requirement of physical contact between the illumination probe and the sclera is a drawback of this method. We report here trans-palpebral illumination as a new method to deliver the light through the upper eyelid (palpebra). For this study, we used a 1.5 mm diameter fiber with a warm white LED light source. To illuminate the inside of the eye, the fiber illuminator was placed at the location corresponding to the pars plana region. A custom designed optical system was attached to a digital camera for retinal imaging. The optical system contained a 90 diopter ophthalmic lens and a 25 diopter relay lens. The ophthalmic lens collected light coming from the posterior of the eye and formed an aerial image between the ophthalmic and relay lenses. The aerial image was captured by the camera through the relay lens. An adequate illumination level was obtained to capture wide angle fundus images within ocular safety limits, defined by the ISO 15004-2: 2007 standard. This novel trans-palpebral illumination approach enables wide-angle fundus photography without eyeball contact and pupil dilation.

  12. Illumination of mesospheric irregularity by lightning discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; Velde, Oscar; Evans, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical model calculations recently predicted the existence of mesospheric irregularities which assist the initiation of sprites. Here we report the experimental detection of a ˜3-19 km3 large mesospheric irregularity at ˜80-85 km height which is illuminated by the electromagnetic field of an intense positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharge. While the lightning discharge causes a prompt group of four sprites above the lightning discharge, the mesospheric irregularity is found at a horizontal distance at least ˜15-20 km away from the sprite group and it rebrightens ˜40-60 ms after the sprite group occurrence. This rebrightening is driven by a local quasi-static electric field enhancement with a charge moment ˜4-20 Ckm which causes the irregularity to develop a downward descending luminous column from ˜75-85 km height. The quasi-static electric field enhancement is caused by the reorganization of residual charge inside the thundercloud during a high-level activity of intracloud discharges with ˜10-20 pulses per ms. Such mesospheric irregularities might have an effect on the wave propagation of 100 kHz radio waves which are used for atomic time transfer and marine navigation.

  13. Evaluation of illumination system uniformity for wide-field biomedical hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Travis W.; Siri Luthman, A.; E Bohndiek, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems collect both spatial (morphological) and spectral (chemical) information from a sample. HSI can provide sensitive analysis for biological and medical applications, for example, simultaneously measuring reflectance and fluorescence properties of a tissue, which together with structural information could improve early cancer detection and tumour characterisation. Illumination uniformity is a critical pre-condition for quantitative data extraction from an HSI system. Non-uniformity can cause glare, specular reflection and unwanted shading, which negatively impact statistical analysis procedures used to extract abundance of different chemical species. Here, we model and evaluate several illumination systems frequently used in wide-field biomedical imaging to test their potential for HSI. We use the software LightTools and FRED. The analysed systems include: a fibre ring light; a light emitting diode (LED) ring; and a diffuse scattering dome. Each system is characterised for spectral, spatial, and angular uniformity, as well as transfer efficiency. Furthermore, an approach to measure uniformity using the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) is introduced. The KLD is generalisable to arbitrary illumination shapes, making it an attractive approach for characterising illumination distributions. Although the systems are quite comparable in their spatial and spectral uniformity, the most uniform angular distribution is achieved using a diffuse scattering dome, yielding a contrast of 0.503 and average deviation of 0.303 over a ±60° field of view with a 3.9% model error in the angular domain. Our results suggest that conventional illumination sources can be applied in HSI, but in the case of low light levels, bespoke illumination sources may offer improved performance.

  14. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section 886.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator...

  15. Combining Illumination Normalization Methods for Better Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Tao, Q.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Tistarelli, M.; Nixon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Face Recognition under uncontrolled illumination conditions is partly an unsolved problem. There are two categories of illumination normalization methods. The first category performs a local preprocessing, where they correct a pixel value based on a local neighborhood in the images. The second

  16. Future illumination systems and the climate change challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    LED technology will be part of the development, but hybrid illumination systems can also play an important role for the future illumination systems in the tertiary sector in the future. From the ecodesign perspective, the study points out that some of the major technological and economic challenges...

  17. The role of images in historical illumination: the Ppobo example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of images in historical illumination. Specifically, it focuses on art as an instrument of communication, drawing and pictures as rich historical sources indispensable to the African historian. Using examples from. Opobo, it shows how these sources illuminate Opobo History, noting that images

  18. Real-Time Global Illumination using Topological Information

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Laurent; Biri, Venceslas

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Indirect Illumination is a key element to achieve realistic rendering. Unfortunately, since computing this effect is costly, there are few methods that render it with real-time frame rates. In this paper we present a new method based on virtual point lights and topological information about the scene to render indirect illumination in real-time.

  19. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  20. Standard specification for illuminators used for viewing industrial radiographs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 The function of the illuminator is to provide sufficient illumination and viewing capabilities for the purpose of identification and interpretation of radiographic images. This specification provides the recommended minimum requirements for Industrial Radiographic Illuminators used for viewing industrial radiographic films using transmitted light sources. 1.2 The illuminator has to ensure the same safety for personnel, or users of any electric apparatus, as specified by electrical standards applicable in the country in which the illuminator is used. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parenthesis are provided for information only.

  1. Dactyl Dark Side Illuminated by Idashine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Within seconds of its closest approach to the asteroid 243 Ida on August 28, 1993, the Galileo spacecraft's Solid State Imaging camera caught this glimpse of Ida's previously unknown moon orbiting the asteroid. One frame of a 15-image set designed to capture a view of Ida at the highest possible resolution landed by chance with its edge right on the little moon. The range from the spacecraft was about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles), and each picture element spans about 24 meters (80 feet) on the surface of the moon. Only a small sliver of the sunlit crescent is visible at the edge of the frame (which was shifted inward toward the center in this representation). Ida itself is outside this frame to the left and slightly below center, roughly 90 kilometers (56 miles) away. The darkside of this moon is illuminated by light reflected from the sunlit side of Ida, in the same way that Earthshine brightens the dark part of Earth's Moon when it shows only a thin sunlit crescent, near 'new Moon'. The smoothly curving shape of the dark edge of Ida's moon can be seen on the left. The moon's observed darkside was just barely detectable by Galileo's camera; computer enhancement has made it easier to see in this picture. The visibility of the moon's dark limb has provided valuable information on the size and shape of the tiny moon, which measures about 1.2 x 1.4 X 1.6 kilometers (0.75 x 0.87 x 1 mile). The little moon's relatively smooth egg shape contrasts markedly with the highly irregular shape of its parent, the asteroid Ida. This image was relayed to Earth from the Galileo spacecraft on June 8, 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Image illumination enhancement with an objective no-reference measure of illumination assessment based on Gaussian distribution mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Anbarjafari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumination problems have been an important concern in many image processing applications. The pattern of the histogram on an image introduces meaningful features; hence within the process of illumination enhancement, it is important not to destroy such information. In this paper we propose a method to enhance image illumination using Gaussian distribution mapping which also keeps the information laid on the pattern of the histogram on the original image. First a Gaussian distribution based on the mean and standard deviation of the input image will be calculated. Simultaneously a Gaussian distribution with the desired mean and standard deviation will be calculated. Then a cumulative distribution function of each of the Gaussian distributions will be calculated and used in order to map the old pixel value onto the new pixel value. Another important issue in the field of illumination enhancement is absence of a quantitative measure for the assessment of the illumination of an image. In this research work, a quantitative measure indicating the illumination state, i.e. contrast level and brightness of an image, is also proposed. The measure utilizes the estimated Gaussian distribution of the input image and the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD between the estimated Gaussian and the desired Gaussian distributions to calculate the quantitative measure. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the reliability of the proposed illumination enhancement technique, as well as the proposed illumination assessment measure over conventional and state-of-the-art techniques.

  3. Surface passivation of backside-illuminated InSb FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Zheng, Kelin; Wang, Liwen; Geng, Dongfeng; Su, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    A method of passivation of etch-thinned bulk InSb by anodic oxide grown by wet anodization and vacuum deposition of SiNx layers have been investigated Thinned bulk n-type InSb with (111) orientation forms distinctively two types of interfaces on the indium and antimony faces, respectively. The junctions are diffused on the indium face. The paper presents the process and characterization for surface passivation of the backside illuminated Sb face that absorbs the photons. The surface passivation and the interfaces are characterized with Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) devices. The effect of anodic oxide/SiNx passivation was compared to SiNx passivation. The electrical features observed in the C-V curves of MIS structures indicate that anodic oxide grown by wet anodization has the better effect on reducing the surface states and surface recombination velocity. The low-frequency-like response in the inversion region of the C-V curves was explained in view of the oxidation states of In and Sb. Finally, by growing the 30nm anodic oxide and depositing 400nm SiNx on diode structure of InSb, the performance of FPA in this case was compared with the SiNx only method. The results showed the performance of device is better than for the SiNx only method.

  4. Photoactivation and optogenetics with micro mirror enhanced illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückerl, F.; Berndt, D.; Heber, J.; Shorte, S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoactivation and "optogenetics" require the precise control of the illumination path in optical microscopes. It is equally important to shape the illumination spatially as well as to have control over the intensity and the duration of the illumination. In order to achieve these goals we use programmable, diffractive Micro Mirror Arrays (MMA) as fast spatial light modulators for beam steering. By combining two MMAs with 256×256 mirrors each, our illumination setup allows for fast angular and spatial control at a wide spectral range (260-1000 nm). Illumination pulses can be as short as 50 μs, or can also extend to several seconds. The specific illumination modes of the individual areas results in a precise control over the light dose to the sample, giving significant advantage when investigating dosage dependent activation inasmuch as both the duration and the intensity can be controlled distinctly. The setup is integrated to a microscope and allows selective illumination of regions in the sample, enabling the precise, localized activation of fluorescent probes and the activation and deactivation of cellular and subcellular signaling cascades using photo activated ion channels. The high reflectivity in the UV range (up to 260nm) further allows gene silencing using UV activated constructs (e.g. caged morpholinos).

  5. Rock fracture image acquisition with both visible and ultraviolet illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock since 1994. In the study, the first hard problem is to obtain rock fracture images of a good quality, since rock surface is very rough, and composed of complicated and multiple fractures, as a result, image acquisition is the first important. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyzing rock fracture network by visible and ultraviolet image technique, in the field. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV light illumination, and the rock surface information can be obtained by using visible optical illumination. We used different digital cameras and microscope to take images by two illuminations. From the same samples; we found that UV illumination image gives the clear information of fracture opening or closing, and the visible optical illumination gives the information of the rock surface (e.g. filling materials inside of fractures). By applying this technique, the minimum width of rock fracture 0.01 mm can be analyzed. This paper presents: (1) Rock fracture image acquiring techniques; (2) Rock fracture image acquisition by using UV light illumination and visible optical illumination; and (3) Conclusions. The studied method can be used both in the field and a laboratory.

  6. A de-illumination scheme for face recognition based on fast decomposition and detail feature fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Sheng-Tong; Zhong, Zuo-Yang; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-05-06

    Almost all the face recognition algorithms are unsatisfied due to illumination variation. Feature with high frequency represents the face intrinsic structure according to the common assumption that illumination varies slowly and the face intrinsic feature varies rapidly. In this paper, we will propose an adaptive scheme based on FBEEMD and detail feature fusion. FBEEMD is a fast version of BEEMD without time-consuming surface interpolation and iteration computation. It can decompose an image into sub-images with high frequency matching detail feature and sub-images with low frequency corresponding to contour feature. However, it is difficult to determine by quantitative analysis that which sub-images with high frequency can be used for reconstructing an illumination-invariant face. Thus, two measurements are proposed to calculate weights for quantifying the detail feature. With this fusion technique, one can reconstruct a more illumination-neutral facial image to improve face recognition rate. Verification experiments using classical recognition algorithms are tested with Yale B, PIE and FERET databases. The encouraging results show that the proposed scheme is very effective when dealing with face images under variable lighting condition.

  7. Closed-Loop Feedback Illumination for Optical Inverse Tone-Mapping in Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimber, Oliver; Klöck, Daniel; Amano, Toshiyuki; Grundhöfer, Anselm; Kurz, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we show that optical inverse tone-mapping (OITM) in light microscopy can improve the visibility of specimens, both when observed directly through the oculars and when imaged with a camera. In contrast to previous microscopy techniques, we premodulate the illumination based on the local modulation properties of the specimen itself. We explain how the modulation of uniform white light by a specimen can be estimated in real time, even though the specimen is continuously but not uniformly illuminated. This information is processed and back-projected constantly, allowing the illumination to be adjusted on the fly if the specimen is moved or the focus or magnification of the microscope is changed. The contrast of the specimen's optical image can be enhanced, and high-intensity highlights can be suppressed. A formal pilot study with users indicates that this optimizes the visibility of spatial structures when observed through the oculars. We also demonstrate that the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in digital images of the specimen is higher if captured under an optimized rather than a uniform illumination. In contrast to advanced scanning techniques that maximize the S/N ratio using multiple measurements, our approach is fast because it requires only two images. This can improve image analysis in digital microscopy applications with real-time capturing requirements.

  8. LED Uniform Illumination Using Double Linear Fresnel Lenses for Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a linear Fresnel lens design for light-emitting diode (LED uniform illumination applications. The LED source is an array of LEDs. An array of collimating lens is applied to collimate output from the LED array. Two linear Fresnel lenses are used to redistribute the collimated beam along two dimensions in the illumination area. Collimating lens and linear Fresnel lens surfaces are calculated by geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. The collimated beam output from the collimating lens array is divided into many fragments. Each fragment is refracted by a segment of Fresnel lens and distributed over the illumination area, so that the total beam can be distributed to the illumination target uniformly. The simulation results show that this design has a compact structure, high optical efficiency of 82% and good uniformity of 76.9%. Some consideration of the energy savings and optical performance are discussed by comparison with other typical light sources. The results show that our proposed LED lighting system can reduce energy consumption five-times in comparison to using a conventional fluorescent lamp. Our research is a strong candidate for low cost, energy savings for indoor and outdoor lighting applications.

  9. IODC 2014 Illumination design problem: the Cinderella Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarly, William J.

    2014-12-01

    For the 3rd time, the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) included an Illumination Design contest. This year, the contest involved designing the illuminator to project the 1950 Walt Disney "Cinderella" movie using a box of optical knick-knacks. The goal of the problem was to provide the highest screen lumens with greater than 30% uniformity. There were 12 entries from 3 different countries. Three different commercial optical/illumination design packages were used. The winning solution, provided by Alois Herkommer, provided 371 screen lumens.

  10. Dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber bundle endoscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a reflectance fiber bundle microscope using a dark-field illumination configuration for applications in endoscopic medical imaging and diagnostics. Our experiment results show that dark-field illumination can effectively suppress strong specular reflection from the proximal end of the fiber bundle. We realized a lateral resolution of 4.4 μm using the dark-field illuminated fiber bundle configuration. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the system to study cell morphology, we obtained still and video images of two thyroid cancer cell lines. Our results clearly allow differentiation of different cancer cell types.

  11. An Illumination Correction ALgorithm on Landsat-TM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Wolfe, Robert; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Vermote, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new illumination correction model, the rotation model, is introduced. The model is based on the empirical correlation between reflectance and the illumination condition (IL). The model eliminates the dependency of reflectance on IL through rotating the data in IL-reflectance space. This model is compared with widely used cosine model and C model over a sample forest region. We found that the newly developed rotation model consistently performs best on both atmospheric uncorrected and corrected Landsat images. Index Terms Landsat, illumination correction, change detection, LEDAPS

  12. Effect of ultraviolet illumination on metal oxide resistive memory

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon

    2014-12-22

    We investigate the photoelectrical and resistive switching properties of Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor operated in unipolar mode under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The oxygen photodesorption under UV illumination explains the photoconduction observed in initial and high resistance states. Meanwhile, oxygen readsorption at surface-related defects justifies the different photoresponses dynamics in both states. Finally, UV illumination significantly reduces the variations of resistance in high resistance state, set voltage and reset voltage by 58%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, stabilizing Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor. Our findings in improved switching uniformity via UV light give physical insight into designing resistive memory devices.

  13. Joint Optimization of Receiver Placement and Illuminator Selection for a Multiband Passive Radar Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Wan, Xianrong; Hong, Sheng; Yi, Jianxin

    2017-06-14

    The performance of a passive radar network can be greatly improved by an optimal radar network structure. Generally, radar network structure optimization consists of two aspects, namely the placement of receivers in suitable places and selection of appropriate illuminators. The present study investigates issues concerning the joint optimization of receiver placement and illuminator selection for a passive radar network. Firstly, the required radar cross section (RCS) for target detection is chosen as the performance metric, and the joint optimization model boils down to the partition p-center problem (PPCP). The PPCP is then solved by a proposed bisection algorithm. The key of the bisection algorithm lies in solving the partition set covering problem (PSCP), which can be solved by a hybrid algorithm developed by coupling the convex optimization with the greedy dropping algorithm. In the end, the performance of the proposed algorithm is validated via numerical simulations.

  14. Dark modes and field enhancements in dielectric dimers illuminated by cylindrical vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanya; Schuller, Jon A.

    2017-05-01

    The scattering response of high refractive index particles enables a rich variety of electromagnetic phenomena that are inaccessible with plasmonic particles. Here we investigate the response of dielectric dimer structures illuminated by radially and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate significant modification of the scattering spectra of dimer antennas and reveal how the illumination condition gives rise to these spectra through manipulation of electric and magnetic mode hybridization. By appropriately combining dimer geometries and beam symmetries, we demonstrate coupling to high-Q dark quadrupole modes with exceptional magnetic intensity enhancements. This work exploits structured light as a powerful framework for manipulating multipolar phenomena in multiparticle dielectric resonators.

  15. The effect of illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior in special multilayer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhong; Ou, Qingdong; Wang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Dengyu; Chen, Liezun; Li, Yanqing

    2017-08-01

    Intermediate connectors play an important role in semiconductor devices, especially in tandem devices. In this paper, four types of different intermediate connectors (e.g. Mg:Alq3/MoO3, MoO3, Mg:Alq3, and none) and two kinds of modified electrode materials (LiF and MoO3) integrated into the special multilayer devices are proposed, with the aim of studying the impact of light illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior of intermediate connectors through the current density-voltage characteristics, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristics. The results show that the illumination enhances the charge generation and separation in intermediate connectors, and further electrode interface modifications enhance the functionality of intermediate connectors. In addition, the device with an efficient intermediate connector structure shows a photoelectric effect, which paves the way for organic photovoltaic devices to realize optical-electrical integration transformation.

  16. Correcting circular non-uniform illumination of Sundanese lontar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S.; Suryani, M.; Paulus, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the method for enhancing quality of degraded images which is essential for information automatic extraction from the digitized ancient manuscript known as lontar. The degraded lontar images have circular non-uniform illumination characteristics that are represented by more brightness on inner center of images and darker in the outer ellipse-like area of the images. The purpose of enhanced image processing is to leveling the distribution of pixels so the images have similar characteristics. The proposed method is developed based on DEWA Framework, a novel and optimized method for object detection, combined with background subtraction technique, which is implemented in several color spaces. Background images are estimated using morphological mathematics with specific type and size of structuring element. This estimation process has to be done due to the unavailability of exact background image captured during image acquisition step. Theoretical foundations of the proposed method along with experimental results are reported in this paper. The proposed method has been tested on 12 Sundanese lontar images which shows this approach is different and unique from most of the existing methods in this field of study. Experiment demonstrated the successful results of the method which is represented by displaying profile characteristics of each images on row 128.

  17. Illuminating the dynamics of signal integration in Natural Killer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Victoria Pageon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cell responses are shaped by the integration of signals transduced from multiple activating and inhibitory receptors at their surface. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified most of the key proteins involved in signal integration but a major challenge remains in understanding how the spatial and temporal dynamics of their interactions lead to NK cells responding appropriately when encountering ligands on target cells. Well over a decade of research using fluorescence microscopy has revealed much about the architecture of the NK cell immune synapse – the structured interface between NK cells and target cells - and how it varies when inhibition or activation is the outcome of signal integration. However, key questions – such as the proximity of individual activating and inhibitory receptors – have remained unanswered because the resolution of optical microscopy has been insufficient, being limited by diffraction. Recent developments in fluorescence microscopy have broken this limit, seeding new opportunities for studying the nanometre-scale organisation of the NK cell immune synapse. Here, we discuss how these new imaging technologies, including super-resolution imaging and other novel light-based methods, can illuminate our understanding of NK cell biology.

  18. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  19. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  20. Optical simulation of reduced retinal illuminance caused by senile miosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taka-aki; Okajima, Katsunori; Funai, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    In order to simulate elderly vision for young observers, we developed an optical goggle using filters whose transmittance optically simulates the senile miosis: reduction in retinal illuminance as a function of ambient illuminance. First, we measured the pupil size of young and elderly subjects (mean age were 21.8 and 67.1 years, respectively) under six illuminance conditions (from 0.03 to 4850 lx), and formulated the relationship between illuminance and pupillary area functions in both age groups. Next, the transmittance formulae for the filter simulating the senile miosis were derived based on the properties of the pupillary area and visual functions of the elderly and the young subjects including the effect of mydriasis induced by the reduction of light due to the filter in young observers. Finally, we developed a goggle-type simulator using active optical devices which enables young people to experience senile miosis in any environment in real time.

  1. Illumination and Reflectance Estimation with its Application in Foreground Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimate the illumination and reflectance of an image. The approach is based on illumination-reflectance model and wavelet theory. We use a homomorphic wavelet filter (HWF) and define a wavelet quotient image (WQI) model based on dyadic wavelet transform. The illumination and reflectance components are estimated by using HWF and WQI, respectively. Based on the illumination and reflectance estimation we develop an algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings which are captured in complex farrowing pens. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm can be applied to detect the domestic animals in complex environments such as light changes, motionless foreground objects and dynamic background.

  2. Effect of different illumination sources on reading and visual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Male Shiva Ram

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the influence of illumination on reading rate; there were no significant differences between males and females under different illuminations, however, males preferred CFL and females preferred FLUO for faster reading and visual comfort. Interestingly, neither preferred LED or TUNG. Although energy-efficient, visual performance under LED is poor; it is uncomfortable for prolonged reading and causes early symptoms of fatigue.

  3. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  4. Shading-based Surface Detail Recovery under General Unknown Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Duan, Qi; Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Juyong; Cai, Jianfei; Cham, Tat-Jen

    2017-02-17

    Reconstructing the shape of a 3D object from multi-view images under unknown, general illumination is a fundamental problem in computer vision and high quality reconstruction is usually challenging especially when fine detail is needed and the albedo of the object is non-uniform. This paper introduces vertex overall illumination vectors to model the illumination effect and presents a total variation (TV) based approach for recovering surface details using shading and multi-view stereo (MVS). Behind the approach are the two important observations: (1) the illumination over the surface of an object often appears to be piece wise smooth and (2) the recovery of surface orientation is not sufficient for reconstructing the surface, which was often overlooked previously. Thus we propose to use TV to regularize the overall illumination vectors and use visual hull to constrain partial vertices. The reconstruction is formulated as a constrained TV-minimization problem that simultaneously treats the shape and illumination vectors as unknowns. An augmented Lagrangian method is proposed to quickly solve the TV-minimization problem. As a result, our approach is robust, stable and is able to efficiently recover high quality of surface details even when starting with a coarse model obtained using MVS. These advantages are demonstrated by extensive experiments on the state-of-the-art MVS database, which includes challenging objects with varying albedo.

  5. Naturalness preserved enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhang; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hai-Miao; Li, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Image enhancement plays an important role in image processing and analysis. Among various enhancement algorithms, Retinex-based algorithms can efficiently enhance details and have been widely adopted. Since Retinex-based algorithms regard illumination removal as a default preference and fail to limit the range of reflectance, the naturalness of non-uniform illumination images cannot be effectively preserved. However, naturalness is essential for image enhancement to achieve pleasing perceptual quality. In order to preserve naturalness while enhancing details, we propose an enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images. In general, this paper makes the following three major contributions. First, a lightness-order-error measure is proposed to access naturalness preservation objectively. Second, a bright-pass filter is proposed to decompose an image into reflectance and illumination, which, respectively, determine the details and the naturalness of the image. Third, we propose a bi-log transformation, which is utilized to map the illumination to make a balance between details and naturalness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only enhance the details but also preserve the naturalness for non-uniform illumination images.

  6. Effect of Different Illumination Sources on Reading and Visual Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Male Shiva; Bhardwaj, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    To investigate visual performance during reading under different illumination sources. This experimental quantitative study included 40 (20 females and 20 males) emmetropic participants with no history of ocular pathology. The participants were randomly assigned to read a near visual task under four different illuminations (400-lux constant): compact fluorescent light (CFL), tungsten light (TUNG), fluorescent tube light (FLUO), and light emitting diode (LED). Subsequently, we evaluated the participants' experiences of eight symptoms of visual comfort. The mean age of the participants was 19.86 ± 1.09 (range: 18-21) years. There was no statistically significant difference between the reading rates of males and females under the different illuminations ( P = 0.99); however, the reading rate was fastest among males under CFL, and among females under FLUO. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a strong significant difference ( P = 0.001) between males and females ( P = 0.002) regarding the visual performance and illuminations. This study demonstrates the influence of illumination on reading rate; there were no significant differences between males and females under different illuminations, however, males preferred CFL and females preferred FLUO for faster reading and visual comfort. Interestingly, neither preferred LED or TUNG. Although energy-efficient, visual performance under LED is poor; it is uncomfortable for prolonged reading and causes early symptoms of fatigue.

  7. Spiral wobbling beam illumination uniformity in HIF fuel target implosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A few % wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF throughout the heavy ion beam (HIB driver pulse by a newly introduced spiraling beam axis motion in the first two rotations. The wobbling HIB illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may produce a time-dependent implosion acceleration, which reduces the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T growth [Laser Part. Beams 11, 757 (1993, Nuclear Inst. Methods in Phys. Res. A 606, 152 (2009, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012] and the implosion nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100 MHz ∼ 1 GHz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 254801 (2010]. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations present that the few % wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  8. Real-time Global Illumination by Simulating Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually in a progr......This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually...... in a progressive and efficient manner. This has been done by analyzing the photon mapping method and by selecting efficient methods, either CPU based or GPU based, which replaces the original photon mapping algorithms. We have chosen to focus on the indirect illumination and the caustics. In our method we first...... divide the photon map into several photon maps in order to make local updates possible. Then indirect illumination is added using light maps that are selectively updated by using selective photon tracing on the CPU. The final gathering step is calculated by using fragment programs and GPU based...

  9. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  10. Information about three-dimensional shape and direction of illumination in a square-wave grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, S S; Gustafsson, K A; Putaansuu, J

    1984-01-01

    A homogeneous grey picture and a 'Mondrian' type of picture were illuminated by a projector with square-wave gratings of thirty different contrast values used as slides. Ten observers reported whether the picture appeared three-dimensional (3-D) (pleated) or flat. 3-D responses in this situation indicate colour constancy 'at the cost of' nonveridical depth perception. The frequencies of 3-D responses were significantly higher for the structured picture than for the homogeneous grey one. In reports of the direction from which the apparent 3-D object appeared to be illuminated there was a significant preference for responses "from above" when the grating was horizontally oriented. With vertical orientation there was no preference for "from the left" or "from the right". The results from the first experiment contradict traditional cue theories of depth perception since the projection of the borders between the fields of the structured picture was invariant and expected to inform about the flatness of the picture. They are, however, in line with a model for perceptual analysis of reflected light into common and relative components proposed earlier by Bergström. The difference in perceived direction of illumination between horizontally and vertically orientated gratings is discussed in connection with human ecology.

  11. Illumination-Invariant and Deformation-Tolerant Inner Knuckle Print Recognition Using Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemiao Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel biometric recognition method that identifies the inner knuckle print (IKP. It is robust enough to confront uncontrolled lighting conditions, pose variations and low imaging quality. Such robustness is crucial for its application on portable devices equipped with consumer-level cameras. We achieve this robustness by two means. First, we propose a novel feature extraction scheme that highlights the salient structure and suppresses incorrect and/or unwanted features. The extracted IKP features retain simple geometry and morphology and reduce the interference of illumination. Second, to counteract the deformation induced by different hand orientations, we propose a novel structure-context descriptor based on local statistics. To our best knowledge, we are the first to simultaneously consider the illumination invariance and deformation tolerance for appearance-based low-resolution hand biometrics. Settings in previous works are more restrictive. They made strong assumptions either about the illumination condition or the restrictive hand orientation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of recognition accuracy, especially under uncontrolled lighting conditions and the flexible hand orientation requirement.

  12. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  13. Spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy detection in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Piotr; Fält, Pauli; Penttinen, Niko; Ylitepsa, Pasi; Laaksonen, Lauri; Lensu, Lasse; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    Retinal photography is a standard method for recording retinal diseases for subsequent analysis and diagnosis. However, the currently used white light or red-free retinal imaging does not necessarily provide the best possible visibility of different types of retinal lesions, important when developing diagnostic tools for handheld devices, such as smartphones. Using specifically designed illumination, the visibility and contrast of retinal lesions could be improved. In this study, spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy lesion visualization are implemented using a spectrally tunable light source based on digital micromirror device. The applicability of this method was tested in vivo by taking retinal monochrome images from the eyes of five diabetic volunteers and two non-diabetic control subjects. For comparison to existing methods, we evaluated the contrast of retinal images taken with our method and red-free illumination. The preliminary results show that the use of optimal illuminations improved the contrast of diabetic lesions in retinal images by 30-70%, compared to the traditional red-free illumination imaging.

  14. Polydopamine Generates Hydroxyl Free Radicals under Ultraviolet-Light Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zehuan; Tang, Feng; Fan, Hailong; Wang, Le; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2017-06-13

    Polydopamine (PDA) generally demonstrates as an efficient free-radical scavenger. However, its free-radical chemistry under illumination is unclear, which becomes important in view of growing studies of polydopamine applications in photoprotector and photothermal therapy. In this study, for the first time, we reported an experimental investigation of the generation of hydroxyl free radicals from ultraviolet (UV)-illuminated polydopamine in an aqueous environment. By using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe, we measured hydroxyl radicals generated from UV-illuminated polydopamine with different shapes and sizes. The morphology of PDA shows significant influence on its productions of hydroxyl free radicals. Through characterizations of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, we demonstrated the change of PDA nanomaterials brought by UV-light illumination in composition and thermal stability. We proposed a tentative mechanism for interpreting the relationship between morphology and photostability of PDA nanomaterials. These results reveal underlying complexity of polydopamine chemistry under light illumination that will deepen our understanding and benefit its further application.

  15. Abnormal patterning analysis using actual lens and illumination source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongkyun; Lee, Jeonkyu; Kang, Eunsuk; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Guerrero, James; Chung, Rob

    2005-05-01

    As the minimum feature size shrinks down, i.e. low K1 lithography regime, the tool"s lens aberration sensitivity and user defined illumination imperfection might play a major role in patterning error. Thus, the study of impact from lens aberration and illumination on patterning is required for good tool maintenance and yield improvement. For this purpose, we collected many cases of abnormal patterning result from production line and then simulated in terms of actual lens aberration and illumination source data. LITEL products of ISI(In-situ Interferometer) and SMI(Source Metrology Interferometer) were used for characterizing lens and illumination source. Moreover, the ACE(Analysis and Characteristic Engine) of LITEL development product was used as the simulator. In this work, deformation of pattern fidelity, for example, CD asymmetry in word line and metal contact layer, pattern bending in isolation layer and also decreasing process window in bit line layer will be discussed with experimental and simulation data. Finally, we are able to make a guideline for preventing abnormal phenomenon. From this study, we can understand which lens aberration terms and illumination imperfection take an effect of abnormal pattering result.

  16. Memory color assisted illuminant estimation through pixel clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Quan, Shuxue

    2010-01-01

    The under constrained nature of illuminant estimation determines that in order to resolve the problem, certain assumptions are needed, such as the gray world theory. Including more constraints in this process may help explore the useful information in an image and improve the accuracy of the estimated illuminant, providing that the constraints hold. Based on the observation that most personal images have contents of one or more of the following categories: neutral objects, human beings, sky, and plants, we propose a method for illuminant estimation through the clustering of pixels of gray and three dominant memory colors: skin tone, sky blue, and foliage green. Analysis shows that samples of the above colors cluster around small areas under different illuminants and their characteristics can be used to effectively detect pixels falling into each of the categories. The algorithm requires the knowledge of the spectral sensitivity response of the camera, and a spectral database consisted of the CIE standard illuminants and reflectance or radiance database of samples of the above colors.

  17. Colour perception with changes in levels of illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kwame F.; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The perceived colour of a stimulus depends on the conditions under which it is viewed. For colours employed as an important cue or identifier, such as signage and brand colours, colour reproduction tolerances are critically important. Typically, such stimuli would be judged using a known level of illumination but, in the target environment, the level of illumination used to view the samples may be entirely different. The effect of changes in the viewing condition on the perceptibility and acceptability of small colour differences should be understood when such tolerances and associated viewing conditions, are specified. A series of psychophysical experiments was conducted to determine whether changes in illumination level significantly alter acceptability and perceptibility thresholds of uniform colour stimuli. It was found that perceived colour discrimination thresholds varied by up to 2.0 ΔE00. For the perceptual correlate of hue however, this value could be of significance if the accepted error of colour difference was at the threshold, thereby yielding the possibility of rejection with changes in illumination level. Lightness and chroma on the other hand, exhibited greater tolerance and were less likely to be rejected with illuminance changes.

  18. Research on minimum illumination as a function of visual performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmodipoero, R.T.; Pardede, L. [Building Physics and Acoustics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this research is to find minimum illuminance level such that a visual task (in this case is reading) still can be done properly. The reading object in this research is sentences (written in Bahasa Indonesia) and printed in Times New Roman font on a white A4 paper. Three factors are observed, i.e. font size, luminance contrast (between letters and paper), and reading distance. Measurements were made of the minimum illumination that was needed by subjects, such that they still can read the object properly. The experiment was done in a dark room and the illuminance level on the object from a lamp was adjusted by using a dimmer device. The results of this experiment show that the lowest minimum illuminance of 0.13 lx (for reading object with font size 16, luminance contrast of 0.93, and distance of 60 cm) and the highest of 15.32 lx (for reading object with font size 8, luminance contrast of 0.55, and distance of 100 cm). By using analysis of variance method, it can be shown that reading distance is the most influential factor for the minimum illuminance level, and then followed by dimension and luminance contrast. (author)

  19. Accommodating multiple illumination sources in an imaging colorimetry environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Goddard, James S., Jr.; Hunt, Martin A.; Hylton, Kathy W.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Simpson, Marc L.; Richards, Roger K.; Treece, Dale A.

    2000-03-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing a method for measuring color quality in textile products using a tri-stimulus color camera system. Initial results of the Imaging Tristimulus Colorimeter (ITC) were reported during 1999. These results showed that the projection onto convex sets (POCS) approach to color estimation could be applied to complex printed patterns on textile products with high accuracy and repeatability. Image-based color sensors used for on-line measurement are not colorimetric by nature and require a non-linear transformation of the component colors based on the spectral properties of the incident illumination, imaging sensor, and the actual textile color. Our earlier work reports these results for a broad-band, smoothly varying D65 standard illuminant. To move the measurement to the on-line environment with continuously manufactured textile webs, the illumination source becomes problematic. The spectral content of these light sources varies substantially from the D65 standard illuminant and can greatly impact the measurement performance of the POCS system. Although absolute color measurements are difficult to make under different illumination, referential measurements to monitor color drift provide a useful indication of product quality. Modifications to the ITC system have been implemented to enable the study of different light sources. These results and the subsequent analysis of relative color measurements will be reported for textile products.

  20. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe

    2017-02-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  1. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  2. Morphology Evolution and Degradation of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals under Blue Light-Emitting Diode Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouqiang; Li, Zhichun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Congyang; Kong, Long; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Aidang; Li, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Under illumination of light-emitting diode (LED) or sunlight, the green color of all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (CPB-NCs) often quickly changes to yellow, followed by large photoluminescence (PL) loss. To figure out what is happening on CPB-NCs during the color change process, the morphology, structure, and PL evolutions are systematically investigated by varying the influence factors of illumination, moisture, oxygen, and temperature. We find that the yellow color is mainly originated from the large CPB crystals formed in the illumination process. With maximized isolation of oxygen for the sandwiched film or the uncovered film stored in nitrogen, the color change can be dramatically slowed down whether there is water vapor or not. Under dark condition, the PL emissions are not significantly influenced by the varied relative humidity (RH) levels and temperatures up to 60 °C. Under the precondition of oxygen or air, color change and PL loss become more obvious when increasing the illumination power or RH level, and the large-sized cubic CPB crystals are further evolved into the oval-shaped crystals. We confirm that oxygen is the crucial factor to drive the color change, which has the strong synergistic effect with the illumination and moisture for the degradation of the CPB film. Meanwhile, the surface decomposition and the increased charge trap states occurred in the formed large CPB crystals play important roles for the PL loss.

  3. Variable phase dark-field contrast--a variant illumination technique for improved visualizations of transparent specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Timm; Piper, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    Variable phase dark-field contrast has been developed as an illumination technique in light microscopy, which promises significant improvements and a higher variability in imaging of several transparent specimens. In this method, a phase contrast image is optically superimposed on a dark-field image so that a partial image based on the principal zeroth-order maximum (phase contrast) interferes with an image that is based on the secondary maxima (dark field). The background brightness and character of the resulting image can be continuously modulated from a phase-contrast-dominated to a dark-field-dominated character. The condenser aperture diaphragm can be used for modulations of the image's appearance. Specimens can either be illuminated concentrically or obliquely (eccentrically) when parts of the illuminating light beams are covered and blocked. Moreover, a bright-field-like partial image can be added. In this way, the illumination can be optimally adjusted to the specific properties of the specimen. The techniques described can lead to improved visual information especially in biological specimens consisting of phase structures and additional light-absorbing or -reflecting components. Moreover, the specimen's three-dimensionality can be accentuated with improved clarity because the illuminating light beams associated with phase contrast and dark field run to the specimen at different angles of incidence.

  4. Quantum illumination reveals phase-shift inducing cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Heras, U; Di Candia, R; Fedorov, K G; Deppe, F; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2017-08-24

    In quantum illumination entangled light is employed to enhance the detection accuracy of an object when compared with the best classical protocol. On the other hand, cloaking is a stealth technology based on covering a target with a material deflecting the light around the object to avoid its detection. Here, we propose a quantum illumination protocol especially adapted to quantum microwave technology. This protocol seizes the phase-shift induced by some cloaking techniques, such as scattering reduction, allowing for a 3 dB improvement in the detection of a cloaked target. The method can also be employed for the detection of a phase-shift in bright environments in different frequency regimes. Finally, we study the minimal efficiency required by the photocounter for which the quantum illumination protocol still shows a gain with respect to the classical protocol.

  5. Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Lin, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Chun-Ming; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2014-03-10

    We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

  6. Separate effects of background and illumination on lightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Sunčica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments attempted to establish an effect of context on lightness. Lightness is one of the dimensions of color and it varies from black to white. Most of our stimuli were inspired by simultaneous lightness contrast illusion. First two experiments contrast the size of an effect produced by the change of background color vs. the change in illumination. The third experiment deals with different type of illusions, where the effect is obtained through the appearance of multiple illumination levels. The last experiment takes into account the ratio of the target and the background. The results reveal the size of effects produced separately by the background color and illumination level and suggest the prime importance of background. Also there are other factors such as reflectance range in the scene, incremental and decremental targets, and 2D vs. 3D representation.

  7. Colour constancy under simultaneous changes in surface position and illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Foster, David H

    2004-11-22

    Two kinds of constancy underlie the everyday perception of surface colour: constancy under changes in illuminant and constancy under changes in surface position. Classically, these two constancies seem to place conflicting demands on the visual system: to both take into account the region surrounding a surface and also discount it. It is shown here, however, that the ability of observers to make surface-colour matches across simultaneous changes in test-surface position and illuminant in computer-generated 'Mondrian' patterns is almost as good as across changes in illuminant alone. Performance was no poorer when the surfaces surrounding the test surface were permuted, or when information from a potential comparison surface, the one with the highest luminance, was suppressed. Computer simulations of cone-photoreceptor activity showed that a reliable cue for making surface-colour matches in all experimental conditions was provided by the ratios of cone excitations between the test surfaces and a spatial average over the whole pattern.

  8. A convex optimization approach for depth estimation under illumination variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miled, Wided; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe; Parent, Michel

    2009-04-01

    Illumination changes cause serious problems in many computer vision applications. We present a new method for addressing robust depth estimation from a stereo pair under varying illumination conditions. First, a spatially varying multiplicative model is developed to account for brightness changes induced between left and right views. The depth estimation problem, based on this model, is then formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which an appropriate convex objective function is minimized under various convex constraints modelling prior knowledge and observed information. The resulting multiconstrained optimization problem is finally solved via a parallel block iterative algorithm which offers great flexibility in the incorporation of several constraints. Experimental results on both synthetic and real stereo pairs demonstrate the good performance of our method to efficiently recover depth and illumination variation fields, simultaneously.

  9. Estimation of global illuminance for clear skies at Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L. [Departamento de Sistemas Inteligentes Aplicados, E.U. Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Soler, A. [Departamento de Fisica e Instalaciones, ETSAM, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Two elementary empirical models for the dependence of global illuminance on solar elevation for clear skies are provided. The models are developed from hourly data obtained from 1 year data collected at the International Daylight Measurement Programme (IDMP) general class station at the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid (ETSAM), and are statistically assessed with data obtained during another period of 6 months. Values of the mean bias deviation (MBD) and root mean square deviation (RMSD) of respectively less than 5% and 7% of the average illuminance measured were obtained. The qualitative dependence of global illuminance on solar elevation, common to that found by other researchers for other locations is justified, and found to be different to that given by Vazquez and Bernabeu [D. Vazquez, E. Bernabeu, Quantitative estimation of clear sky light in Madrid, Energy and Buildings, 26 (1997) 331] using data obtained at a site which is in close proximity to our station. (author)

  10. On the relation between zenith sky brightness and horizontal illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, M.; Posch, Th.; Solano Lamphar, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of artificial light at night are an emergent research topic for astronomers, physicists, engineers and biologists around the world. This leads to a need for measurements of the night sky brightness (= diffuse luminance of the night sky) and nocturnal illuminance. Currently, the most sensitive light meters measure the zenith sky brightness in magV/arcsec2 or - less frequently - in cd m-2. However, the horizontal illuminance resulting only from the night sky is an important source of information that is difficult to obtain with common instruments. Here we present a set of approximations to convert the zenith luminance into horizontal illuminance. Three different approximations are presented for three idealized atmospheric conditions: homogeneous sky brightness, an isotropically scattering atmosphere and a turbid atmosphere. We also apply the resulting conversion formulae to experimental data on night sky luminance, obtained during the past three years.

  11. BigBackground-Based Illumination Compensation for Surveillance Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bales MRyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illumination changes cause challenging problems for video surveillance algorithms, as objects of interest become masked by changes in background appearance. It is desired for such algorithms to maintain a consistent perception of a scene regardless of illumination variation. This work introduces a concept we call BigBackground, which is a model for representing large, persistent scene features based on chromatic self-similarity. This model is found to comprise 50% to 90% of surveillance scenes. The large, stable regions represented by the model are used as reference points for performing illumination compensation. The presented compensation technique is demonstrated to decrease improper false-positive classification of background pixels by an average of 83% compared to the uncompensated case and by 25% to 43% compared to compensation techniques from the literature.

  12. Daylighting provided by horizontal openings using the illumination vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J.; Sendra, J.J. [Instituto Universitario de Ciencias de la Construccion, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Stemming from the expressions of the illumination vector provided by vertical openings at any point of the interior space, this article proposes and solves the equivalent expressions for openings in horizontal planes, thus completing the expressions of Navarro [Sobre iluminacion natural en arquitectura. Ed. Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla; 1983] and offering algorithms which give the value of the illumination vector for CIE skies [Natural daylight official recommendations. Paris: CIE COMMITE 3.2.; 1955] at any point of the interior space and for any size of window whether vertical or horizontal. This constitutes a highly potential tool of computerized calculation of the direct component of natural illumination which is eminently more flexible and precise than those systems which are based on finite elements. (author)

  13. Holographic display with LED sources illumination and enlarged viewing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present holographic display that uses LED sources illumination and have enlarged viewing angle. In this holographic display design we employ phase only SLM because it allows to obtain reconstructions of high quality. Our setup realizes complex coding scheme and allows to reconstruct complex holographic images. Thus reconstruction of inplane holograms is possible. Holograms displayed on SLM are computer generated. For enlargement of angular field of view we use three spatially separated illumination sources and time multiplexing technique. In experimental part, where we display computer generated holograms, we show that it is possible to obtain holographic reconstructions of 3D object with extended viewing angle.

  14. Pushing the limits of imaging using patterned illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Prasanna

    The image captured by an imaging system is subject to constraints imposed by the wave nature of light and the geometry of image formation. The former limits the resolving power of the imager while the latter results in a loss of size and range information. The body of work presented in this dissertation strives to overcome the aforementioned limits. The suite of techniques and apparatus ideas disclosed in the work afford imagers the unique ability to capture spatial detail lost to optical blur, while also recovering range information. A recurring theme in the work is the notion of imaging under patterned illumination. The Moire fringes arising from the heterodyning of the object detail and the patterned illumination, are used to improve the resolving power of the imager. The deformations in the phase of the detected illumination pattern, aid in the recovery of range information. The work furnishes a comprehensive mathematical model for imaging under patterned illumination that accommodates blur due to the imaging/illumination optics, and the perspective foreshortening observed at macroscopic scales. The model discloses the existence of a family of active stereo arrangements that jointly support super resolution (improvement of resolving power) and scene recovery (recovery of range information). The work also presents a new description of the theoretical basis for super resolution. The description confirms that an improvement in resolving power results from the computational engineering of the imager impulse response. The above notion is explored further, in developing a strategy for engineering the impulse response of an imager, using patterned illumination. It is also established that optical aberrations are not an impediment to super resolution. Furthermore, the work advances the state-of-the-art in scene recovery by establishing that a broader class of sinusoidal patterns may be used to recover range information, while circumventing the extensive calibration

  15. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object into the im......The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object...

  16. Improve microwave quantum illumination via optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Biao; Li, Xun; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Ling

    2017-10-01

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Entangled sources between microwave and optical fields can be exploited to improve detection in microwave quantum illumination technique. We proposed a scheme to enhance the entanglement between the output fields of microwave and optical cavity by introducing optical parametric amplifier medium in cavity optomechanical system. We show that improving signal-to-noise ratio and decreasing error probability of detection can be obtained consequently even for objects with low reflectivity in the presence of optical parametric amplifier.

  17. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  18. Object wave reconstruction by speckle illumination and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    An innovative setup for the speckle-based phase retrieval method is proposed. In the conventional setup, a plane wave illuminates the test object and the transmitted wavefront is incident on a diffuser aperture generating a speckle field. The sampled speckle intensities at axially displaced planes...... are input into a phase retrieval algorithm based on a wave propagation equation. In the new setup, the arrangement of the diffuser and the object is reversed. A plane wave incident on the diffuser generates a speckle field which, in turn, is used to illuminate the object. The transmitted wavefront...

  19. The possible ocular hazards of LED dental illumination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands--the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a

  20. Effect of light polariztion on pattern illumination super-resolution imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimin Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Far-field fluorescence microscopy has made great progress in the spatial resolution, limited by light diffraction, since the super-resolution imaging technology appeared. And stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy and structured illumination microscopy (SIM can be grouped into one class of the super-resolution imaging technology, which use pattern illumination strategy to circumvent the diffraction limit. We simulated the images of the beads of SIM imaging, the intensity distribution of STED excitation light and depletion light in order to observe effects of the polarized light on imaging quality. Compared to fixed linear polarization, circularly polarized light is more suitable for SIM on reconstructed image. And right-handed circular polarization (CP light is more appropriate for both the excitation and depletion light in STED system. Therefore the right-handed CP light would be the best candidate when the SIM and STED are combined into one microscope. Good understanding of the polarization will provide a reference for the patterned illumination experiment to achieve better resolution and better image quality.

  1. Difference in illuminant-dependent color changes of shade guide tabs by the shade designation relative to three illuminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-12-01

    To determine the difference in illuminant-dependent color changes of shade guide tabs of Vita Lumin (VITA), Chromascop (CHRO) and Vita 3D-Master (3D-M) shade guides by the shade designation in each shade guide. Color of 16 tabs of VITA, 20 tabs of CHRO and 29 tabs of 3D-M was measured according to the CIELAB color scale relative to the CIE standard illuminant D65, A and F2. Color differences (deltaE*ab) between the A1 tab and other VITA tabs, between the 110 tab and other CHRO tabs and between the 0M1 tab and other 3D-M tabs relative to the three illuminants were calculated, and the ratios of deltaE*ab values relative to the different illuminants [deltaE*ab(A)/deltaE*ab(D65), deltaE*ab(F2)/deltaE*ab(D65) and deltaE*ab(F2)/deltaE*ab(A)] were calculated. Ratios of the hue angle shifts of each shade tab by the change of illuminant over the corresponding value of the Al, the 110 or the 0M1 tab were also calculated. Differences in the ratios of color difference and hue angle shift were analyzed with a repeated measures, two-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05). Ratios of deltaE*ab values by the illuminant were 0.90-1.17, 0.95-1.07 and 0.99-1.06 for the VITA, the CHRO and the 3D-M shade guide, respectively. Ratios of the hue angle shifts by the illuminant were from -1.6 to 1.8 for the VITA, from -7.3 to 1.2 for the CHRO and from -1.2 to 3.1 for the 3D-M. Changes in color and hue angle of shade tabs were significantly different by the shade tab designation when illuminant was changed (P < 0.01).

  2. Effect of reduced illumination on insomnia in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Masaya; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the possible effects of reduced illumination in the workplace on insomnia among office workers. Seventy-two office workers answered the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) in July 2009 (under ordinary illumination, 01 conditions) and July 2010 (under reduced illumination, Rl conditions). The workers were divided into three groups, indoor workers (IWs), semi-outdoor workers (SWs) and outdoor workers (OWs), according to the frequency of working outside of the office because a worker with a high frequency of working outside of the office might rarely be exposed to the lighting condition within an office. The first five items of the AIS (AIS-5) were used to assess sleep difficulties, and the last three items (AIS-3) assessed next-day consequences of sleep or daytime symptoms, which often result from insomnia and/or sleep disorders. Illuminance levels at a height of 1,100 mm from the floor under the Rl conditions (550-490 lux) were significantly lower than under the Ol conditions (750-700 lux). The AIS-5 score of the IWs was significantly increased under the Rl conditions compared with the Ol conditions. There was no difference in AIS-3 scores between conditions for any group. Indoor workers hardly went outside of the office and were exposed only to office light during the daytime. Thus, the underexposure to light could have had an impact on insomnia in those individuals. A novel lighting environment is required to optimize work-related levels of light exposure.

  3. Shining new light on the Hawthorne illumination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Masumi R; French, Michael D; Hedge, Alan

    2011-10-01

    This study provides an historical and statistical analysis of archival data from the Hawthorne illumination experiments. Previous accounts of the illumination experiments are fraught with inconsistencies because they have been based on secondary sources. The general consensus has been that variations in light levels had no effect on worker productivity at Hawthorne. All reports and data were thought to have been destroyed, but an archive at Cornell University was found to contain copies of the original documentation and much of the data from all three illumination experiments. Conclusions were originally drawn from visual comparisons of productivity graphs, and the data have never been properly statistically analyzed. Archival reports, notes, photographs, and letters on the experiments were consulted. Productivity data were extracted from the tables and graphs in the reports and statistically analyzed for each experiment. Previously unpublished details of the illumination experiments emerged. An effect of lighting on productivity was found in the first treatment sequence for the first experiment, but this finding was not confirmed in the second sequence or in the second and third experiments. Experimental results provided inconsistent evidence of an association between light levels and productivity. All three experiments were found to be seriously flawed. This study challenges popular accounts of the "Hawthorne effect," and the shortcomings of these experiments also have implications for the design of field studies.

  4. Standard surface-reflectance model and illuminant estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Wandell, Brian A.

    1989-01-01

    A vector analysis technique was adopted to test the standard reflectance model. A computational model was developed to determine the components of the observed spectra and an estimate of the illuminant was obtained without using a reference white standard. The accuracy of the standard model is evaluated.

  5. CIDRE: an illumination-correction method for optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Li, Yunpeng; Piccinini, Filippo; Csucs, Gabor; Balazs, Csaba; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Horvath, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Uneven illumination affects every image acquired by a microscope. It is often overlooked, but it can introduce considerable bias to image measurements. The most reliable correction methods require special reference images, and retrospective alternatives do not fully model the correction process. Our approach overcomes these issues for most optical microscopy applications without the need for reference images.

  6. How Does a Dark Room Appear: Husserl's Illumination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    How Does a Dark Room Appear: Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations by Juha Himanka. Abstract. Evidence is the very core of Husserlian phenomenology, with the term “evidence” signifying for. Husserl the phenomenological perspective on the question of truth. In contrast to the conventional.

  7. Interactive Global Illumination Effects Using Deterministically Directed Layered Depth Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, F. P.; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A layered depth map is an extension of the well-known depth map used in rasterization. Multiple layered depth maps can be used as a coarse scene representation. We develop two global illumination methods which use said scene representation. The first is an interactive ambient occlusion method...

  8. Numerical correction of aberrations via phase retrieval with speckle illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    What we believe to be a novel technique for wavefront aberration measurement using speckle patterns is presented. The aberration correction is done numerically. A tilted lens is illuminated with a partially developed speckle field, and the transmitted light intensity is sampled at axially displaced...

  9. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming

    2017-10-13

    2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.

  10. Review of the illumination problems pertaining to South African collieries.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pardoe, DR

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, a proposal was submitted to SIMRAC for a two year programme of work with the overall objective of conducting a general review of problems and techniques related to underground colliery illumination, particular emphasis on identifying means...

  11. Color fidelity of chromatic distributions by triad illuminant comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Performance measures for quantifying human color constancy and computational color constancy are very different. The former relate to measurements on individual object colors whereas the latter relate to the accuracy of the estimated illuminant. To bridge this gap, we propose a psychophysical method

  12. Illuminating a Dialectical Transformative Activist Stance in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    In this essay I comment on Stetsenko's (2008) essay that draws together the work of Vygotsky, Piaget and Dewey, as she attempts to counter the "new" reductionist synthesis in public educational policy. While this theoretical work is helpful, it could be enhanced further by illuminating everyday practices of learners. I pose some questions that…

  13. All-solution processed organic solar cells with top illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.R.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Galagan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with inverted device architecture were demonstrated. Devices contain opaque bottom electrodes and semitransparent top electrodes, resulting in top illuminated devices. Nanoparticles-based Ag ink was used for inkjet printing both top and bottom electrodes.

  14. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  15. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  16. Adaptive enhancement for nonuniform illumination images via nonlinear mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Huang, Qian; Hu, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Nonuniform illumination images suffer from degenerated details because of underexposure, overexposure, or a combination of both. To improve the visual quality of color images, underexposure regions should be lightened, whereas overexposure areas need to be dimmed properly. However, discriminating between underexposure and overexposure is troublesome. Compared with traditional methods that produce a fixed demarcation value throughout an image, the proposed demarcation changes as local luminance varies, thus is suitable for manipulating complicated illumination. Based on this locally adaptive demarcation, a nonlinear modification is applied to image luminance. Further, with the modified luminance, we propose a nonlinear process to reconstruct a luminance-enhanced color image. For every pixel, this nonlinear process takes the luminance change and the original chromaticity into account, thus trying to avoid exaggerated colors at dark areas and depressed colors at highly bright regions. Finally, to improve image contrast, a local and image-dependent exponential technique is designed and applied to the RGB channels of the obtained color image. Experimental results demonstrate that our method produces good contrast and vivid color for both nonuniform illumination images and images with normal illumination.

  17. On calculating metamer sets for spectrally tunable LED illuminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; Mackiewicz, Michal; Hurlbert, Anya; Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart

    2014-07-01

    Solid state lighting is becoming a popular light source for color vision experiments. One of the advantages of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is the possibility to shape the target light spectrum according to the experimenter's needs. In this paper, we present a method for creating metameric lights with an LED-based spectrally tunable illuminator. The equipment we use consists of six Gamma Scientific RS-5B lamps, each containing nine different LEDs and a 1 m integrating sphere. We provide a method for describing the (almost) entire set of illuminant metamers. It will be shown that the main difficulty in describing this set arises as the result of the intensity dependent peak-wavelength shift, which is manifested by the majority of the LEDs used by the illuminators of this type. We define the normalized metamer set describing all illuminator spectra that colorimetrically match a given chromaticity. Finally, we describe a method for choosing the smoothest or least smooth metamer from the entire set.

  18. Optimization of the focus monitor mark in immersion lithography according to illumination type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lisong; Zhang, Libin; Su, Xiaojing; He, Jianfang; Wei, Yayi

    2017-07-01

    With the shrinking of critical dimension, the demand for a process window has reached a new level, which is denoted as the depth of focus at certain exposure latitudes. Therefore, high-quality monitoring and controlling of focus shift are becoming more and more critical. With the purpose of providing an optimal focus monitoring mark, which can be applied in freeform or off-axis illumination with a big sigma and hypernumerical aperture (NA) scheme, a global optimization method combined with the idea of a genetic algorithm is developed. For illustration, two optimal mask structures under quasar and freeform illumination conditions are given by the optimized method. The numerical simulations with the lithography simulator PROLITH are provided to demonstrate the performances of these two structures. In addition, the robustness of these optimized structures is analyzed by considering the phase-shift error in mask manufacturing. The above simulation results verify the effectiveness and validity of the proposed optimization methodology and also show that the mask structure provided by the optimized method has the potential to be an efficient candidate for measuring the defocus of scanners in the immersion lithography with hyper NA.

  19. Unsupervised flaw segmentation in textile materials under visible and NIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Escofet, Jaume; Ralló, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    An unsupervised novelty detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in textile materials that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. The algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. The whole process is fully automatic and can be implemented either optical or electronically. Fabrics having a superstructure of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the basic web structure can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera sensitive to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the superstructure signal in the NIR image facilitates fabric structure inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be noticeably reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. Experimental results are presented and discussed for a variety of fabrics and defects.

  20. Quantification of in vitro mesenchymal stem cell invasion into tumor spheroids using selective plane illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühland, Svenja; Wechselberger, Alexandra; Spitzweg, Christine; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J; Harz, Hartmann

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) homing and integration into tumors are under evaluation for clinical application. This approach requires the identification of conditions for optimal tumor invasion. We describe a tool for the in vitro comparison of parameters influencing invasion. Human MSC added to experimental tumor spheroids variably migrates toward the center of the structure. To determine MSC distribution inside the three-dimensional specimen, spatial analysis was performed using selective plane illumination microscopy. A standardized method to quantify and compare the invasion potential of variably treated MSC into experimental tumor environments allows efficient screening for optimizing conditions.

  1. Magnetotransport in very long wave infrared quantum cascade detectors: Analyzing the current with and without illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasnot, François-Régis; Maëro, Simon; Vaulchier, Louis-Anne de; Guldner, Yves; Carosella, Francesca; Ferreira, Robson [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, École Normale Supérieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Université P. et M. Curie, Université Paris Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Delga, Alexandre; Doyennette, Laetitia; Berger, Vincent [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, CNRS - UMR7162, Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Carras, Mathieu [Alcatel-Thales 3-5 lab, Route départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2013-12-04

    Current measurements of current have been performed on a very long wave infrared quantum cascade detector under magnetic field under both dark and light conditions. The analysis of dark current as a function of temperature highlights three regimes of transport. Under illumination, the model developed is in agreement with the oscillatory component of the experimental magnetophotocurrent. It allows to identify the key points controlling the electronic transport: crucial role of extraction, location of ionized impurities and scattering mechanisms involved in the structure. This work is valuable for the future conception of high-performance quantum cascade detectors in the infrared range.

  2. Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Ryo, E-mail: ishikawa@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lupini, Andrew R. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hinuma, Yoyo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, 328 Ferris Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    To fully understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us to measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation. - Highlights: • We theoretically demonstrate 3D near-atomic depth resolution imaging by large-angle illumination STEM. • This method can be useful to identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies within materials. • This method can be useful to determine reconstructed surface atomic structures.

  3. Feature-specific imaging: Extensions to adaptive object recognition and active illumination based scene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Pawan K.

    Computational imaging (CI) systems are hybrid imagers in which the optical and post-processing sub-systems are jointly optimized to maximize the task-specific performance. In this dissertation we consider a form of CI system that measures the linear projections (i.e., features) of the scene optically, and it is commonly referred to as feature-specific imaging (FSI). Most of the previous work on FSI has been concerned with image reconstruction. Previous FSI techniques have also been non-adaptive and restricted to the use of ambient illumination. We consider two novel extensions of the FSI system in this work. We first present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face-recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. We present both statistical and information-theoretic adaptation mechanisms for the AFSI system. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is used to determine the number of measurements required for achieving a specified misclassification probability. We demonstrate that AFSI system requires significantly fewer measurements than static-FSI (SFSI) and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage. Experimental results validating the AFSI system are presented. Next we present a FSI system based on the use of structured light. Feature measurements are obtained by projecting spatially structured illumination onto an object and collecting all of the reflected light onto a single photodetector. We refer to this system as feature-specific structured imaging (FSSI). Principal component features are used to define the illumination patterns. The optimal LMMSE operator is used to generate object estimates from the measurements. We demonstrate that this new imaging approach reduces imager complexity and provides improved image

  4. Indications of Technology in Planetary Transit Light Curves due to Dark-side Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmen, S.; Korpela, E. J.

    2014-03-01

    In this project, we analyze potential effects on transit light curves induced by an extraterrestrial civilization's use of orbiting mirrors to illuminate the dark side of a tidally locked planet. Previous efforts to detect civilizations based on side effects of planetary-scale engineering have focused on structures affecting the host star output. For example, searches have been performed for IR signatures of Dyson spheres, giant structures that trap most or all of the visible emissions of a star, and radiate only waste heat (Carrigan 2009). However, many civilizations are likely to be less advanced in their engineering efforts, yet still capable of sending small spacecraft into orbit. Since M dwarfs are the most common type of star in the solar neighborhood, it seems plausible that many of the nearby habitable planets orbit M stars, despite the small habitable zone around such stars. Planets orbiting inside the habitable zone of these dim, low-mass stars will be tidally locked. Logically, civilizations evolving on such planets might be inspired to illuminate their planet's dark side by placing a fleet of small thin mirrors into planetary orbit. To provide significant illumination, these mirrors would have a collective surface area of the order of the disk area of the planet. Based on this assumption, we explore the impact on transit light curves of such a collection of orbiting mirrors. We incorporate the effects of limb darkening and model the mirror fleet's effects for Earth-like (M = 0.5 to 3 MEarth) planets whose orbits will be tidally locked within the habitable zone of their host star.

  5. Microfluidic mixing triggered by an external LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio-Marques, Anna; Barbaud, Fanny; Baigl, Damien

    2013-02-27

    The mixing of confined liquids is a central yet challenging operation in miniaturized devices. Microfluidic mixing is usually achieved with passive mixers that are robust but poorly flexible, or active mixers that offer dynamic control but mainly rely on electrical or mechanical transducers, which increase the fragility, cost, and complexity of the device. Here, we describe the first remote and reversible control of microfluidic mixing triggered by a light illumination simply provided by an external LED illumination device. The approach is based on the light-induced generation of water microdroplets acting as reversible stirrers of two continuous oil phase flows containing samples to be mixed. We demonstrate many cycles of reversible photoinduced transitions between a nonmixing behavior and full homogenization of the two oil phases. The method is cheap, portable, and adaptable to many device configurations, thus constituting an essential brick for the generation of future all-optofluidic chip.

  6. Illuminating the Effects of Dynamic Lighting on Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is universally understood as essential to the human condition. Yet light quality varies substantially in nature and in controlled environments leading to questions of which artificial light characteristics facilitate maximum learning. Recent research has examined lighting variables of color temperature, and illumination for affecting sleep, mood, focus, motivation, concentration, and work and school performance. This has resulted in artificial light systems intended to support human beings in their actualization through dynamic lighting technology allowing for different lighting conditions per task. A total of 84 third graders were exposed to either focus (6000K-100fc average maintained or normal lighting. Focus lighting led to a higher percentage increase in oral reading fluency performance (36% than did control lighting (17%. No lighting effects were found for motivation or concentration, possibly attributable to the younger age level of respondents as compared with European studies. These findings illuminate the need for further research on artificial light and learning.

  7. Three-illumination-source position optimization for interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Amalia G.; Rayas, J. A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Puga, Hugo J.

    2004-10-01

    When it is carried out to perform a three dimensional evaluation of displacements, it has been proposed ESPI systems which uses three illumination beams or the use of three sensors. The same technique has been used by digital holography and shearography. The different sensitivity vectors associated to each illumination beam let us permit to calculate the displacement in each direction by sensitivity matrix. In the present work, it is showed the sensitivity components for each source in the case of optical set-up with three divergent iluminating beams, where the sources position makes possible measure the u, v and w components with a weight factor approximately equal respecting to set-up sensitivity.

  8. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  9. Illumination adaptation with rapid-response color sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinchi; Wang, Quan; Boyer, Kim L.

    2014-09-01

    Smart lighting solutions based on imaging sensors such as webcams or time-of-flight sensors suffer from rising privacy concerns. In this work, we use low-cost non-imaging color sensors to measure local luminous flux of different colors in an indoor space. These sensors have much higher data acquisition rate and are much cheaper than many o_-the-shelf commercial products. We have developed several applications with these sensors, including illumination feedback control and occupancy-driven lighting.

  10. Illuminating a dialectical transformative activist stance in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-07-01

    In this essay I comment on Stetsenko's (2008) essay that draws together the work of Vygotsky, Piaget and Dewey, as she attempts to counter the `new' reductionist synthesis in public educational policy. While this theoretical work is helpful, it could be enhanced further by illuminating everyday practices of learners. I pose some questions that might provoke ongoing discussions by researchers as they transform collaboratively cultural-historical activity theory.

  11. A Passive Multistatic CW Radar System using Geostationary Illuminators

    OpenAIRE

    Thölert, Steffen; Hounam, David

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new passive radar system using a geostationary TV satellite as an illuminator and ground-based receivers is presented. The system can be operated as a monostatic or multistatic radar and can be used for target detection or reflectivity measurements. Full polarimetric operation is possible. The measurement technique and the system hardware of an experimental system are described, particular attention being paid to the methods of signal synchronization. The results of experiment...

  12. Shadowless-illuminated variable-angle TIRF (siva-TIRF) microscopy for the observation of spatial-temporal dynamics in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Weijian; Huang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Tianyi; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Fan, Ming; Chen, Liangyi

    2014-05-01

    Total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy provides high optical-sectioning capability and a good signal-contrast ratio for structures near the surfaces of cells. In recent years, several improvements have been developed, such as variable-angle TIRF (VA-TIRF) and spinning TIRF (sp-TIRF), which permit quantitative image analysis and address non-uniform scattering fringes, respectively. Here, we present a dual-color DMD-based shadowless-illuminated variable-angle TIRF (siva-TIRF) system that provides a uniform illumination field. By adjusting the incidence angle of the illuminating laser on the back focal plane (BFP) of the objective, we can rapidly illuminate biological samples in layers of various thicknesses in TIRF or hollow-cone epi-fluorescence mode. Compared with other methods of accomplishing VA-TIRF/sp-TIRF illumination, our system is simple to build and cost-effective, and it provides optimal multi-plane dual-color images. By showing spatiotemporal correlated movement of clathrin-coated structures with microtubule filaments from various layers of live cells, we demonstrate that cortical microtubules are important spatial regulators of clathrin-coated structures. Moreover, our system can be used to prove superb axial information of three-dimensional movement of structures near the plasma membrane within live cells.

  13. Resolution capability of SFET with slit and dipole illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuusuke; Matsunaga, Kentaro; Magoshi, Shunko; Shirai, Seiichiro; Tawarayama, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution EUV exposure tool is needed to facilitate the development of EUV resists and masks. Since the EUV small-field exposure tool (SFET) has a high numerical aperture (NA = 0.3), low aberration & flare, and excellent stage stability, it should be able to resolve fine L/S patterns for the half-pitch 22-nm & 16-nm nodes. In this study, we evaluated the resolution capability of the SFET and obtained 22-nm L/S patterns with x-slit illumination and clear modulation of 16-nm L/S patterns with x-dipole illumination. The resolution limit of the SFET seems to be about 15 nm. The main cause of pattern degradation in 16-nm L/S is probably resist blur. To obtain good shapes for this pattern size, the resist blur of less than 3.5 nm (σ) is required. The use of y-slit illumination was found to reduce the linewidth roughness (LWR) of resist patterns. Further reduction of the LWR requires a higher image contrast and a smaller flare. Due to the central obscuration, the image contrast of the SFET is sensitive to the change of pupil fill. The degradation in the collector & DMT should be reduced to ensure stable aerial images. This work was supported in part by NEDO.

  14. Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Y. Jeon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA.

  15. 'No blue' LED solution for photolithography room illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael; Friis, Dan

    2010-02-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of using a LED-based bulb as the illumination light source for photolithography room. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms of chromatic coordinates, correlated color temperature, color rendering index, and chromatic deviation. Gretagmacbeth color charts were used as a more visional way to compare the two light sources, which shows that our no-blue LED bulb has much better color rendering ability than the YFT. Furthermore, LED solution has design flexibility to improve it further. The prototype has been tested with photoresist SU8-2005. Even after 15 days of illumination, no effect was observed. So this LED-based solution was demonstrated to be a very promising light source for photolithography room illumination due to its better color rendering in addition to energy efficiency, long life time and design flexibility.

  16. Wide-field Fourier ptychographic microscopy using laser illumination source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaebum; Lu, Hangwen; Ou, Xiaoze; Zhou, Haojiang; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic (FP) microscopy is a coherent imaging method that can synthesize an image with a higher bandwidth using multiple low-bandwidth images captured at different spatial frequency regions. The method’s demand for multiple images drives the need for a brighter illumination scheme and a high-frame-rate camera for a faster acquisition. We report the use of a guided laser beam as an illumination source for an FP microscope. It uses a mirror array and a 2-dimensional scanning Galvo mirror system to provide a sample with plane-wave illuminations at diverse incidence angles. The use of a laser presents speckles in the image capturing process due to reflections between glass surfaces in the system. They appear as slowly varying background fluctuations in the final reconstructed image. We are able to mitigate these artifacts by including a phase image obtained by differential phase contrast (DPC) deconvolution in the FP algorithm. We use a 1-Watt laser configured to provide a collimated beam with 150 mW of power and beam diameter of 1 cm to allow for the total capturing time of 0.96 seconds for 96 raw FPM input images in our system, with the camera sensor’s frame rate being the bottleneck for speed. We demonstrate a factor of 4 resolution improvement using a 0.1 NA objective lens over the full camera field-of-view of 2.7 mm by 1.5 mm. PMID:27896016

  17. Low-cost oblique illumination: an image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, Jesus; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose Luis; Deniz, Oscar; Sanchez, Carlos; Borrego-Ramos, Maria; Blanco, Saul; Cristobal, Gabriel; Bueno, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of several low-cost oblique illumination filters to improve overall image quality, in comparison with standard bright field imaging. For this purpose, a dataset composed of 3360 diatom images belonging to 21 taxa was acquired. Subjective and objective image quality assessments were done. The subjective evaluation was performed by a group of diatom experts by psychophysical test where resolution, focus, and contrast were assessed. Moreover, some objective nonreference image quality metrics were applied to the same image dataset to complete the study, together with the calculation of several texture features to analyze the effect of these filters in terms of textural properties. Both image quality evaluation methods, subjective and objective, showed better results for images acquired using these illumination filters in comparison with the no filtered image. These promising results confirm that this kind of illumination filters can be a practical way to improve the image quality, thanks to the simple and low cost of the design and manufacturing process. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Imaging MDCK cysts with a single (selective) plane illumination microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoger, Jim; Pampaloni, Francesco; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-01-01

    In modern biology, most optical imaging technologies are applied to two-dimensional cell culture systems. However, investigation of physiological context requires specimens that display the complex three-dimensional (3D) relationship of cells that occurs in tissue sections and in naturally developing organisms. The imaging of highly scattering multicellular specimens presents a number of challenges, including limited optical penetration depth, phototoxicity, and fluorophore bleaching. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) overcomes many drawbacks of conventional fluorescence microscopy by using an orthogonal/azimuthal fluorescence arrangement with independent sets of lenses for illumination and detection. The specimen is illuminated from the side with a thin light sheet that overlaps with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Optical sectioning and minimal phototoxic damage or photobleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties of LSFM. The principles of LSFM are implemented in the single (or selective) plane illumination microscope (SPIM). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts grown in extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels provide a useful model system for studies of 3D cell biology. Here, we describe protocols for growing MDCK cysts within 3D type I collagen or reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and for imaging these cysts by SPIM.

  19. Imaging cellular spheroids with a single (selective) plane illumination microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoger, Jim; Pampaloni, Francesco; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-01-01

    In modern biology, most optical imaging technologies are applied to two-dimensional cell culture systems. However, investigation of physiological context requires specimens that display the complex three-dimensional (3D) relationship of cells that occurs in tissue sections and in naturally developing organisms. The imaging of highly scattering multicellular specimens presents a number of challenges, including limited optical penetration depth, phototoxicity, and fluorophore bleaching. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) overcomes many drawbacks of conventional fluorescence microscopy by using an orthogonal/azimuthal fluorescence arrangement with independent sets of lenses for illumination and detection. The specimen is illuminated from the side with a thin light sheet that overlaps with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Optical sectioning and minimal phototoxic damage or photobleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties of LSFM. The principles of LSFM are implemented in the single (or selective) plane illumination microscope (SPIM). Cellular spheroids are spherical aggregations of hundreds to thousands of cells and they provide a useful model system for studies of 3D cell biology. Here we describe a protocol for imaging cellular spheroids by SPIM.

  20. Improved Starting Materials for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An improved type of starting materials for the fabrication of silicon-based imaging integrated circuits that include back-illuminated photodetectors has been conceived, and a process for making these starting materials is undergoing development. These materials are intended to enable reductions in dark currents and increases in quantum efficiencies, relative to those of comparable imagers made from prior silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting materials. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the improved starting materials and process. A prior SOI starting material, depicted in the upper part the figure, includes: a) A device layer on the front side, typically between 2 and 20 m thick, made of p-doped silicon (that is, silicon lightly doped with an electron acceptor, which is typically boron); b) A buried oxide (BOX) layer (that is, a buried layer of oxidized silicon) between 0.2 and 0.5 m thick; and c) A silicon handle layer (also known as a handle wafer) on the back side, between about 600 and 650 m thick. After fabrication of the imager circuitry in and on the device layer, the handle wafer is etched away, the BOX layer acting as an etch stop. In subsequent operation of the imager, light enters from the back, through the BOX layer. The advantages of back illumination over front illumination have been discussed in prior NASA Tech Briefs articles.

  1. Flat-top illumination profile in an epifluorescence microscope by dual microlens arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; van der Pol, E.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2012-01-01

    Low uniformity in illumination across the image plane impairs the ability of a traditional epifluorescence microscope to quantify fluorescence intensities. Two microlens arrays (MLAs) were introduced into the illumination path of two different epifluorescence microscope systems to improve the

  2. Influence of illumination on the output characteristics in pentacene thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yow-Jon, E-mail: rzr2390@yahoo.com.tw; Huang, Bo-Chieh

    2013-10-01

    The influence of illumination on the output characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) was researched in this study. It is shown that light illumination may lead to an increase in the drain current, shifting the threshold voltage towards positive gate–source voltages. This is because of the light-induced acceptor activation, which is a new concept for illumination-dependent output characteristics of OTFTs. However, the field-effect mobility is insensitive to light illumination. It is found that electron trapping is responsible for the experimentally observed illumination-dependent output behavior of charge transport in OTFTs. - Highlights: • Light illumination may lead to an increase in the drain current. • This is because of the light-induced acceptor activation. • The field-effect mobility is insensitive to light illumination. • Electron trapping is responsible for the illumination-dependent output behavior.

  3. Illumination Conditions at Phobos: Implications for Surface Processes, Volatiles and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Glenar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Illumination conditions at airless bodies, such as Phobos, control or significantly influence many aspects of their environment, including temperature of the surface and subsurface, volatile sequestration and transport. In this study we simulate the average present-day illumination conditions at Phobos and assess whether locations exist where water ice could be either thermally stable in the near subsurface on billion year timescales, or accumulated by the "thermal ice pump" effect. Previous investigations of Phobos temperature and volatile sequestration have assumed a sphere or triaxial ellipsoid shape for Phobos. Here we use more realistic shape models in order to capture the shadowing caused by both its global-scale irregular shape and smaller scale structures, such as craters, that can have a crucial role in determining illumination conditions. Phobos is frequently eclipsed by Mars, especially around equinoxes, and this important effect is accounted for in the shadowing simulations. Preliminary predictions for the average incident solar flux using the Thomas [1993] shape model reveal many interesting features, such as high fluxes around crater rims (e.g., Stickney), doubly-shadowed craters (e.g., Limtoc) and strong asymmetries between poleward- and equatorward-facing crater walls (e.g., Drunlo). Perhaps most significantly, there are regions (most likely small craters) that are predicted to receive very low average solar flux ( 40-50 Wm-2). These will likely be, on average, the coldest places on Phobos. Should water ice, or other volatiles, be present at relatively shallow depths at certain locations on Phobos, then this could serve as a witness plate to the history of the Mars system, as well as provide valuable resources to future explorers.

  4. Optimization of sampling pattern and the design of Fourier ptychographic illuminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaikai; Dong, Siyuan; Nanda, Pariksheet; Zheng, Guoan

    2015-03-09

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently developed imaging approach that facilitates high-resolution imaging beyond the cutoff frequency of the employed optics. In the original FP approach, a periodic LED array is used for sample illumination, and therefore, the scanning pattern is a uniform grid in the Fourier space. Such a uniform sampling scheme leads to 3 major problems for FP, namely: 1) it requires a large number of raw images, 2) it introduces the raster grid artefacts in the reconstruction process, and 3) it requires a high-dynamic-range detector. Here, we investigate scanning sequences and sampling patterns to optimize the FP approach. For most biological samples, signal energy is concentrated at low-frequency region, and as such, we can perform non-uniform Fourier sampling in FP by considering the signal structure. In contrast, conventional ptychography perform uniform sampling over the entire real space. To implement the non-uniform Fourier sampling scheme in FP, we have designed and built an illuminator using LEDs mounted on a 3D-printed plastic case. The advantages of this illuminator are threefold in that: 1) it reduces the number of image acquisitions by at least 50% (68 raw images versus 137 in the original FP setup), 2) it departs from the translational symmetry of sampling to solve the raster grid artifact problem, and 3) it reduces the dynamic range of the captured images 6 fold. The results reported in this paper significantly shortened acquisition time and improved quality of FP reconstructions. It may provide new insights for developing Fourier ptychographic imaging platforms and find important applications in digital pathology.

  5. Model-Based Illumination Correction for Face Images in Uncontrolled Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Face Recognition under uncontrolled illumination conditions is partly an unsolved problem. Several illumination correction methods have been proposed, but these are usually tested on illumination conditions created in a laboratory. Our focus is more on uncontrolled conditions. We use the Phong model

  6. Post-illumination cellular effects of photodynamic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Charara

    Full Text Available Increased interest in clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT in various medical fields poses a demand for better understanding of processes triggered by photo-treatment. Most of the work on PDT performed so far has focused on the immediate effects of photo-treatment. It is generally accepted that cellular damage occurs during light exposure and within a short period thereafter. If cells are not killed during the PDT, they might recover, depending on the extent of the photo-induced damage. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the properties of photosensitizers (PSs and the delayed consequences of PDT. The aim of this work was to investigate cellular responses to sub-lethal photodynamic treatment and how toxicogenic potency may be affected by molecular features of the PS. Results demonstrated that for cationic porphyrin-based PSs, lipophilicity is the main factor determining the fate of the cells in the 24-hour post-illumination period. PSs with amphiphilic properties initiated oxidative reactions that continued in the dark, long after light exposure, and caused suppression of metabolism and loss of cell viability with concomitant changes in electrophoretic mobility of proteins, including caspases. Apoptotic activity was not stimulated in the post-illumination period. This study demonstrated that in PDT mediated by amphiphilic cationic metalloporphyrin PSs, even when immediate photo-damage is relatively mild, destructive oxidative processes initiated during PDT continue in the absence of light to substantially impair metabolism, and that post-illumination protein modification may modify utilization of cell death pathways.

  7. Understanding and Recreating Visual Appearance Under Natural Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pick a 3D location in the scene to place a new object; 2) select an object to insert using a hierarchical menu . In addition to the illumination...successfully estimated, we are now ready for object insertion. 146 7.4 Object Insertion Figure 7.5: User Interface for our system. The two-level menu ...Finlayson, 2000] Kobus Barnard and Graham D. Finlayson. Shadow identi- fication using colour ratios. In Proc. IS&T/SID 8th Color Imaging Conf. Color

  8. Effect of NICU Illumination upon Behaviors in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    白岩, 義夫; 河合, 優年; 犬飼, 和久; 鬼頭, 秀行; 小川, 次郎

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of illumination in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on behaviors and behavioral states in preterm infants. The Ss were individually observed twice in a day for a period of one hour by a video recording system. The results showed that rates of awakening and eye-opening during the awake state were higher, and their eyes were opened more widely under the dark condition than the bright. The bright condition increased the rate of Behavior ...

  9. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  10. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows—but does not stop—the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  11. GPU-Based Techniques for Global Illumination Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Szirmay-Kalos, László; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    This book presents techniques to render photo-realistic images by programming the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We discuss effects such as mirror reflections, refractions, caustics, diffuse or glossy indirect illumination, radiosity, single or multiple scattering in participating media, tone reproduction, glow, and depth of field. This book targets game developers, graphics programmers, and also students with some basic understanding of computer graphics algorithms, rendering APIs like Direct3D or OpenGL, and shader programming. In order to make this book self-contained, the most important c

  12. Topology optimization for optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    in microlithography/nanolithography. The key steps include (i) modeling the physical inputs of the fabrication process, including the ultraviolet light illumination source and the mask, as the design variables in optimization and (ii) applying physical filtering and heaviside projection for topology optimization......, which corresponds to the aerial image formulation and the pattern development processes, respectively. The proposed approach results in an effective source and a binary design mask, which can be sent directly to fabrication without additional post-processing steps for proximity error correction...

  13. 'No blue' LED solution for photolithography room illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of using a LED-based bulb as the illumination light source for photolithography room. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that......, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms of chromatic coordinates, correlated color temperature, color rendering index, and chromatic deviation. Gretagmacbeth color charts were used as a more visional way to compare the two light sources, which shows that our no-blue LED bulb has much better...

  14. Illumination intensity dependent photoresponse of ultra-thin ZnO/graphene/ZnO heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, M.; Granek, F.; Strek, W.

    2017-12-01

    A heterostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO) and single layer graphene is fabricated by sandwiching a transferred graphene between two thin ZnO films (∼20 nm each). ZnO thin films were grown using decomposition of Zn(acac)2 and spin-coating technique. Graphene transfer route with PMMA temporary carrier and metal etching process was used to transfer high quality commercial graphene from copper foil on the zinc oxide surface on glass. This novel and ultra-thin heterostructure (∼40 nm) is sensitive for UV illumination and works as a photodetector (PD). In this device, both positive and negative photoconductivity (PC) were observed depends on illumination intensity and spectrum of incident light. Relatively long response and recovery times obtained in ZnO/G/ZnO structure are related to the metastable defect states of ZnO and its interfaces with graphene and/or silver contacts. The obtained results show that the transferred single layer graphene sheet between thin ZnO films could be a novel route for improvement properties this low-cost metal oxide.

  15. Characterization and Processing of Non-Uniformities in Back-Illuminated CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Alia D.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Maddocks, Sally

    2018-01-01

    In astronomical photometry, Charged Coupled Device (CCD) detectors are used to achieve high precision photometry and must be properly calibrated to correct for noise and pixel non-uniformities. Uncalibrated images may contain bias offset, dark current, bias structure and uneven illumination. In addition, standard data reduction is often not sufficient to “normalize” imagery to single-digit millimagnitude (mmag) precision. We are investigating an apparent non-uniformity, or interference pattern, in a back-illuminated sensor, the Alta U-47, attached to a DFM Engineering 41-cm Ritchey-Chrétien f/8 telescope. Based on the amplitude of this effect, we estimate that instrument magnitude peak-to-valley deviations of 50 mmag or more may result. Our initial testing strongly suggests that reflected skylight from high pressure sodium city lights may be the cause of this interference pattern. Our research goals are twofold: to fully characterize this non-uniformity and to determine the best method to remove this interference pattern from our reduced CCD images.

  16. The properties of optical lightning flashes and the clouds they illuminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Deierling, Wiebke; Liu, Chuntao; Mach, Douglas; Kalb, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Optical lightning sensors like the Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) measure total lightning across large swaths of the globe with high detection efficiency. With two upcoming missions that employ these sensors - LIS on the International Space Station and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R satellite - there has been increased interest in what these measurements can reveal about lightning and thunderstorms in addition to total flash activity. Optical lightning imagers are capable of observing the characteristics of individual flashes that include their sizes, durations, and radiative energies. However, it is important to exercise caution when interpreting trends in optical flash measurements because they can be affected by the scene. This study uses coincident measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to examine the properties of LIS flashes and the surrounding cloud regions they illuminate. These combined measurements are used to assess to what extent optical flash characteristics can be used to make inferences about flash structure and energetics. Clouds illuminated by lightning over land and ocean regions that are otherwise similar based on TRMM measurements are identified. Even when LIS flashes occur in similar clouds and background radiances, oceanic flashes are still shown to be larger, brighter, longer lasting, more prone to horizontal propagation, and to contain more groups than their land-based counterparts. This suggests that the optical trends noted in literature are not entirely the result of radiative transfer effects but rather stem from physical differences in the flashes.

  17. Design of compact LED free-form optical system for aeronautical illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haobo; Xu, Chunyun; Jing, Xiaoli; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-09-01

    A type of runway centerline light is designed for the application of light-emitting diode (LED) aeronautical illumination. A total internal reflection collimating lens and an integrated prism are designed, respectively, to meet the intensity distribution of International Convention on Civil Aviation (ICAO) regulations. The principle of geometric optics is adopted to construct the free-form surfaces of a collimating lens, which is simple. Different variations are used in the process of free-form surface calculation. An integrated prism with a diffuser is used for uniformly diffusing rays and then decreasing the central maximum intensity to avoid glare. The structure of the optical system is compact. Computer simulation results show that an optical efficiency of 79.2% is achieved for a 1  mm×1  mm LED source. Tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits of manufacture and installation errors. To verify the optical performance of the proposed runway centerline light, the practical illumination distribution is measured by using Cree XP-E2 LED, which can comply with ICAO regulations.

  18. Anamorphic approach for developing hi-efficiency illumination system to inspect defects on semiconductor wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojun; Yang, Sunseok; Kwon, Ohhyung; Chu, Seungyong; Oh, Seungchul; Jung, Woosung; Kim, Jaisoon

    2017-03-01

    General approaches to realize higher sensitivity in optical inspection system are using shorter wavelength including UV and higher NA for objective lens. Extreme performances of imaging and illumination systems in a situation of wellmatched to each other are inevitable for the further effort on an effective optical detection of fine defects in patterned wafer. This study focused on the dark field illumination systems satisfying hi areal uniformity and concentration efficiency for the specific conditions of non-symmetric illumination area and critical slanted angle. Three different types of anamorphic dark field illumination systems namely, Far-field Areal Illumination (FAI), Near-field Areal Illumination (NAI) and Farfield Linear Illumination (FLI), are designed and evaluated by brightness, uniformity and concentration efficiency of beam intensity.

  19. Scene articulation: dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Karina J; Foster, David H

    2002-01-01

    The ability of observers to detect changes in illuminant over two scenes containing different random samples of reflecting surfaces was determined in an experiment with Mondrian-like patterns containing different numbers of coloured patches. Performance was found to improve as the number of patches increased from 9 to 49. In principle, observers could have used space-average scene colour as the cue ('grey-world' hypothesis) or the colour of the brightest surface in the scene ('bright-is-white' hypothesis), as the two cues generally covary. In a second experiment, observers matched illuminants across different patterns in which the space-average cue and the brightest-patch cue were independently manipulated. The articulation of the patterns was varied: the number of patches increased from 49 (patch width 1 deg visual angle) to over 50000 (patch width 0.03 deg), while the gamut of colours was held constant. Space-average colour was found to be the dominant cue with all patterns except for those with the largest patches.

  20. Spatial sub-Rayleigh imaging analysis via speckle laser illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Feiran; Liu, Ruifeng; Chen, Dongxu; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Fuli

    2015-11-15

    It is commonly accepted that optical sub-Rayleigh imaging has potential application in many fields. In this Letter, by confining the divergence of the optical field, as well as the size of the illumination source, we show that the first-order averaged intensity measurement via speckle laser illumination can make an actual breakthrough on the Rayleigh limit. For a high-order algorithm, it has been reported that the autocorrelation function can be utilized to achieve the sub-Rayleigh feature. However, we find that this sub-Rayleigh feature for the high-order algorithm is limited only to binary objects, and the image will be distorted when a gray object is placed. This property encourages us to find the physics behind the high-order correlation imaging algorithm. We address these explanations in this Letter and find that for different types of high-order algorithm, there is always a "seat" in the right place from the cross-correlation function.

  1. Selective Plane Illumination Differential Dynamic Microscopy with Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulstein, Devynn; McGorty, Ryan

    We measure the dynamics of colloidal particles and DNA molecules using differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) on images captured through selective-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). Combining DDM, a digital Fourier microscopy method, and SPIM, an optical sectioning microscopy technique, we can analyze the dynamics of concentrated suspensions of colloids and biopolymers. Further, selective-plane illumination differential dynamic microscopy (SPIDDM) exploits the spatial variations of the Gaussian light-sheet to obtain diffusion data over a wide range of spatial frequencies. Presented work focuses on in vitro measurements of colloids, DNA molecules and cytoskeleton networks. We have measured the collective dynamics of DNA in actin and microtubule networks spanning an order of magnitude in spatial frequencies. This work could easily extend to living samples given SPIDDM's sparing use of excitation light. We are currently adding adaptive optics into our light-sheet microscope with a deformable mirror. We discuss using adaptive optics for multiple purposes. The mirror corrects optical aberrations due to the sample holder and the sample. We are also using adaptive optics to optimize the three-dimensional point spread function for DDM measurements. Using the deformable mirror to purposefully introduce known aberrations could allow for a more precise measurement of colloidal or molecular dynamics in three-dimensions.

  2. LED power consumption in joint illumination and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiong; Wu, Yan; Khalid, A M; Long, Xi; Linnartz, Jean-Paul M G

    2017-08-07

    This paper addresses the power penalty in an illumination LED caused by visible light communication (VLC). This study models the extra power consumption of the LED by taking into account the convex relation between the dissipated electrical power versus the LED current on one hand and the concave relation between the output luminous flux versus the current on the other hand. The ratio of the output luminous flux to input electrical power, which is known the LED luminous efficacy, is analyzed considering various recombination mechanisms and their dependency on current and temperature. As examples, the rapid light fluctuations induced by Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are analyzed for joint illumination and communication (JIC) systems. Due to the signal modulation, there is a decrease in the output light of LED. Nevertheless, the total power offered to LED is larger than without modulation and thus extra heating occurs. Moreover, particularly when burst transmission is used in communication networks, visible flicker may occur.

  3. QR code optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Krasnov, V. V.; Rodin, V. G.; Starikov, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Optical encryption is an actively developing field of science. The majority of encryption techniques use coherent illumination and suffer from speckle noise, which severely limits their applicability. The spatially incoherent encryption technique does not have this drawback, but its effectiveness is dependent on the Fourier spectrum properties of the image to be encrypted. The application of a quick response (QR) code in the capacity of a data container solves this problem, and the embedded error correction code also enables errorless decryption. The optical encryption of digital information in the form of QR codes using spatially incoherent illumination was implemented experimentally. The encryption is based on the optical convolution of the image to be encrypted with the kinoform point spread function, which serves as an encryption key. Two liquid crystal spatial light modulators were used in the experimental setup for the QR code and the kinoform imaging, respectively. The quality of the encryption and decryption was analyzed in relation to the QR code size. Decryption was conducted digitally. The successful decryption of encrypted QR codes of up to 129  ×  129 pixels was demonstrated. A comparison with the coherent QR code encryption technique showed that the proposed technique has a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least two times higher.

  4. Micromachined edge illuminated optically transparent automotive light guide panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronny, Rahima Afrose; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Edge-lit backlighting has been used extensively for a variety of small and medium-sized liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The shape, density and spatial distribution pattern of the micro-optical elements imprinted on the surface of the flat light-guide panel (LGP) are often "optimized" to improve the overall brightness and luminance uniformity. A similar concept can be used to develop interior convenience lighting panels and exterior tail lamps for automotive applications. However, costly diffusive sheeting and brightness enhancement films are not be considered for these applications because absolute luminance uniformity and the minimization of Moiré fringe effects are not significant factors in assessing quality of automotive lighting. A new design concept that involves micromilling cylindrical micro-optical elements on optically transparent plastic substrates is described in this paper. The variable parameter that controls illumination over the active regions of the panel is the depth of the individual cylindrical micro-optical elements. LightTools™ is the optical simulation tool used to explore how changing the micro-optical element depth can alter the local and global luminance. Numerical simulation and microfabrication experiments are performed on several (100mmx100mmx6mm) polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) test samples in order to verify the illumination behavior.

  5. Color perception under illumination by quadrichromatic solid-state lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanikunas, Rytis; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Svegzda, Algimantas; Viliunas, Vilius; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Novickovas, Algirdas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Zukauskas, Arturas; Gaska, Remis; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    Lighting based on sources of light composed of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers versatile control of color and a possibility of trade-off between efficiency and color rendering. However, psychophysical issues related to such polychromatic solid-state sources have to be addressed. In this work, studies of the perception of standard colors under illumination with a quadrichromatic red-amber-green-blue (RAGB) solid-state source were carried out. An RAGB lamp containing primary LEDs with the emission peaks at 638 nm, 594 nm, 523 nm, and 441 nm and optimized for the highest value of the general color rendering index (86 points) was investigated and compared to a tungsten lamp. 40 standard Munsell samples of value 6, chroma /6, and hue incremented by 2.5 were used in the investigation. Changes in the saturation and hue of the Munsell samples illuminated by the RAGB lamp versus tungsten lamp (both with the correlated temperature of 2600 K) were obtained by colorimetric calculation comparisons and by psychophysical experiments on subjective matching of the samples. Subjective differences in hue and subjective color discrimination differences under the tungsten and RAGB lamps were found in the wavelength range of 440-500 nm and 560-580 nm. We attribute these differences to non-optimal peak wavelengths of the primary LEDs and to the narrow-band components of the RAGB spectrum.

  6. Bifurcations in two-image photometric stereo for orthogonal illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozera, R.; Prokopenya, A.; Noakes, L.; Śluzek, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the ambiguous shape recovery in two-image photometric stereo for a Lambertian surface. The current uniqueness analysis refers to linearly independent light-source directions p = (0, 0, -1) and q arbitrary. For this case necessary and sufficient condition determining ambiguous reconstruction is governed by a second-order linear partial differential equation with constant coefficients. In contrast, a general position of both non-colinear illumination directions p and q leads to a highly non-linear PDE which raises a number of technical difficulties. As recently shown, the latter can also be handled for another family of orthogonal illuminations parallel to the OXZ-plane. For the special case of p = (0, 0, -1) a potential ambiguity stems also from the possible bifurcations of sub-local solutions glued together along a curve defined by an algebraic equation in terms of the data. This paper discusses the occurrence of similar bifurcations for such configurations of orthogonal light-source directions. The discussion to follow is supplemented with examples based on continuous reflectance map model and generated synthetic images.

  7. Real-time color measurement using active illuminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for real-time color measurement using active illuminant. A synchronous measurement system is constructed by combining a high-speed active spectral light source and a high-speed monochrome camera. The light source is a programmable spectral source which is capable of emitting arbitrary spectrum in high speed. This system is the essential advantage of capturing spectral images without using filters in high frame rates. The new method of real-time colorimetry is different from the traditional method based on the colorimeter or the spectrometers. We project the color-matching functions onto an object surface as spectral illuminants. Then we can obtain the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values directly from the camera outputs at every point on the surface. We describe the principle of our colorimetric technique based on projection of the color-matching functions and the procedure for realizing a real-time measurement system of a moving object. In an experiment, we examine the performance of real-time color measurement for a static object and a moving object.

  8. PIV with LED: an in-line illumination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi; Goss, Larry; Car, Dave; Gorrell, Steve; Puterbaugh, Steve

    2004-11-01

    LED is used as light source for PIV measurements in areas on the millimeter and centimeter ranges and it is explored also for larger areas. Direct in-line illumination and sharp depth of field focusing optics are used. The amount of light is significantly increased with respect to side-scattering approaches due to the direct lightning into the imaging chip. Background light dominates the particles scattering and the seeding then appears as shadow resembling a negative' or inverse' of standard PIV. Bonuses of these techniques are that LED is inexpensive and high-repetition rate, the images have no glares or reflections from surfaces and has easy application. Issues related to volumetric illumination, correlation contribution from out-of-focus particles, out-of-focus filtering, seeding density, particle tracking, particle traces, optical focusing, velocity range, LED pulse duration and brightness, and glare and background reduction are discussed. Also, since LED can be pulsed at high-repetition rate it is a high-speed light source and multiple exposure is also presented. Moreover since LED can be chosen of many monochromatic wavelengths the two-color PIV (and extension to multicolor PIV) is feasible.

  9. Adaptive display luminance for viewing smartphones under low illuminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-06-29

    The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users' subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices.

  10. Polarization engineering of back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue

    2016-08-01

    The back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a p-type graded AlGaN layer have been designed to investigate the polarization engineering on the performance of the devices. The calculated results show that the APD with p-graded AlGaN layer exhibits lower avalanche breakdown voltage and increased maximum multiplication gain compared to the structure with conventional p-type AlGaN layer. The improved performance of the designed APD is numerically explained by the polarization-assisted enhancement of the ionization electric field in the multiplication region and polarization doping effect caused by the p-type graded layer.

  11. Numerical analysis of edge effects in side illuminated strip detectors for digital radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Krizaj, D

    2000-01-01

    The influence of edge defects on side illuminated X-ray strip detectors for digital radiology is investigated by numerical device modeling. By assuming positive fixed oxide charges on side and top surfaces simulations have shown strong curvature of the equipotential lines in the edge region. A fraction of the edge generated current surpasses the edge guard-ring junction and is collected by the readout strips. As a consequence, strips cannot be placed close to the edge of the structure and collection efficiency is reduced. An n-on-n instead of a p-on-n strip detector is proposed enabling collection of edge generated carriers by a very narrow guard-ring junction and placement of the readout strip close to the edge without increase of the strip leakage current.

  12. An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito

    The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.

  13. Thinned back-illuminated CCD for x-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Ilse, Werner; Wilhein, Thomas; Guttmann, Peter

    1993-07-01

    X-ray microscopy requires image detectors for soft x-rays (2.4 nm to 4.5 nm wavelength) with high detective quantum efficiency for a low radiation dosage applied to the sample. A thinned backside illuminated CCD has been attached to the Gottingen x-ray microscope, which is installed at the BESSY electron storage ring in Berlin. The CCD was a commercially available device with 1024 by 1024 pixels (each 24 micrometers square) without the anti-reflecting coating, which is applied to the standard device. First experiments performed at the primarily used x- ray wavelength of 2.4 nm show a considerable reduction of exposure time compared to the previously used photographic emulsion. This greatly reduces the radiation dose applied to the sample specimen. There was no degradation in performance of the CCD detected after one week of operation.

  14. Invisibility of a metamaterial cloak illuminated by spherical electromagnetic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Yi; Liang, Ying; Wu, Qun; Li, Le-Wei

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, the invisibility of a metamaterial cloak illuminated by spherical electromagnetic wave is analytically investigated based on the full wave Mie scattering model. It is shown that for a cloak with ideal parameters the scattered field intensity is zero, but for a cloak with a loss, only the backscattering is exactly zero. Moreover, in the loss case, the scattered field intensity increases as the loss increases, which is very different from that in the conventional stealth case, where the scattered field intensity decreases as the loss of coated material increases. In addition, it is shown that scattering cross-section of the cloak with perturbed parameters decreases as the thickness of the cloak decreases, which means that thinner cloak can exhibit more stable invisibility.

  15. Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth R; Schirillo, James A

    2003-12-01

    The brightnesses (i.e., perceived luminance) of surfaces within a three-dimensional scene are contingent on both the luminances and the spatial arrangement of the surfaces. Observers viewed a CRT through a haploscope that presented simulated achromatic surfaces in three dimensions. They set a test patch to be approximately 33% more intense than a comparison patch to match the comparison patch in brightness, which is consistent with viewing a real scene with a simple lightning interpretation from which to estimate a different level of illumination in each depth plane. Randomly positioning each surface in either depth plane minimized any simple lighting interpretation, concomitantly reducing brightness differences to approximately 8.5%, although the immediate surrounds of the test and comparison patches continued to differ by a 5:1 luminance ratio.

  16. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-02-25

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context.

  17. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  18. RECONSTRUCTION OF SKY ILLUMINATION DOMES FROM GROUND-BASED PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coubard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  19. Three-dimensional particle cloud simulation based on illumination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yumeihui; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of 3D clouds has been a challenging research question in the field of computer graphics. Aiming at the problem that the existing three-dimensional cloud is not realistic, a three-dimensional particle cloud simulation method based on the illumination model is proposed, which randomly generate the particles according to the principle of the particle system and give the particles the initial color, size and shape. And then add the lighting effects and render them to achieve the three-dimensional cloud simulation. Comparing with the previous three-dimensional cloud modeling method, this method has the advantages of rapid rendering of cloud, because of the effect of adding light, the real feeling more intense.

  20. CW-to-pulse conversion using temporal Talbot array illuminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José

    2017-07-01

    We report on the linear conversion of continuous-wave (CW) laser light to optical pulses using temporal Talbot array illuminators (TAIs) with fractional orders 1/q(q≤10), implemented by use of multilevel PM and dispersive propagation in a chirped fiber Bragg grating. The generated, sub-nanosecond optical pulse trains have repetition rates in the gigahertz range and show the presence of satellite pulses originated by the finite electrical modulation bandwidth (7.5 GHz). Though this fact impacts the resulting extinction ratio, an experimental comparison with time and Fresnel lenses indicates that temporal TAIs represent compact systems with high light gathering efficiency (>87%) at moderate values of compression (q≤8), which can be tailored in repetition rate, gain, or width, through the fractional Talbot order for its use in pulse compression systems fed by CW light.

  1. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  2. SPECTRAL IMAGING FROM UAVS UNDER VARYING ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hakala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV have provided the remote sensing community with a new rapidly deployable tool for small area monitoring. The progress of small payload UAVs has introduced greater demand for light weight aerial payloads. For applications requiring aerial images, a simple consumer camera provides acceptable data. For applications requiring more detailed spectral information about the surface, a new Fabry-Perot interferometer based spectral imaging technology has been developed. This new technology produces tens of successive images of the scene at different wavelength bands in very short time. These images can be assembled in spectral data cubes with stereoscopic overlaps. On field the weather conditions vary and the UAV operator often has to decide between flight in sub optimal conditions and no flight. Our objective was to investigate methods for quantitative radiometric processing of images taken under varying illumination conditions, thus expanding the range of weather conditions during which successful imaging flights can be made. A new method that is based on insitu measurement of irradiance either in UAV platform or in ground was developed. We tested the methods in a precision agriculture application using realistic data collected in difficult illumination conditions. Internal homogeneity of the original image data (average coefficient of variation in overlapping images was 0.14–0.18. In the corrected data, the homogeneity was 0.10–0.12 with a correction based on broadband irradiance measured in UAV, 0.07–0.09 with a correction based on spectral irradiance measurement on ground, and 0.05–0.08 with a radiometric block adjustment based on image data. Our results were very promising, indicating that quantitative UAV based remote sensing could be operational in diverse conditions, which is prerequisite for many environmental remote sensing applications.

  3. Mirror Illumination and Spillover Measurements of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Patricio; Dunner, Rolando; Wollack, Ed; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145 GHz, 220GHz and 280GHz, The receiver in ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, features 1000 TES bolometers in each band, The detector performance depends critically on the total optical loading, requiring the spmover contributions from the optics to be minimal. This inspired the use of a cold Lyot stop to limit the illumination of the primary and the use of guard rings surrounding the primary and secondary reflectors. Here, we present a direct measurement of the illumination aperture for both reflectors and of the attenuation level outside the main optical path. We used a 145 GHz, 1 m W source and a chopper wheel to produce a time-varying signal with a broad heam proflle, We sampled the response of the camera for different locations of the source, placed in front and beside the primary and secondary mirrors. The aperture of the primary was measured to be 5,72 plus or minus 0,17m in diameter (95 plus or minus 3% of its geometrical size), while the aperture of the secondary yielded 2 plus or minus 0.12m in diameter. Both apertures are consistent with the optical design. Comparing to previous measurements of the beam solid angle from planet observations, we estimate an optical efficiency of 72.3 plus or minus 4,8%. We found that the attenuation outside the primary aperture was -16 plus or minus 2dB, which is below the theoretical expectations, and -22 plus or minus 1 dB outside the secondary aperture, which is consistent with simulations. These results motivated the extension of the baffles surrounding the secondary mirror, with the following reduction in detector optical loading from 2,24 pW to 188pW.

  4. The effects of intermittent illumination on a visual inspection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Brysbaert, M; Murray, W S

    1998-02-01

    Two experiments are described in which eye movements were monitored as subjects performed a simple target-spotting task under conditions of intermittent illumination produced by varying the display-screen frame rate on a computer VDU. In Experiment 1, subjects executed a saccade from a fixation point to a target which appeared randomly at a fixed eccentricity of 14 character positions to the left or right. Saccade latency did not differ reliably as a function of screen refresh rate, but average saccade extent at 70 Hz and 110 Hz was reliably shorter than at 90 Hz and 100 Hz. Experiment 2 examined the same task using a range of target eccentricities (7, 14, and 28 character positions to the left and right) and across a wider range of screen refresh rates. The results confirmed the curvilinear relationship obtained in Experiment 1, with average saccade extent reliably shorter at refresh rates of 50 Hz and 125 Hz than at 75 Hz and 100 Hz. While the effect was greater for remote targets, analyses of the proportional target error failed to show a reliable interaction between target eccentricity and display refresh rate. In contrast to Experiment 1, there was a pronounced effect of refresh rate on saccade latency (corrected for time to write the screen frame), with shorter latencies at higher refresh rates. It may be concluded that pulsation at frequencies above fusion disrupts saccade control. However, the curvilinear functional relationship between screen refresh rate and saccade extent obtained in these studies differs from previously reported effects of intermittent illumination on the average size of "entry saccades" (the first saccade to enter a given word) in a task involving word identification (Kennedy & Murray, 1993a, 1996). This conflict of data may arise in part because within-word adjustments in viewing position, which are typical of normal reading, influence measures of average saccade extent.

  5. Effect of illumination on colour vision testing with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test: customized colour vision booth versus room illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahiruddin, Kowser; Banu, Shaj; Dharmarajan, Ramya; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Vijayan, Deepa; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate a customized, portable Farnsworth-Munsell 100 (FM 100) hue viewing booth for compliance with colour vision testing standards and to compare it with room illumination in subjects with normal colour vision (trichromats), subjects with acquired colour vision defects (secondary to diabetes mellitus), and subjects with congenital colour vision defects (dichromats). Discrete wavelengths of the tube in the customized booth were measured using a spectrometer using the normal incident method and were compared with the spectral distribution of sunlight. Forty-eight subjects were recruited for the study and were divided into 3 groups: Group 1, Normal Trichromats (30 eyes); Group 2, Congenital Colour Vision Defects (16 eyes); and Group 3, Diabetes Mellitus (20 eyes). The FM 100 hue test performance was compared using two illumination conditions, booth illumination and room illumination. Total error scores of the classical method in Group 2 as mean+/-SD for room and booth illumination was 243.05+/-85.96 and 149.85+/-54.50 respectively (p=0.0001). Group 2 demonstrated lesser correlation (r=0.50, 0.55), lesser reliability (Cronbach's alpha, 0.625, 0.662) and greater variability (Bland & Altman value, 10.5) in total error scores for the classical method and the moment of inertia method between the two illumination conditions when compared to the other two groups. The customized booth demonstrated illumination meeting CIE standards. The total error scores were overestimated by the classical and moment of inertia methods in all groups for room illumination compared with booth illumination, however overestimation was more significant in the diabetes group.

  6. High-resolution light-sheet microscopy: a simulation of an optical illumination system for oil immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Heintzmann, Rainer; Leischner, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Light sheet microscopy is a microscopy technique characterized by an illumination from the side, perpendicular to the direction of observation. While this is often used and easy to implement for imaging samples with water-immersion, the application in combination with oil-immersion is less often used and requires a specific optimization. In this paper we present our design of a light-sheet illumination optical system with a ~1μm illumination thickness, a long working distance through the immersion oil, and including a focusing system allowing for moving the focus-spot of the lightsheet laterally through the field of view. This optical design allows for the acquisition of fluorescence images in 3D with isotropic resolution of below 1 micrometer of whole-mount samples with a size of ~1mm diameter. This technique enables high-resolution insights in the 3D structure of biological samples, e.g. for research of insect anatomy or for imaging of biopsies in medical diagnostics.

  7. Photophysics and Photochemistry of Horseradish Peroxidase A2 upon Ultraviolet Illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Carvalho, Ana Sofia Leitão; Petersen, Steffen B.; Aires de Barros, Maria Raquel; e Melo, Eduardo Pinho

    2007-01-01

    Detailed analysis of the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and blue light illumination of horseradish peroxidase A2, a heme-containing enzyme that reduces H2O2 to oxidize organic and inorganic compounds, is presented. The effects of increasing illumination time on the protein's enzymatic activity, Reinheitzahl value, fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime distribution, fluorescence mean lifetime, and heme absorption are reported. UV illumination leads to an exponential decay of the enzyme act...

  8. Illuminance formation and color difference of mixed-color light emitting diodes in a rectangular light pipe: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chu-Ming; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2008-01-01

    We developed an analytical method of illuminance formation for mixed-color LEDs in a rectangular light pipe in order to derive American National Standards Institute (ANSI) light uniformity, ANSI color uniformity, and color difference of light output using photometry, nonimaging, and colorimetry. The analytical results indicate that the distributions of illuminance and color difference vary with different geometric structures of light pipes and the location of the light sources. It was found that both the ANSI light and the ANSI color uniformity on the exit plane of the light pipe are reduced exponentially with the increase in length of the light pipe. It is evident that a length scale L/A greater than unity assures that the mixed-color LED sources on the entrance plane are uniformly illuminated with acceptable uniform brightness and color on the exit plane of the rectangular light pipe, where L is the length of the light pipe, and A is a constant, which is a geometric parameter for the scale unit of the light pipe's input face. Furthermore, the ANSI light uniformity can be minimized, and the ANSI color uniformity can be maximized under the condition of multilight-source locations P=Q=±A/4, where P and Q are the coordinates along the long axis and the short axis, respectively, with one being the entrance plane of the light pipe. We can conclude that the optimum form factor of the light pipe is a square shaped cross section, with the length scale L/A being equal to unity and with multilight sources located individually on positions of A/4 in order to achieve very uniform illuminations with the highest light efficiency and compact package for the optical system with mixed-color LEDs, where L is the length of the light pipe.

  9. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuwen; Yu, Xinping; Xu, Aiqin; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx); and C, front illumination (130 lx). The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing.

  10. Surface versus lateral illumination effects on an interdigitated Si planar PIN photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2005-08-01

    The planar PIN Photodiode (PD) has profound advantages compared to the vertical surface/edge illuminated PIN PD. A two dimensional interdigitated silicon PIN PD with a 58 microns × 80 microns active area and finger width of 2 microns and finger spacing of 10 microns respectively was modeled and simulated in a novel approach using Silvaco ATHENA and ATLAS software. The device was illuminated from the surface and laterally and comparison analysis was performed. At a reverse bias of -10 V, the dark current was 1 ps. Photocurrent of 500 nA was obtained for a 5 Wcm-2 optical beam power for both the surface and lateral illumination at a -10 V reverse bias. The total quantum efficiency of the laterally illuminated PIN PD at a wavelength of 850 nm was 95% (responsivity=0.65 A/W) and 75% (responsivity=0.52 A/W) for the surface illuminated PIN PD respectively. The -3dB cutoff frequency of the surface illuminated device was at ~10 kHz and for the laterally illuminated PIN PD, the frequency was at ~0.1 MHz. Lateral illumination in an interdigitated Si planar PIN PD produces higher photocurrent contributing to higher quantum efficiency, responsivity and frequency response as compared to surface illumination.

  11. Disparity Map Generation from Illumination Variant Stereo Images Using Efficient Hierarchical Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral H. Borisagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hierarchical stereo matching algorithm is presented which gives disparity map as output from illumination variant stereo pair. Illumination difference between two stereo images can lead to undesirable output. Stereo image pair often experience illumination variations due to many factors like real and practical situation, spatially and temporally separated camera positions, environmental illumination fluctuation, and the change in the strength or position of the light sources. Window matching and dynamic programming techniques are employed for disparity map estimation. Good quality disparity map is obtained with the optimized path. Homomorphic filtering is used as a preprocessing step to lessen illumination variation between the stereo images. Anisotropic diffusion is used to refine disparity map to give high quality disparity map as a final output. The robust performance of the proposed approach is suitable for real life circumstances where there will be always illumination variation between the images. The matching is carried out in a sequence of images representing the same scene, however in different resolutions. The hierarchical approach adopted decreases the computation time of the stereo matching problem. This algorithm can be helpful in applications like robot navigation, extraction of information from aerial surveys, 3D scene reconstruction, and military and security applications. Similarity measure SAD is often sensitive to illumination variation. It produces unacceptable disparity map results for illumination variant left and right images. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm produces quality disparity maps for both wide range of illumination variant and invariant stereo image pair.

  12. Disparity map generation from illumination variant stereo images using efficient hierarchical dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisagar, Viral H; Zaveri, Mukesh A

    2014-01-01

    A novel hierarchical stereo matching algorithm is presented which gives disparity map as output from illumination variant stereo pair. Illumination difference between two stereo images can lead to undesirable output. Stereo image pair often experience illumination variations due to many factors like real and practical situation, spatially and temporally separated camera positions, environmental illumination fluctuation, and the change in the strength or position of the light sources. Window matching and dynamic programming techniques are employed for disparity map estimation. Good quality disparity map is obtained with the optimized path. Homomorphic filtering is used as a preprocessing step to lessen illumination variation between the stereo images. Anisotropic diffusion is used to refine disparity map to give high quality disparity map as a final output. The robust performance of the proposed approach is suitable for real life circumstances where there will be always illumination variation between the images. The matching is carried out in a sequence of images representing the same scene, however in different resolutions. The hierarchical approach adopted decreases the computation time of the stereo matching problem. This algorithm can be helpful in applications like robot navigation, extraction of information from aerial surveys, 3D scene reconstruction, and military and security applications. Similarity measure SAD is often sensitive to illumination variation. It produces unacceptable disparity map results for illumination variant left and right images. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm produces quality disparity maps for both wide range of illumination variant and invariant stereo image pair.

  13. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx; and C, front illumination (130 lx. The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing.

  14. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  15. PHOTOINDUCED CURRENTS IN CDZNTE CRYSTALS AS A FUNCTION OF ILLUMINATION WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.

    2012-04-23

    We report variations in the currents of CdZnTe semiconductor crystals during exposure to a series of light emitting diodes of various wavelengths ranging from 470 to 950 nm. The changes in the steady-state current of one CdZnTe crystal with and without illumination along with the time dependence of the illumination effects are discussed. Analysis of the de-trapping and transient bulk currents during and after optical excitation yield insight into the behaviour of charge traps within the crystal. Similar behaviour is observed for illumination of a second CdZnTe crystal suggesting that the overall illumination effects are not crystal dependent.

  16. Modeling Indications of Technology in Planetary Transit Light Curves-Dark-side Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Eric J.; Sallmen, Shauna M.; Leystra Greene, Diana

    2015-08-01

    We analyze potential effects of an extraterrestrial civilization’s use of orbiting mirrors to illuminate the dark side of a synchronously rotating planet on planetary transit light curves. Previous efforts to detect civilizations based on side effects of planetary-scale engineering have focused on structures affecting the host star output (e.g., Dyson spheres). However, younger civilizations are likely to be less advanced in their engineering efforts, yet still capable of sending small spacecraft into orbit. Since M dwarfs are the most common type of star in the solar neighborhood, it seems plausible that many of the nearest habitable planets orbit dim, low-mass M stars, and will be in synchronous rotation. Logically, a civilization evolving on such a planet may be inspired to illuminate their planet’s dark side by placing a single large mirror at the L2 Lagrangian point, or launching a fleet of small thin mirrors into planetary orbit. We briefly examine the requirements and engineering challenges of such a collection of orbiting mirrors, then explore their impact on transit light curves. We incorporate stellar limb darkening and model a simplistic mirror fleet’s effects for transits of Earth-like (R = 0.5 to 2 {R}{Earth}) planets which would be synchronously rotating for orbits within the habitable zone of their host star. Although such an installation is undetectable in Kepler data, the James Webb Space Telescope will provide the sensitivity necessary to detect a fleet of mirrors orbiting Earth-like habitable planets around nearby stars.

  17. National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2011-05-01

    About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.

  18. Illuminating the relationship between shared learning and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Jerry

    2002-07-01

    This investigation represents an attempt to illuminate issues in the relationship between shared learning, aspects of organizational climate, teamwork practices and inter-personal contact between health professionals. The study, completed in 1998 and conducted over the previous 3 years, involved 57 post-qualified health professionals undertaking a part-time 'top-up' degree in health studies. The extent to which climate promoted, maintained or inhibited collaborative practices was considered by examining the views and experiences of course participants over three successive years. Most interest in collaborative practice came from individuals already actively engaged in multidisciplinary work and with a clear sense of role within that context. No evidence was found to associate this form of shared learning with new or enhanced collaborative activity, but nearly all the professions involved accepted the principle of more flexible forms of working. Poor perceptions between disciplines were associated with low levels of contact in the workplace. Students who undertook a module focusing on collaborative practice had more positive perceptions about their work and were less likely to emphasize work demands in terms of shift-patterns, fatigue and/or stress.

  19. Demonstration of Recessed Downlight Technologies: Power and Illumination Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Steven A.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2009-11-20

    Solid state lighting (SSL), specifically light-emitting diodes (LED), has been advancing at a rapid pace, and there are presently multiple products available that serve as direct replacements for traditional luminaires. In this demonstration, conventional recessed lights in a conference room were used to compare conventional incandescent A-lamps, incandescent reflector R-lamps, dimming compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), to an LED replacement product. The primary focus during the study was on light delivered to the task plane as provided by the power required by the lighting system. Vertical illuminance, dimming range, and color shift are also important indicators of lighting quality and are discussed in the report. The results clearly showed that LEDs, with dimming-capable drivers, are much more efficient than incandescent and CFLs. Further, LEDs provide much smoother and consistent dimming than dimmable CFLs. On the potential negative side, it is important that the dimming switch be identified as compatible with the LED driver. A wide variety of dimmer switches are capable of dimming LEDs down to 15% of full light output, while select others can be capable of dimming LEDs down to 5%. In addition, LEDs can be intensive light sources, which can result in uncomfortable glare in some applications and to some occupants. Higher ceiling (9-foot or greater) or non-specular reflectors can act to alleviate the potential for glare.

  20. Nonparametric illumination correction for scanned document images via convex hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Gaofeng; Xiang, Shiming; Zheng, Nanning; Pan, Chunhong

    2013-07-01

    A scanned image of an opened book page often suffers from various scanning artifacts known as scanning shading and dark borders noises. These artifacts will degrade the qualities of the scanned images and cause many problems to the subsequent process of document image analysis. In this paper, we propose an effective method to rectify these scanning artifacts. Our method comes from two observations: that the shading surface of most scanned book pages is quasi-concave and that the document contents are usually printed on a sheet of plain and bright paper. Based on these observations, a shading image can be accurately extracted via convex hulls-based image reconstruction. The proposed method proves to be surprisingly effective for image shading correction and dark borders removal. It can restore a desired shading-free image and meanwhile yield an illumination surface of high quality. More importantly, the proposed method is nonparametric and thus does not involve any user interactions or parameter fine-tuning. This would make it very appealing to nonexpert users in applications. Extensive experiments based on synthetic and real-scanned document images demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Measuring individual corrective reaction time using the intermittent illumination model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Hsu, Chih-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    The corrective reaction time (tcr) is an essential motor property when modelling hand control movements. Many studies designed experiments to estimate tcr, but reported only group means with inconsistent definitions. This study proposes an alternative methodology using Drury's (1994) intermittent illumination model. A total of 24 participants performed circular tracking movements under five levels of visual information delay using a modified monitor in a darkened room. Measured movement speeds and the manipulated delays were used with the model to estimate tcr of individuals and test effects of gender and path width. The results showed excellent model fits and demonstrated individual differences of tcr, which was 273 ms on average and ranged from 87 to 441 ms. The wide range of tcr values was due to significant effects of gender and path width. Male participants required shorter tcr compared to female participants, especially for narrow path widths. This study reports the corrective reaction time (tcr) of individuals using a novel methodology. The estimated tcr ranged from 87 to 441 ms, helping model hand control movements, such as aiming and tracking. The methodology can be continuously applied to study tcr under conditions with various performers and movements.

  2. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  3. Backside illuminated CMOS-TDI line scanner for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, O.; Ben-Ari, N.; Nevo, I.; Shiloah, N.; Zohar, G.; Kahanov, E.; Brumer, M.; Gershon, G.; Ofer, O.

    2017-09-01

    A new multi-spectral line scanner CMOS image sensor is reported. The backside illuminated (BSI) image sensor was designed for continuous scanning Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space applications including A custom high quality CMOS Active Pixels, Time Delayed Integration (TDI) mechanism that increases the SNR, 2-phase exposure mechanism that increases the dynamic Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), very low power internal Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) with resolution of 12 bit per pixel and on chip controller. The sensor has 4 independent arrays of pixels where each array is arranged in 2600 TDI columns with controllable TDI depth from 8 up to 64 TDI levels. A multispectral optical filter with specific spectral response per array is assembled at the package level. In this paper we briefly describe the sensor design and present some electrical and electro-optical recent measurements of the first prototypes including high Quantum Efficiency (QE), high MTF, wide range selectable Full Well Capacity (FWC), excellent linearity of approximately 1.3% in a signal range of 5-85% and approximately 1.75% in a signal range of 2-95% out of the signal span, readout noise of approximately 95 electrons with 64 TDI levels, negligible dark current and power consumption of less than 1.5W total for 4 bands sensor at all operation conditions .

  4. Reducing flicker due to ambient illumination in camera captured images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bengtson, Kurt; Li, Lisa; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-02-01

    The flicker artifact dealt with in this paper is the scanning distortion arising when an image is captured by a digital camera using a CMOS imaging sensor with an electronic rolling shutter under strong ambient light sources powered by AC. This type of camera scans a target line-by-line in a frame. Therefore, time differences exist between the lines. This mechanism causes a captured image to be corrupted by the change of illumination. This phenomenon is called the flicker artifact. The non-content area of the captured image is used to estimate a flicker signal that is a key to being able to compensate the flicker artifact. The average signal of the non-content area taken along the scan direction has local extrema where the peaks of flicker exist. The locations of the extrema are very useful information to estimate the desired distribution of pixel intensities assuming that the flicker artifact does not exist. The flicker-reduced images compensated by our approach clearly demonstrate the reduced flicker artifact, based on visual observation.

  5. Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zibang; Wang, Xueying; Zheng, Guoan; Zhong, Jingang

    2017-09-20

    Fourier single-pixel imaging (FSI) employs Fourier basis patterns for encoding spatial information and is capable of reconstructing high-quality two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Fourier-domain sparsity in natural scenes allows FSI to recover sharp images from undersampled data. The original FSI demonstration, however, requires grayscale Fourier basis patterns for illumination. This requirement imposes a limitation on the imaging speed as digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) generate grayscale patterns at a low refreshing rate. In this paper, we report a new strategy to increase the speed of FSI by two orders of magnitude. In this strategy, we binarize the Fourier basis patterns based on upsampling and error diffusion dithering. We demonstrate a 20,000 Hz projection rate using a DMD and capture 256-by-256-pixel dynamic scenes at a speed of 10 frames per second. The reported technique substantially accelerates image acquisition speed of FSI. It may find broad imaging applications at wavebands that are not accessible using conventional two-dimensional image sensors.

  6. Deteksi Perubahan Citra Pada Video Menggunakan Illumination Invariant Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Priadana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still a lot of juvenile delinquency in the middle of the community, especially people in urban areas, in the modern era. Juvenile delinquency may be fights, wild racing, gambling, and graffiti on the walls without permission. Vandalized wall is usually done on walls of office buildings and on public or private property. Results from vandalized walls can be seen from the image of the change between the initial image with the image after a motion. This study develops a image change detection system in video to detect the action of graffiti on the wall via a Closed-Circuit Television camera (CCTV which is done by simulation using the webcam camera. Motion detection process with Accumulative Differences Images (ADI method and image change detection process with Illumination Invariant Change Detection method coupled with image cropping method which carried out a comparison between the a reference image or image before any movement with the image after there is movement. Detection system testing one by different times variations, ie in the morning, noon, afternoon, and evening. The proposed method for image change detection in video give results with an accuracy rate of 92.86%.

  7. On the identification of folium and orchil on illuminated manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Porter, Cheryl; Gulmini, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the two purple dyes folium and orchil has rarely been reported in the analysis of painted artworks, especially when analysing illuminated manuscripts. This is not consistent with the fact that ancient literary sources suggested their use as substitutes for the more expensive Tyrian purple dye. By employing non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, the present work demonstrates that these dyes were actually widely used in the production of ancient manuscripts. By employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS) and spectrofluorimetry, the abundant identification of both dyes on medieval manuscripts was performed by comparing the spectra recorded on ancient codices with those obtained on accurate replicas of dyed or painted parchment. Moreover, examples are also reported whereby the considered purple dyes were used in mixtures with other colourants. The overall information obtained here allowed us to define new boundaries for the time range in which orchil and folium dyes were used which is wider than previously thought, and to focus on their particular uses in the decoration of books.

  8. Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred illuminances in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Christoffersen, Jens; Fotios, Steve

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine user preferences for light level using the method of adjustment. The study sought preferred illuminances under lighting from fluorescent lamps of different correlated colour temperature. It was hypothesised that the preferred illuminance would be influenced...

  9. An internally illuminated monolith reactor: Pros and cons relative to a slurry reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Carneiro, J.T.; Berger, Rob; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, kinetic models for the photo-oxidation of cyclohexane in two different photoreactor systems are discussed: a top illumination reactor (TIR) representative of a slurry reactor, and the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR) representing a reactor containing

  10. ILLUMINATION RESEARCH AS PART OF A VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF VISUALLY-IMPAIRED INDIVIDUALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORNELISSEN, FW; KOOIJMAN, AC; DUMBAR, G; VANDERWILDT, G

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method for the preliminary assessment of the illumination needs of partially sighted individuals. The method is based on determining the smallest readable lettersize under different levels of illumination. Half of the partially sighted in our population had a performance

  11. Multiple wavelength illumination in flow cytometry using a single arc lamp and a dispersing element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, B.G.; van Dam, M.; Swart, N.C.; Willemsen, A.; Greve, Jan

    1987-01-01

    The principle of a multiple wavelength illumination method for flow cytometers, based upon a combination of a helium-neon laser and an arc lamp as illumination sources is described. By using a prism, the light from the arc lamp is dispersed and the different colors are imaged at different places on

  12. 77 FR 63308 - J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of... complaint against United Illuminating Company (Respondent) alleging that the Respondent's inclusion of... were not incurred in good faith. The Complainant certifies that copies of the complaint were served on...

  13. 82 FR 45861 - Classification and Requirements for Laser Illuminated Projectors (Laser Notice No. 57); Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-02

    ...] Classification and Requirements for Laser Illuminated Projectors (Laser Notice No. 57); Draft Guidance for... the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Classification and Requirements for Laser Illuminated Projectors (LIPs) (Laser Notice No. 57); Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

  14. Luminance-color correlation is not used to estimate the color of the illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granzier, JJM; Brenner, E; Cornelissen, FW; Smeets, JBJ

    2005-01-01

    Humans can identify the colors of objects fairly consistently, despite considerable variations in the spectral composition of the illumination. It has been suggested that the correlation between luminance and color within a scene helps to disentangle the influences of illumination and reflectance,

  15. Micro-optics: enabling technology for illumination shaping in optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    Optical lithography has been the engine that has empowered semiconductor industry to continually reduce the half-pitch for over 50 years. In early mask aligners a simple movie lamp was enough to illuminate the photomask. Illumination started to play a more decisive role when proximity mask aligners appeared in the mid-1970s. Off-axis illumination was introduced to reduce diffraction effects. For early projection lithography systems (wafer steppers), the only challenge was to collect the light efficiently to ensure short exposure time. When projection optics reached highest level of perfection, further improvement was achieved by optimizing illumination. Shaping the illumination light, also referred as pupil shaping, allows the optical path from reticle to wafer to be optimized and thus has a major impact on aberrations and diffraction effects. Highly-efficient micro-optical components are perfectly suited for this task. Micro-optics for illumination evolved from simple flat-top (fly's-eye) to annular, dipole, quadrupole, multipole and freeform illumination. Today, programmable micro-mirror arrays allow illumination to be changed on the fly. The impact of refractive, diffractive and reflective microoptics for photolithography will be discussed.

  16. Verification of simple illuminance based measures for indication of discomfort glare from windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    confirm that there is a statistically significant correlation between both vertical eye illuminance and horizontal illuminance at the desk and the occupants’ perception of glare in a perimeter zone office environment, which is promising evidence towards utilizing such simple measures for indication...

  17. The transport of intensity equation for optical path length recovery using partially coherent illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Tian, Lei; Barbastathis, George

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the measurement of a thin sample's optical thickness using the transport of intensity equation (TIE) and demonstrate a version of the TIE, valid for partially coherent illumination, that allows the measurement of a sample's optical path length by the removal of illumination effects.

  18. The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee P Rockhill

    Full Text Available Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day, lunar illumination (90%, and moon phase (new, full. Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon. The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.

  19. The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Aimee P; DePerno, Christopher S; Powell, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.

  20. On the sensation of coloured illumination in a performance art setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    As the German philosopher Gernot Böhme argues “atmospheres are involved wherever something is being staged” [1, p. 2]. With their intentionally tinted stage sets by coloration of illumination, the theatre thus comes to stage light as an integral element of atmosphere and constitute a meaningful...... to the public over a period of two weeks. Ethnographic methods are applied to explore and grasp the atmospheric potential and affects of coloured illuminations [4]–[6]. While being bodily present in a space of three different hues of coloured illumination, students are interviewed on their bodily sensation...... in and perception of space. As a phenomenological enquiry, the case study aims to explore the potential of illuminated atmospheres in the diversity and context of a stage setting, through an exploration of the fullness and originality of sensory experience of coloured illumination [8]....

  1. Photophysics and photochemistry of horseradish peroxidase A2 upon ultraviolet illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves; Petersen, Steffen B.; Klitgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Detailed analysis of the effects of UV and blue light illumination of horseradish peroxidase A2, a heme-containing enzyme that reduces H2O2 to oxidize organic and inorganic compounds, is presented. The effects of increasing illumination time on the protein's enzymatic activity, Reinheitzahl value......, fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime distribution, fluorescence mean lifetime and heme absorption are reported. UV illumination leads to an exponential decay of the enzyme activity followed by changes in heme group absorption. Longer UV illumination time leads to lower Tm values as well as helical...... content loss. Prolonged UV illumination and Heme irradiation at 403nm has pronounced effect on the fluorescence quantum yield, correlated with changes in the prosthetic group pocket, leading to pronounced decrease in the heme's Soret absorbance band. Analyzes of the picosecond resolved fluorescence...

  2. Eye-safe laser illuminators as less-than-lethal weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John D.; Adler, Dean S.

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement and military forces are often faced with situations requiring less-than-lethal response options. Low- power, eye-safe laser illuminators have been shown to be effective, non-lethal weapons for a variety of law enforcement and other-than-war military applications. Through the effects of illumination, glare, and psychological impact; lasers can provide unequivocal warning, threat assessment based on reaction to the warning, hesitation, distraction, and reductions in combat and functional effectiveness. This paper discusses ongoing research and development by Science and Engineering Associates into laser illuminator concepts for civilian and military use. Topics include fundamental design and safety issues, laser diode requirements, and laser illuminator concepts, including a grenade shell laser system that converts a standard 40-mm grenade launcher into a laser illuminator.

  3. The effects of nonuniform illumination and temperature profiles on silicon solar cells under concentrated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. W.; Odonnel, D. T.; Backus, C. E.

    The independent effects of either nonuniform illumination or nonuniform temperature distribution on the performance of silicon solar cells under concentrated sunlight are examined. Results from both a theoretical model and experimental observations show that the electrical performance of the concentrator solar cell under nonuniform temperature is dependent on both the magnitude and the location of the nonuniform temperature profile. The model results, however, failed to predict the degree of bending of the open circuit voltage curve which was observed experimentally. For nonuniform illumination, experimental and theoretical results show that both the efficiency and the open circuit voltage are decreased compared with the uniform illumination case. The nonillumination profiles included step changes of illuminated to nonilluminated parts of the cell as well as continuously varying profiles across the geometry of the cell. It is found that the efficiency and the overall voltage of the cell can be increased by illuminating the cell closer to the busbar.

  4. Nanopore formation on low-doped p-type silicon under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiboub, N. [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria); Gabouze, N., E-mail: ngabouze@yahoo.fr [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria); Chazalviel, J.-N.; Ozanam, F. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Moulay, S. [Universite Saad Dahleby, B.P. 270, Route de Soumaa, Blida (Algeria); Manseri, A. [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-04-01

    Porous silicon layers were elaborated by anodization of highly resistive p-type silicon in HF/ethylene glycol solution under front side illumination, as a function of etching time, HF concentration and illumination intensity. The porous layer morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The illumination during anodization was provided by a tungsten lamp or lasers of different wavelengths. Under anodization, a microporous layer is formed up to a critical thickness above which macropores appear. Under illumination, the instability limiting the growth of the microporous layer occurs at a critical thickness much larger than in the dark. This critical thickness depends on HF concentration, illumination wavelength and intensity. These non-trivial dependencies are rationalized in a model in which photochemical etching in the electrochemically formed porous layer plays the central role.

  5. Automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell driven by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Han, Yanchao; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications.Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00759g

  6. First analytical evidences of precious colourants on Mediterranean illuminated manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M.; Agostino, A.; Fenoglio, G.; Baraldi, P.; Zannini, P.; Hofmann, C.; Gamillscheg, E.

    2012-09-01

    Two Byzantine VI century manuscripts known as Vienna Dioskurides and Vienna Genesis, held in the Austrian National Library at Vienna, were analysed with in situ non-invasive techniques. Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry were used to characterise the palette of these early Middle Ages manuscripts. The analytical study was performed to have a better knowledge on the colourants used by ancient miniature painters, a subject known more on the basis of traditional sources (i.e. medieval treatises) than of analytical evidences. Indeed these illuminated manuscripts are, to the authors' knowledge, among the oldest ever being analysed, so that the colourants found in them can be considered among the oldest evidences of their use. The main feature of Vienna Dioskurides and Vienna Genesis palettes is their richness, exemplified by the simultaneous presence of gold and ultramarine blue; in Vienna Dioskurides cinnabar is also present. Information regarding ultramarine blue is surprising, being the analytical evidence of the use of this precious pigment at least three centuries before its use in Western manuscripts, a feature justified by the fact that the Byzantine Empire was the dominant culture in early Middle Ages in the Mediterranean World. Other colourants include azurite and indigo, red lead, orpiment, red and yellow ochres, while a mixture of blue and yellow colourants, known as vergaut, was used to render green hues. Organic colourants were also used, such as madder and Tyrian purple, the latter employed to dye the parchment of Vienna Genesis.

  7. Illuminating the Potential of Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahara, John K.

    Widespread adoption of photovoltaics (PV) as an alternative electricity source will be predicated upon improvements in price performance compared to traditional power sources. Solution processing of thin-film PV is one promising way to reduce the capital expenditure (CAPEX) of manufacturing solar cells. However, it is imperative that a shift to solution processing does not come at the expense of device performance. One particularly problematic parameter for thin-film PV has historically been the open-circuit voltage (VOC ). As such, there is a pressing need for characterization tools that allow us to quickly and accurately evaluate the potential performance of solution-processed PV absorber layers. This work describes recent progress in developing photoluminescence (PL) techniques for probing optoelectronic quality in semiconductors. We present a generalized model of absorption that encompasses ideal direct-gap semiconductor absorption and various band tail models. This powerful absorption model is used to fit absolute intensity PL data and extract quasi-Fermi level splitting (maximum attainable VOC) for a variety of PV absorber technologies. This technique obviates the need for full device fabrication to get feedback on optoelectronic quality of PV absorber layers and has expedited materials exploration. We then use this absorption model to evaluate the thermodynamic losses due to different band tail cases and estimate tail losses in Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). The effect of sub-bandgap absorption on PL quantum yield (PLQY) and voltage is elucidated, and new analysis techniques for extracting VOC from PLQY are validated that reduce computation time and provide us even faster feedback on material quality. We then use PL imaging to develop a mechanism describing the degradation of solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 films under applied bias and illumination.

  8. Assessment of the effect of distance and duration of illumination on retinal pigment epithelial cells exposed to varying doses of Brilliant Blue Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaiya, Sankarathi; Koushan, Keyvan; McLauchlan, Tatiana; Chalam, K V

    2014-10-01

    To assess the cytotoxicity of varying concentrations of Brilliant Blue Green (BBG) on human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells exposed to metal halide surgical endoilluminator (SE) at varying distances of illumination. HRPE (ARPE-19) were exposed to 2 concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) of BBG and illuminated with SE for 1, 5, and 15 min. Illumination (measured with light meter) was positioned at varying distances (1 and 2.5 cm) to mimic surgical distance of illumination. Cell viability (WST-1 assay) as well as structural changes in cells was quantified. At 1 cm distance of illumination, 0.25 mg/mL BBG decreased viability of HRPE to 89.6%±4.3%, 83.9%±10.9%, and 38.9%±5.1% of controls after 1, 5, and 15 min of exposure, respectively. Similarly, 0.5 mg/mL BBG at 1 cm distance of illumination reduced the viability of HRPE to 93.7%±2.8%, 59.6%±16%, and 34.7%±3.5% of controls. At the distance of 2.5 cm, HRPE showed improved viability; cells exposed to 0.25 mg/mL BBG maintained 98.85%±3.3%, 95.31%±7.12%, and 62.07%±3.0% of viability compared with controls after 1, 5, and 15 min of exposure. Morphometric evaluation of RPE cells showed increased width (swelling) of HRPE. BBG at its clinically used concentration (0.25 mg/mL) during vitreoretinal surgery is safe and not toxic to HRPE for up to 5 min under focal illumination (1 cm) and up to 15 min under diffuse illumination (2.5 cm) from the commonly used SE. RESULTS of our study are useful in establishing safety parameters for the use of BBG dye in vitreoretinal surgery.

  9. A back-illuminated heterojunctions ultraviolet photodetector based on ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiandong; Li, Dawei; Yang, Wenjun; Wang, Jiming; Lin, Xu; Huang, Ziqiang

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present the investigation of a back-illuminated heterojunctions ultraviolet detector, which were fabricated by depositing Ag-doped ZnO based (ZnO-TiO2) thin film on transparent conductive layer of ITO coated quartz substrate though the reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at higher oxygen pressure. The p-n junction characteristic is confirmed by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The turn-on voltage was 6 V, with a low leakage current under reverse bias (-5 V), corresponding values was just 0.2 nA . It is clearly showed the rectifying characteristics of typical p-n junction's rectifier behaviors. The structural, component and UV (365 nm, 1400 μW/cm2) photoresponse properties were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tektronix oscilloscope. The results showed that: Ag in substitution form in the ZnO lattice, Ag doping concentration is low, the sample is highly c-axis preferred orientation, With the increase in doped Ag volume, ZnO film of 002 peaks no longer appear. The surface of the Ag doped ZnO based film exhibits a smooth surface and very dense structure, no visible pores and defects over the film were observed.The ultraviolet response time measurements showed rise and fall time are several seconds Level.

  10. Effect of illumination intensity and temperature on the I-V characteristics of n-C/p-Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Babita; Shishodia, P.K.; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, 110021 New Delhi (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Research Center for Microstructure Devices, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Krishna et al. (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65 (2001) 163) have recently developed an heterojunction n-C/p-Si in order to achieve low cost and high-efficiency carbon solar cell. It has been shown that for this structure, the maximum quantum efficiency (25%) appears at wavelength {lambda} (600nm). In this paper, the dependence of I-V characteristics of this heterojunction solar cell on illumination intensity and temperature has been systematically investigated. An estimation of the stability of the solar cell with temperature has been made in terms of the temperature coefficient of I{sub sc} and V{sub oc}. The intensity variation study has been used to estimate the series resistance R{sub s} of the solar cell. The effect of illumination intensity on I-V of n-C/p-Si heterojunction is more complex because the carrier lifetime and the carrier mobility of amorphous carbon are small and also because drift of carriers by built-in electric field plays an important role in these cells. Therefore, the conventional analytical expression for I-V characteristic is not applicable to such solar cells. These structures will not obey the principle of superposition of illuminated and dark current. The experimental results have been analysed by developing empirical relation for I-V.The temperature sensitivity parameters {alpha}, the change in I{sub sc} and {beta}, the change in V{sub oc} per degree centigrade have been computed and are found to be 0.087mA/C and 1mV/C, respectively. This suggests that the heterojunction n-C/p-Si has good temperature tolerance. The value of series resistance has been estimated from the family of I-V curves at various intensities. The R{sub s} is found to be {approx}12{omega}, which is on the higher side from the point of view of photovoltaic application.

  11. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Th.

    2017-09-23

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  12. The effect of asymmetrical electrode form after negative bias illuminated stress in amorphous IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wan-Ching; Chang, Ting-Chang; Liao, Po-Yung; Chen, Yu-Jia; Chen, Bo-Wei; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Chung-I.; Huang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsi-Ming; Chiang, Shin-Chuan; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the degradation behavior of InGaZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). TFT devices with two different source and drain layouts were exanimated: one having a parallel format electrode and the other with UI format electrode. UI means that source/drain electrodes shapes is defined as a forked-shaped structure. The I-V curve of the parallel electrode exhibited a symmetric degradation under forward and reverse sweeping in the saturation region after 1000 s NBIS. In contrast, the I-V curve of the UI electrode structure under similar conditions was asymmetric. The UI electrode structure also shows a stretch-out phenomenon in its C-V measurement. Finally, this work utilizes the ISE-Technology Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) system simulations, which simulate the electron field and IV curves, to analyze the mechanisms dominating the parallel and UI device degradation behaviors.

  13. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  14. Evaluating Red Reflex and Surgeon Preference Between Nearly-Collimated and Focused Beam Microscope Illumination Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionni, Robert J; Pei, Ron; Dimalanta, Ramon; Lubeck, David

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the intensity and stability of the red reflex produced by ophthalmic surgical microscopes with nearly-collimated versus focused illumination systems and to assess surgeon preference in a simulated surgical setting. This two-part evaluation consisted of postproduction surgical video analysis of red reflex intensity and a microscope use and preference survey completed by 13 experienced cataract surgeons. Survey responses were based on bench testing and experience in a simulated surgical setting. A microscope with nearly-collimated beam illumination and two focused beam microscopes were assessed. Red reflex intensity and stability were greater with the nearly-collimated microscope illumination system. In the bench testing survey, surgeons reported that the red reflex was maintained over significantly greater distances away from pupillary center, and depth of focus was numerically greater with nearly-collimated illumination relative to focused illumination. Most participating surgeons (≥64%) reported a preference for the microscope with nearly-collimated illumination with regard to red reflex stability, depth of focus, visualization, surgical working distance, and perceived patient comfort. The microscope with nearly-collimated illumination produced a more intense and significantly more stable red reflex and was preferred overall by more surgeons. This is the first report of an attempt to quantify red reflex intensity and stability and to evaluate surgically-relevant parameters between microscope systems. The data and methods presented here may provide a basis for future studies attempting to quantify differences between surgical microscopes that may affect surgeon preference and microscope use in ophthalmic surgery.

  15. Robust estimation of albedo for illumination-invariant matching and shape recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soma; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Chellappa, Rama

    2009-05-01

    We present a nonstationary stochastic filtering framework for the task of albedo estimation from a single image. There are several approaches in the literature for albedo estimation, but few include the errors in estimates of surface normals and light source direction to improve the albedo estimate. The proposed approach effectively utilizes the error statistics of surface normals and illumination direction for robust estimation of albedo, for images illuminated by single and multiple light sources. The albedo estimate obtained is subsequently used to generate albedo-free normalized images for recovering the shape of an object. Traditional Shape-from-Shading (SFS) approaches often assume constant/piecewise constant albedo and known light source direction to recover the underlying shape. Using the estimated albedo, the general problem of estimating the shape of an object with varying albedo map and unknown illumination source is reduced to one that can be handled by traditional SFS approaches. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the approach and its application to illumination-invariant matching and shape recovery. The estimated albedo maps are compared with the ground truth. The maps are used as illumination-invariant signatures for the task of face recognition across illumination variations. The recognition results obtained compare well with the current state-of-the-art approaches. Impressive shape recovery results are obtained using images downloaded from the Web with little control over imaging conditions. The recovered shapes are also used to synthesize novel views under novel illumination conditions.

  16. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  17. Monte Carlo model of the penetration depth for polarization gating spectroscopy: influence of illumination-collection geometry and sample optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Ruderman, Sarah; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Polarization-gating has been widely used to probe superficial tissue structures, but the penetration depth properties of this method have not been completely elucidated. This study employs a polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo method to characterize the penetration depth statistics of polarization-gating. The analysis demonstrates that the penetration depth depends on both the illumination-collection geometry [illumination-collection area (R) and collection angle (θc)] and on the optical properties of the sample, which include the scattering coefficient (μs), absorption coefficient (μa), anisotropy factor (g), and the type of the phase function. We develop a mathematical expression relating the average penetration depth to the illumination-collection beam properties and optical properties of the medium. Finally, we quantify the sensitivity of the average penetration depth to changes in optical properties for different geometries of illumination and collection. The penetration depth model derived in this study can be applied to optimizing application-specific fiber-optic probes to target a sampling depth of interest with minimal sensitivity to the optical properties of the sample. PMID:22781238

  18. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  19. Modeling the Infrared Reverberation Response of the Circumnuclear Dusty Torus in AGNs: The Effects of Cloud Orientation and Anisotropic Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda, Triana; Robinson, Andrew; Richmond, Michael; Vazquez, Billy; Nikutta, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The obscuring circumnuclear torus of dusty molecular gas is one of the major components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The torus can be studied by analyzing the time response of its infrared (IR) dust emission to variations in the AGN continuum luminosity, a technique known as reverberation mapping. The IR response is the convolution of the AGN ultraviolet/optical light curve with a transfer function that contains information about the size, geometry, and structure of the torus. Here, we describe a new computer model that simulates the reverberation response of a clumpy torus. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the emission of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time at selected IR wavelengths, taking into account light travel delays. We present simulated dust emission responses at 3.6, 4.5, and 30 μm that explore the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field. We also briefly explore the effects of cloud shadowing (clouds are shielded from the AGN continuum source). Example synthetic light curves have also been generated, using the observed optical light curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418 as input. The torus response is strongly wavelength-dependent, due to the gradient in cloud surface temperature within the torus, and because the cloud emission is strongly anisotropic at shorter wavelengths. Anisotropic illumination of the torus also significantly modifies the torus response, reducing the lag between the IR and optical variations.

  20. MUTUAL COMPARATIVE FILTERING FOR CHANGE DETECTION IN VIDEOS WITH UNSTABLE ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sidyakin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for change detection and moving objects detection in videos with unstable, abrupt illumination changes. This approach is based on mutual comparative filters and background normalization. We give the definitions of mutual comparative filters and outline their strong advantage for change detection purposes. Presented approach allows us to deal with changing illumination conditions in a simple and efficient way and does not have drawbacks, which exist in models that assume different color transformation laws. The proposed procedure can be used to improve a number of background modelling methods, which are not specifically designed to work under illumination changes.

  1. Illumination technique for the relative calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Segreto, Alberto; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Conconi, Paolo; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    We present a new illumination technique for the camera relative gain calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope. The camera illumination is achieved by means of an optical fiber that diffuses the light inside a protective PMMA window above the focal plane. We report the encouraging results of the development tests carried out on two PMMA window prototypes illuminated by a standard optical fiber. We checked also the reliability of the method by a series of ray tracing simulations for different scattering models and PMMA window shapes finding good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Dual illumination for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    A dual illumination system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system is designed to acquire cornea and retina imaging with dual illumination with limited optics and using a single spectrometer. The beam propagation for cornea and retina imaging in dual illumination enables to acquire the images of different segments. This approach will reduce the imaging time for separate corneal and retinal imaging. The in vivo imaging of both the cornea and retina of a health volunteer shows the feasibility of the system for clinical applications

  3. 3D differential phase-contrast microscopy with computational illumination using an LED array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Wang, Jingyan; Waller, Laura

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate 3D differential phase-contrast (DPC) microscopy, based on computational illumination with a programmable LED array. By capturing intensity images with various illumination angles generated by sequentially patterning an LED array source, we digitally refocus images through various depths via light field processing. The intensity differences from images taken at complementary illumination angles are then used to generate DPC images, which are related to the gradient of phase. The proposed method achieves 3D DPC with simple, inexpensive optics and no moving parts. We experimentally demonstrate our method by imaging a camel hair sample in 3D.

  4. Perception of illumination direction in images of 3-D convex objects : Influence of surface materials and light fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khang, Byung Geun; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, A. M L

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the perception of illumination direction in images of 3-D convex objects under variations of light field and surface material properties. In a first experiment, we used an illumination-matching procedure in order to measure observers' ability to estimate the direction of illumination

  5. Shadowless-illuminated variable-angle TIRF (siva-TIRF) microscopy for the observation of spatial-temporal dynamics in live cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Weijian; Huang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Tianyi; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Fan, Ming; Chen, Liangyi

    2014-01-01

    Total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy provides high optical-sectioning capability and a good signal-contrast ratio for structures near the surfaces of cells. In recent years, several improvements have been developed, such as variable-angle TIRF (VA-TIRF) and spinning TIRF (sp-TIRF), which permit quantitative image analysis and address non-uniform scattering fringes, respectively. Here, we present a dual-color DMD-based shadowless-illuminated variable-angle TIRF (siva-TIRF) ...

  6. Using gradient-based ray and candidate shadow maps for environmental illumination distribution estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eem, Changkyoung; Kim, Iksu; Hong, Hyunki

    2015-07-01

    A method to estimate the environmental illumination distribution of a scene with gradient-based ray and candidate shadow maps is presented. In the shadow segmentation stage, we apply a Canny edge detector to the shadowed image by using a three-dimensional (3-D) augmented reality (AR) marker of a known size and shape. Then the hierarchical tree of the connected edge components representing the topological relation is constructed, and the connected components are merged, taking their hierarchical structures into consideration. A gradient-based ray that is perpendicular to the gradient of the edge pixel in the shadow image can be used to extract the shadow regions. In the light source detection stage, shadow regions with both a 3-D AR marker and the light sources are partitioned into candidate shadow maps. A simple logic operation between each candidate shadow map and the segmented shadow is used to efficiently compute the area ratio between them. The proposed method successively extracts the main light sources according to their relative contributions on the segmented shadows. The proposed method can reduce unwanted effects due to the sampling positions in the shadow region and the threshold values in the shadow edge detection.

  7. Illuminating solid gas storage in confined spaces - methane hydrate formation in porous model carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Lars; Nickel, Winfried; Casco, Mirian; Senkovska, Irena; Bon, Volodymyr; Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Krause, Simon; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín

    2016-07-27

    Methane hydrate nucleation and growth in porous model carbon materials illuminates the way towards the design of an optimized solid-based methane storage technology. High-pressure methane adsorption studies on pre-humidified carbons with well-defined and uniform porosity show that methane hydrate formation in confined nanospace can take place at relatively low pressures, even below 3 MPa CH4, depending on the pore size and the adsorption temperature. The methane hydrate nucleation and growth is highly promoted at temperatures below the water freezing point, due to the lower activation energy in ice vs. liquid water. The methane storage capacity via hydrate formation increases with an increase in the pore size up to an optimum value for the 25 nm pore size model-carbon, with a 173% improvement in the adsorption capacity as compared to the dry sample. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements (SXRPD) confirm the formation of methane hydrates with a sI structure, in close agreement with natural hydrates. Furthermore, SXRPD data anticipate a certain contraction of the unit cell parameter for methane hydrates grown in small pores.

  8. Integrating Illumination, Motion, and Shape Models for Robust Face Recognition in Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of video sequences for face recognition has been relatively less studied compared to image-based approaches. In this paper, we present an analysis-by-synthesis framework for face recognition from video sequences that is robust to large changes in facial pose and lighting conditions. This requires tracking the video sequence, as well as recognition algorithms that are able to integrate information over the entire video; we address both these problems. Our method is based on a recently obtained theoretical result that can integrate the effects of motion, lighting, and shape in generating an image using a perspective camera. This result can be used to estimate the pose and structure of the face and the illumination conditions for each frame in a video sequence in the presence of multiple point and extended light sources. We propose a new inverse compositional estimation approach for this purpose. We then synthesize images using the face model estimated from the training data corresponding to the conditions in the probe sequences. Similarity between the synthesized and the probe images is computed using suitable distance measurements. The method can handle situations where the pose and lighting conditions in the training and testing data are completely disjoint. We show detailed performance analysis results and recognition scores on a large video dataset.

  9. [Pareidolia in Beato de Liébana's illuminated Visigothic codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Araguz, A; Bustamante Martínez, M C; Fernández-Armayor Ajo, V; López Gómez, M

    2002-12-01

    The visual perception alterations constitute a characteristic etymological field in some neurological and psychiatric processes (such as hallucinations, hallucinosis, etc.) that can also appear in healthy people (metamorphosias, pareidolias). The pareidolia is a phenomenon characterized by the non auto-provoked visualization of a perception in which reality and daydream are combined. It constitutes a source of inspiration for different artistic manifestations, is the basis of some common psychological explorations (such as Rorcharch test) and it even can be the explication to some situations considered as paranormals, for example the vision of faces in the Moon or in Mars or the apparition of sacred figures either in spots or shades... Beato of Liébana was a cantabrian presbyter, author in the eight century of the Comments of the Apocalypse exegesis, copied and illuminated repeated times all through the following centuries. Given the marked revealing and eschatological component of the Apocalypse, starting from the Leon's School (known also as Mozarabic since the Ninth Century), the original was enriched adding another texts with their own illustrations. From them, the Comments to Daniel's Book, from Saint Jeronimus, stands out. The whole of the illuminated Hispanic manuscripts constitutes a "corpus" of amazing codices international known today as Beatos. We have demonstrated that the first History's graphic representation of a pareidolia phenomenon is found in the miniature Visigoth Hispanic manuscripts known as Beatos; we have arrived to this conclusion studying two facsimiles from the x Century (Beato of Valcavado and Beato of Gerona) specially the miniature called Baltasar's Feast; in both codices, is illustrated how this Babylon king perceives the way a phantasmagoric hand spurts up from a candlestick flame and writes in the adjacent wall three mysterious words: MANE, TECEL, FARES, which were only interpreted by Prophet Daniel, requested ad hoc. Baltasar

  10. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-12-21

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  11. Efficient illumination of spatial light modulators for optical trapping and manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Kopylov, Oleksii; Raaby, Peter

    , one wants to uniformly illuminate a specific shape such as the addressable area of an SLM. The common practice of truncating an expanded Gaussian source, however, is inefficient2. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) enables illumination that inherits the efficiency advantages of phase-only light...... shaping while maintaining the speckle-free, high-contrast qualities of amplitude masking. Compared to a hard truncated Gaussian, a GPC Light Shaper (LS) saves up to 93% of typical losses3. We experimentally demonstrated shaped illumination with ~80% efficiency, ~3x intensity gain, and ~90% energy savings4....... We have also shown dynamic SLM-generated patterns for materials processing and biological research. To efficiently illuminate an SLM, we used a compact pen-sized GPC-LS in place of an iris. For the same input power, hologram reconstructions are ~3x brighter or alternatively ~3x more focal spots can...

  12. Cold Water and Pauses in Illumination Reduces Pain During Photodynamic Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Haedersdal, M.; Wulf, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pain is the main acute adverse event during photodynamic therapy of skin lesions. The objective of this randomized study was to evaluate the pain-relieving effect of pauses and cooling during illumination. Twenty-four patients with actinic keratoses were treated with photodynamic therapy in two...... symmetrical areas and cooled with either cold-water-spray or cold-water-pack (Coo]Pack). Treatment areas were cooled during either the first or second period of illumination, which were separated by a 3-min pause in illumination. Pain intensity was scored from 0 to 10. Water-spray reduced the mean pain score...... by 1.2 points (p=0.030) and CoolPack by 1.3 points (p=0.007) during the first half of the illumination. Pain intensity decreased during the pause by 3.7 points in water-spray patients (p

  13. Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2014-08-07

    Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

  14. A simple scanless two-photon fluorescence microscope using selective plane illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palero, Jonathan; Santos, Susana I C O; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a simple scanless two-photon (2p) excited fluorescence microscope based on selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). Optical sectioning capability is presented and depth-resolved imaging of cameleon protein in C. elegans pharyngeal muscle is implemented.

  15. Probabilistic BPRRC: Robust Change Detection against Illumination Changes and Background Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Kentaro

    This paper presents Probabilistic Bi-polar Radial Reach Correlation (PrBPRRC), a change detection method that is robust against illumination changes and background movements. Most of the traditional change detection methods are robust against either illumination changes or background movements; BPRRC is one of the illumination-robust change detection methods. We introduce a probabilistic background texture model into BPRRC and add the robustness against background movements including foreground invasions such as moving cars, walking people, swaying trees, and falling snow. We show the superiority of PrBPRRC in the environment with illumination changes and background movements by using three public datasets and one private dataset: ATON Highway data, Karlsruhe traffic sequence data, PETS 2007 data, and Walking-in-a-room data.

  16. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  17. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  18. Integrated LED/Imaging Illumination Panels Demonstrated within a Small Plant Growth Chamber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LED light sources are ideal for plant growth systems. However, commercially available multi-color LED illumination panels are designed and manufactured to produce a...

  19. Electrical characteristics of zinc oxide-copper oxide heterojunction at different illumination intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean Baquiran, Teresa; Garcia, Maria Carmela T.; Herrera, Marvin U.

    2017-05-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of copper oxide (CuO) - zinc oxide (ZnO) heterojunctions under different illumination intensities were observed in this study. ZnO and CuO films were deposited on separate graphite electrodes via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The films underwent heat treatment and were physically joined to form the p-n junction. The current-voltage characteristics of the junctions were obtained under forward and reverse bias under different illumination intensities. It was observed that the ZnO-CuO junctions exhibited diode-like behavior in the dark, indicated by the passing of current in forward bias and restricting in reverse bias. Under illumination, the junctions exhibited photodiode-like behavior, with increasing reverse current at greater illumination intensities.

  20. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costescu Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  1. Curcumin uptake enhancement using low dose light illumination during incubation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    A new PDI protocol is presented in this study. C. albicans cells pre-illuminated with a low dose light demonstrated an increase of curcumin uptake when compared to dark incubation, leading to a higher PDI efficacy.

  2. 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking using ambient illumination context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nur Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3-Dimensional (3D video adaptation decision taking is an open field in which not many researchers have carried out investigations yet compared to 3D video display, coding, etc. Moreover, utilizing ambient illumination as an environmental context for 3D video adaptation decision taking has particularly not been studied in literature to date. In this paper, a user perception model, which is based on determining perception characteristics of a user for a 3D video content viewed under a particular ambient illumination condition, is proposed. Using the proposed model, a 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking technique is developed to determine the adapted bit rate for the 3D video content to maintain 3D video quality perception by considering the ambient illumination condition changes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of exploiting the changes in ambient illumination level to use network resources more efficiently without sacrificing the 3D video quality perception.

  3. Optical mass gauge sensor having an energy per unit area of illumination detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justak, John F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical mass gauge sensor is disclosed comprising a vessel having an interior surface which reflects radiant energy at a wavelength at least partially absorbed by a fluid contained within the vessel, an illuminating device for introducing radiant energy at such wavelength into the vessel interior, and, a detector for measuring the energy per unit area of illumination within the vessel created by the radiant energy which is not absorbed by the fluid.

  4. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenmin Zhu; Ruichao Song; Hui Luo; Jun Xu; Shiming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB an...

  5. Converting a conventional wired-halogen illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope to a wireless-light emitting diode illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope in less than 1000/- rupees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Mihir; Kothari, Kedar; Kadam, Sanjay; Mota, Poonam; Chipade, Snehal

    2015-01-01

    To report the "do it yourself" method of converting an existing wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope (IO) to a wireless-light emitting diode (LED) IO and report the preferences of the patients and the ophthalmologists. In this prospective observational study, a conventional IO was converted to wireless-LED IO using easily available, affordable electrical components. Conventional and the converted IO were then used to perform photo-stress test and take the feedback of subjects and the ophthalmologists regarding its handling and illumination characteristics. The cost of conversion to wireless-LED was 815/- rupees. Twenty-nine subjects, mean age 34.3 [formula in text] 10 years with normal eyes were recruited in the study. Between the two illumination systems, there was no statistical difference in the magnitude of the visual acuity loss and the time to recovery of acuity and the bleached vision on photo-stress test, although the visual recovery was clinically faster with LED illumination. The heat sensation was more with halogen illumination than the LED (P = 0.009). The ophthalmologists rated wireless-LED IO higher than wired-halogen IO on the handling, examination comfort, patient's visual comfort and quality of the image. Twenty-two (81%) ophthalmologists wanted to change over to wireless-LED IO. Converting to wireless-LED IO is easy, cost-effective and preferred over a wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope.

  6. Converting a conventional wired-halogen illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope to a wireless-light emitting diode illuminated indirect ophthalmoscope in less than 1000/- rupees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the "do it yourself" method of converting an existing wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope (IO to a wireless-light emitting diode (LED IO and report the preferences of the patients and the ophthalmologists. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective observational study, a conventional IO was converted to wireless-LED IO using easily available, affordable electrical components. Conventional and the converted IO were then used to perform photo-stress test and take the feedback of subjects and the ophthalmologists regarding its handling and illumination characteristics. Results: The cost of conversion to wireless-LED was 815/- rupees. Twenty-nine subjects, mean age 34.3 ΁ 10 years with normal eyes were recruited in the study. Between the two illumination systems, there was no statistical difference in the magnitude of the visual acuity loss and the time to recovery of acuity and the bleached vision on photo-stress test, although the visual recovery was clinically faster with LED illumination. The heat sensation was more with halogen illumination than the LED (P = 0.009. The ophthalmologists rated wireless-LED IO higher than wired-halogen IO on the handling, examination comfort, patient′s visual comfort and quality of the image. Twenty-two (81% ophthalmologists wanted to change over to wireless-LED IO. Conclusions: Converting to wireless-LED IO is easy, cost-effective and preferred over a wired-halogen indirect ophthalmoscope.

  7. Application of wireless intelligent control system for HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Yaqiong; Fan, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU) Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel.

  8. A comparative study on preprocessing techniques in diabetic retinopathy retinal images: illumination correction and contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Partovi, Mahsa Eisazadeh; Seyedarabi, Hadi; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of preprocessing techniques including contrast enhancement and illumination correction on retinal image quality, a comparative study was carried out. We studied and implemented a few illumination correction and contrast enhancement techniques on color retinal images to find out the best technique for optimum image enhancement. To compare and choose the best illumination correction technique we analyzed the corrected red and green components of color retinal images statistically and visually. The two contrast enhancement techniques were analyzed using a vessel segmentation algorithm by calculating the sensitivity and specificity. The statistical evaluation of the illumination correction techniques were carried out by calculating the coefficients of variation. The dividing method using the median filter to estimate background illumination showed the lowest Coefficients of variations in the red component. The quotient and homomorphic filtering methods after the dividing method presented good results based on their low Coefficients of variations. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization increased the sensitivity of the vessel segmentation algorithm up to 5% in the same amount of accuracy. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique has a higher sensitivity than the polynomial transformation operator as a contrast enhancement technique for vessel segmentation. Three techniques including the dividing method using the median filter to estimate background, quotient based and homomorphic filtering were found as the effective illumination correction techniques based on a statistical evaluation. Applying the local contrast enhancement technique, such as CLAHE, for fundus images presented good potentials in enhancing the vasculature segmentation.

  9. Interactive Near-Field Illumination for Photorealistic Augmented Reality with Varying Materials on Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, Kai; Buschel, Wolfgang; Dachselt, Raimund; Grosch, Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    At present, photorealistic augmentation is not yet possible since the computational power of mobile devices is insufficient. Even streaming solutions from stationary PCs cause a latency that affects user interactions considerably. Therefore, we introduce a differential rendering method that allows for a consistent illumination of the inserted virtual objects on mobile devices, avoiding delays. The computation effort is shared between a stationary PC and the mobile devices to make use of the capacities available on both sides. The method is designed such that only a minimum amount of data has to be transferred asynchronously between the participants. This allows for an interactive illumination of virtual objects with a consistent appearance under both temporally and spatially varying real illumination conditions. To describe the complex near-field illumination in an indoor scenario, HDR video cameras are used to capture the illumination from multiple directions. In this way, sources of illumination can be considered that are not directly visible to the mobile device because of occlusions and the limited field of view. While our method focuses on Lambertian materials, we also provide some initial approaches to approximate non-diffuse virtual objects and thereby allow for a wider field of application at nearly the same cost.

  10. Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, K H

    1999-04-01

    In two experiments simultaneous color constancy was measured using simulations of illuminated surfaces presented on a CRT monitor. Subjects saw two identical Mondrians side-by-side: one Mondrian rendered under a standard illuminant, the other rendered under one of several test illuminants. The matching field was adjusted under the test illuminant so that it (a) had the same hue, saturation, and brightness (appearance match) or (b) looked as if it were cut from the same piece of paper (surface match) as a test surface under the standard illuminant. Matches were set for three different surface collections. The surface matches showed a much higher level of constancy than the appearance matches. The adjustment in the surface matches was nearly complete in the L and M cone data, and deviations from perfect constancy were mainly due to failures in the adjustment of the S cone signals. Besides this difference in amount of adjustment, the appearance and surface matches showed two major similarities. First, both types of matches were well described by simple parametric models. In particular, a model based on the notion of von Kries adjustment provided a good, although not perfect, description of the data. Second, for both types of matches the illuminant adjustment was largely independent of the surface collection in the image. The two types of matches thus differed only quantitatively, there was no qualitative difference between them.

  11. Visual system's adjustments to illuminant changes: heuristic-based model revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, J L; Romero, J; García, J A; Hita, E

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of illuminant changes along the two post-receptoral mechanisms: red-green (L - 2M) and yellow-blue (L + M - S). By means of a CRT colour monitor, Mondrian-type scenes were simulated and a series of asymmetric colour matches were made with five test illuminants. The standard objects comprising the scenes were simulations of surfaces under equal-energy illuminant and were selected according to lines of equal excitation of the red-green and the yellow-blue mechanisms. Results show that observers' matches are well predicted by assuming affine transformations between test and standard illuminant conditions. The best linear fits derived from the data corroborates the previous heuristic-based algorithms [Zaidi Q. (1998) Journal of the Optical Society of America A. 7. 1767-1776] although some discrepancies were found. Results along red-green mechanism confirm that the significant effect of the illuminant is an additive change along this axis, while data for yellow-blue mechanism suggest that illuminant induces not only multiplicative changes along this axis but additive too. In addition, we found that memory factors involved in the experiment could influence the observers' matches and would be taken into account as responsible of the differences found between the yellow-blue and the red-green systems.

  12. Stimulatory effect of indole-3-acetic acid and continuous illumination on the growth of Parachlorella kessleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierek, Edyta; Krzemińska, Izabela; Tys, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and various conditions of illumination on the growth of Parachlorella kessleri were investigated. Two variants of illumination: continuous and photoperiod 16/8 h (light/dark) and two concentrations of the phytohormone - 10-4 M and 10-5 M of indole-3-acetic acid were used in the experiment. The results of this study show that the addition of the higher concentration of indole-3-acetic acid stimulated the growth of P. kessleri more efficiently than the addition of the lower concentration of indole-3-acetic acid. This dependence can be observed in both variants of illumination. Increased biomass productivity was observed in the photo-period conditions. Both the addition of the phytohormone and the conditions of the illumination had an impact on the number of P. kessleri cells. An increased number of cells was observed under the conditions of continuous illumination. This result has shown that the continuous illumination and the higher concentration of the phytohormone stimulated the growth of P. kessleri more effectively than the shorter duration of light (16/8 h (light/dark)).

  13. Perceived color shift of a shade guide according to the change of illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Yu, Bin; Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Ho-Nam

    2011-02-01

    The perceived color of shade guide tabs is influenced by different spectral compositions of different light sources, and this can influence color matching. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of perceived shift in color and color coordinates of a shade guide using 3 different light sources: CIE standard illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp). CIE color coordinates L*, a*, b*, chroma, and the spectral reflectance of shade tabs in a shade guide (Vitapan 3D-Master) were measured by a spectroradiometer under D65, A, and F9 simulators. Perceived color and color coordinate shifts due to the change of illuminant were determined. The influence of the type of light and shade designation of the 26 tabs on the color coordinates was analyzed by a 2-way ANOVA; correlations in the color coordinates between each corresponding pair under the 3 illuminants were determined (α=.05). All of the color coordinates were influenced by the type of illuminant and shade designation of the shade tabs (P2.6). Lightness decreased and chroma increased when the illuminant was changed from the D65 simulator to the A or F9 simulators. Perceptible shifts in the color of shade guide tabs under different ambient lighting conditions were confirmed by a spectroradiometer; these color shifts were influenced by the type of illuminant used. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Wireless Intelligent Control System for HPS Lamps and LEDs Combined Illumination in Road Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel.

  15. Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Möller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic visual navigation methods are an emerging alternative to the ubiquitous feature-based methods. Holistic methods match entire images pixel-wise instead of extracting and comparing local feature descriptors. In this paper we investigate which pixel-wise distance measures are most suitable for the holistic min-warping method with respect to illumination invariance. Two novel approaches are presented: tunable distance measures—weighted combinations of illumination-invariant and illumination-sensitive terms—and two novel forms of “sequential” correlation which are only invariant against intensity shifts but not against multiplicative changes. Navigation experiments on indoor image databases collected at the same locations but under different conditions of illumination demonstrate that tunable distance measures perform optimally by mixing their two portions instead of using the illumination-invariant term alone. Sequential correlation performs best among all tested methods, and as well but much faster in an approximated form. Mixing with an additional illumination-sensitive term is not necessary for sequential correlation. We show that min-warping with approximated sequential correlation can successfully be applied to visual navigation of cleaning robots.

  16. Humidity and illumination organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine sensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, K S; Qazi, I; Khan, T A; Draper, P H; Khalid, F A; Mahroof-Tahir, M

    2008-06-01

    In this investigation properties of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) capacitive humidity and illumination sensors were studied. Organic thin film was deposited by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with silver surface-type electrodes to form the Ag/CuPc/Ag sensor. The capacitance of the samples was evaluated at room temperature in the relative humidity range of 35-92%. It was observed that capacitance of the Ag/CuPc/Ag sensor increases with increase in humidity. The ratio of the relative capacitance to relative humidity was about 200. It is assumed that in general the capacitive response of the sensor is associated with polarization due to absorption of water molecules and transfer of charges (electrons and holes). It was observed that under filament lamp illumination of up to 1,000 lx the capacitance of the Ag/CuPc/Ag photo capacitive detectors increased continuously by 20% as compared to dark condition. It is assumed that photo capacitive response of the sensor is associated with polarization due to transfer of photo-generated electrons and holes. An equivalent circuit of the Ag/CuPc/Ag capacitive humidity and illumination sensor was developed. Humidity and illumination dependent capacitance properties of this sensor make it attractive for use in humidity and illumination multi-meters. The sensor may be used in instruments for environmental monitoring of humidity and illumination.

  17. Ambient light-based optical biosensing platform with smartphone-embedded illumination sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Han, Yong Duk; Chun, Hyeong Jin; Yoon, Hyun C

    2017-07-15

    We present a hand-held optical biosensing system utilizing a smartphone-embedded illumination sensor that is integrated with immunoblotting assay method. The smartphone-embedded illumination sensor is regarded as an alternative optical receiver that can replaces the conventional optical analysis apparatus because the illumination sensor can respond to the ambient light in a wide range of wavelengths, including visible and infrared. To demonstrate the biosensing applicability of our system employing the enzyme-mediated immunoblotting and accompanying light interference, various types of ambient light conditions including outdoor sunlight and indoor fluorescent were tested. For the immunoblotting assay, the biosensing channel generating insoluble precipitates as an end product of the enzymatic reaction is fabricated and mounted on the illumination sensor of the smartphone. The intensity of penetrating light arrives on the illumination sensor is inversely proportional to the amount of precipitates produced in the channel, and these changes are immediately analyzed and quantified via smartphone software. In this study, urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type II collagen (uCTX-II), a biomarker of osteoarthritis diagnosis, was tested as a model analyte. The developed smartphone-based sensing system efficiently measured uCTX-II in the 0-5ng/mL concentration range with a high sensitivity and accuracy under various light conditions. These assay results show that the illumination sensor-based optical biosensor is suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Wireless Intelligent Control System for HPS Lamps and LEDs Combined Illumination in Road Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinxing; Qiu, Junling; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Yaqiong; Fan, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Because of the particularity of the environment in the tunnel, the rational tunnel illumination system should be developed, so as to optimize the tunnel environment. Considering the high cost of traditional tunnel illumination system with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as well as the effect of a single light source on tunnel entrance, the energy-saving illumination system with HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination in road tunnel, which could make full use of these two kinds of lamps, was proposed. The wireless intelligent control system based on HPS lamps and LEDs combined illumination and microcontrol unit (MCU) Si1000 wireless communication technology was designed. And the remote monitoring, wireless communication, and PWM dimming module of this system were designed emphatically. Intensity detector and vehicle flow detector can be configured in wireless intelligent control system, which gather the information to the master control unit, and then the information is sent to the monitoring center through the Ethernet. The control strategies are got by the monitoring center according to the calculated results, and the control unit wirelessly sends parameters to lamps, which adjust the luminance of each segment of the tunnel and realize the wireless intelligent control of combined illumination in road tunnel. PMID:25587266

  19. Illumination-invariant image matching for autonomous UAV localisation based on optical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xue; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Hongshi; Morgan, Gareth L. K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) localisation algorithm for its autonomous navigation based on matching between on-board UAV image sequences to a pre-installed reference satellite image. As the UAV images and the reference image are not necessarily taken under the same illumination condition, illumination-invariant image matching is essential. Based on the investigation of illumination-invariant property of Phase Correlation (PC) via mathematical derivation and experiments, we propose a PC based fast and robust illumination-invariant localisation algorithm for UAV navigation. The algorithm accurately determines the current UAV position as well as the next UAV position even the illumination condition of UAV on-board images is different from the reference satellite image. A Dirac delta function based registration quality assessment together with a risk alarming criterion is introduced to enable the UAV to perform self-correction in case the UAV deviates from the planned route. UAV navigation experiments using simulated terrain shading images and remote sensing images have demonstrated a robust high performance of the proposed PC based localisation algorithm under very different illumination conditions resulted from solar motion. The superiority of the algorithm, in comparison with two other widely used image matching algorithms, MI (Mutual Information) and NCC (Normalised Correlation Coefficient), is significant for its high matching accuracy and fast processing speed.

  20. Efficiency enhancement in a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CMOS image sensor via parabolic color filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Kwon; Kim, Ahreum; Kang, Dong-Wan; Lee, Byung Yang

    2016-07-11

    The shrinkage of pixel size down to sub-2 μm in high-resolution CMOS image sensors (CISs) results in degraded efficiency and increased crosstalk. The backside illumination technology can increase the efficiency, but the crosstalk still remains an critical issue to improve the image quality of the CIS devices. In this paper, by adopting a parabolic color filter (P-CF), we demonstrate efficiency enhancement without any noticeable change in optical crosstalk of a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CIS with deep-trench-isolation structure. To identify the observed results, we have investigated the effect of radius of curvature (r) of the P-CF on the efficiency and optical crosstalk of the CIS by performing an electromagnetic analysis. As the r of P-CF becomes equal to (or half) that of the microlens, the efficiencies of the B-, G-, and R-pixels increase by a factor of 14.1% (20.3%), 9.8% (15.3%), and 15.0% (15.7%) with respect to the flat CF cases without any noticeable crosstalk change. Also, as the incident angle increases up to 30°, the angular dependence of the efficiency and crosstalk significantly decreases by utilizing the P-CF in the CIS. Meanwhile, further reduction of r severely increases the optical crosstalk due to the increased diffraction effect, which has been confirmed with the simulated electric-field intensity distribution inside the devices.

  1. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  2. Two-photon-like microscopy with orders-of-magnitude lower illumination intensity via two-step fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingaramo, Maria; York, Andrew G; Andrade, Eric J; Rainey, Kristin; Patterson, George H

    2015-09-03

    We describe two-step fluorescence microscopy, a new approach to non-linear imaging based on positive reversible photoswitchable fluorescent probes. The protein Padron approximates ideal two-step fluorescent behaviour: it equilibrates to an inactive state, converts to an active state under blue light, and blue light also excites this active state to fluoresce. Both activation and excitation are linear processes, but the total fluorescent signal is quadratic, proportional to the square of the illumination dose. Here, we use Padron's quadratic non-linearity to demonstrate the principle of two-step microscopy, similar in principle to two-photon microscopy but with orders-of-magnitude better cross-section. As with two-photon, quadratic non-linearity from two-step fluorescence improves resolution and reduces unwanted out-of-focus excitation, and is compatible with structured illumination microscopy. We also show two-step and two-photon imaging can be combined to give quartic non-linearity, further improving imaging in challenging samples. With further improvements, two-step fluorophores could replace conventional fluorophores for many imaging applications.

  3. Solid-state semiconductors are better alternatives to arc-lamps for efficient and uniform illumination in minimal access surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex C H; Elson, Daniel S; Neil, Mark A; Kumar, Sunil; Ling, Bingo W; Bello, Fernando; Hanna, George B

    2009-03-01

    Current arc-lamp illumination systems have a number of technical and ergonomic limitations. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are energy-efficient solid-state lighting devices which are small, durable and inexpensive. Their use as an alternative to arc-lamp light sources in minimal access surgery has not been explored. This study aims to develop an LED-based endo-illuminator and to determine its lighting characteristics for use in minimal access surgery. We developed an LED endo-illuminator using a white LED mounted at the tip of a steel rod. Offline image analysis was carried out to compare the illuminated field using the LED endo-illuminator or an arc-lamp based endoscope in terms of uniformity, shadow sharpness and overall image intensity. Direct radiometric power measurements in light intensity and stability were obtained. Visual perception of fine details at the peripheral endoscopic field was assessed by 13 subjects using the different illumination systems. Illumination from the LED endo-illuminator was more uniform compared to illumination from an arc-lamp source, especially at the closer distance of 4 cm (0.0006 versus 0.0028 arbitrary units--lower value indicates more uniform illumination). The shadows were also sharper (edge widths of 16 versus 44 pixels for the first edge and 15 versus 61 pixels for the second edge). The overall mean image intensity was higher (127 versus 100 arbitrary units) when using the autoshutter mode despite the lower direct radiometric power, about one tenth of the arc-lamp endoscopic system. The illumination was also more stable with less flickering (0.02% versus 5% of total power in non-DC components). Higher median scores on visual perception was also obtained (237 versus 157, p LED endo-illuminator provides more uniform illumination with sharper shadows, less flickering and better illumination for visual perception than the arc-lamp-based system currently used.

  4. Distance measurements by speckle correlation of objective speckle patterns, structured by the illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Objective speckles produced by two beams overlapping and interfering on a rough object surface contain information about the angle of incidence of the two beams, and how well they overlap. We obtain the autocovariance function for such a speckle pattern, and demonstrate how the information carrie...

  5. Real-time 3D measurement based on structured light illumination considering camera lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Yu, ShiLing

    2014-12-01

    Optical three-dimensional (3-D) profilometry is gaining increasing attention for its simplicity, flexibility, high accuracy, and non-contact nature. Recent advances in imaging sensors and digital projection technology further its progress in high-speed, real-time applications, enabling 3-D shapes reconstruction of moving objects and dynamic scenes. In traditional 3-D measurement system where the processing time is not a key factor, camera lens distortion correction is performed directly. However, for the time-critical high-speed applications, the time-consuming correction algorithm is inappropriate to be performed directly during the real-time process. To cope with this issue, here we present a novel high-speed real-time 3-D coordinates measuring technique based on fringe projection with the consideration of the camera lens distortion. A pixel mapping relation between a distorted image and a corrected one is pre-determined and stored in computer memory for real-time fringe correction. And a method of lookup table (LUT) is introduced as well for fast data processing. Our experimental results reveal that the measurement error of the in-plane coordinates has been reduced by one order of magnitude and the accuracy of the out-plane coordinate been tripled after the distortions being eliminated. Moreover, owing to the merit of the LUT, the 3-D reconstruction can be achieved at 92.34 frames per second.

  6. Finite element simulation of light transfer in turbid media under structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial-frequency domain (SFD) imaging technique allows to estimate the optical properties of biological tissues in a wide field of view. The technique is, however, prone to error in measurement because the two crucial assumptions used for deriving the analytical solution to diffusion approximation ...

  7. Learning Structure Illuminates Black Boxes: an Introduction into Estimation of Distribution Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grahl; S. Minner; P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); Z. Michalewicz; P. Siarry

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis chapter serves as an introduction to estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). Estimation of distribution algorithms are a new paradigm in evolutionary computation. They combine statistical learning with population-based search in order to automatically identify and exploit

  8. Phase analysis for three-dimensional surface reconstruction of apples using structured-illumination reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Lu, Renfu

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.

  9. 78 FR 33098 - Prospective Grant of Co-Exclusive Licenses: Multi-Focal Structured Illumination Microscopy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Intellectual Property Organization. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The invention pertains to a system and method... States of America is an assignee to the patent rights of these inventions. The contemplated co-exclusive... sample mounted on a conventional microscope onto an array detector. Computer software detects each...

  10. Aureochrome 1 illuminated: structural changes of a transcription factor probed by molecular spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Kerruth

    Full Text Available Aureochrome 1 from Vaucheria frigida is a recently identified blue-light receptor that acts as a transcription factor. The protein comprises a photosensitive light-, oxygen- and voltage-sensitive (LOV domain and a basic zipper (bZIP domain that binds DNA rendering aureochrome 1 a prospective optogenetic tool. Here, we studied the photoreaction of full-length aureochrome 1 by molecular spectroscopy. The kinetics of the decay of the red-shifted triplet state and the blue-shifted signaling state were determined by time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of the bZIP domain further prolongs the lifetime of the LOV390 signaling state in comparison to the isolated LOV domain whereas bound DNA does not influence the photocycle kinetics. The light-dark Fourier transform infrared (FTIR difference spectrum shows the characteristic features of the flavin mononucleotide chromophore except that the S-H stretching vibration of cysteine 254, which is involved in the formation of the thio-adduct state, is significantly shifted to lower frequencies compared to other LOV domains. The presence of the target DNA influences the light-induced FTIR difference spectrum of aureochrome 1. Vibrational bands that can be assigned to arginine and lysine side chains as well to the phosphate backbone, indicate crucial changes in interactions between transcription factor and DNA.

  11. Aureochrome 1 illuminated: structural changes of a transcription factor probed by molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerruth, Silke; Ataka, Kenichi; Frey, Daniel; Schlichting, Ilme; Heberle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Aureochrome 1 from Vaucheria frigida is a recently identified blue-light receptor that acts as a transcription factor. The protein comprises a photosensitive light-, oxygen- and voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain and a basic zipper (bZIP) domain that binds DNA rendering aureochrome 1 a prospective optogenetic tool. Here, we studied the photoreaction of full-length aureochrome 1 by molecular spectroscopy. The kinetics of the decay of the red-shifted triplet state and the blue-shifted signaling state were determined by time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of the bZIP domain further prolongs the lifetime of the LOV390 signaling state in comparison to the isolated LOV domain whereas bound DNA does not influence the photocycle kinetics. The light-dark Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectrum shows the characteristic features of the flavin mononucleotide chromophore except that the S-H stretching vibration of cysteine 254, which is involved in the formation of the thio-adduct state, is significantly shifted to lower frequencies compared to other LOV domains. The presence of the target DNA influences the light-induced FTIR difference spectrum of aureochrome 1. Vibrational bands that can be assigned to arginine and lysine side chains as well to the phosphate backbone, indicate crucial changes in interactions between transcription factor and DNA.

  12. Accurate and fast 3D surface measurement with temporal-spatial binary encoding structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangping; Zhou, Pei; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng

    2016-12-12

    Balancing the accuracy and speed for 3D surface measurement of object is crucial in many important applications. Binary encoding pattern utilizing the high-speed image switching rate of digital mirror device (DMD)-based projector could be used as the candidate for fast even high-speed 3D measurement, but current most schemes only enable the measurement speed, which limit their application scopes. In this paper, we present a binary encoding method and develop an experimental system aiming to solve such a situation. Our approach encodes one computer-generated standard 8 bit sinusoidal fringe pattern into multiple binary patterns (sequence) with designed temporal-spatial binary encoding tactics. The binary pattern sequence is then high-speed and in-focus projected onto the surface of tested object, and then captured by means of temporal-integration imaging to form one sinusoidal fringe image. Further the combination of phase-shifting technique and temporal phase unwrapping algorithm leads to fast and accurate 3D measurement. The systematic accuracy better than 0.08mm is achievable. The measurement results with mask and palm are given to confirm the feasibility.

  13. Origin of photoinduced defects in glassy As{sub 2}S{sub 3} under band gap illumination studied by Raman scattering: A revisory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannopoulos, S.N.; Andrikopoulos, K.S.; Kastrissios, D.T.; Papatheodorou, G.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH-ICE/HT), P.O. Box 1414, 26504, Rio-Patras (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    We report on a detailed study of the photostructural changes in bulk glassy As{sub 2}S{sub 3} under vacuum using Raman scattering. Various excitation energies were employed to achieve resonance and off-resonance conditions. Temperature-induced structural changes were also investigated at conditions far from resonance, in order to clarify the role of bandgap light on the induced structural changes. Bandgap illumination induces structural changes much stronger than those reported up to now for this glass. The absence of oxygen is considered as a possible cause of this observation. The kinetics of the structural changes was monitored in the course of bandgap illumination and the role of in situ annealing was considered. The formation of As-As bonds is the main light-induced structural change, which if contemplated together with the absence of S-S bond formation points to the failure of models adopting realgar-type structures and calls for new structural defects based on centers with increased coordination number. The vibrational features of few such defects based on over-coordinated As centers are discussed in conjunction with the present experimental findings. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Deep level defects in dilute GaAsBi alloys grown under intense UV illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, P. M.; Tarun, Marianne; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Alberi, K.

    2016-08-01

    Dilute GaAs1-xBix alloys exhibiting narrow band edge photoluminescence (PL) were recently grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with the growth surface illuminated by intense UV radiation. To investigate whether the improved optical quality of these films results from a reduction in the concentration of deep level defects, p+/n and n+/p junction diodes were fabricated on both the illuminated and dark areas of several samples. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements show that the illuminated and dark areas of both the n- and p-type GaAs1-xBix epi-layers have similar concentrations of near mid-gap electron and hole traps, in the 1015 cm-3 range. Thus the improved PL spectra cannot be explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination at deep level defects. We note that carrier freeze-out above 35 K is significantly reduced in the illuminated areas of the p-type GaAs1-xBix layers compared to the dark areas, allowing the first DLTS measurements of defect energy levels close to the valence band edge. These defect levels may account for differences in the PL spectra from the illuminated and dark areas of un-doped layers with a similar Bi fraction.

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE NATURAL ILLUMINATION LEVEL ON THE INDOOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PETUNIA HYBRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lixandru

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a room with a natural illumination index (NII of 4.79, for 70 days, the influence of three illumination levels on the growth and development process of petunias from the Petunia hybrida species was studied. After rising, plants were placed in three zones of the room with different illumination levels: zone A (683 lx – situated on the window’s sill, zone B (113 lx – situated on the floor, at the base of the parapet, and zone C (376 lx – situated in the center of the room, on a table, at 80 cm from the floor. After two weeks from the pricking out, plants were transplanted in glass pots of 200 ml. At 2, 15, 30, 50 and 70 days the maximum length of the stem, branching level and leaf number were determined. At the end of the experiment and 10 days of room temperature drying, root, stem, leaf and flower biomass quantity was determined. Our results evidence the negative effect of the low illumination level (113 lx and 376 lx on the growth and development process of petunias from the Petunia hybrida species. Being a light and warmth loving plant, P. hybrida may be grown only at well-illuminated windows, with a level of minimum 1000 lx.

  16. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  17. Impact of illumination on model-based SRAF placement for contact patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Jayaram, Srividya; El-Sewefy, Omar; Dave, Aasutosh; LaCour, Pat

    2010-04-01

    Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) have been used extensively to improve the process latitude for isolated and semi-isolated features in conjunction with off-axis illumination. These SRAFs have typically been inserted based upon rules which assign a global SRAF size and proximity to target shapes. Additional rules govern the relationship of assist features to one another, and for random logic contact layers, the overall ruleset can become rather complex. It has been shown that model-based placement of SRAFs for contact layers can result in better worst-case process window than that obtained with rules, and various approaches have been applied to affect such placement. The model comprehends the specific illumination being used, and places assist features according to that model in the optimum location for each contact hole. This paper examines the impact of various illumination schemes on model-based SRAF placement, and compares the resulting process windows. Both standard illumination schemes and more elaborate pixel-based illumination pupil fills are considered.

  18. Masked illumination scheme for a galvanometer scanning high-speed confocal fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Uk; Moon, Sucbei; Song, Hoseong; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dug Young

    2011-01-01

    High-speed beam scanning and data acquisition in a laser scanning confocal microscope system are normally implemented with a resonant galvanometer scanner and a frame grabber. However, the nonlinear scanning speed of a resonant galvanometer can generate nonuniform photobleaching in a fluorescence sample as well as image distortion near the edges of a galvanometer scanned fluorescence image. Besides, incompatibility of signal format between a frame grabber and a point detector can lead to digitization error during data acquisition. In this article, we introduce a masked illumination scheme which can effectively decrease drawbacks in fluorescence images taken by a laser scanning confocal microscope with a resonant galvanometer and a frame grabber. We have demonstrated that the difference of photobleaching between the center and the edge of a fluorescence image can be reduced from 26 to 5% in our confocal laser scanning microscope with a square illumination mask. Another advantage of our masked illumination scheme is that the zero level or the lowest input level of an analog signal in a frame grabber can be accurately set by the dark area of a mask in our masked illumination scheme. We have experimentally demonstrated the advantages of our masked illumination method in detail. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Deep level defects in dilute GaAsBi alloys grown under intense UV illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, P. M.; Tarun, Marianne; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Alberi, K.

    2016-07-21

    Dilute GaAs1-xBix alloys exhibiting narrow band edge photoluminescence (PL) were recently grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with the growth surface illuminated by intense UV radiation. To investigate whether the improved optical quality of these films results from a reduction in the concentration of deep level defects, p+/n and n+/p junction diodes were fabricated on both the illuminated and dark areas of several samples. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements show that the illuminated and dark areas of both the n- and p-type GaAs1-xBix epi-layers have similar concentrations of near mid-gap electron and hole traps, in the 1015 cm-3 range. Thus the improved PL spectra cannot be explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination at deep level defects. We note that carrier freeze-out above 35 K is significantly reduced in the illuminated areas of the p-type GaAs1-xBix layers compared to the dark areas, allowing the first DLTS measurements of defect energy levels close to the valence band edge. These defect levels may account for differences in the PL spectra from the illuminated and dark areas of un-doped layers with a similar Bi fraction.

  20. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbe MA Pieters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer′s dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer′s room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient.

  1. O espaço operádico nas «Illuminations»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Paganini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, nós nos propomos a considerar o espaço operádico produzido pela escritura radical das Illuminations, de Rimbaud. Trata-se do estabelecimento de um espaço movente, cambiante, dinâmico. Um espaço antimimético e que só existe pela linguagem. Uma aproximação entre a leitura da poesia de Rimbaud e a do espaço urbano que considera o lugar do vazio na significação também é sugerido.Palavras-chave: Arthur Rimbaud; Illuminations; poesia; espaço.Resúmé: Dans cet article, nous nous proposons de considérer l’espace opéradique produit par l’écriture radicale des Illuminations, de Rimbaud. Il s’agit de l’établissement d’un espace mouvant, changeant, dynamique. Un espace antimimétique et qui n’existe que par le langage. Un rapprochement entre la lecture de la poésia de Rimbaud et celle de l’espace urbain qui considère le lieu du vide dans la signification est aussi suggeré.Mots-clés: Arthur Rimbaud; Illuminations; poésie; espace.Keywords: Arthur Rimbaud; Illuminations; poetry; space.

  2. Effects of Sunlight Illumination of Marigold Flower Meals on Egg Yolk Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Vargas; Paredes-López; Avila-González

    1998-02-16

    The effect of sunlight illumination of marigold flower meal on the pigmentation of feed for laying hens and of their resulting egg yolks was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography and by subjective and light reflectance colorimetry techniques. Illumination did not have an effect on the identity of carotenoids in the flower meal. Interestingly, illuminated marigold flower meals yielded an oleoresin with a higher all-trans-zeaxanthin level, with respect to meals kept in darkness. A higher level of all-trans-zeaxanthin was also present in feed pigmented with that oleoresin. Additionally, this pigmented feed showed the best color values and resulted in egg yolks with good color; remarkably, these egg yolks had a low pigment content with respect to control treatments. Thus, sunlight illumination of marigold flower meal showed a positive effect on egg yolk color; the main factors contributing to this effect were not the identity or quantity of carotenoids in laying hen feed or egg yolks, but rather other as yet unidentified marigold component(s) which was (were) somehow influenced by sunlight illumination.

  3. The Effect of Illumination on Stereo DTM Quality: Simulations in Support of Europa Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Hare, T. M.; Jorda, L.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated how the quality of stereoscopically measured topography degrades with varying illumination, in particular the ranges of incidence angles and illumination differences over which useful digital topographic models (DTMs) can be recovered. Our approach is to make high-fidelity simulated image pairs of known topography and compare DTMs from stereoanalysis of these images with the input data. Well-known rules of thumb for horizontal resolution (>3-5 pixels) and matching precision (~0.2-0.3 pixels) are generally confirmed, but the best achievable resolution at high incidence angles is ~15 pixels, probably as a result of smoothing internal to the matching algorithm. Single-pass stereo imaging of Europa is likely to yield DTMs of consistent (optimal) quality for all incidence angles ≤85°, and certainly for incidence angles between 40° and 85°. Simulations with pairs of images in which the illumination is not consistent support the utility of shadow tip distance (STD) as a measure of illumination difference, but also suggest new and simpler criteria for evaluating the suitability of stereopairs based on illumination geometry. Our study was motivated by the needs of a mission to Europa, but the approach and (to first order) the results described here are relevant to a wide range of planetary investigations.

  4. Reflectance and Natural Illumination from Single-Material Specular Objects Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Stamatios; Rematas, Konstantinos; Ritschel, Tobias; Gavves, Efstratios; Fritz, Mario; Van Gool, Luc; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-08-22

    In this paper, we present a method that estimates reflectance and illumination information from a single image depicting a single-material specular object from a given class under natural illumination. We follow a data-driven, learning-based approach trained on a very large dataset, but in contrast to earlier work we do not assume one or more components (shape, reflectance, or illumination) to be known. We propose a two-step approach, where we first estimate the object's reflectance map, and then further decompose it into reflectance and illumination. For the first step, we introduce a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that directly predicts a reflectance map from the input image itself, as well as an indirect scheme that uses additional supervision, first estimating surface orientation and afterwards inferring the reflectance map using a learning-based sparse data interpolation technique. For the second step, we suggest a CNN architecture to reconstruct both Phong reflectance parameters and high-resolution spherical illumination maps from the reflectance map. We also propose new datasets to train these CNNs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for both steps by extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation in both synthetic and real data as well as through numerous applications, that show improvements over the state-of-the-art.

  5. Do changes in pupil size and ambient illumination affect the duochrome test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, M; Aggarwala, K R; Raul, C; Ciuffreda, K J

    1995-02-01

    Vague and conflicting suggestions currently exist within the literature regarding the appropriate level of ambient illumination to use while conducting the clinical duochrome (bichrome) test. One proposal is that reduced illumination should be adopted since this allows the pupils to dilate, thereby increasing the chromatic interval and resultant test sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in pupil size and ambient illumination do indeed alter the subjective duochrome response. Accordingly, eight young, visually normal subjects were dilated with 2.5 percent phenylephrine and tested while monocularly viewing the duochrome chart through 1, 3, 5 and 7mm artificial pupils. Additionally, the effects of performing the test through a 1.0 log unit neutral density filter and varying the overall room illumination were examined. There were no significant differences between the mean responses under all test conditions. The variability of individual responses decreased with increasing pupil size; however, a 4mm change in pupil diameter was required to alter the response variability significantly. Therefore it is recommended that the test be performed under the minimum practical ambient illumination conditions in order to minimize this variability.

  6. Evaluation of Illumination Intensity and Ultraviolet Radiation at Kerman Medical University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Toolabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Adequate lighting in work environments can increase productivity and concentration and reduce fatigue. Light and illumination studies have been done mainly in industrial environments, and public or administrative environments were less under consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultraviolet radiation and illumination level at Kerman Medical Sciences University libraries.  Methods: In this study, the total, natural and artificial amount of illumination was measured at two different times, at the center of the designated stations in 14 study halls and the height of 30 inches by Hagner (Model EC1 luxmeter. Also, ultraviolet radiation (UVB & UVA was measured by Hanger (Model S4 equipped with UVB & UVA detectors. The results of ultraviolet radiation and illumination level measurements were compared with standard using Excel software.  Results : The overall, natural and artificial illumination level, in 28.57%, 100% and 71.42% study halls was less than the National and IESNA standard (300 lux. The School of Nursing has the highest amount of UVB and UVA radiation in both total and natural light measurements. The Shahid Bahonar Hospital, men’s section had the highest amount of UVB and UVA radiation in artificial light measurements. Conclusion: Initiatives such as proper alignment of bulbs, periodic dusting and cleaning, regular replacing of burnt bulbs, using study desks with the appropriate level of brightness, placing lamps at appropriate heights, and using bulbs with less UV radiation can improve the lighting situation in libraries. 

  7. An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Illumination Level and the Management Plan to Improve the Working Environment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Hyeon; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Illumination in the working environment is one of the crucial factors that affect worker's psychological status as well as the physiological condition according to each task. Sometimes it affects the results of worker's cognitive, perceptual work performance. In particular, illumination may become a triggering factor to human errors in visual tasks due to visual fatigue through direct influence of vision in NPPs. Illumination includes several visual conditions such as uniformity factor, light distribution, glare, SPD (Surge Protector Device), flicker, illumination system, daylight and window control, in addition to the simple physical aspects of illumination and luminance. These conditions may affect operators' visibility and disillusion level, cause stress, attention, emotion, etc. and they finally affect workers' performance and errors as a result. From the many illumination conditions mentioned above, current work environment evaluation items on illumination are mainly based only on the intensity of illumination, and there is yet no systematic way with evaluation criteria for other factors such as luminance, flickering, etc. In addition, research and development on illumination emphasizes mainly the physical characteristics of illumination, and it is insufficient for the influence studies on human error or work performance that are caused by these factors

  8. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  9. Light-controlled microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical resonators at 50W LED array illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yurchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental observations of light-controlled resonance effects in microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical dielectric-semiconductor disk resonators in the frequency band of 5 GHz to 20 GHz arising due to illumination from a light emitting diode (LED of 50W power range. We obtain huge enhancement of photo-sensitivity (growing with the resonator Q-factor that makes light-microwave interaction observable with an ordinary light (no laser at conventional brightness (like an office lighting in quasi-optical microwave structures at rather long (centimeter-scale wavelength. We also demonstrate non-conventional photo-response of Fano resonances when the light suppresses one group of resonances and enhances another group. The effects could be used for the optical control and quasi-optical switching of microwave propagation through either one or another frequency channel.

  10. Preparation of p-SnO/n-ZnO Heterojunction Nanowire Arrays and Their Optoelectronic Characteristics under UV Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Shou; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Tu, Yung-Chun; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lin, Zeng-Sing; Ko, Rong-Ming

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the use of a ZnO-nanowire (NW)-based heterojunction array structure for application to UV sensors is proposed. Nano-heterojunction arrays (NHAs) were formed via the oblique-angle sputtering deposition of p-type tin monoxide onto vertically aligned ZnO-NWs grown by hydrothermal growth (HTG). The current density-voltage (J-V) curve in darkness shows that the prepared SnO/ZnO-NW NHAs have rectifying current-voltage characteristics. They also exhibit a superior response to UV (254 nm) light illumination. The optoelectronic properties of the SnO/ZnO-NW NHAs with different SnO thicknesses (50-1000 nm) under different UV light intensities (2-6 mW/cm2) were investigated and discussed. UV sensitivity (IUV/Idark) as high as 8.5 was obtained.

  11. Negative gate bias and light illumination-induced hump in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hong; Seo, Seung-Bum; Park, Han-Sung; Choe, Hee-Hwan; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Kee-Chan; Park, Sang-Hee Ko

    2013-11-01

    While observing the transfer characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs, it was noticed that a hump occurred in the subthreshold regime after light and bias stress. This study analyzes the mechanism of the hump occurrence. It was determined that hump characteristics were related with parasitic TFTs which formed at the peripheral edges parallel with the channel direction. It seems that the negative shift of the transfer characteristics of parasitic TFTs was larger than that of the main TFT under light and bias stress. Therefore, the difference in the negative shift between the main TFT and the parasitic TFT was the origin of the hump occurrence. We investigated the instability of a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias with light illumination for various channel structures in order to verify the above mechanism.

  12. Spectral and spatial variability of undisturbed and disturbed grass under different view and illumination directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel-Donohue, Christoph C.; Shivers, Sarah Wells; Conover, Damon

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that disturbed grass covered surfaces show variability with view and illumination conditions. A good example is a grass field in a soccer stadium that shows stripes indicating in which direction the grass was mowed. These spatial variations are due to a complex interplay of spectral characteristics of grass blades, density, their length and orientations. Viewing a grass surface from nadir or near horizontal directions results in observing different components. Views from a vertical direction show more variations due to reflections from the randomly oriented grass blades and their shadows. Views from near horizontal show a mixture of reflected and transmitted light from grass blades. An experiment was performed on a mowed grass surface which had paths of simulated heavy foot traffic laid down in different directions. High spatial resolution hyperspectral data cubes were taken by an imaging spectrometer covering the visible through near infrared over a period of time covering several hours. Ground truth grass reflectance spectra with a hand held spectrometer were obtained of undisturbed and disturbed areas. Close range images were taken of selected areas with a hand held camera which were then used to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the grass using structure-from-motion algorithms. Computer graphics rendering using raytracing of reconstructed and procedurally created grass surfaces were used to compute BRDF models. In this paper, we discuss differences between observed and simulated spectral and spatial variability. Based on the measurements and/or simulations, we derive simple spectral index methods to detect spatial disturbances and apply scattering models.

  13. Second Harmonic Generation in Subdiffractive Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nistor, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The PhD thesis is devoted to the study of second harmonic generation of narrow beams in photonic crystals. The basic idea is that if both frequencies, the fundamental and second harmonics are in the region of self-collimation, then the second harmonics of narrow beams can be very efficient. The beams do not spread diffractively during propagation and interaction. The phase matching is ensured for all components of the interacting beams. This allows to enhance the nonlinear interaction efficiency several times. The thesis rewises the theory of self-collimation of narrow beams in photonic crystals, and presents the theory of second harmonics in photonic crystals. Calculations in photonic crystals of different configurations are presented, and the recommendations to experimental realisations are given.

  14. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  15. Effect of color temperature on melatonin production for illumination of working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraneburg, Anja; Franke, Steffen; Methling, Ralf; Griefahn, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We studied the influence of correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7 polychromatic white light illuminations (1600 K-14,000 K, 200 lx) in two experiments. Visual performance was tested in 17 students (8 men) during daytime. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and sleepiness did not vary with illuminations but polychromatic white light of Melatonin synthesis was tested with weekly intervals in 8 trials from 10pm to 2am (7 polychromatic illuminations and a dim light reference (Melatonin suppression was almost negligible for CCT melatonin suppression is expected to shift the circadian rhythm and to accelerate the adaptation to night work. This effect should be enhanced with elevation of luminance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of signal to noise ratio in optical free space data links due to background illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, W R

    1989-08-15

    In free space optical data transmission systems illumination of the receiver antenna by background radiation will decrease the signal to noise ratio. We derive expressions for that degradation both for direct and for heterodyne/homodyne receivers. Examples are given for cases where the sun, the moon, the earth, and Venus illuminate earth orbiting receivers operating at wavelengths of 0.85 microm, 1.3 microm, and 10.6 microm. Direct detection receivers will typically suffer a degradation of between 5 and 15 dB at lambda = 0.85 microm and lambda = 1.3 microm when illuminated by the sun. Heterodyne/homodyne receivers at 10.6 microm degrade more with sun radiation (typically 4 dB) than at the smaller wavelengths ( approximately 0.3 dB). The moon, earth, and Venus cause negligible reduction of signal to noise ratio.

  17. Array illumination with minimal non-uniformity based on generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The generalized phase contrast method (GPC) has been previously shown to be an efficient technique for generating array illumination and is thus highly suitable for such applications as dynamic multiple beam trapping and optical micromanipulation. However, projected arrays usually exhibit intensity...... roll-offs that may be undesirable for some applications. We show that the uniformity of GPC-generated array illuminations can be improved using intuitive corrections to the input spatial phase modulation, by increasing or decreasing it to respectively raise or lower the intensity of the corresponding...... output spots to improve uniformity. This is combined with matching corrections to the phase shift introduced by the phase contrast filter. Results from numerical experiments show that the array illumination uniformity error improves from over 40% to less than 1% while maintaining the efficiency prior...

  18. Velocity dependence of image speckles produced by a moving diffuser under dynamic speckle illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Asakura, Toshimitsu

    1990-06-01

    The velocity dependence has been investigated experimentally for the image speckles produced by a moving diffuse object under illumination of a dynamic speckle pattern. The boiling motion of the illuminating speckle pattern has little influence on the resultant speckle intensity fluctuations at the image plane if it is detected through a lens having a large pupil. In this case, the time-correlation length of speckle intensity fluctuations is inversely proportional to the object velocity. For the case where a translating speckle pattern illuminates the diffuser, its motion strongly affects the autocorrelation function of resultant speckle intensity fluctuations. The relationship between the pupil size of the imaging lens and the temporal behavior of image speckles is also considered.

  19. Method of controlling illumination device based on current-voltage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    across and current through the LED and the means for generating the activation signal is adapted to generate the activating signal based on the voltage, the current and a current- voltage model related to LED. The current-voltage model defines a relationship between the current, the voltage......The present invention relates to an illumination device comprising a number of LEDs, means for receiving an input signal, means for generating an activation signal for at least one of the LEDs based on the input signal. The illumination device comprises further means for obtaining the voltage...... and the colorimetric properties of said light emitted by LED. The present invention relates also to a method of controlling and a meted of calibrating such illumination device....

  20. An Illumination Independent Face Verification Based on Gabor Wavelet and Supported Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingming; Liu, Dian; Chen, Jianfu

    Face verification technology is widely used in the fields of public safety, e-commerce and so on. Due its characteristic of insensitive to the varied illumination, a new method about face verification with illumination invariant is presented in this paper based on gabor wavelet. First, ATICR method is used to do light preprocessing on images. Second, certain gabor wavelet filters, which are selected on the experiment inducing different gagor wavelet filter has not the same effect in verification, are used to extract feature of the image, of which the dimension in succession is reduced by Principal Component Analysis. At last, SVM classifiers are modeled on the data with reduced dimension. The experiment results in IFACE database and NIRFACE database indicate the algorithm named "Selected Paralleled Gabor Method" can achieves higher verification performance and better adaptability to the variable illumination.