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Sample records for subcutaneous tissue vascular

  1. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

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    Chae Jeong Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo-vascular system (PVS is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  2. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  3. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT.

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    Ho Cheol Hong

    Full Text Available Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored.We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR, the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP, whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001, whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003.This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles.

  4. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

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    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin in hu...... the presence of sufficient concentrations in the adipose tissue to be effective against common bacteria....

  5. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  6. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

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    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  7. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

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    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  8. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

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    Levenberg, Shulamit; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Macdonald, Mara; Garfein, Evan S.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Darland, Diane C.; Marini, Robert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mulligan, Richard C.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Langer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe

  9. Effect of microgravity on forearm subcutaneous vascular resistance in humans

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    Gabrielsen, A; Norsk, P; Videbæk, R

    1995-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the subcutaneous vascular constrictor response to an orthostatic stress in humans is augmented after exposure to microgravity, the following experiment was performed. Four male astronauts underwent a standardized stepwise lower body negative pressure (LBNP) profile 5 m...... after 1-2 days after exposure to 10 days of microgravity and could act as a defense mechanism to alleviate decreased orthostatic tolerance...

  10. Vascularization Tissue Engineering

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    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Rivron, N.C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the amount of clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering is still limited. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is its inability to provide sufficient blood supply in the initial

  11. Engineering Vascularized Adipose Tissue

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    F. Verseijden (Femke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractA large portion of the plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures performed each year is aimed at repairing soft tissue defects, which result for example from traumatic injury or tumor resections. Large soft tissue defects, lead to a change in function and ‘normal’ body contour,

  12. Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

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    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) output from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue was studied in nine healthy subjects before, during and for 3 h after 1 h two-legged bicycle exercise at 60 % maximal oxygen consumption. Seven subjects were studied in control experiments without exercise. The adipose...

  13. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

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    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  14. Fetal subcutaneous cells have potential for autologous tissue engineering.

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    Ekblad, Åsa; Westgren, Magnus; Fossum, Magdalena; Götherström, Cecilia

    2018-01-11

    Major congenital malformations affect up to 3% of newborns. Infants with prenatally diagnosed soft tissue defects should benefit from having autologous tissue readily available for surgical implantation in the perinatal period. In this study, we investigate fetal subcutaneous cells (fSC) as cellular source for tissue engineering. Fetal subcutaneous biopsies were collected from elective terminations at gestational week 20-21. Cells were isolated, expanded and characterized in vitro. To determine cell coverage, localization, viability and proliferation in different constructs, the cells were seeded onto a matrix (small intestine submucosa (SIS)) or in collagen gel with or without poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) mesh and were kept in culture for up to 8 weeks before analysis. Angiogenesis was analyzed through a tube-forming assay. fSC could be expanded until 43±3 population doublings, expressed mesenchymal markers and readily differentiate into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The cells showed low adherence to SIS and did not migrate deep into the matrix. However, in collagen gels the cells migrated into the gel and proliferated with sustained viability for up to 8 weeks. The cells in the matrices expressed Ki67, CD73 and α-smooth muscle actin but not cytokeratin or CD31. Fetal cells derived from subcutaneous tissue demonstrated favorable characteristics for preparation of autologous tissue transplants before birth. Our study supports the theory that cells could be obtained from the fetus during pregnancy for tissue engineering purposes after birth. In a future clinical situation, autologous transplants could be used for reconstructive surgery in severe congenital malformations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from inbred swine induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue engineering.

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    Luo, Jiesi; Qin, Lingfeng; Kural, Mehmet H; Schwan, Jonas; Li, Xia; Bartulos, Oscar; Cong, Xiao-Qiang; Ren, Yongming; Gui, Liqiong; Li, Guangxin; Ellis, Matthew W; Li, Peining; Kotton, Darrell N; Dardik, Alan; Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George; Rolle, Marsha; Campbell, Stuart; Hawley, Robert J; Sachs, David H; Niklason, Laura E; Qyang, Yibing

    2017-12-01

    Development of autologous tissue-engineered vascular constructs using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great potential in treating patients with vascular disease. However, preclinical, large animal iPSC-based cellular and tissue models are required to evaluate safety and efficacy prior to clinical application. Herein, swine iPSC (siPSC) lines were established by introducing doxycycline-inducible reprogramming factors into fetal fibroblasts from a line of inbred Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine that accept tissue and organ transplants without immunosuppression within the line. Highly enriched, functional VSMCs were derived from siPSCs based on addition of ascorbic acid and inactivation of reprogramming factor via doxycycline withdrawal. Moreover, siPSC-VSMCs seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds readily formed vascular tissues, which were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice and showed further maturation revealed by expression of the mature VSMC marker, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Finally, using a robust cellular self-assembly approach, we developed 3D scaffold-free tissue rings from siPSC-VSMCs that showed comparable mechanical properties and contractile function to those developed from swine primary VSMCs. These engineered vascular constructs, prepared from doxycycline-inducible inbred siPSCs, offer new opportunities for preclinical investigation of autologous human iPSC-based vascular tissues for patient treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

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    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  17. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

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    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  18. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  20. Vascularization regenerative medicine and tissue engineering

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    Brey, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    A Complex and Growing Field The study of vascularization in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) and its applications is an emerging field that could revolutionize medical approaches for organ and tissue replacement, reconstruction, and regeneration. Designed specifically for researchers in TERM fields, Vascularization: Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering provides a broad overview of vascularization in TERM applications. This text summarizes research in several areas, and includes contributions from leading experts in the field. It defines the difficulties associated with multicellular processes in vascularization and cell-source issues. It presents advanced biomaterial design strategies for control of vascular network formation and in silico models designed to provide insight not possible in experimental systems. It also examines imaging methods that are critical to understanding vascularization in engineered tissues, and addresses vascularization issues within the context of specific...

  1. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

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    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

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    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  3. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

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    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  4. Materials for engineering vascularized adipose tissue.

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    Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Uriel, Shiri; Brey, Eric M

    2011-05-01

    Loss of adipose tissue can occur due to congenital and acquired lipoatrophies, trauma, tumor resection, and chronic disease. Clinically, it is difficult to regenerate or reconstruct adipose tissue. The extensive microvsacular network present in adipose, and the sensitivity of adipocytes to hypoxia, hinder the success of typical tissue transfer procedures. Materials that promote the formation of vascularized adipose tissue may offer alternatives to current clinical treatment options. A number of synthetic and natural biomaterials common in tissue engineering have been investigated as scaffolds for adipose regeneration. While these materials have shown some promise they do not account for the unique extracellular microenvironment of adipose. Adipose derived hydrogels more closely approximate the physical and chemical microenvironment of adipose tissue, promote preadipocyte differentiation and vessel assembly in vitro, and stimulate vascularized adipose formation in vivo. The combination of these materials with techniques that promote rapid and stable vascularization could lead to new techniques for engineering stable, vascularized adipose tissue for clinical application. In this review we discuss materials used for adipose tissue engineering and strategies for vascularization of these scaffolds. Materials that promote formation of vascularized adipose tissue have the potential to serve as alternatives or supplements to existing treatment options, for adipose defects or deficiencies resulting from chronic disease, lipoatrophies, trauma, and tumor resection. Copyright © 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tailoring the foreign body response for in situ vascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuizen, T.C.; Damanik, Febriyani; Anderson, J.; Lavrijsen, T.; Cox, M.A.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a screening platform for a guided in situ vascular tissue engineering approach. Polymer rods were developed that upon 3 weeks of subcutaneous implantation evoke a controlled inflammatory response culminating in encapsulation by a tube-shaped autologous fibrocellular tissue

  6. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to synthetic auditory ossicle (Apaceram) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P C; Ohsaki, K; It, K; Tenshin, S; Kawata, T

    1995-01-01

    A study was carried out in order to obtain further information about the soft tissue response to thin Apaceram discs of dense hydroxyapatite (HA) implanted in rats for various periods of time between one day and 10 months. The Apaceram discs were implanted subcutaneously into the interscapular region of 33 rats. A sham operation was performed on eight rats used as controls. Decalcified histological sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's azan were examined and the different cell types found around the implants were counted. It was found that an acute inflammatory reaction occurred after one day and disappeared at about two weeks after implantation. In the test groups, macrophages and lymphocytes disappeared about one week later, and no inflammatory reaction was observed from one to three months. However, a tissue reaction occurred at six months with the appearance of macrophages and lymphocytes, and decreased gradually at 10 months. Meanwhile, a few foreign body giant cells at the Apaceram-tissue interface and a thick layer of fibrous connective tissue around the Apaceram disc were observed at 10 months. No osteogenesis was observed in any specimen. The results obtained so far suggest that Apaceram is still a useful material for reconstructive surgery, despite the possible appearance of a slight macrophage reaction at six months.

  7. 3D Bioprinting for Vascularized Tissue Fabrication.

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    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2017-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication.

  8. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

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    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  9. Biocompatibility evaluation of biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

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    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; de Oliveira, Danilo Louzada; Jacomini, Larissa Menegucci; da Silva, Sindinéia Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, St-Maur-des-Fossés, France) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of Biodentine in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of 4 tubes. One tube was empty, 1 was filled with zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 1 was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the last tube was filled with Biodentine. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P Biodentine; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or nonsignificant. Biodentine was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery.

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    Chabot, K; Gauthier, M-S; Garneau, P Y; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda ). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (Psurgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (Psurgery. Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Tissue Response and Degradation of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone/Poly(trimethylene-carbonate Scaffold in Subcutaneous Space of Mice

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    Tao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantage of controllability on the mechanical property and the degradation rates, electrospun PCL/PTMC nanofibrous scaffold could be appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. However, the tissue response and degradation of electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffold in vivo have never been evaluated in detail. So, electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffolds with different blend ratios were prepared in this study. Mice subcutaneous implantation showed that the continuous degradation of PCL/PTMC scaffolds induced a lasted macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction, which could be in favor of the tissue regeneration in graft.

  12. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lohmann, Tobias [Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt, Dresden (Germany); Schön, Michael R. [Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dietrich, Arne [Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan [Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB AdiposityDiseases, Junior Research Group 2 “Animal Models of Obesity”, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  13. MicroRNAome comparison between intramuscular and subcutaneous vascular stem cell adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxue Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an important factor affecting meat quality, intramuscular fat (IMF content is a topic of worldwide concern. Emerging evidences indicate that microRNAs play important roles in adipocyte differentiation. However, miRNAome has neither been studied during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation, nor compared with subcutaneous preadipocytes. The objectives of this study were to identify porcine miRNAs involved in adipogenesis in primary preadipocytes, and to determine whether intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes differ in the expression and regulation of miRNAs. RESULTS: miRNAomes in primary intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes during differentiation were first sequenced using the Solexa deep sequencing method. The sequences and relative expression levels of 224 known (98.2% in miRbase 18.0 and 280 potential porcine miRNAs were identified. Fifty-four of them changed in similar pattern between intramuscular vascular stem cells (IVSC and subcutaneous vascular stem cells (SVSC differentiation, such as miR-210, miR-10b and miR-99a. Expression levels of 10 miRNAs were reversely up-or down-regulated between IVSC and SVSC differentiation, 19 were up-or down-regulated only during IVSC differentiation and 55 only during SVSC differentiation. Additionally, 30 miRNAs showed fat-depot specific expression pattern (24 in cells of intramuscular origin and 6 in cells of subcutaneous origin. These adipogenesis-related miRNAs mainly functioned by targeting similar pathways in adipogenesis, obesity and syndrome. CONCLUSION: Comparison of miRNAomes in IVSC and SVSC during differentiation revealed that many different miRNAs are involved in adipogenesis, and they regulate SVSC and IVSC differentiation through similar pathways. These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers or targets for enhancing IMF content, and uncovering their function in IMF development will be of great value in the near future.

  14. Improvement of subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas vascularization and function by coencapsulation of pig islets and mesenchymal stem cells in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vériter, Sophie; Gianello, Pierre; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Beaurin, Gwen; Ghyselinck, Audrey; Aouassar, Najima; Jordan, Bénédicte; Gallez, Bernard; Dufrane, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient oxygenation can limit the long-term survival of encapsulated islets in subcutaneous tissue. Transplantation of coencapsulated pig islets with adipose or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs or BM-MSCs, respectively) was investigated with regard to implant vascularization, oxygenation, and diabetes correction in primates. The in vivo impact of MSCs on graft oxygenation and neovascularization was assessed in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes that were subcutaneously transplanted with islets coencapsulated with AMSCs (n = 8) or BM-MSCs (n = 6). Results were compared to islets encapsulated alone (n = 8). STZ diabetic primates were subcutaneously transplanted with islets coencapsulated with BM-MSCs (n = 4) or AMSCs (n = 6). Recipients were monitored metabolically and immunologically, and neoangiogenesis was assessed on explanted grafts. Results were compared with primates transplanted with islets encapsulated alone (n = 5). The cotransplantation of islets with BM-MSCs or AMSCs in diabetic rats showed significantly higher graft oxygenation than islets alone (3% and 3.6% O2 for islets + BM-MSCs or AMSCs, respectively, vs. 2.2% for islets alone). A significantly better glycated hemoglobin correction (28 weeks posttransplantation) was found for primates transplanted with islets and MSCs (7.4% and 8.1%, respectively) in comparison to islets encapsulated alone (10.9%). Greater neoangiogenesis was found in the periphery of coencapsulated islets and AMSCs in comparison to islets alone (p pig islets with MSCs can improve significantly the islets' survival/function in vitro. The coencapsulation of islets with MSCs improves implant oxygenation and neoangiogenesis. However, the cotransplantation of islets with MSCs improves only slightly the long-term function of a subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas in a primate preclinical model.

  15. CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME: REVIEW OF 14 ANTERIOR SUBCUTANEOUS TRANSPOSITIONS OF THE VASCULARIZED ULNAR NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve is widely implemented for treatment of cubital tunnel ‎syndrome. However, preservation of the extrinsic blood supply of the ‎ulnar nerve may result in better clinical outcomes. Fourteen patients with cubital tunnel ‎syndrome, 11 ‎men and 3 women, were treated by anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve. The extrinsic blood supply of the ulnar nerve was ‎preserved. The average age at the time of operation was 33 years. The average follow-up period was 44 months. Post-operative outcome assessment by an independent examiner was based on the modified Bishop rating system. Nine patients had excellent or good outcomes. Five patients had a fair outcome. There ‎were no complications or recurrence of symptoms. Anterior subcutaneous ‎transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve is an effective method of surgical ‎treatment for patients with cubital tunnel syndrome.

  16. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  17. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengle Shao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient homeostasis in obesity. Importantly, these data reveal the distinct phenotypes that can occur when adiponectin driven transgenes are activated in fetal vs. adult adipose tissue.

  18. Paragonimiasis in the Abdominal Cavity and Subcutaneous Tissue: Report of 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasi...

  19. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the fore......The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations......: the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  20. Biodegradable Microfluidic Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    bonding multiple microfluidic layers. Introduction Overcoming the problems of nutrient transport is critical in the design of tissue engineering...an intrinsic vascular network within these scaffolds. More specifically, the application of microfabrication and BioMEMS technology has been focused

  1. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave...

  2. Analysis of healthy sitting behavior: Interface pressure distribution and subcutaneous tissue oxygenation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reenalda, Jasper; van Geffen, P; Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; Jannink, M.J.A; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2009-01-01

    .... We analyzed the sitting behavior of 25 nondisabled male subjects by using a combination of interface pressure measurement and subcutaneous tissue oxygenation measurement by means of the Oxygen to See...

  3. Connective tissue: Vascular and hematological (blood) support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Connective Tissue (CT) is a ubiquitous component of all major tissues and structures of the body (50% of all body protein is CT), including that of the blood, vascular, muscle, tendon, ligament, fascia, bone, joint, IVD's (intervertebral discs) and skin. Because of its ubiquitous nature, CT is an often overlooked component of any essential nutritional program that may address the structure, and/or function of these tissues. The central role of CT in the health of a virtually all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, is discussed. General nutritional CT support strategies, as well as specific CT support strategies that focus on blood, vascular, structural system (eg, muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, bone, and joints), integument (skin) and inflammatory and immune mediation will be discussed here and will deal with connective tissue dynamics and dysfunction. An overview of the current scientific understanding and possible options for naturally enhancing the structure and function of CT through the application of these concepts will be discussed in this article, with specific attention on the vascular and hematological systems.

  4. Treatment of total scalp avulsion by an advanced microsurgical method involving the subcutaneous tissue suspension by the tight suture of scalp tissue around anastomotic stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Minfeng; Chen, Li; Xu, Lei; Rui, Yongjun; Gu, Yudong

    2015-03-01

    Total scalp avulsion is a rare but challenging surgical trauma to manage. This study reports 8 cases of total scalp avulsion between 2001 and 2008. In all these cases, the patients were subjected to vascular replantation of the scalp. Microvascular technique after the debridement was used for scalp replantation in all these patients. Study outcome was that between 2001 and 2004, only 1 case had shown major scalp revival and scalp survival whereas in 3 other cases, the scalp survival failed. This may be attributed to the poor microscopic anastomosis. However, between 2005 and 2008, scalp survival was reported in all the cases, which was chiefly due the advanced microsurgical method adopted. In this advanced microsurgical technique, the subcutaneous tissue was suspended by the tight suture of scalp tissue around the anastomotic stoma, which resulted in scalp survival in all the cases. Microsurgical scalp replantation is an effective treatment for scalp avulsion. The key to the successful scalp replantation is high-quality vascular anastomosis involving subcutaneous tissue suspension via the tight suture of scalp tissue around the anastomotic stoma careful debridement.

  5. Role of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burden of obesity has increased significantly in the United States over last few decades. Association of obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic problems is well established. Traditionally, adipose tissue in visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in development of insulin resistance. However, growing body of the literature has suggested that adipose tissue in subcutaneous fat depot, not only due to larger volume but also due to inherent functional characteristics, can have significant impact on development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal versus gluteofemoral depots. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger vicious cycle of inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue and subsequent ectopic fat deposition. It is important to shift focus from fat content to functional heterogeneity in adipose tissue depots to better understand the relative role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolic complications of obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice at any level of increased adiposity. Future pharmaceutical interventions aimed at improving adipose tissue function in various subcutaneous depots have potential to help maintain adequate insulin sensitivity and reduce risk for development of insulin resistance complications.

  6. Paragonimiasis in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasis does not easily bring up clinical suspicion, due to its rarity. We herein report 2 cases of abdominal paragonimiasis and 1 case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis in Korea.

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2010-01-01

    abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples...

  8. Spatial anisotropy analyses of subcutaneous tissue layer: potential insights into its biomechanical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2011-10-01

    As the intermediate layer between the muscle and skin, the subcutaneous tissue frequently experiences shear and lateral stresses whenever the body is in motion. However, quantifying such stresses in vivo is difficult. The lack of such measures is partly responsible for our poor understanding of the biomechanical behaviors of subcutaneous tissue. In this study, we employ both ultrasound imaging and a novel spatial anisotropy measure - incorporating Moran's I spatial autocorrelation calculations - to investigate the structuromechanical features of subcutaneous tissues within the extremities of 16 healthy volunteers. This approach is based on the understanding that spatial anisotropy can be an effective surrogate for the summative, tensile forces experienced by biological tissue. We found that spatial anisotropy in the arm, thigh and calf was attributed to the echogenic bands spanning the width of the ultrasound images. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, the calf was significantly associated with greater anisotropy compared with the thigh and arm. Spatial anisotropy was inversely related to subcutaneous thickness, and was significantly increased with longitudinally oriented probe images compared with transversely orientated images. Maximum peaks in spatial anisotropy were frequently observed when the longitudinally oriented ultrasound probe was swept across the extremity, suggesting that longitudinal channels with greater tension exist in the subcutaneous layer. These results suggest that subcutaneous biomechanical tension is mediated by collagenous/echogenic bands, greater in the calf compared with the thigh and arm, increased in thinner individuals, and maximal along longitudinal trajectories parallel to the underlying muscle. Spatial anisotropy analysis of ultrasound images has yielded meaningful patterns and may be an effective means to understand the biomechanical strain patterns within the subcutaneous tissue of the extremities. © 2011 The Authors

  9. Subcutaneous adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Janakova, Zuzana; Kurdiova, Timea; Surova, Martina; Imrich, Richard; Majercikova, Zuzana; Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Kiss, Alexander; Belan, Vitazoslav; Klimes, Iwar; Olejnik, Juraj; Gasperikova, Daniela; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    To examine the regulatory aspects of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) association with obesity-related insulin resistance. ZAG mRNA and protein were analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and circulation of lean, obese, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic men; both subcutaneous and visceral AT were explored in lean and extremely obese. Clinical and ex vivo findings were corroborated by results of in vitro ZAG silencing experiment. Subcutaneous AT ZAG was reduced in obesity, with a trend to further decrease with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. ZAG was 3.3-fold higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT of lean individuals. All differences were lost in extreme obesity. Obesity-associated changes in AT were not paralleled by alterations of circulating ZAG. Subcutaneous AT ZAG correlated with adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial content, expression of GLUT4, PGC1α, and adiponectin. Subcutaneous AT ZAG and adipocyte size were the only predictors of insulin sensitivity, independent on age and BMI. Silencing ZAG resulted in reduced adiponectin, IRS1, GLUT4, and PGC1α gene expression in primary human adipocytes. ZAG in subcutaneous, but not in visceral AT, was markedly reduced in obesity. Clinical, cellular, and molecular evidence indicate that ZAG plays an important role in modulating whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous...... adipose tissue (AT) was removed either immediately after, 4h or 10h after exercise as well as from mice not running acutely. Moreover, AT was sampled at resting conditions after 5 weeks of exercise training. Results: AT leptin mRNA decreased immediately after a single running exercise bout in both...

  11. miRNAs in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M.; Davidsen, Peter K.; Vigelso, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed...

  12. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression...... by elevated levels of plasma visfatin. Recombinant human IL-6 infusion to mimic the exercise-induced IL-6 response (n = 6) had no effect on visfatin mRNA expression in adipose tissue compared with the effect of placebo infusion (n = 6). The finding that exercise enhances subcutaneous adipose tissue visfatin mRNA...... in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4...

  13. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  14. Computer simulation of the breast subcutaneous and retromammary tissue for use in virtual clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Computer simulation of breast anatomy is an essential component of Virtual Clinical Trials, a preclinical approach to validate breast imaging systems. Realism of breast phantoms affects simulation studies and their acceptance among researchers. Previously, we developed a simulation of tissue compartments defined by the hierarchy of Cooper's ligaments, based upon recursive partitioning using octrees. In this work, we optimize the simulation parameters to represent realistically the breast subcutaneous and retromammary tissue regions. As seen in clinical images, the subcutaneous and retromammary regions contain predominantly adipose tissue organized into relatively large compartments, as opposed to the predominantly glandular breast interior. To mimic such organization, we divided the phantom volume into "subcutaneous", "retromammary", and "interior" regions. Within each region, parameters controlling the size and orientation of tissue compartments were selected separately. In this preliminary study, we varied parameter values and calculated the corresponding average compartment volume in each region. The proposed method was evaluated using anatomic descriptors at both radiological and pathological spatial scales. We simulated the subcutaneous region as spanning 20% of the breast diameter, comparable to published analysis of breast CT images. We simulated tissue compartments with the average volume of 0.94 cm3, 0.89 cm3 and 0.31 cm3 in the subcutaneous, retromammary and interior regions, respectively. Those average volumes match within 12% the values reported from histological analysis. Future evaluation will include a comparison of simulated and clinical parenchymal descriptors. The proposed method will be extended to automate the parameter optimization, and simulate detailed spatial variation, to further improve the realism.

  15. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  16. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; de Martino Lee, Maria Lucia; de Castro Monteiro, Carlos Manoel; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; Geloneze, Bruno; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated) with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (Padiposity-associated vascular disease might be attenuated by SAT. Changes in body fat must be evaluated in this group of patients in the early course of survivorship in order to avoid premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, further research as regards the possible protective effect of SAT on vascular disease is warranted.

  17. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man: effect of beta-adrenoceptor inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations...

  18. The relationship between subcutaneous tissue pressures and intramuscular pressures in normal and edematous legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, J T; Shawa, N J; Hamad, M M; Al-Hassan, H K

    1985-08-01

    The interstitial hydrostatic pressure is affecting fluid movements at microvascular level. A disturbance in the Starling equilibrium results in edema formation. The effect of venous outflow and lymphatic obstructions in human, on the interstitial fluid pressures subcutaneously and intramuscularly and the possible interaction between veins and lymphatics was studied. Utilizing a slit-catheter technique, subcutaneous tissue and intramuscular pressures were measured bilaterally in 10 patients with venous outflow obstruction and in 10 patients with lymphatic obstruction. In lymphatic obstruction the subcutaneous tissue pressure was significantly elevated as well as the intramuscular pressure, while in venous obstruction the subcutaneous tissue pressure was normal. The intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated during exercise reaching 60 mm Hg or more, combined with severe pain. Pain did not occur in patients with lymphatic obstruction. This study suggests that in lymphatic obstruction there is also an involvement of either deep lymphatics, venous dysfunction or a combination of both. Intramuscular pressures do not reach the critical level for pain during exercise. In venous obstruction mainly the intramuscular compartment is involved and interstitial pressure reaches values well above 60 mm Hg during exercise, at which level pain occurs, possibly due to tension of painreceptors in the muscle fascias.

  19. Deep tissue near-infrared imaging for vascular network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Seker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous vein network plays important roles to maintain microcirculation that is related to some diagnostic aspects. Despite developments of optical imaging technologies, still the difficulties about deep skin vascular imaging have been continued. On the other hand, since hemoglobin concentration of human blood has key role in the veins imaging by optical manner, the used wavelength in vascular imaging, must be chosen considering absorption of hemoglobin. In this research, we constructed a near infrared (NIR light source because of lower absorption of hemoglobin in this optical region. To obtain vascular image, reflectance geometry was used. Next, from recorded images, vascular network analysis, such as calculation of width of vascular of interest and complexity of selected region were implemented. By comparing with other modalities, we observed that proposed imaging system has great advantages including nonionized radiation, moderate penetration depth of 0.5–3mm and diameter of 1mm, cost-effective and algorithmic simplicity for analysis.

  20. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine......-1 and increased to 0.586 +/- 0.445 and 0.760 +/- 0.534 mumol.100 g-1 x min-1 (P subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen was equal to the arterial concentration in the basal period but did not increase as much during infusion of epinephrine......, indicating glucose uptake in adipose tissue in this condition. If it is assumed that forearm skeletal muscle is representative for the average skeletal muscle, it can be calculated that on average 40% of the enhanced whole body oxygen uptake induced by infusion of epinephrine is taking place in skeletal...

  1. The use of microtechnology and nanotechnology in fabricating vascularized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Raquel; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ahadian, Samad; Shiku, Hitoshi; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary research area that combines medicine, biology, and material science. In recent decades, microtechnology and nanotechnology have also been gradually integrated into this field and have become essential components of TE research. Tissues and complex organs in the body depend on a branched blood vessel system. One of the main objectives for TE researchers is to replicate this vessel system and obtain functional vascularized structures within engineered tissues or organs. With the help of new nanotechnology and microtechnology, significant progress has been made. Achievements include the design of nanoscale-level scaffolds with new functionalities, development of integrated and rapid nanotechnology methods for biofabrication of vascular tissues, discovery of new composite materials to direct differentiation of stem and inducible pluripotent stem cells into the vascular phenotype. Although numerous challenges to replicating vascularized tissue for clinical uses remain, the combination of these new advances has yielded new tools for producing functional vascular tissues in the near future.

  2. A simple tissue model for practicing ultrasound guided vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of ultrasound in anaesthetic practice continues to be more established and the use of ultrasound guidance in establishing vascular access is recommended by various groups. We have developed a tissue model for the practice and skills development in ultrasound vascular access. Method: The tissue ...

  3. Biocompatibility of the bacterial cellulose hydrogel in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Pedro Celso de Castro; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Lira, Mariana Montenegro de Melo; Melo, Francisco de Assis Dutra; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and local sensibility reaction to bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits. Fifteen New Zeland rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups: T1, 7 days, T2, 21 days, and T3, 84 days. The new material was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of the ear; on the scalp over the periosteum; and on the outer and inner surfaces of the thighs, in the aponeurosis of the muscle. At 7, 21 and 84 postoperative days, the material was collected for histological study. The clinical signs, inflammatory response, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis were variables used for analysis of the biocompatibility and biological reactivity to BCH. Analyses were performed with an AXIO(r) Imager. The statistical tests were performed using the GraphPad Prism 5.0 program(r) The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, considering the different cell types (PMN, LMN and GC), was statistically significant, with group T1 different from groups T2 and T3 (p = 0.0124 and p <0.0001, respectively) and T2 different from the T3 group (p = 0.0007). Fibrogenesis grade 1 was the most prevalent in groups T1 (55.4%) and T2 (44.6%). The formation of neovascularization in the group was identified in 84.4% of samples. Bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) is biocompatible, integrating with the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and inducing tissue remodeling.

  4. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... found for the remaining adipokines (P>0.05). Adiponectin and leptin concentrations were higher in plasma than subcutaneous adipose tissue (approximately 25-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively, P... investigated adipokines as well as of ATBF were substantial (coefficient of variation: 4-177%). In conclusion, interstitial leptin concentrations are approximately 2.5-fold higher in subcutaneous, femoral than abdominal adipose tissue, which might be a potential mechanism behind the health-benefits of "pear...

  5. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  6. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja; Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario; Bergman, Richard N; McTernan, Philip G; Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M S; Jacobson, Peter

    2014-04-18

    Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of melatonin on expression of leptin in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin (MLT on protein and mRNA expression of leptin (Lep in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin resistance (IR rats. Methods Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=27 and control group (CN group, n=10. Rats in model group were fed with high glucose diet for 6 weeks. Twenty rats having developed IR in the model group were further randomly divided into two groups: IR group (n=10 and melatonin group (MLT group, n=10. Rats in CN group and MLT group were fed with 10mg/(kg.d of standard chow or MLT, respectively, for 6 weeks from the beginning of the 7th week. At the end of the 12th week, the subcutaneous fat tissue was harvested from bilateral inguinal areas of the rats for the evaluation of the protein and mRNA expression of Lep by immunohistochemistry and RTPCR. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting serum leptin (Lep, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, malondialdehyde (MDA and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly lower (P0.05. The protein and mRNA expressions of Lep in subcutaneous adipose tissue were significantly higher in IR group than in CN group (P<0.01, while they were significantly lower in MLT group than in IR group (P<0.01. Conclusion MLT may improve IR and the status of oxidation stress, and inhibit the over expression of Lep protein and mRNA in subcutaneous fat tissue in the high-glucose diet-induced IR rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.04

  8. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone

  9. Automated segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous (deep and superficial) adipose tissues in normal and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Prakash, Bhanu; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Chin Meng; Chou, Hong; Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lee, Yung Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Tai, E Shyong; Velan, S Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm to classify abdominal adipose tissues into visceral fat (VAT), deep (DSAT), and superficial (SSAT) subcutaneous fat compartments and evaluate its performance against manual segmentation. Data were acquired from 44 normal (BMI 18.0-22.9 kg/m(2) ) and 38 overweight (BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ) subjects at 3T using a two-point Dixon sequence. A fully automatic segmentation algorithm was developed to segment the fat depots. The first part of the segmentation used graph cuts to separate the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and the second step employed a modified level sets approach to classify deep and superficial subcutaneous tissues. The algorithmic results of segmentation were validated against the ground truth generated by manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm showed good performance with Dice similarity indices of VAT/DSAT/SSAT: 0.92/0.82/0.88 against the ground truth. The study of the fat distribution showed that there is a steady increase in the proportion of DSAT and a decrease in the proportion of SSAT with increasing obesity. The presented technique provides an accurate approach for the segmentation and quantification of abdominal fat depots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  11. Effect of insulin catheter wear-time on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and insulin absorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insertion of an insulin catheter for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion into the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) causes a tissue trauma that may have consequences for insulin absorption. We evaluated the importance of insulin catheter wear-time on subcutaneous adipose tissue...... blood flow (ATBF) and absorption of the rapid-acting insulin analog insulin aspart over a period of 4 days. METHODS: Teflon insulin catheters (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) were inserted into the abdominal SAT of 10 healthy men without diabetes (mean +/- SEM age, 23.0 +/- 1.1 years; body mass index, 22...

  12. Deuterium MR spectroscopy at 4.7 T. Quantification of tumour and subcutaneous tissue blood flow in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirestam, R; Larsen, V.A.; Stubgaard, M

    1995-01-01

    Deuterium MR spectroscopy was used for the determination of tissue blood flow (TBF). The tracer D2O was injected into the tissue of interest, and tracer washout was followed using a 4.7 T spectroscopy/imaging unit. Normal subcutaneous tissue in rats was studied, as well as tissue influenced...

  13. Assessment of the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue of healthy adults using ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumi Ueda-Iuchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lymphoedema involves swelling, especially in the subcutaneous tissues. For lymphoedema management to be successful, it is necessary to remove the interstitial fluid. Subcutaneous echogenicity may be associated with interstitial fluid, but echogenicity is not an indicator for the evaluation of management because we do not directly compare echogenicity with the interstitial fluid. We aimed to identify an outcome indicator for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography. We assessed the correlation between echogenicity and transverse relaxation rate (R2 on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: This was an observational study. Healthy adults with leg swelling after activity for >8 h were recruited. The legs of 13 women were evaluated using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of the limb circumference before and after an intervention to reduce the swelling. Results: Echogenicity in the oedema group was greater than that of the controls. Echogenicity decreased with reductions in oedema. The range of the strongest correlations with the changes in R2 occurred at echogenicity values of 48–144 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: r = −0.63 and p < 0.01. Thus, it was possible to evaluate the interstitial fluid using echogenicity. Conclusion: The outcome indicators for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography were echogenicities in the range of 48–144, and these values were valid for assessing the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue.

  14. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Stephens, N A; Gao, D; Bao, Y; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-02-01

    Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss 5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG concentrations were quantified. In the second cohort, ZAG release by SAT was determined in 18 weight-stable and 15 cachectic cancer patients. The effect of ZAG on lipolysis was evaluated in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue remodelling in cancer cachexia was evident through shrunken adipocytes with increased fibrosis. In cachectic cancer patients, ZAG mRNA was upregulated (2.7-fold, P=0.028) while leptin mRNA decreased (2.2-fold, P=0.018); serum ZAG levels were found to be unaffected. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA correlated positively with weight loss (r=0.51, P=0.01) and serum glycerol levels (r=0.57, P=0.003). Zinc-α2-glycoprotein release by SAT was also elevated in cachectic patients (1.5-fold, P=0.024) and correlated with weight loss (r=0.50, P=0.003). Recombinant ZAG stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression and secretion by adipose tissue is enhanced in cachectic cancer patients. Given its lipid-mobilising effect, ZAG may contribute to adipose atrophy associated with cancer cachexia in human beings.

  15. Loss of autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue in juvenile diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Kastrup, J; Parving, H H

    1984-01-01

    The autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue was investigated at the level of the lateral malleolus by the local 133Xenon washout technique. We have investigated eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetics and seven healthy controls. All diabetics had moderate diabetic nephropathy...... and retinopathy. The blood flow remained constant in all normal subjects, when the arterial perfusion pressure was varied between 70 and 150 mm Hg. All diabetics had impaired or reduced autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow. The blood flow increased and decreased almost linearly with the changes...... in arterial perfusion pressure. The mechanism underlying the defect autoregulation of blood flow in diabetics is uncertain; possibilities include structural changes of the arterioles and/or alterations of local metabolic factors....

  16. A subcutaneous adipose tissue-liver signalling axis controls hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Shannon M; Ahmadian, Maryam; Zamarron, Brian F; Chang, Louise; Uhm, Maeran; Poirier, BreAnne; Peng, Xiaoling; Krause, Danielle M; Korytnaya, Evgenia; Neidert, Adam; Liddle, Christopher; Yu, Ruth T; Lumeng, Carey N; Oral, Elif A; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; Saltiel, Alan R

    2015-01-12

    The search for effective treatments for obesity and its comorbidities is of prime importance. We previously identified IKK-ε and TBK1 as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here we show that acute inhibition of IKK-ε and TBK1 with amlexanox treatment increases cAMP levels in subcutaneous adipose depots of obese mice, promoting the synthesis and secretion of the cytokine IL-6 from adipocytes and preadipocytes, but not from macrophages. IL-6, in turn, stimulates the phosphorylation of hepatic Stat3 to suppress expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, in the process improving glucose handling in obese mice. Preliminary data in a small cohort of obese patients show a similar association. These data support an important role for a subcutaneous adipose tissue-liver axis in mediating the acute metabolic benefits of amlexanox on glucose metabolism, and point to a new therapeutic pathway for type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guthe, Hans Jørgen Timm; Nedrebø, Torbjørn; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge; Berg, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i)) from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs...

  18. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario [Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Bergman, Richard N. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McTernan, Philip G. [Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M.S. [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jacobson, Peter, E-mail: peter.jacobson@medfak.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  19. Biocompatibility of a new nanomaterial based on calcium silicate implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate rat connective tissue response to a new calcium silicate system 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after implantation. Twenty Wistar albino male rats received two tubes half-filled with a new calcium silicate system (NCSS or MTA in subcutaneous tissue. The empty half of the tubes served as controls. Five animals were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and samples of the subcutaneous tissue around implanted material were submitted to histological analysis. The intensity of inflammation was evaluated based on the number of inflammatory cells present. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA and Holm Sidak's multiple comparison tests. Mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was observed after 7, 15 and 30 days around a NCSS while mild inflammatory reaction was detected after 60 days of implantation. In the MTA group, mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was found after 7 and 15 days while mild inflammatory reaction was present after 30 and 60 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammatory reactions between the tested materials and control groups in any experimental period (ANOVA p>0.05. Regarding the intensity of inflammatory reactions at different experimental periods, a statistically significant difference was observed between 7 and 30 days, 7 and 60 days and 15 to 60 days for both materials. For the controls, a statistically significant difference was found between 7 and 60 days and 15 and 60 days of the experiment (Holm Sidak < p 0.001. Subcutaneous tissue of rats showed good tolerance to a new calcium silicate system. Inflammatory reaction was similar to that caused by MTA. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  20. Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Jennifer K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity has been described in obese states, with an increased desaturation index (DI suggesting enhanced lipogenesis. Differences in the DI among various phenotypes of abnormal adiposity have not been studied. Abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurs in rare adipose disorders (RADs including Dercum's disease (DD, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL, and familial multiple lipomatosis (FML. Examining the DI in subcutaneous fat of people with DD, MSL and FML may provide information on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in these disorders. The aims of this pilot study were: 1 to determine if differences in adipose tissue DIs are present among RADs, and 2 to determine if the DIs correlate to clinical or biochemical parameters. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from human participants with DD (n = 6, MSL (n = 5, FML (n = 8 and obese Controls (n = 6. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The DIs (palmitoleic/palmitic, oleic/stearic, vaccenic/stearic ratios were calculated from the gas chromatogram peak intensities. SCD1 gene expression was determined. Spearman's correlations between the DIs and available clinical or biochemical data were performed. Results In DD subjects, the vaccenic/stearic index was lower (p p Conclusions The positive associations between the DIs and measures of adiposity (BMI and percent body fat support increased desaturase activity in obesity. The lower vaccenic/stearic DI in DD SAT compared with Controls suggests presence of other factors involved in fat accumulation in addition to lifestyle. Other mechanisms driving fat accumulation in DD such as inflammation or lymphatic dysfunction should be investigated.

  1. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  2. Permeability of subcutaneous tissues surrounding long-term implants to oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumosa, Lucas S; Routh, Timothy L; Lin, Joe T; Lucisano, Joseph Y; Gough, David A

    2014-09-01

    Certain types of implanted medical devices depend on oxygen supplied from surrounding tissues for their function. However, there is a concern that the tissue associated with the foreign body response to implants may become impermeable to oxygen over the long term and render the implant nonfunctional. We report oxygen flux recordings from electrochemical oxygen sensor devices with wireless telemetry implanted in subcutaneous porcine tissues. The devices remained implanted for up to 13 weeks and were removed with adjacent tissues at specified times for histologic examination. There are four main observations: (1) In the first few weeks after implantation, the oxygen flux to the sensors, or current density, declined to a sustained mean value, having unsynchronized cyclic variations around the mean; (2) The oxygen mass transfer resistance of the sensor membrane was negligible compared to that of the tissue, allowing for a sensitive estimate of the tissue permeability; (3) The effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen in tissues was found to be approximately one order of magnitude lower than in water; and (4) Quantitative histologic analysis of the tissues showed a mild foreign body response to the PDMS sensor membrane material, with capillaries positioned close to the implant surface. Continuous recordings of oxygen flux indicate that the tissue permeability changes predictably with time, and suggest that oxygen delivery can be sustained over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D Bioprinting of Vascularized Human Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesky, David Barry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manufacture human tissues that replicate the spatial, mechano-chemical, and temporal aspects of biological tissues would enable myriad applications, including drug screening, disease modeling, and tissue repair and regeneration. However, given the complexity of human tissues, this is a daunting challenge. Current biofabrication methods are unable to fully recapitulate the form and function of human tissues, which are composed of multiple cell types, extracellular matrices, and ...

  4. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  5. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Makar, Karen W; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals. Ten overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal women were recruited. Two subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained per individual (i.e., right and left lower abdominal regions) using two distinct methods (method A: 14-gauge needle with incision, versus method B: 16-gauge needle without incision). Gene expression was examined at the mRNA level for leptin, adiponectin, aromatase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in flash-frozen tissue, and at the protein level for leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha following short-term culture. Participants preferred biopsy method A and few participants reported any of the usual minor side effects. Gene expression was detectable for leptin, adiponectin, and aromatase, but was below detectable limits for IL-6 and TNF-alpha. For detectable genes, relative gene expression in adipose tissue obtained by methods A and B was similar for adiponectin (r = 0.64, P = 0.06) and leptin (r = 0.80, P = 0.01), but not for aromatase (r = 0.37,P = 0.34). Protein levels in tissue culture supernatant exhibited good intra-assay agreement [coefficient of variation (CV), 1-10%], with less agreement for intraindividual agreement (CV, 17-29%) and reproducibility, following one freeze-thaw cycle (CV, >14%). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from healthy, overweight individuals provide adequate amounts for RNA extraction, gene expression, and other assays of relevance to cancer prevention research.

  6. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  7. A Combined Transcriptomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Subcutaneous, Epididymal and Mesenteric Adipose Tissue Reveals Marked Functional Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.R.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  8. A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  9. Sea cucumbers with an anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells and subcutaneous but not on epicardial adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bueno, Sara; Atanasova, Miroslava; Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Bravo, Susana B; Álvarez, Ezequiel; Fernández, Ángel L; Carrera, Iván; González-Juanatey, José R; Eiras, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) contains higher levels of inflammatory proteins and lower adiponectin levels than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), enhancing the progression of atherosclerosis. Since products from sea cucumber have anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated its effect on EAT, SAT and endothelial cells. stromal cells or explants from EAT and SAT were obtained from patients with cardiovascular disease. Extracts were obtained after hydrolysis by food-grade enzymes at different times. Proteins were identified by LC-MALDI mass spectrometry. Adipogenesis and adiponectin induction were determined on stromal cells in the presence/absence of extracts. The bioavailability of the extracts was tested on a Caco-2 cell culture model in vitro. The bioavailable fraction was probed on endothelial cells and EAT or SAT explants. Vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), IL-6 and adiponectin were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). our results showed that H. forskali and P. tremulus extracts contained compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The bioavailable fraction of P. tremulus reduced VCAM-1 (p effect was observed on EAT. these results suggest that sea cucumber extracts might be used for the prevention of endothelial cells and SAT inflammation.

  10. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese and lean adults does not release hepcidin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Frayn, Keith N; Smith, Steven R; Westerman, Mark; Dennis, A Louise; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Thomson, Jessica; Pusatcioglu, Cenk

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT) releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n = 18), mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin) = 4.9 ± 9.6 ng/mL, P = 0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  11. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Obese and Lean Adults Does Not Release Hepcidin In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Tussing-Humphreys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n=18, mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin = 4.9±9.6 ng/mL, P=0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  12. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P exchange ratio was 0.80 +/- 0......Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  13. Establishment and molecular characterization of mesenchymal stem cell lines derived from human visceral & subcutaneous adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pd; Sutar, Jp

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively) samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD 13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  14. Establishment and Molecular Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines Derived From Human Visceral & Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Sutar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  15. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  16. Hydrogel Bioprinted Microchannel Networks for Vascularization of Tissue Engineering Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz E.; Cecconi, Martina; Manoharan, Vijayan; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hjortnaes, Jesper; Cristino, Ana Luiza; Barabaschi, Giada; Demarchi, Danilo; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Yang, Yunzhi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization remains a critical challenge in tissue engineering. The development of vascular networks within densely populated and metabolically functional tissues facilitate transport of nutrients and removal of waste products, thus preserving cellular viability over a long period of time. Despite tremendous progress in fabricating complex tissue constructs in the past few years, approaches for controlled vascularization within hydrogel based engineered tissue constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a three dimensional (3D) micromolding technique utilizing bioprinted agarose template fibers to fabricate microchannel networks with various architectural features within photo cross linkable hydrogel constructs. Using the proposed approach, we were able to successfully embed functional and perfusable microchannels inside methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), star poly (ethylene glycol-co-lactide) acrylate (SPELA), poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels at different concentrations. In particular, GelMA hydrogels were used as a model to demonstrate the functionality of the fabricated vascular networks in improving mass transport, cellular viability and differentiation within the cell-laden tissue constructs. In addition, successful formation of endothelial monolayers within the fabricated channels was confirmed. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an effective technique for vascularization of hydrogel constructs with useful applications in tissue engineering and organs on a chip. PMID:24860845

  17. Interstitial Matrix Prevents Therapeutic Ultrasound From Causing Inertial Cavitation in Tumescent Subcutaneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakis, John P; Rouch, Joshua; Huynh, Nhan; Dubrovsky, Genia; Dunn, James C Y; Putterman, Seth

    2018-01-01

    We search for cavitation in tumescent subcutaneous tissue of a live pig under application of pulsed, 1-MHz ultrasound at 8 W cm -2 spatial peak and pulse-averaged intensity. We find no evidence of broadband acoustic emission indicative of inertial cavitation. These acoustic parameters are representative of those used in external-ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty and in physical therapy and our null result brings into question the role of cavitation in those applications. A comparison of broadband acoustic emission from a suspension of ultrasound contrast agent in bulk water with a suspension injected subcutaneously indicates that the interstitial matrix suppresses cavitation and provides an additional mechanism behind the apparent lack of in-vivo cavitation to supplement the absence of nuclei explanation offered in the literature. We also find a short-lived cavitation signal in normal, non-tumesced tissue that disappears after the first pulse, consistent with cavitation nuclei depletion in vivo. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue using ultrasound in highly trained junior rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Anne; Trájer, Emese; Machus, Katja; Treff, Gunnar; Müller, Wolfram; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2017-06-01

    There is a large variety of body fat (BF) measurements, which differ in validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) using ultrasound (US) in highly trained junior rowers in a field setting, establish fat patterning profiles, and compare the profiles between male and female athletes. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements were also taken and compared to US measurements. Sixteen athletes participated. US measurements were taken at eight sites and reported as a sum of SAT (D): DExcl (without embedded structures) and DIncl (including embedded structures). SKF was measured at three sites and reported as a sum of adipose tissue thickness (SUMSKF). Mean SAT thickness (DIncl) was 27.6 ± 12.4 mm for males and 65.5 ± 11.8 mm for females. Females had significantly more embedded structures than males (P = .016). Significant correlations were found (P < .001, r = 0.92) comparing SUMSKF to DIncl and between SKF and US measurements at the thigh site (P < .001, r = 0.86). US is a suitable tool to measure BF in the field testing of athletes and enables measurements of SAT with an accuracy and reliability not reached before. The sum of thicknesses (DIncl or DExcl) can be used to represent subcutaneous fat based on accurate measurements of uncompressed SAT thicknesses.

  19. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mengle; Hepler, Chelsea; Vishvanath, Lavanya; MacPherson, Karen A; Busbuso, Napoleon C; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-01-01

    Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified. Here, we utilize two models that confer adipose-specific Zfp423 inactivation during fetal adipose development (Adiponectin-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP and Adiponectin-rtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP). We assess the impact of fetal adipose Zfp423 deletion on the initial formation of adipose tissue and evaluate the metabolic consequences of challenging these animals with high-fat diet feeding. Deletion of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in a different phenotype than is observed when deleting Zfp423 in adipocytes of adult mice. Inactivation of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in arrested differentiation, specifically of inguinal white adipocytes, rather than a white-to-beige phenotypic switch that occurs when Zfp423 is inactivated in adult mice. This is likely explained by the observation that adiponectin driven Cre expression is active at an earlier stage of the adipocyte life cycle during fetal subcutaneous adipose development than in adult mice. Upon high-fat diet feeding, obese adipose Zfp423-deficient animals undergo a pathological adipose tissue expansion, associated with ectopic lipid deposition and systemic insulin resistance. Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient

  20. Stretching Reduces Skin Thickness and Improves Subcutaneous Tissue Mobility in a Murine Model of Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Urso, Katia; Olenich, Sara; Muskaj, Igla; Badger, Gary J; Aliprantis, Antonios; Lafyatis, Robert; Langevin, Helene M

    2017-01-01

    Although physical therapy can help preserve mobility in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), stretching has not been used systematically as a treatment to prevent or reverse the disease process. We previously showed in rodent models that stretching promotes the resolution of connective tissue inflammation and reduces new collagen formation after injury. Here, we tested the hypothesis that stretching would impact scleroderma development using a mouse sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (sclGvHD) model. The model consists in the adoptive transfer (allogeneic) of splenocytes from B10.D2 mice (graft) into Rag2(-/-) BALB/c hosts (sclGvHD), resulting in skin inflammation followed by fibrosis over 4 weeks. SclGvHD mice and controls were randomized to stretching in vivo for 10 min daily versus no stretching. Weekly ultrasound measurements of skin thickness and subcutaneous tissue mobility in the back (relative tissue displacement during passive trunk motion) successfully captured the different phases of the sclGvHD model. Stretching reduced skin thickness and increased subcutaneous tissue mobility compared to no stretching at week 3. Stretching also reduced the expression of CCL2 and ADAM8 in the skin at week 4, which are two genes known to be upregulated in both murine sclGvHD and the inflammatory subset of human SSc. However, there was no evidence that stretching attenuated inflammation at week 2. Daily stretching for 10 min can improve skin thickness and mobility in the absence of any other treatment in the sclGvHD murine model. These pre-clinical results suggest that a systematic investigation of stretching as a therapeutic modality is warranted in patients with SSc.

  1. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...... nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122)....

  2. Subcutaneous Tissue Expander Placement with Synthetic Titanium-Coated Mesh in Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Results

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Donato; Calabrese, Claudio; Bianchi, Simonetta; Meattini, Icro; Bernini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A subcutaneous, prepectoral, muscle-sparing approach has been recently described for implant-based breast reconstruction. This is a preliminary series of 2-stage breast reconstructions by means of tissue expander placed subcutaneously with the support of a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh. A pilot series of cases was started in 2012. Inclusion criteria were informed consent, age less than 80 years, normal body mass index (range, 18.5?24.9), no T4 and metastatic cancers, no comorbid...

  3. Perivascular adipose tissue, potassium channels, and vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Gollasch, Maik

    2014-09-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue has been recognized unequivocally as a major player in the pathology of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Through its production of adipokines and the release of other thus far unidentified factors, this recently discovered adipose tissue modulates vascular regulation and the myogenic response. After the discovery of its ability to diminish the vessel's response to vasoconstrictors, a new paradigm established adipose-derived relaxing factor (ADRF) as a paracrine smooth muscle cells' potassium channel opener that could potentially help combat vascular dysfunction. This review will discuss the role of ADRF in vascular dysfunction in obesity and hypertension, the different potassium channels that can be activated by this factor, and describes new pharmacological tools that can mimic the ADRF effect and thus can be beneficial against vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Engineering the mechanical and biological properties of nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey J D; Yu, Jian; Wang, Aijun; Lee, Randall; Fang, Jun; Li, Song

    2017-08-17

    Synthetic small diameter vascular grafts have a high failure rate, and endothelialization is critical for preventing thrombosis and graft occlusion. A promising approach is in situ tissue engineering, whereby an acellular scaffold is implanted and provides stimulatory cues to guide the in situ remodeling into a functional blood vessel. An ideal scaffold should have sufficient binding sites for biomolecule immobilization and a mechanical property similar to native tissue. Here we developed a novel method to blend low molecular weight (LMW) elastic polymer during electrospinning process to increase conjugation sites and to improve the mechanical property of vascular grafts. LMW elastic polymer improved the elasticity of the scaffolds, and significantly increased the amount of heparin conjugated to the micro/nanofibrous scaffolds, which in turn increased the loading capacity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prolonged the release of VEGF. Vascular grafts were implanted into the carotid artery of rats to evaluate the in vivo performance. VEGF treatment significantly enhanced endothelium formation and the overall patency of vascular grafts. Heparin coating also increased cell infiltration into the electrospun grafts, thus increasing the production of collagen and elastin within the graft wall. This work demonstrates that LMW elastic polymer blending is an approach to engineer the mechanical and biological property of micro/nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

  5. Anesthesia for free vascularized tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Longrois, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Anesthesia may be an important factor in maximizing the success of microsurgery by controlling the hemodynamics and the regional blood flow. The intraanesthetic basic goal is to maintain an optimal blood flow for the vascularized free flap by: increasing the circulatory blood flow, maintaining a normal body temperature to avoid peripheral vasoconstriction, reducing vasoconstriction resulted from pain, anxiety, hyperventilation, or some drugs, treating hypotension caused by extensive sympathetic block and low cardiac output. A hyperdynamic circulation can be obtained by hypervolemic or normovolemic hemodilution and by decrease of systemic vascular resistance. The importance of proper volume replacement has been widely accepted, but the optimal strategy is still open to debate. General anesthesia combined with various types of regional anesthesia is largely preferred for microvascular surgery. Maintenance of homeostasis through avoidance of hyperoxia, hypocapnia, and hypovolemia (all factors that can decrease cardiac output and induce local vasoconstriction) is a well-established perioperative goal. As the ischemia-reperfusion injury could occur, inhalatory anesthetics as sevoflurane (that attenuate the consequences of this process) seem to be the anesthetics of choice. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  7. Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Altabas, Karmela; Gaeta, Elio; Altabas, Velimir

    2011-04-01

    Cellulite, which appears as orange peel-type or cottage cheese-like dimpling of the skin on the thighs and buttocks, is a complex, multifactorial, cosmetic disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone mainly produced by subcutaneous fat that shows important protective anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. We hypothesized that adiponectin expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of cellulite. We reasoned that a reduction in the expression of adiponectin - a humoral vasodilator - in the SAT of cellulite areas might contribute to the altered microcirculation frequently found in these regions. A total of 15 lean (body mass index [BMI] cellulite and 15 age- and BMI-matched women without cellulite participated in this study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess adiponectin gene expression. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Adiponectin mRNA expression in the SAT of the gluteal region was significantly lower in areas with cellulite compared with those without (12.6 ± 3.1 AU versus 16.6 ± 4.1 AU; P=0.006). However, plasma adiponectin levels did not differ between women with (20.3 ± 7.3 μg/ml) and without (19.3 ± 6.1 μg/ml) cellulite (P=0.69). Adiponectin expression is significantly reduced in the SAT in areas affected by cellulite. Our findings provide novel insights into the nature of cellulite and may give clues to the treatment of this cosmetic issue. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Evaluation of the ultrasound reproducibility as a method to measure the subcutaneous tissue of the nasal tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naves, Marcell de Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The previous evaluation of the patient's anatomy is crucial to achieve a sharp nasal tip in a rhinoplasty. The thickness of the subcutaneous tissue is indispensable for the esthetical harmony of the area. Techniques to measure such structures on the patient 'in vivo' are not found in literature. Objective: Evaluate the inter-observer inconsistency of the ultrasound method to measure the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue of the nasal tip by way of an ultrasound. Method: 47 volunteers were submitted to a nasal tip ultrasound performed by two radiology specialists, who used the same exam technique with a linear electronic transducer at a frequency between 5 and 9 MHz. The thickness of the subcutaneous tissue was evaluated by measuring the point with the highest protrusion of the largest alar cartilage dome towards skin. Prospective study. Results: The measurement averages of the subcutaneous tissue of the nasal tip achieved by the examiners did not show statistically significant differences (p = 0.5303. When analyzing the reproducibility between examiners, an interclass 'r'correlation coefficient (Pearson 0.9333, i.e., an excellent inter-observer reproducibility was found. Conclusion: The ultrasound proved to be reproducible and examiners satisfactorily agree about evaluating the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue of the skin, thus helping the surgeon perform the pre-surgical analysis and find the best surgical technique for each case.

  9. Imaging of the skin and subcutaneous tissue using classical and high-frequency ultrasonographies in anti-cellulite therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlosek, Robert Krzysztof; Dębowska, Renata Maria; Lewandowski, Marcin; Malinowska, Sylwia; Nowicki, Andrzej; Eris, Irena

    2011-11-01

    The development of ultrasonography allowed for skin imaging used in dermatology and esthetic medicine. By means of classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies, changes within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue can be presented. The aim of this study was to show the possibilities of applying classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies in esthetic dermatology based on monitoring various types of anti-cellulite therapies. Sixty-one women with cellulite were assigned to two smaller groups. One group was using anti-cellulite cream and the second group was a placebo group. The ultrasound examination was carried out before the initiation and after the completion of the treatment and evaluated epidermal echoes, the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue and the dermis, dermis echogenicity, the length and surface area of the subcutaneous tissue fascicles growing into the dermis, and the presence or absence of edemas. After the completion of the treatment, a statistically significant difference was observed. The most useful parameters were as follows: the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, echogenicity, the surface area and length of the subcutaneous tissue, as well as the presence of edemas. The discussed changes were not observed in the placebo group. Classic and high-frequency ultrasonographies are useful methods for monitoring anti-cellulite therapies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reactions to Various Endodontic Biomaterials: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Saghiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the biocompatibility of a variety of commercial ProRoot WMTA cements and a resin-based cement (Geristore® with different pH values of setting reaction and different aluminum contents, implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats at various time intervals. Materials and methods. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes were filled with Angelus WMTA, ProRoot WMTA, Bioaggregate, and Geristore. Empty control tubes were implanted into subcutaneous tissues and harvested at 7-, 14-, 28- and 60-day intervals. Tissue sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were categorized as 0, none (without inflammatory cells; 1, mild (inflammatory cells ≤25; 2, moderate (25–125 inflammatory cells; and 3, severe (>125 inflammatory cells. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results. ProRoot WMTA and Angelus elicited significantly less inflammation than other materials (P<0.05. After 7 days, however, all the materials induced significantly more inflammation than the controls (P<0.05. Angelus-MTA group exhibited no significant differences from the Bioaggregate group (P=0.15; however, ProRoot WMTA elicited significantly less inflammation than Bioaggregate (P=0.02. Geristore induced significantly more inflammation than other groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Geristore induced an inflammatory response higher than ProRoot WMTA; therefore, it is not recommended for clinical use.

  11. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsouris, David; Qi, Peter; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Stanojcic, Mile; Chen, Peter; Parousis, Alexandra; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-11-24

    Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism.

  13. Stimulation of vascularization of a subcutaneous scaffold applicable for pancreatic islet-transplantation enhances immediate post-transplant islet graft function but not long-term normoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Alexandra M.; Shiri, Li; Swart, Daniël H; Hertsig, Don T; de Haan, Bart J.; Kamps, Jan A A M; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M.; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.; Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets, which can be prevented by grafting in a prevascularized, subcutaneous scaffold. Supporting vascularization of a scaffold to limit the period of ischemia is challenging and was developed here by applying liposomes for controlled release of angiogenic factors. The angiogenic capacity of platelet?derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor...

  14. The Lipid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranković, Lana; Delaš, Ivančica; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Klobučar, Karla; Krivić, Gabriela; Stojević, Zvonko; Aladrović, Jasna

    The composition of adipose tissue in brown bears (Ursus arctos) is highly variable and depends on an individual's feeding habits. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may provide insight into brown bear feeding habits, for which data are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the lipid composition of SAT and variations in the composition of fatty substances with regard to gender and to assess SAT relative to season and body mass (BM) of brown bears in Croatia. Seventy-six tissue samples of brown bear SAT were analyzed in this study. We found that gender, season, and BM significantly affected the lipid composition of SAT. Both females and males had higher percentages of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in SAT in spring than in autumn, while the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was higher in autumn. The prevalence of MUFAs in SAT and the greater presence of PUFAs in autumn, together with the presence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids, indicate the importance of these fatty acids in brown bear physiology. We suggest that the lipid content of adipose tissue may provide valuable information on changes in brown bear condition in response to feeding habits and the effects of supplemental feeding.

  15. Effects of a hyperbaric environment on subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-top).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Tafeit, Erwin; Fraidl, Michaela; Dietmaier, Gabriele; Anegg, Udo; Klemen, Huberta; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The physiological reactions of the body in scuba diving situation can be simulated in a pressure chamber by increasing the ambient pressure. In this study the influence of a hyperbaric environment of 6 bar on the changes of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thicknesses on different body sites in 68 voluntary men with undersea diving experience was investigated. Measurements of SAT-topography (SAT-Top) were performed with the optical device Lipometer before and after hyperbaric exposure. We observed a significant increase of the SAT-layers of the upper body zones, upper abdomen (+24.5%), lower abdomen (+21%) and front chest (+19%) after hyperbaric exposure. This increase of volume can be assumed to the nitrogen accumulation in fat cells at increased ambient pressures. In conclusion we describe for the first time in detail the influence of a hyperbaric environment on quantitative and topographic changes of SAT.

  16. Transformation of nonvascular acellular tissue matrices into durable vascular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D R; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Black, K S; Ollerenshaw, J D

    2001-05-01

    Prosthetic grafts commonly used for vascular reconstruction are limited to synthetics and cross-linked tissue grafts. Within these devices, graft infections are common, compliance mismatch is significant, and handling qualities are poor. Natural biological tissues that are unfixed have been shown to resist infections and be durable and compliant. A natural biological matrix that could be remodeled appropriately after implantation would be a desirable graft for vascular reconstruction. SynerGraft tissue engineering strategies have been used to minimize antigenicity and produce stable unfixed vascular grafts from nonvascular bovine tissues. These grafts have replaced the abdominal aortas of 8 dogs that have been followed for up to 10 months. Early evaluation indicates rapid recellularization by recipient smooth muscle actin positive cells, which become arranged circumferentially, into the media. Arterioles were present in the adventitial areas and endothelial cells were seen to cover lumenal surfaces. After 10 months, grafts were patent and not aneurysmal. These data indicate that SynerGraft processing of animal tissues is capable of producing stable vascular conduits that exhibit long-term functionality in other species.

  17. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviero-Miachon AA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon,1,2 Angela Maria Spinola-Castro,1,2 Maria Lucia de Martino Lee,2 Carlos Manoel de Castro Monteiro,3 Antonio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho,4 Antonio Ramos Calixto,5 Bruno Geloneze,5 Gil Guerra-Junior6 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 2Pediatric Oncology Institute – IOP/GRAACC, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 3Private Office, Castro Monteiro, Sao Paulo, 4Division of Cardiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 5Laboratory of Investigation on Metabolism and Diabetes (LIMED, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, 6Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP, adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Results: Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT (P<0.050. In a multiple linear regression model, cIMT positively correlated with exposure to CRT (P=0.029, diastolic BP (P=0.016, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P=0.048, while negatively related to SAT (P=0.007. Conclusion: In young survivors of childhood ALL

  18. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  19. Stimulation of vascularization of a subcutaneous scaffold applicable for pancreatic islet-transplantation enhances immediate post-transplant islet graft function but not long-term normoglycemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Alexandra M; Li, Shiri; Swart, Daniël H; Hertsig, Don T; de Haan, Bart J; Kamps, Jan A A M; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; Lakey, Jonathan R T; de Vos, Paul

    The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets, which can be prevented by grafting in a prevascularized, subcutaneous scaffold. Supporting vascularization of a scaffold to limit the period of ischemia is challenging and was developed here by

  20. Vascularization and Angiogenesis in Tissue Engineering: Beyond Creating Static Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Engineered tissues need a vascular network to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen after implantation. A network that can connect to the vasculature of the patient after implantation can be included during in vitro culture. For optimal integration, this network needs to be highly organized,

  1. Vascularization Potential of Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide-co-Caprolactone) Scaffold: The Impact for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundziłł, Arkadiusz; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Adamowicz, Jan; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Nowacki, Maciej; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszałek, Andrzej; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Gatherwright, James; Drewa, Tomasz

    2017-03-31

    BACKGROUND Electrospun nanofibers have widespread putative applications in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. When compared to naturally occurring collagen matrices, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds have two distinct advantages: they do not induce a foreign body reaction and they are not at risk for biological contamination. However, the exact substrate, structure, and production methods have yet to be defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the current study, tubular-shaped poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) constructs produced using electrospinning technology were evaluated for their potential application in the field of tissue regeneration in two separate anatomic locations: the skin and the abdomen. The constructs were designed to have an internal diameter of 3 mm and thickness of 200 μm. Using a rodent model, 20 PLCL tubular constructs were surgically implanted in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneously. The constructs were then evaluated histologically using electron microscopy at 6 weeks post-implantation. RESULTS Histological evaluation and analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that pure scaffolds by themselves were able to induce angiogenesis after implantation in the rat model. Vascularization was observed in both tested groups; however, better results were obtained after intraperitoneal implantation. Formation of more and larger vessels that migrated inside the scaffold was observed after implantation into the peritoneum. In this group no evidence of inflammation and better integration of scaffold with host tissue were noticed. Subcutaneous implantation resulted in more fibrotic reaction, and differences in cell morphology were also observed between the two tested groups. CONCLUSIONS This study provides a standardized evaluation of a PLCL conduit structure in two different anatomic locations, demonstrating the excellent ability of the structure to achieve vascularization. Functional, histological, and mechanical data

  2. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Webb, R Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT.

  3. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... was quantified. Results: In the subjects given vitamin D-3, the median concentrations of serum 25(OH)D-3, fat vitamin D-3, and fat 25(OH)D-3 were 99 nmol/l, 209 ng/g, and 3.8 ng/g, respectively; and correspondingly in the placebo group 62 nmol/l, 32 ng/g, and 2.5 ng/g. If assuming an equal amount of vitamin D-3...

  4. A Unique Electrical Thermal Stimulation System Comparable to Moxibustion of Subcutaneous Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Seok Myoung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moxibustion strengthens immunity and it is an effective treatment modality, but, depending on the material quantity, shape, and composition, the thermal strength and intensity can be difficult to control, which may cause pain or epidermal burns. To overcome these limitations, a heat stimulating system which is able to control the thermal intensity was developed. The temperature distributions on epidermis, at 5 mm and 10 mm of depth, in rabbit femoral tissue were compared between moxibustion and the electric thermal stimulation system. The stimulation system consists of a high radio frequency dielectric heating equipment (2 MHz frequency, maximum power 200 W, isolation probe, isolation plate, negative pressure generator, and a temperature assessment system. The temperature was modulated by controlling the stimulation pulse duty ratio, repetition number, and output. There were 95% and 91% temperature distribution correlations between moxibustion and the thermal stimulus at 5 mm and 10 mm of depth in tissue, respectively. Moreover, the epidermal temperature in thermal stimulation was lower than that in moxibustion. These results showed that heat loss by the electric thermal stimulation system is less than that by the traditional moxibustion method. Furthermore, the proposed electric thermal stimulation did not cause adverse effects, such as suppuration or blisters, and also provided subcutaneous stimulation comparable to moxibustion.

  5. The cytotoxic evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Gözde; Yalcin, Yagmur; Dindar, Seckin; Sancakli, Hande; Erdemir, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BA, a bioceramic nanoparticulate cement, on subcutaneous rat tissue. Study Design: Fifty Sprouge Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BioAggregate, along with a control group of empty, were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After estimated time intervals the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then evaluated under a light microscope for inflammatory reactions and mineralization. Results: All groups evoked a severe to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction at 7 and 15 days, which decreased with time. Both the MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar inflammatory reactions, except at 90 days when MTA showed statistically significant greater inflammation (p>0.05). The MTA group showed foreign body reaction at all times. Compared to BioAggregate, MTA showed significantly more foreign body reaction at 60 and 90 days (p0.05). Conclusions: Since DiaRoot BioAggregate showed significantly better results than MTA, we can conclude that it is more biocompatible. However, further studies are required to confirm this result. Key words:Biocompatibility, mineral trioxide aggregate, bioAggregate. PMID:23722144

  6. Microfluidic Bioprinting for Engineering Vascularized Tissues and Organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Pi, Qingmeng; van Genderen, Anne Metje

    2017-08-11

    Engineering vascularized tissue constructs and organoids has been historically challenging. Here we describe a novel method based on microfluidic bioprinting to generate a scaffold with multilayer interlacing hydrogel microfibers. To achieve smooth bioprinting, a core-sheath microfluidic printhead containing a composite bioink formulation extruded from the core flow and the crosslinking solution carried by the sheath flow, was designed and fitted onto the bioprinter. By blending gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) with alginate, a polysaccharide that undergoes instantaneous ionic crosslinking in the presence of select divalent ions, followed by a secondary photocrosslinking of the GelMA component to achieve permanent stabilization, a microfibrous scaffold could be obtained using this bioprinting strategy. Importantly, the endothelial cells encapsulated inside the bioprinted microfibers can form the lumen-like structures resembling the vasculature over the course of culture for 16 days. The endothelialized microfibrous scaffold may be further used as a vascular bed to construct a vascularized tissue through subsequent seeding of the secondary cell type into the interstitial space of the microfibers. Microfluidic bioprinting provides a generalized strategy in convenient engineering of vascularized tissues at high fidelity.

  7. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  8. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease of bone, subcutaneous tissue and paranasal sinus mucosa with a review of its pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Angela J.; Parisien, May [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Division of Surgical Pathology, New York (United States); Feldman, Frieda [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Young-In Lee, Francis [Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, New York (United States)

    2005-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting in a 36-year-old man with lesions of bone, subcutaneous tissue of the arm and maxillary sinus mucosa unassociated with lymphadenopathy or systemic symptoms. These lesions appeared metachronously within a 6-month period. The diagnostic light microscopic and immunohistochemical findings and pathogenesis of this interesting disease are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...

  10. Three-dimensional bioprinting of thick vascularized tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesky, David B.; Homan, Kimberly A.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-03-01

    The advancement of tissue and, ultimately, organ engineering requires the ability to pattern human tissues composed of cells, extracellular matrix, and vasculature with controlled microenvironments that can be sustained over prolonged time periods. To date, bioprinting methods have yielded thin tissues that only survive for short durations. To improve their physiological relevance, we report a method for bioprinting 3D cell-laden, vascularized tissues that exceed 1 cm in thickness and can be perfused on chip for long time periods (>6 wk). Specifically, we integrate parenchyma, stroma, and endothelium into a single thick tissue by coprinting multiple inks composed of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (hNDFs) within a customized extracellular matrix alongside embedded vasculature, which is subsequently lined with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These thick vascularized tissues are actively perfused with growth factors to differentiate hMSCs toward an osteogenic lineage in situ. This longitudinal study of emergent biological phenomena in complex microenvironments represents a foundational step in human tissue generation.

  11. Does measurement site for visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue alter associations with the metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and the metabolic syndrome are altered depending on measurement site for VAT and ASAT and the definition used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Total VAT and ASAT volume was derived using approximately 37 contiguous computed tomography (CT) images from T10-T11 to L5-S1 in 85 men. CT images obtained at eight intervertebral locations (e.g., L4-L5, L3-L4, etc.) were used to determine the associations between partial volumes (single images) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in adipose tissue. For total and all partial volumes, VAT was more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than ASAT independent of metabolic syndrome criteria. The OR (per SD) for NCEP metabolic syndrome was higher for total VAT volume (OR = 7.26) and for the partial volumes at T12-L1 (7.46) and L1-L2 (8.77) than those at the L4-L5 level (3.94). The OR for metabolic syndrome ( approximately 2.6) was not substantially different among the ASAT measures. A similar pattern of association was observed using the IDF metabolic syndrome criteria. The measurement site for VAT, but not for ASAT, has a substantial influence on the magnitude of the association with both metabolic syndrome definitions. However, because VAT remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome regardless of measurement site, the clinical interpretation was unaltered by measurement protocol or metabolic syndrome definition.

  12. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...... with a 4% coefficient of variation in both tissues. Blood flow and the change in signal intensity as a measure of the microvascular volume increased significantly and simultaneously in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue after glucose intake. The forearm blood flow and muscle signal intensity remained...

  13. Hyperthermia-induced vascular injury in normal and neoplastic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badylak, S F; Babbs, C F; Skojac, T M; Voorhees, W D; Richardson, R C

    1985-09-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 20 minutes), were studied by histologic and ultrastructural examination. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed edema, congestion, and hemorrhage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration, macrophage infiltration, and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and finally by regeneration and repair by 7 days PH. Vascular endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments separated by a 30- or 60-min cooling interval, were applied to Walker 256 tumors in a subsequent study. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral steady state temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results suggest that vascular damage contributes to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia in normal tissue and some types of neoplastic tissue, and that selective heating of neoplastic tissue occurs in tumor tissue with disrupted microvasculature.

  14. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  15. Changes in the relative thickness of individual subcutaneous adipose tissue layers in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Madsen, Mads T.

    2007-01-01

    in thickness per unit change in body weight was greatest for L2, followed by L1 and L3. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose layers grow at different rates These results demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose layers grow at different rates relative to each other and to change in body...... weight and indicate that ultrasound can be used to track these differences....

  16. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  17. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI......OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... be enhanced or blunted during a GIP, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic (HI-HG) clamp in obese subjects with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN: Sixteen obese (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) subjects were divided into two groups, based on their plasma glucose response...

  18. A Novel Seeding and Conditioning Bioreactor for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schulte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple efforts have been made to develop small-diameter tissue engineered vascular grafts using a great variety of bioreactor systems at different steps of processing. Nevertheless, there is still an extensive need for a compact all-in-one system providing multiple and simultaneous processing. The aim of this project was to develop a new device to fulfill the major requirements of an ideal system that allows simultaneous seeding, conditioning, and perfusion. The newly developed system can be actuated in a common incubator and consists of six components: a rotating cylinder, a pump, a pulse generator, a control unit, a mixer, and a reservoir. Components that are in direct contact with cell media, cells, and/or tissue allow sterile processing. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed with polyurethane tubes and collagen tubes. The scaffolds were seeded with fibroblasts and endothelial cells that were isolated from human saphenous vein segments. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed better seeding success of polyurethane scaffolds in comparison to collagen. Conditioning of polyurethane tubes with 100 dyn/cm2 resulted in cell detachments, whereas a moderate conditioning program with stepwise increase of shear stress from 10 to 40 dyn/cm2 induced a stable and confluent cell layer. The new bioreactor is a powerful tool for quick and easy testing of various scaffold materials for the development of tissue engineered vascular grafts. The combination of this bioreactor with native tissue allows testing of medical devices and medicinal substances under physiological conditions that is a good step towards reduction of animal testing. In the long run, the bioreactor could turn out to produce tissue engineered vascular grafts for human applications “at the bedside”.

  19. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  20. Dynamics of Long-distance Signaling via Plant Vascular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka eNotaguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant-microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level.

  1. Follicular growth and estradiol follow-up after subcutaneous xenografting of fresh and cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Benoit; Canis, Michel; Darcha, Claude; Artonne, Christine; Smitz, Johan; Grizard, Genevieve

    2008-06-01

    To assess ovarian cortex surrounding benign ovarian cysts after cryopreservation and grafting to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Animal study. Academic research laboratories. Ovarian tissue obtained from 15 patients. Grafting of fresh and frozen/thawed ovarian tissue into the subcutaneous space of 22 SCID mice for 80 days. Histologic analysis before and after grafting. Serum E(2) measured before (after 37 days of grafting) and after FSH/LH supplementation (end of the study). After grafting, follicular density had decreased for frozen/thawed tissue in all cases. The follicular distribution was modified in fresh tissue: Primordial follicles proportion was reduced (79% vs. 17%), whereas the primary and secondary ones were increased (21% vs. 57% and 0% vs. 23%, respectively). The same tendency was observed in frozen/thawed tissue. Significant E(2) secretion was obtained before and after FSH/LH supplementation in castrated mice, grafted with either fresh or frozen/thawed tissue. Fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortex surrounding benign ovarian cysts grafted into the subcutaneous space of SCID mice is able to sustain ovarian tissue function, although follicular growth appears lower with frozen/thawed tissue.

  2. Virtopsy: forensic traumatology of the subcutaneous fatty tissue; multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kathrin; Vock, Peter; Tiefenthaler, Barbara; Ranner, Gerhard; Scheurer, Eva; Thali, Michael J; Zwygart, Karin; Sonnenschein, Martin; Wiltgen, Marco; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2004-07-01

    Traumatic lesions of the subcutaneous fatty tissue provide important clues for forensic reconstruction. The interpretation of these patterns requires a precise description and recording of the position and extent of each lesion. During conventional autopsy, this evaluation is performed by dissecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in successive layers. In this way, depending on the force and type of impact (right angle or tangent), several morphologically distinct stages of fatty tissue damage can be differentiated: perilobular hemorrhage (I), contusion (II), or disintegration (III) of the fat lobuli, and disintegration with development of a subcutaneous cavity (IV). In examples of virtopsy cases showing blunt trauma to the skin and fatty tissue, we analyzed whether these lesions can also be recorded and classified using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MSCT has proven to be a valuable screening method to detect the lesions, but MRI is necessary in order to properly differentiate and classify the grade of damage. These noninvasive radiological diagnostic tools can be further developed to play an important role in forensic examinations, in particular when it comes to evaluating living trauma victims.

  3. Autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue transplants improve adipose tissue metabolism and reduce insulin resistance and fatty liver in diet?induced obesity rats

    OpenAIRE

    Torres?Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan?P?rez, Nashla; D?az?Villase?or, Andrea; Tovar, Armando R.; Torre?Villalvazo, Ivan; Ordaz?Nava, Guillermo; Mor?n?Ramos, Sof?a; Noriega, Lilia G.; Mart?nez?Ben?tez, Braulio; L?pez?Garibay, Alejandro; Torres?Landa, Samuel; Ceballos?Cant?, Juan C.; Tovar?Palacio, Claudia; Figueroa?Ju?rez, Elizabeth; Hiriart, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long?term dietary and pharmacological treatments for obesity have been questioned, particularly in individuals with severe obesity, so a new approach may involve adipose tissue transplants, particularly autologous transplants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transplants into two specific intraabdominal cavity sites (omental and retroperitoneal) after 90?days. The study was performed using two different ...

  4. The double isotope technique for in vivo determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for xenon in human subcutaneous adipose tissue--an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A; Bülow, J

    1985-01-01

    Local subcutaneous 133xenon (133Xe) elimination was registered in the human forefoot in 34 patients. The tissue/blood partition coefficient for Xe was estimated individually by simultaneous registration of 133Xe and [131I]antipyrine ([131I]AP) washout from the same local depot. When measured...... the partition coefficient found by the double isotope technique, significantly lower values are obtained than if the in vitro determined coefficient is used. This difference is explained mainly by local dilution when injecting xenon subcutaneously. In short-term studies, utilization of the double isotope...

  5. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity) have a fetal origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Hou, Lei; Johnsen, Lærke

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has ...... long-term differential impacts on development, expandability and metabolic features in subcutaneous as compared to perirenal and mesenteric adipose tissues, which 2) will predispose for visceral obesity upon exposure to an obesogenic diet in early postnatal life....

  6. Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Brown and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Significance with Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose

  7. Microarray based gene expression analysis of murine brown and subcutaneous adipose tissue: significance with human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh K Baboota

    Full Text Available Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT and brown (BAT are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models.The present study was designed to: (a investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1 and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1 or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1 and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74. Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets (a which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human.Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose tissue to another using murine model with focus

  8. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism....

  9. Small-diameter tissue engineered vascular graft made of electrospun PCL/lecithin blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhexiang; Xing, Bin; Zhao, Qiang; Kong, Deling

    2012-11-01

    In this study, natural lecithin was incorporated into cholesterol-poly(ε-caprolactone) (Chol-PCL) by solution blending in order to modify the performance of the hydrophobic and bio-inert PCL. The fibrous Chol-PCL/lecithin membranes were fabricated by electrospinning, and the surface morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, static water contact angle, and mechanical tensile testing. The blood compatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated by in vitro hemolysis assay. The cytocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated by cell adhesion and proliferation using bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Subcutaneous implantation was also performed to evaluate the in vivo inflammatory reaction. The tubular tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) was further constructed by rolling cell sheet comprising fibrous membrane and MSCs. Furthermore, endothelial cells (ECs) were seeded onto the lumen of the graft with the aim to form vascular endothelium. The preliminary results indicate that electrospun Chol-PCL/lecithin scaffolds show improved hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility compared with neat Chol-PCL, and combining the Chol-PCL/lecithin fibrous scaffold with MSCs and ECs with well controlled distribution is a promising strategy for constructing TEVGs.

  10. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Stienstra, R; van Diepen, J A; Hijmans, A; van der Laak, J A; Vervoort, G M M; Tack, C J

    2013-12-01

    Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the insulin-associated increase in fat mass would also result in changes in the morphology of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and in increased inflammation, especially when weight gain was excessive. We investigated the effects of weight gain on adipocyte size, macrophage influx, and mRNA expression and protein levels of key inflammatory markers within the adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 6 months after starting insulin therapy. As expected, insulin therapy significantly increased body weight. At the level of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin treatment led to an influx of macrophages. When comparing patients gaining no or little weight with patients gaining >4% body weight after 6 months of insulin therapy, both subgroups displayed an increase in macrophage influx. However, individuals who had gained weight had higher protein levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, TNF-α and IL-1β after 6 months of insulin therapy compared with those who had not gained weight. We conclude that insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycaemic control but also induced body weight gain and an influx of macrophages into the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In patients characterised by a pronounced insulin-associated weight gain, the influx of macrophages into the adipose tissue was accompanied by a more pronounced inflammatory status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00781495. The study was funded by European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes and the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation.

  11. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  12. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle......) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO...... expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle...

  13. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted......Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...

  14. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Fan; Cai, Yin; Cai, Yu; Wang, Yu; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT. The expression of fat-specific protein (FSP)-27, a protein that promotes fusion of triglycerides and formation of unilocular lipid droplets were diminished, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, the upstream regulator of FSP27, was enhanced in EP4-deficient mice. The present study showed that EP4 acts as a negative regulator of WAT remodeling, it tightly coordinates rates of triglyceride storage in lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiratory function in subcutaneous white adipocytes through the phosphorylated AMPK-FSP27 signaling axis. Thus, deletion of EP4 increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in WAT, and fat mass loss ensues in mice.-Ying, F., Cai, Y., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Tang, E. H. C. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  15. Tissue Stretch Decreases Soluble TGF-β1 and Type-1 Procollagen in Mouse Subcutaneous Connective Tissue: Evidence From Ex Vivo and In Vivo Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffard, Nicole A.; Cutroneo, Kenneth R.; Badger, Gary J.; White, Sheryl L.; Buttolph, Thomas R.; Ehrlich, H. Paul; Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie; Langevin, Helene M.

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in connective tissue remodeling, scarring, and fibrosis. The effects of mechanical forces on TGF-β1 and collagen deposition are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that brief (10 min) static tissue stretch attenuates TGF-β1-mediated new collagen deposition in response to injury. We used two different models: (1) an ex vivo model in which excised mouse subcutaneous tissue (N = 44 animals) was kept in organ culture for 4 days...

  16. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  17. Discrepancy between the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of soft tissue vascular malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horbach, Sophie E. R.; Utami, Amalia M.; Meijer-Jorna, Lorine B.; Sillevis Smitt, J. H.; Spuls, Phyllis I.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; van der Wal, Allard C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue vascular malformations are generally diagnosed clinically, according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. Diagnostic histopathologic examination is rarely performed. We sought to evaluate the validity of the current diagnostic workup

  18. Tissue stretch decreases soluble TGF-beta1 and type-1 procollagen in mouse subcutaneous connective tissue: evidence from ex vivo and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Nicole A; Cutroneo, Kenneth R; Badger, Gary J; White, Sheryl L; Buttolph, Thomas R; Ehrlich, H Paul; Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie; Langevin, Helene M

    2008-02-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) plays a key role in connective tissue remodeling, scarring, and fibrosis. The effects of mechanical forces on TGF-beta1 and collagen deposition are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that brief (10 min) static tissue stretch attenuates TGF-beta1-mediated new collagen deposition in response to injury. We used two different models: (1) an ex vivo model in which excised mouse subcutaneous tissue (N = 44 animals) was kept in organ culture for 4 days and either stretched (20% strain for 10 min 1 day after excision) or not stretched; culture media was assayed by ELISA for TGF-beta1; (2) an in vivo model in which mice (N = 22 animals) underwent unilateral subcutaneous microsurgical injury on the back, then were randomized to stretch (20-30% strain for 10 min twice a day for 7 days) or no stretch; subcutaneous tissues of the back were immunohistochemically stained for Type-1 procollagen. In the ex vivo model, TGF-beta1 protein was lower in stretched versus non-stretched tissue (repeated measures ANOVA, P < 0.01). In the in vivo model, microinjury resulted in a significant increase in Type-1 procollagen in the absence of stretch (P < 0.001), but not in the presence of stretch (P = 0.21). Thus, brief tissue stretch attenuated the increase in both soluble TGF-beta1 (ex vivo) and Type-1 procollagen (in vivo) following tissue injury. These results have potential relevance to the mechanisms of treatments applying brief mechanical stretch to tissues (e.g., physical therapy, respiratory therapy, mechanical ventilation, massage, yoga, acupuncture). (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Tissue Stretch Decreases Soluble TGF-β1 and Type-1 Procollagen in Mouse Subcutaneous Connective Tissue: Evidence From Ex Vivo and In Vivo Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Nicole A.; Cutroneo, Kenneth R.; Badger, Gary J.; White, Sheryl L.; Buttolph, Thomas R.; Ehrlich, H. Paul; Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie; Langevin, Helene M.

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in connective tissue remodeling, scarring, and fibrosis. The effects of mechanical forces on TGF-β1 and collagen deposition are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that brief (10 min) static tissue stretch attenuates TGF-β1-mediated new collagen deposition in response to injury. We used two different models: (1) an ex vivo model in which excised mouse subcutaneous tissue (N = 44 animals) was kept in organ culture for 4 days and either stretched (20% strain for 10 min 1 day after excision) or not stretched; culture media was assayed by ELISA for TGF-β1; (2) an in vivo model in which mice (N = 22 animals) underwent unilateral subcutaneous microsurgical injury on the back, then were randomized to stretch (20–30% strain for 10 min twice a day for 7 days) or no stretch; subcutaneous tissues of the back were immunohistochemically stained for Type-1 procollagen. In the ex vivo model, TGF-β1 protein was lower in stretched versus non-stretched tissue (repeated measures ANOVA, P < 0.01). In the in vivo model, microinjury resulted in a significant increase in Type-1 procollagen in the absence of stretch (P < 0.001), but not in the presence of stretch (P = 0.21). Thus, brief tissue stretch attenuated the increase in both soluble TGF-β1 (ex vivo) and Type-1 procollagen (in vivo) following tissue injury. These results have potential relevance to the mechanisms of treatments applying brief mechanical stretch to tissues (e.g., physical therapy, respiratory therapy, mechanical ventilation, massage, yoga, acupuncture). PMID:17654495

  20. Subcutaneous Tissue Expander Placement with Synthetic Titanium-Coated Mesh in Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Donato; Calabrese, Claudio; Bianchi, Simonetta; Meattini, Icro; Bernini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    A subcutaneous, prepectoral, muscle-sparing approach has been recently described for implant-based breast reconstruction. This is a preliminary series of 2-stage breast reconstructions by means of tissue expander placed subcutaneously with the support of a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh. A pilot series of cases was started in 2012. Inclusion criteria were informed consent, age less than 80 years, normal body mass index (range, 18.5-24.9), no T4 and metastatic cancers, no comorbidities, and nonsmoking patients. Expander losses, infections, seromas, skin/nipple necrosis, wound dehiscence, and reinterventions were registered in follow-up visits. Furthermore, patients were followed up in second-stage procedures and for at least 1 year from implant positioning to collect any surgical complication, reinterventions, cosmetic outcome, and oncological data. Between June 2012 and March 2014, 25 cases were enrolled in the study. Expander/implant loss rate was 0%. Skin/nipple necrosis rate was 4%. Infections rate was 12% after first-stage and 4% after second-stage procedure. Seromas rate was 0%. Five (20%) fat graft procedures were performed over the expander before second-stage reconstruction, and no reinterventions were required after second stage. Patients mean score was 99 for cosmetic outcome satisfaction, in a 0-100 scale. Subcutaneous 2-stage reconstruction with synthetic mesh proved safe and feasible. Patients satisfaction is very good after 14 months median follow-up form definitive implant placement. Although the present study involved only a small number of cases, a tissue-expander subcutaneous reconstruction seems to have promising results. Whenever pectoralis major muscle can be spared, a conservative reconstruction might be an option.

  1. Bioengineering vascularized tissue constructs using an injectable cell-laden enzymatically crosslinked collagen hydrogel derived from dermal extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kuan-Chih; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Wu, Pei-Yun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering promises to restore or replace diseased or damaged tissue by creating functional and transplantable artificial tissues. The development of artificial tissues with large dimensions that exceed the diffusion limitation will require nutrients and oxygen to be delivered via perfusion instead of diffusion alone over a short time period. One approach to perfusion is to vascularize engineered tissues, creating a de novo three-dimensional (3D) microvascular network within the tissue construct. This significantly shortens the time of in vivo anastomosis, perfusion and graft integration with the host. In this study, we aimed to develop injectable allogeneic collagen-phenolic hydroxyl (collagen-Ph) hydrogels that are capable of controlling a wide range of physicochemical properties, including stiffness, water absorption and degradability. We tested whether collagen-Ph hydrogels could support the formation of vascularized engineered tissue graft by human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vivo. First, we studied the growth of adherent ECFCs and MSCs on or in the hydrogels. To examine the potential formation of functional vascular networks in vivo, a liquid pre-polymer solution of collagen-Ph containing human ECFCs and MSCs, horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide was injected into the subcutaneous space or abdominal muscle defect of an immunodeficient mouse before gelation, to form a 3D cell-laden polymerized construct. These results showed that extensive human ECFC-lined vascular networks can be generated within 7 days, the engineered vascular density inside collagen-Ph hydrogel constructs can be manipulated through refinable mechanical properties and proteolytic degradability, and these networks can form functional anastomoses with the existing vasculature to further support the survival of host muscle tissues. Finally, optimized conditions of the cell-laden collagen

  2. Subcutaneous tissue reaction and cytotoxicity of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene blends associated with natural polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leonardo; Holgado, Leandro A; Simões, Rebeca D; Pereira, João D A S; Floriano, Juliana F; Mota, Lígia S L S; Graeff, Carlos F O; Constantino, Carlos J L; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A; Matsumoto, Mariza; Kinoshita, Angela

    2013-10-01

    Cytotoxicity and subcutaneous tissue reaction of innovative blends composed by polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene associated with natural polymers (natural rubber and native starch) forming membranes were evaluated, aiming its applications associated with bone regeneration. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in mouse fibroblasts culture cells (NIH3T3) using trypan blue staining. Tissue response was in vivo evaluated by subcutaneous implantation of materials in rats, taking into account the presence of necrosis and connective tissue capsule around implanted materials after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 60, and 100 days of surgery. The pattern of inflammation was evaluated by histomorphometry of the inflammatory cells. Chemical and morphological changes of implanted materials after 60 and 100 days were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Cytotoxicity tests indicated a good tolerance of the cells to the biomaterial. The in vivo tissue response of all studied materials showed normal inflammatory pattern, characterized by a reduction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and an increase in mononuclear leukocytes over the time (p < 0.05 Kruskal-Wallis). On day 60, microscopic analysis showed regression of the chronic inflammatory process around all materials. FTIR showed no changes in chemical composition of materials due to implantation, whereas SEM demonstrated the delivery of starch in the medium. Therefore, the results of the tests performed in vitro and in vivo show that the innovative blends can further be used as biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gupta

    Full Text Available The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women.Women (n = 140, 21-69 years, BMI 19.5-79 kg/m2 were evaluated for anthropometric and blood parameters, and adipose tissue gene expression.Subjects were separated into groups (n = 34-36 according to obesity: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2, obese I (≤45 kg/m2, obese II (≤51 kg/m2, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2. Overall, while omental expression remained unchanged, subcutaneous C3 and C3aR gene expression decreased with increasing adiposity (2-way ANOVA, p<0.01, with a concomitant decrease in SC/OM ratio (p<0.001. In subcutaneous adipose, both C3 and C3aR expression correlated with apoB, and apoA1 and inversely with waist circumference and blood pressure, while C3aR also correlated with glucose (p<0.05-0.0001. While omental C3aR expression did not correlate with any factor, omental C3 correlated with waist circumference, glucose and apoB (all p<0.05. Further, while plasma C3a/C3adesArg increased and adiponectin decreased with increasing BMI, both correlated (C3a negatively and adiponectin positively with subcutaneous C3 and C3aR expression (p<0.05-0.001 or less.The obesity-induced down-regulation of complement C3 and C3aR which is specific to subcutaneous adipose tissue, coupled to the strong correlations with multiple anthropometric, plasma and adipokine variables support a potential role for complement in immunometabolism.

  4. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  5. Povidone-Iodine Irrigation of Subcutaneous Tissues May Decrease Surgical Site Infections in Elective Colorectal Operations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Richdeep S; Al-Adra, David P; Campbell, Sandy; Olson, David W; Rowe, Brian H

    2011-06-01

    Postoperative wound infection is the most common complication following abdominal surgery and leads to delayed wound healing, prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), and causes morbidity. Povidone-Iodine (PVI) is a broad-spectrum anti-septic and disinfectant solution, and can be used intra-operatively to irrigate subcutaneous tissues prior to abdominal skin closure. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding the efficacy of intra-operative PVI irrigation of subcutaneous tissues following elective colorectal surgery. A comprehensive search of electronic databases and various grey literature sources was completed. Unpublished and non-English-language results were included. All clinical controlled trials involving PVI solution in adult colorectal surgery were included. Two independent reviewers assessed the studies for relevance, inclusion, methodological quality and extracted data from the full versions of the manuscripts. Disagreements were resolved by re-extraction or third party adjudication. Data for dichotomous outcomes are reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous data, mean differences (MD) are reported with 95% CIs. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 205 patients comparing PVI solution or spray to a control group following abdominal fascial closure in elective colorectal or clean-contaminated operations were identified. Pooled results demonstrated a reduction in surgical site infection for patients treated with PVI (RR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.22 to 3.17) compared to controls. Irrigation of subcutaneous tissues with PVI following abdominal fascial closure is associated with a reduced incidence of surgical site infection. Due to the small number of included trials and patients, additional robust randomized trials are needed.

  6. Slip points of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipids do not predict beef marbling score or percent intramuscular lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victor V; Smith, Stephen B

    2018-02-07

    We hypothesized that slip points of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue lipids would predict USDA beef marbling scores or percent intramuscular lipid (%IML). M. longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and s.c. adipose tissue from 79 feedlot-finished Angus steers were analyzed for lipid slip point, %IML, and fatty acid composition. The s.c. monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA:SFA) ratio and s.c. lipid slip points were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.557; P  0.05). These data indicate s.c. adipose tissue lipid slip point did not predict USDA marbling scores or %IML in the conventionally fed Angus steers of this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gollisch, Katja S. C.; Brandauer, Josef; Jessen, Niels; Toyoda, Taro; Nayer, Ali; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity improves glucose tolerance and decreases adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the effects of exercise training on subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (parametrial) adipose tissue in rats that were fed a chow diet (13% fat) or made insulin resistant by a high-fat diet (60% fat). Sprague-Dawley rats performed 4 wk of voluntary wheel running or were kept as sedentary controls. The training groups fed chow and the high-fat diet achieved similar running distances (8.8 ±...

  8. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cycle...... glycerol concentrations in the phentolamine-containing probe while no difference in lipolytic response was found in the aminophylline-containing probe. The results suggest that insulin antilipolytic action plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise in lean as well as in obese subjects...

  9. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...

  10. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  11. BMP4 Gene Therapy in Mature Mice Reduces BAT Activation but Protects from Obesity by Browning Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Hoffmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1. These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. On a control diet, they show unchanged body weight but improved insulin sensitivity. In contrast, AAV-BMP4-treated mice showed beiging of BAT with reduced UCP1, increased lipids, and reduced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Thus, BMP4 exerts different effects on WAT and BAT, but the overall effect is to enhance insulin sensitivity and whole-body energy expenditure by browning subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  12. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  14. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  15. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  16. Regional composition of carcass and tissue composition of cuts from lambs slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Santana Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT on the regional composition of the carcass, the tissue composition of cuts, and the leg muscularity index of Santa Inês lambs. This experiment involved 24 uncastrated male lambs at approximately 100 days of age and at an average live weight of 22.70 ± 3.75 kg that were kept in the feedlot, where they received a complete pelleted diet formulated to provide a daily gain of 0.30 kg. The animals were slaughtered as they reached the pre-defined SFT of 2.00, 3.00, and 4.00 mm, evaluated by ultrasonography. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 mm SFT had a heavier shoulder (1.80 kg and leg (2.99 kg, differing from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm. No significant differences were observed (P > 0.05 between the treatments for the percentages of muscle in the cuts, which averaged 48.38% for the neck, 58.71% for the shoulder, 43.87% for the ribs, 53.56% for the loin, and 64.52% for the leg. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 and 3.00 mm SFT differed from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm SFT for the percentage of total fat in the shoulder, which averaged 20.10, 19.02, and 15.79%, respectively. The animals slaughtered with 2.00 mm of fat exhibited the highest percentage of bone in the loin (20.23%. Leg muscularity was lower (0.34 in those slaughtered with 2.00 mm of subcutaneous fat. Slaughtering Santa Inês lambs with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses yields different regional compositions of the carcass, tissue compositions of cuts, and leg muscularity indices. It is recommended to slaughter Santa Inês lambs when they reach a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.00 mm.

  17. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: A secondary level biocompatibility test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Karanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and white Portland cement. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I or white Portland cement (Group II were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III. After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. Results: At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Conclusion: Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  18. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter; Pedersen, Per Elgård; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-05-01

    Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in SCAAT continuously. A significant increase in ATBF was observed with wear time for Teflon but not for steel catheters. Mean infusion pressure during the bolus phase increased significantly from 0 to 48 h for Teflon but not for steel catheters. ATBF and infusion counter pressure was similar between Teflon and steel catheters after acute catheter implantation and after wear time of 48 h. The maximum value of pressure during the bolus phase increased with wear time of a catheter. ATBF and bolus mean infusion pressure increased significantly with a wear time of 48 h in Teflon but not in steel catheters. The maximal pressure required to deliver a bolus infusion increased with wear time of a catheter. A higher maximal pressure was required to deliver a bolus infusion through a Teflon than through a steel catheter. We propose that the difference in infusion counter pressure and ATBF between Teflon and steel catheters with wear time may be explained by better biocompatibility of steel than Teflon.

  19. Pilot study: whole body manual subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) therapy improved pain and SAT structure in women with lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna

    2017-09-20

    Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.

  20. Principles of Biomimetic Vascular Network Design Applied to a Tissue-Engineered Liver Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganson, David M.; Pryor, Howard I.; Spool, Ira D.; Burns, Owen H.; Gilmore, J. Randall

    2010-01-01

    Branched vascular networks are a central component of scaffold architecture for solid organ tissue engineering. In this work, seven biomimetic principles were established as the major guiding technical design considerations of a branched vascular network for a tissue-engineered scaffold. These biomimetic design principles were applied to a branched radial architecture to develop a liver-specific vascular network. Iterative design changes and computational fluid dynamic analysis were used to optimize the network before mold manufacturing. The vascular network mold was created using a new mold technique that achieves a 1:1 aspect ratio for all channels. In vitro blood flow testing confirmed the physiologic hemodynamics of the network as predicted by computational fluid dynamic analysis. These results indicate that this biomimetic liver vascular network design will provide a foundation for developing complex vascular networks for solid organ tissue engineering that achieve physiologic blood flow. PMID:20001254

  1. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: A better model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Qingshan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shang Hongtao; Wu Wei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen Fulin [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang Junrui [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo Jiaping [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Mao Tianqiu, E-mail: tianqiumao@126.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-08-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) model in rabbit was developed in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Axial prevascularization was induced in a larger coral block by using the AVL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prefabrication of axial vascularized coral bone is superior as vascular carrier.

  2. Microbial growth and biochemical changes on naturally contaminated chilled-beef subcutaneous adipose tissue stored aerobically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasta, J A; Pensel, N; Masana, M; Rodríguez, H R; García, P T

    1995-01-01

    Naturally contaminated beef-brisket fat showed a psychrotroph count of 4 × 10(9) CFU/cm(2) after 14 days of aerobic refrigerated storage (5°C ± 1°C). Pseudomonas was the predominating genus. Other micro-organisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta, grew up to 2·5 × 10(8) cfu/cm(2) and 1·6 × 10(8) cfu/cm(2), respectively. Concentrations of different substrates that could support microbial growth were measured. Glucose concentration dropped to approximately one-third of the initial level during the first week of storage. Lactic acid also declined. Free fatty acids increased significantly (P < 0·05) during refrigeration. However, other lipid-deterioration indices, such as the thiobarbituric acid number and the peroxide value, remained unchanged. Beef subcutaneous fat had a high initial microbial load and a capacity to support extensive bacterial growth. It may therefore constitute an important source of contamination for meat and manufactured meat products.

  3. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  4. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M

    2009-01-01

    for age and physical fitness performed 60 min exercise bouts at 50% of their maximal oxygen consumption on two occasions: (1) during i.v. infusion of octreotide, and (2) during placebo infusion. Lipolysis and local blood flow changes in SCAT were evaluated using in situ microdialysis. Infusion......The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...

  5. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  6. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  7. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe

    Full Text Available To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs. wet wick and implantation time on COP(i.In 50 healthy volunteers interstitial fluid (IF was collected by subcutaneous implantation of multi-filamentous nylon wicks. Study subjects were allocated to two groups; one for comparing COP(i obtained from dry and saline soaked wicks, and one for comparing COP(i from unanaesthetized skin, and skin after application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA®, Astra Zeneca cream. IF was sampled from the skin of the shoulders, and implantation time was 30, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured with a colloid osmometer. Pain assessment during the procedure was compared for EMLA cream and no topical anaesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS in a subgroup of 10 subjects.There were no significant differences between COP(i obtained from dry compared to wet wicks, except that the values after 75 and 90 min. were somewhat higher for the dry wicks. Topical anaesthesia with EMLA cream did not affect COP(i values. COP(i decreased from 30 to 75 min. of implantation (23.2 ± 4.4 mmHg to 19.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.008 and subsequently tended to increase until 120 min. EMLA cream resulted in significant lower VAS score for the procedure.COP(i from subcutaneous tissue was easily obtained and fluid harvesting was well tolerated when topical anaesthetic was used. The difference in COP(i assessed by dry and wet wicks between 75 min. and 90 min. of implantation was in accordance with previous reports. The use of topical analgesia did not influence COP(i and topical analgesia may make the wick technique more acceptable for subjects who dislike technical procedures, including children.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044979.

  8. Passive cooling of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues using phase changing materials: feasibility study using a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Méndez, Ricardo; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G; Musacchia, Joseph J; Franco, Walfre

    2017-07-04

    In many dermatological applications, lowering the temperature of skin and maintaining specific temperatures for extended periods of time are fundamental requirements for treatment; for example, in targeting adipose tissue and managing cutaneous pain. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using phase changing materials (PCMs) as an alternative passive, open-loop, heat extraction method for cooling cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. We used a finite difference parametric approach to model the spatial and temporal progression of the heat transferred from the skin to a PCM in contact with the skin surface. We modelled the thermal performance of different PCMs, including different thicknesses. In addition, we used our model to propose application strategies. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of using PCMs for extracting heat from the skin and upper fat layers, inducing and maintaining similar temperatures as those induced by active closed-loop cooling with a cold plate. In terms of development, the critical design parameters are the temperature range of solidification of the material, the thickness of the material, and the rate of melting. Our study suggests that PCM-based devices may offer an alternative skin and adipose tissue cooling method that is simple to implement and use.

  9. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  10. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    A new type of resorbable biomaterial intended for pelvic reconstruction was tested with respect to tissue regeneration and biocompatibility in rats. The biomaterial consisted of methoxypolyethyleneglycol-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA). Implants were pure, enriched with extra...

  11. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Rings from Human iPSC-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraja C. Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for an efficient approach to obtain a large-scale and renewable source of functional human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to establish robust, patient-specific tissue model systems for studying the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have derived a large quantity of highly enriched functional VSMCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-VSMCs. Furthermore, we have engineered 3D tissue rings from hiPSC-VSMCs using a facile one-step cellular self-assembly approach. The tissue rings are mechanically robust and can be used for vascular tissue engineering and disease modeling of supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Our method may serve as a model system, extendable to study other vascular proliferative diseases for drug screening. Thus, this report describes an exciting platform technology with broad utility for manufacturing cell-based tissues and materials for various biomedical applications.

  12. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  13. Distinct Secretory Activity and Clinical Impact of Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Skalska, Urszula; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2017-02-01

    In the general population, low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue accompanies obesity and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, but the implication of this tissue in rheumatic disease pathology is unclear. Therefore, we characterized the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) of females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and searched for its relationship with intensity of systemic inflammation, body composition and comorbidity. The secretion of classical adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, i.e. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and MIF but less leptin than respective osteoarthritis tissues. In RA patients, TNF secretion correlated with cachectic body composition, HGF release was linked to secondary amyloidosis and visceral fat rating was an independent risk factor for CVD. In OA, secretion of leptin and HGF positively, while adiponectin inversely, correlated with systemic inflammation markers, and the release of MIF was an independent risk factor for CVD. This study reveals differences between RA and OA patients in SAAT secretory activity and suggests its different clinical impact in these diseases, characterized by high- and low-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. In RA, SAAT may directly or via an effect on body composition contribute to amyloidosis, cachexia or CVD co-occurring, while in OA SAAT-derived adipocytokines may rather regulate intensity of systemic inflammation and redound to CVD emergence.

  14. Fenofibrate (PPARalpha agonist) induces beige cell formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue from diet-induced male obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Bringhenti, Isabele; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-02-15

    Browning is characterized by the formation of beige/brite fat depots in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). This study aimed to examine whether the chronic activation of PPARalpha by fenofibrate could induce beige cell depots in the sWAT of diet-induced obese mice. High-fat fed animals presented overweight, insulin resistance and displayed adverse sWAT remodeling. Fenofibrate significantly attenuated these parameters. Treated groups demonstrated active UCP-1 beige cell clusters within sWAT, confirmed through higher gene expression of PPARalpha, PPARbeta, PGC1alpha, BMP8B, UCP-1, PRDM16 and irisin in treated groups. PPARalpha activation seems to be pivotal to trigger browning through irisin induction and UCP-1 transcription, indicating that fenofibrate increased the expression of genes typical of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the sWAT, characterizing the formation of beige cells. These findings put forward a possible role of PPARalpha as a promising therapeutic for metabolic diseases via beige cell induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Review: Advances in Vascular Tissue Engineering Using Protein-Based Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Jan P.; Kaszuba, Stephanie N.; Rowe, Shaneen L.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical need for improved blood vessel substitutes, especially in small-diameter applications, drives the field of vascular tissue engineering. The blood vessel has a well-characterized structure and function, but it is a complex tissue, and it has proven difficult to create engineered tissues that are suitable for widespread clinical use. This review is focused on approaches to vascular tissue engineering that use proteins as the primary matrix or “scaffold” material for creating fully biological blood vessel replacements. In particular, this review covers four main approaches to vascular tissue engineering: 1) cell-populated protein hydrogels, 2) cross-linked protein scaffolds, 3) decellularized native tissues, and 4) self-assembled scaffolds. Recent advances in each of these areas are discussed, along with advantages of and drawbacks to these approaches. The first fully biological engineered blood vessels have entered clinical trials, but important challenges remain before engineered vascular tissues will have a wide clinical effect. Cell sourcing and recapitulating the biological and mechanical function of the native blood vessel continue to be important outstanding hurdles. In addition, the path to commercialization for such tissues must be better defined. Continued progress in several complementary approaches to vascular tissue engineering is necessary before blood vessel substitutes can achieve their full potential in improving patient care. PMID:17961004

  18. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna; Liu, Hanli

    2007-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis: By monitoring global and local vascular oxygenation and tissue oxygen tension in breast tumors under HBO exposure with several different gas interventions, we wish to prove the following two hypotheses: that 1...

  19. Pazopanib in advanced vascular sarcomas: an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollar, A.; Jones, R.L.; Stacchiotti, S.; Gelderblom, H.; Guida, M.; Grignani, G.; Steeghs, N.; Safwat, A.; Katz, D.; Duffaud, F.; Sleijfer, S.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Touati, N.; Litiere, S.; Marreaud, S.; Gronchi, A.; Kasper, B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with selective subtypes of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who have previously received standard chemotherapy including anthracyclines. Data on the efficacy in vascular sarcomas are limited.

  20. Intrinsic features in microRNA transcriptomes link porcine visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissues to metabolic risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jideng Ma

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNA ∼22 nucleotides in length that can regulate the expression of a wide range of coding genes at the post-transcriptional level. Visceral adipose tissues (VATs and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATs, the two main fat compartments in mammals, are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and clinically distinct. Various studies of adipose tissues have focused mainly on DNA methylation, and mRNA and protein expression, nonetheless little research sheds directly light on the miRNA transcriptome differences between these two distinct adipose tissue types. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of miRNA transcriptomes across six variant porcine adipose tissues by small RNA-sequencing. We identified 219 known porcine miRNAs, 97 novel miRNA*s, and 124 miRNAs that are conserved to other mammals. A set of universally abundant miRNAs (i.e., miR-148a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-let-7a-1-5p, and miR-let-7f-5p across the distinct adipose tissues was found. This set of miRNAs may play important housekeeping roles that are involved in adipogenesis. Clustering analysis indicated significant variations in miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs, and highlighted the role of the greater omentum in responding to potential metabolic risk because of the observed enrichment in this tissue of the immune- and inflammation-related miRNAs, such as the members of miR-17-92 cluster and miR-181 family. Differential expression of the miRNAs between the VATs and SATs, and miRNA target prediction analysis revealed that the VATs-specific enriched miRNAs were associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. In summary, the differences of miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs revealed some of their intrinsic differences and indicated that the VATs might be closely associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.

  1. A bioreactor system for interfacial culture and physiological perfusion of vascularized tissue equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Loff, Steffan; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2013-03-01

    A pivotal requirement for the generation of vascularized tissue equivalents is the development of culture systems that provide a physiological perfusion of the vasculature and tissue-specific culture conditions. Here, we present a bioreactor system that is suitable to culture vascularized tissue equivalents covered with culture media and at the air-medium interface, which is a vital stimulus for skin tissue. For the perfusion of the vascular system a new method was integrated into the bioreactor system that creates a physiological pulsatile medium flow between 80 and 120 mmHg to the arterial inflow of the equivalent's vascular system. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMECs) were injected into the vascular system of a biological vascularized scaffold based on a decellularized porcine jejunal segment and cultured in the bioreactor system for 14 days. Histological analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining revealed that the hDMECs were able to recolonize the perfused vascular structures and expressed endothelial cell specific markers such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and von Willebrand factor. These results indicate that our bioreactor system can serve as a platform technology to generate advanced bioartificial tissues with a functional vasculature for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...

  3. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 microCi 133-Xen...

  4. Comprehensive assessment of expression of insulin signaling pathway components in subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Differential expression of core insulin signaling pathway components in subcutaneous adipose tissue is not a major contributor to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Correlation between clinical phenotypes and expression of several genes in the mitogenic limb of the insulin signaling pathway suggests mitogenic signaling by insulin may regulate steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis.

  5. Fabrication and preliminary study of a biomimetic tri-layer tubular graft based on fibers and fiber yarns for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Jialing; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Dandan; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Yin, Meng; Mo, Xiumei

    2018-01-01

    Designing a biomimetic and functional tissue-engineered vascular graft has been urgently needed for repairing and regenerating defected vascular tissues. Utilizing a multi-layered vascular scaffold is commonly considered an effective way, because multi-layered scaffolds can easily simulate the structure and function of natural blood vessels. Herein, we developed a novel tri-layer tubular graft consisted of Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/COL) fibers and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/silk fibroin (PLGA/SF) yarns via a three-step electrospinning method. The tri-layer vascular graft consisted of PLCL/COL aligned fibers in inner layer, PLGA/SF yarns in middle layer, and PLCL/COL random fibers in outer layer. Each layer possessed tensile mechanical strength and elongation, and the entire tubular structure provided tensile and compressive supports. Furthermore, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferated well on the materials. Fluorescence staining images demonstrated that the axially aligned PLCL/COL fibers prearranged endothelium morphology in lumen and the circumferential oriented PLGA/SF yarns regulated SMCs organization along the single yarns. The outside PLCL/COL random fibers performed as the fixed layer to hold the entire tubular structure. The in vivo results showed that the tri-layer vascular graft supported cell infiltration, scaffold biodegradation and abundant collagen production after subcutaneous implantation for 10weeks, revealing the optimal biocompatibility and tissue regenerative capability of the tri-layer graft. Therefore, the specially designed tri-layer vascular graft will be beneficial to vascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of red and infrared low-level laser therapy in endodontic sealer on subcutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivieri-Araujo, G.; Berbert, F. L. C. V.; Ramalho, L. T. O.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Crisci, F. S.; Bonetti-Filho, I.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the reactions of connective tissue after the implant of one endodontic sealer (Endofill) that was irradiated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Sixty mice were distributed into three Groups ( n = 20): GI—the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT; GII—the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAlP, λ = 685 nm, P = 35 mW, t = 58 s, D = 72 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous mode) and GIII—the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl, λ = 830 nm, P = 50 mW, t = 40 s, D = 70 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous wave) both are semiconductor diode laser device. The animals were killed after 7 and 30 days. Series sections of 6 μm thickness were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson Trichrome. The data of the histopathological evaluation were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% significance level. At the 7th day: GI showed the presence of inflammation; GII and GIII reduced inflammation. At 30th day: GI showed low inflammation; GII and GII the absence of inflammation. It was possible show that LLLT reduced the irritating effect promoted by the Endofill, in the period of 7 days ( p > 0.05). The tissue repair occurred in 30 days, regardless of the use of LLLT.

  7. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  8. Arrangement of vascular tissues in the peduncle of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amando Espinosa-Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In all three investigated cultivars, the thin part of the peduncle which originates from the inflorescence axes contained a continuous cylinder of vascular tissue interrupted only occasionally by the gaps accompanying the traces of already abscised ramifications of the inflorescence. In the cvs. Principe Negro and Fuerte, the most distal, "thick" part of the peduncle (where the tepal traces separate contained the vascular cylinder transformed into a group of concentric or semicircular bundles. These bundles joined anew at the point where the peduncle united with the fruit, forming once more a continuous cylinder of vascular tissues. Within the fruit, the vascular cylinder divided into numerous bundles penetrating the pulp. In cv. Hass the vascular cylinder was continuous in a11 parts of the peduncle, and was interrupted only occasionally by gaps.

  9. Accumulation and Changes in Composition of Collagens in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuejun; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Marcelin, Geneviève; Genser, Laurent; Le Naour, Gilles; Torcivia, Adriana; Bauvois, Brigitte; Bouchet, Sandrine; Pelloux, Véronique; Sasso, Magali; Miette, Véronique; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) in sc adipose tissue (scAT) undergoes pathological remodeling during obesity. However, its evolution during weight loss remains poorly explored. The objective of the investigation was to study the histological, transcriptomic, and physical characteristics of scAT ECM remodeling during the first year of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss and their relationships with metabolic and bioclinical improvements. A total of 118 morbidly obese candidates for BS were recruited and followed up during 1 year after BS. scAT surgical biopsy and needle aspiration as well as scAT stiffness measurement were performed in three subgroups before and after BS. Fourteen nonobese, nondiabetic subjects served as controls. Significantly increased picrosirius-red-stained collagen accumulation in scAT after BS was observed along with fat mass loss, despite metabolic and inflammatory improvements and undetectable changes of scAT stiffness. Collagen accumulation positively associated with M2-macrophages (CD163(+) cells) before BS but negatively afterward. Expression levels of genes encoding ECM components (eg, COL3A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, ELN), cross-linking enzymes (eg, lysyl oxidase [LOX], LOXL4, transglutaminase), metalloproteinases, and their inhibitors were modified 1 year after BS. LOX expression and protein were significantly decreased and associated with decreased fat mass as well as other cross-linking enzymes. Although total collagen I and VI staining decreased 1 year after BS, we found increased degraded collagen I and III in scAT, suggesting increased degradation. After BS-induced weight loss and related metabolic improvements, scAT displays major collagen remodeling with an increased picrosirius-red staining that relates to increased collagen degradation and importantly decreased cross-linking. These features are in agreement with adequate ECM adaptation during fat mass loss.

  10. Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and insulin resistance: link to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Guido; Manrique, Camila

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the underlying mechanisms still remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that dysfunctional adipose tissue in conditions of obesity is a critical source of inflammation that impacts the cardiovascular system and contributes to CVD. Although traditionally visceral adipose tissue has been linked to increased CVD risk, there is mounting interest in the role that fat accumulation around the vasculature plays in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with large, medium and small diameter arterial beds in several tissues, and has been shown to control vascular function as well as remodeling. PVAT does not merely mirror visceral adipose tissue changes seen in obesity, but has unique features that impact vascular biology. In lean individuals PVAT exerts vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory functions, however obesity results in PVAT inflammation, characterized by imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cells as wells as adipokines. PVAT inflammation promotes insulin resistance in the vasculature, thus resulting in impaired insulin-mediated vasodilatory responses and vascular remodeling. In this review we address current knowledge about the mechanisms that link PVAT inflammation to insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, PVAT emerges as a novel type of adipose tissue that participates in the pathogenesis of CVD, independently to a large extent to visceral adipose tissue.

  11. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  12. Novel endodontic sealers induce cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent behavior and favorable response in mice subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A B; Azevedo, L U; Consolaro, A; Barnett, F; Xu, Y; Battaglino, R A; Cañadas, P S; de Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Silva, R A B

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of two novel endodontic sealers: RealSeal XT1 and Sealapex Xpress on the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. The cytotoxicity was assessed by cell viability using the MTT assay (one-way ANOVA), trypan blue test (Mann-Whitney) and cell apoptosis by flow cytometer. For the subcutaneous study, polyethylene tubes filled with the sealers were implanted in 70 BALB/c mice: 6 experimental groups (n = 10/group) and 2 control groups with empty tubes (n = 5/group). At the end of experimental periods (7, 21, and 63 days), the tissue was removed and histotechnically processed. Angioblastic proliferation and edema (Fisher's exact test) were evaluated, besides thickness measurement (μm) of the reactionary granulomatous tissue and neutrophil counts (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post test; Mann-Whitney) (α = 0.05). MTT assay, trypan blue, and analysis of apoptotic cells showed a dose-dependent direct effect: the more diluted the sealer, the less cytotoxic. Regarding the angioblastic proliferation and edema, difference between the sealers at 7 and 63 days occurred (p endodontic sealers initially promoted perimaterial tissue reaction as a foreign body granuloma and thus stimulated favorable tissue responses. Both sealers showed a dose-dependent effect and promoted satisfactory subcutaneous tissue response; the sealer Sealapex Xpress was less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than RealSeal XT. The step of root canal filling during endodontic treatment is highly important for the preservation of the periapical tissue integrity. Subcutaneous reaction to endodontic sealers enables scientific basis for clinical use.

  13. Autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue transplants improve adipose tissue metabolism and reduce insulin resistance and fatty liver in diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Tovar, Armando R; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Noriega, Lilia G; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; López-Garibay, Alejandro; Torres-Landa, Samuel; Ceballos-Cantú, Juan C; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Figueroa-Juárez, Elizabeth; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernández, Carmen; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-09-01

    Long-term dietary and pharmacological treatments for obesity have been questioned, particularly in individuals with severe obesity, so a new approach may involve adipose tissue transplants, particularly autologous transplants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transplants into two specific intraabdominal cavity sites (omental and retroperitoneal) after 90 days. The study was performed using two different diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat models: one using a high-fat diet (HFD) and the other using a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD). Autologous SAT transplant reduced hypertrophic adipocytes, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic lipid content, and fasting serum-free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in the two DIO models. In addition, the reductions in FFAs and glycerol were accompanied by a greater reduction in lipolysis, assessed via the phosphorylation status of HSL, in the transplanted adipose tissue localized in the omentum compared with that localized in the retroperitoneal compartment. Therefore, the improvement in hepatic lipid content after autologous SAT transplant may be partially attributed to a reduction in lipolysis in the transplanted adipose tissue in the omentum due to the direct drainage of FFAs into the liver. The HCHD resulted in elevated fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels, which were dramatically reduced by the autologous SAT transplant. In conclusion, the specific intraabdominal localization of the autologous SAT transplant improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of adipose tissue in obese rats and selectively corrected the metabolic parameters that are dependent on the type of diet used to generate the DIO model. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...... diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). RESULTS: Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased...

  15. Effect of laser therapy on the inflammatory response induced by endodontic medications implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Souza MATOS

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endodontic medications contain toxic components that cause varying degrees of inflammation.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of laser therapy on the inflammatory response induced by intracanal medications implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats using a quantitative analysis of mast cells.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Polyethylene tubes containing the medications were implanted in the dorsum of 60 rats divided into six groups, including HS (P.A. calcium hydroxide paste, HL (P.A. calcium hydroxide paste and laser therapy, HPS (P.A. calcium hydroxide paste with camphorated paramonochlorophenol, HPL (P.A. calcium hydroxide paste with camphorated paramonochlorophenol and laser therapy, IS (iodoform with saline and IL (iodoform with saline and laser therapy. The animals were euthanized eight or fifteen days after surgery, and samples were removed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with 0.2% toluidine blue for the quantification of mast cells. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test were applied to determine significant differences in the number of mast cells between groups (p<0.05.RESULT: There was a decrease in mast cells for the HL, HPL and IL groups when compared with the HS, HPS and IS groups at both time points. There was no statistically significant difference between the HPS and HPL groups at the eight-day time point.CONCLUSION: Laser therapy was effective at modulating the inflammatory response induced by endodontic medications by significantly reducing the number of mast cells.

  16. ROC analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) in female coronary heart disease patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Sandra Johanna; Horejsi, Renate; Zweiker, Robert; Watzinger, Norbert; Möller, Reinhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang Johann; Schauenstein, Konrad; Tafeit, Erwin

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) is different in female CHD patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=36) matched to age, body size, weight, and BMI. The thicknesses of SAT layers were measured by LIPOMETER at 15 specified body sites. To calculate the power of the different body sites to discriminate between CHD women and healthy controls, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. For each parameter, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at different cutoff points. CHD women showed a significant decrease to 78.36% (p=0.012) at body site 11-front thigh, 73.10% (p=0.012) at 12-lateral thigh, 72.20% (p=0.009) at 13-rear thigh, 66.43% (pSAT thickness at each measured body site is able to discriminate between the two subject groups. The good discrimination results obtained for the present dataset are encouraging enough to recommend applying LIPOMETER SAT-Top measurements in further studies to investigate individual risks for CHD.

  17. Multifunctional silk-heparin biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Seib, F. Philipp; Herklotz, Manuela; Burke, Kelly A; Maitz, Manfred F.; Werner, Carsten; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, silk has been proposed for numerous biomedical applications that go beyond its traditional use as a suture material. Silk sutures are well tolerated in humans, but the use of silk for vascular engineering applications still requires extensive biocompatibility testing. Some studies have indicated a need to modify silk to yield a hemocompatible surface. This study examined the potential of low molecular weight heparin as a material for refining silk properties by acting ...

  18. Human perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction as a cause of vascular disease: Focus on vascular tone and wall remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Gulsev; Daci, Armond; Norel, Xavier; Topal, Gokce

    2015-11-05

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is characterized by excessive or abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including depots which surround the blood vessels named perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT plays endocrine and paracrine roles by producing large numbers of metabolically vasoactive adipokines. The present review outlines our current understanding of the beneficial roles of PVAT in vascular tone and remodeling in healthy subjects supported by clinical studies, highlighting different factors or mechanisms that could mediate protective effects of PVAT on vascular function. Most studies in humans show that adiponectin is the best candidate for the advantageous effect of PVAT. However, in pathological conditions especially obesity-related cardiovascular diseases, the beneficial effects of PVAT on vascular functions are impaired and transform into detrimental roles. This change is defined as PVAT dysfunction. In the current review, the contribution of PVAT dysfunction to obesity-related cardiovascular diseases has been discussed with a focus on possible mechanisms including an imbalance between beneficial and detrimental adipokines (commonly described as decreased levels of adiponectin and increased levels of leptin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)), increased quantity of adipose tissue, inflammation, cell proliferation and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, novel pharmacotherapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multifunctional silk-heparin biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, F Philipp; Herklotz, Manuela; Burke, Kelly A; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten; Kaplan, David L

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, silk has been proposed for numerous biomedical applications that go beyond its traditional use as a suture material. Silk sutures are well tolerated in humans, but the use of silk for vascular engineering applications still requires extensive biocompatibility testing. Some studies have indicated a need to modify silk to yield a hemocompatible surface. This study examined the potential of low molecular weight heparin as a material for refining silk properties by acting as a carrier for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and improving silk hemocompatibility. Heparinized silk showed a controlled VEGF release over 6 days; the released VEGF was bioactive and supported the growth of human endothelial cells. Silk samples were then assessed using a humanized hemocompatibility system that employs whole blood and endothelial cells. The overall thrombogenic response for silk was very low and similar to the clinical reference material polytetrafluoroethylene. Despite an initial inflammatory response to silk, apparent as complement and leukocyte activation, the endothelium was maintained in a resting, anticoagulant state. The low thrombogenic response and the ability to control VEGF release support the further development of silk for vascular applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  1. Epicardial and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids Profiles in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have recently shown that in high cholesterol-fed rabbits, the sensitivity of epicardial adipose tissue to changes in dietary fat is higher than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although the effects of diabetes on epicardial adipose tissue thickness have been studied, the influence of diabetes on profile of epicardial free fatty acids (FFAs has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes on the FFAs composition in serum and in the subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissues in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Methods: Forty non-diabetic and twenty eight diabetic patients candidate for CABG with > 75% stenosis participated in this study.Fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles were assayed by auto analyzer. Phospholipids and non-estrified FFA of serum and the fatty acids profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined using gas chromatography method. Results: In the phospholipid fraction of diabetic patients’ serum, the percentage of 16:0, 18:3n-9, 18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs was lower than the corresponding values of the non-diabetics; whereas, 18:0 value was higher. A 100% increase in the amount of 18:0 and 35% decrease in the level of 18:1n-11 was observed in the diabetic patients’ subcutaneous adipose tissue. In epicardial adipose tissue, the increase of 18:0 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA and decrease of 18:1n-11, ω3 (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significant; but, the contents of arachidonic acid and its precursor linoleic acid were not affected by diabetes. Conclusion: The fatty acids’ profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues is not equally affected by diabetes. The significant decrease of 16:0 and ω3 fatty acids and increase of trans and conjugated fatty acids in epicardial adipose tissue in the diabetic patients may worsen the formation of atheroma in the related arteries.

  2. Vascularized connective tissue flap for bone graft coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herford, Alan S; Cooper, Todd C; Maiorana, Carlo; Cicciù, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Alveolar defects are characterized by missing soft and hard tissues. It is often necessary to combine secondary procedures to address the soft-tissue component. The authors describe a technique that uses a split-thickness flap design that is placed over the crest of the remaining ridge and extends in a palatal direction. This allows advancement of the flap with its exposed connective tissue over the bone graft and provides restoration of both bone and keratinized tissue. Seventeen patients with defects involving the anterior maxilla who required grafting procedures were including in this study. All patients had an autogenous bone graft (n  =  17) combined with osseointegrated implants (n  =  41). A split-thickness flap design was used at the time of bone graft placement (primary) in 9 patients and at the time of implant uncovering (secondary) in 8 patients. There were no cases of flap necrosis or dehiscence with exposure of the bone graft. All patients demonstrated an increase in keratinized tissue involving the peri-implant area. An apical repositioned split-thickness flap provides an increased zone of keratinized tissue with improved esthetics and implant maintenance. This technique can be performed simultaneously with the grafting procedure, thus avoiding extensive undermining of the adjacent soft tissue.

  3. Quantifying Biochemical Alterations in Brown and Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissues of Mice Using Fourier Transform Infrared Widefield Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Aboualizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment, and label-free imaging techniques with the potential to quantify stimulation-associated biochemical changes to the adipose tissue are highly sought after. In this study, we used spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR imaging to quantify biochemical changes caused by cold exposure in the brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and s-WAT of 6 week-old C57BL6 mice exposed to 30°C (N = 5, 24°C (N = 5, and 10°C (N = 5 conditions for 10 days. Fat exposed to colder temperatures demonstrated greater thermogenic activity as indicated by increased messenger RNA expression levels of a panel of thermogenic marker genes including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1 and Dio2. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1,600 to 1,700 cm−1 (amide I to the integrated area from 2,830 to 2,980 cm−1 (saturated lipids, was elevated in 10°C BAT and s-WAT compared to 24°C (p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001 and 30°C (p = 0.0033 and p < 0.0001. Greater protein to lipid ratio was associated with greater UCP-1 expression level in the BAT (p = 0.021 and s-WAT (p = 0.032 and greater Dio2 expression in s-WAT (p = 0.033. The degree of unsaturation, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 2,992 to 3,020 cm−1 (unsaturated lipids to the integrated area from 2,830 to 2,980 cm−1 (saturated lipids, showed stepwise decreases going from colder-exposed to warmer-exposed BAT. Complementary 1H NMR measurements confirmed the findings from this ratio in BAT. Principal component analysis applied to FTIR spectra revealed pronounced differences in overall spectral characteristics between 30, 24, and 10°C BAT and s-WAT. Spatially resolved FTIR imaging is a promising technique to quantify cold-induced biochemical changes in BAT and s-WAT in a label-free manner.

  4. Glucose gradient differences in subcutaneous tissue of healthy volunteers assessed with ultraslow microdialysis and a nanolitre glucose sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, RG; Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Korf, J

    2002-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous interstitium is easily accessible for monitoring glucose for Diabetes Mellitus research and management. The available glucose sensing devices demand frequent blood sampling by finger pricking for calibration. Moreover, there is controversy about the exact relationship

  5. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    . Abdominal subcutaneous ATBF was measured using (133) Xenon washout technique, and forearm skeletal muscle blood flow was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. In the healthy, overweight subjects, ATBF increased and concomitantly capillary recruitment took place after glucose ingestion...

  6. Vascularization mediated by mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Pill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-engineered constructs are promising to overcome shortage of organ donors and to reconstruct at least parts of injured or diseased tissues or organs. However, oxygen and nutrient supply are limiting factors in many tissues, especially after implantation into the host. Therefore, the development of a vascular system prior to implantation appears crucial. To develop a functional vascular system, different cell types that interact with each other need to be co-cultured to simulate a physiological environment in vitro. This review provides an overview and a comparison of the current knowledge of co-cultures of human endothelial cells (ECs with human adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs or bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in three dimensional (3D hydrogel matrices. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, BMSCs or ASCs, have been shown to enhance vascular tube formation of ECs and to provide a stabilizing function in addition to growth factor delivery and permeability control for ECs. Although phenotypically similar, MSCs from different tissues promote tubulogenesis through distinct mechanisms. In this report, we describe differences and similarities regarding molecular interactions in order to investigate which of these two cell types displays more favorable characteristics to be used in clinical applications. Our comparative study shows that ASCs as well as BMSCs are both promising cell types to induce vascularization with ECs in vitro and consequently are promising candidates to support in vivo vascularization.

  7. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  8. PLANT DEVELOPMENT Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    De Rybel, B; Adibi, M.; Breda, A.S.; Wendrich, J.R.; Smit, M.E.; Novák, O.; Yamaguchi, N.; Weijers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of cell division and pattern formation is central to tissue and organ development, particularly in plants where walls prevent cell migration. Auxin and cytokinin are both critical for division and patterning, but it is unknown how these hormones converge upon tissue development. We identify a genetic network that reinforces an early embryonic bias in auxin distribution to create a local, nonresponding cytokinin source within the root vascular tissue. Experimental and theoretical ...

  9. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms...... compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. Two hours after onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms, subcutaneous blood flow was still significantly decreased compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. In normal subjects local nerve blockade had no effect on blood flow changes during hypoglycaemia, whereas local alpha......-receptor blockade abolished the vasoconstrictor response. We suggest that circulating catecholamines stimulating vascular alpha-receptors are probably responsible for flow reduction in the subcutaneous tissue during hypoglycaemia....

  10. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  11. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Kelstrup, Louise; Broholm, Christa; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Clausen, Tine D; Damm, Peter; Vaag, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased RETN expression in O-T1DM, and increased LEP and ADIPOQ methylation in O-GDM. In multivariate regression analysis, O-GDM remained associated with increased ADIPOQ methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression and O-T1DM remained associated with decreased RETN expression after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. In conclusion, offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy exhibit increased ADIPOQ DNA methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression in SAT. However, altered methylation and expression levels were not reflected in plasma protein levels, and the functional implications of these findings remain uncertain.

  12. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa

    2009-01-01

    and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X......OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous......-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue areas using abdominal computed tomography at 18 to 20 years of age. RESULTS: The main finding in the present study was that subjects with increases in BMI Z score of more than 1 SD during adolescence had, independent of prepubertal BMI, both larger subcutaneous (+138%; P

  13. Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants investigated using a hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate and UV-vis imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J

    2017-01-01

    Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) implants with agarose hydrogels as the provider of nonsolvent (water) mimicking subcutaneous tissue was investigated using a novel UV-vis imaging-based analytical platform. In situ forming implants of PLGA-1-methyl-2......, water, to the in situ forming PLGA implants simulating the injection site environment. The resulting implant morphology depended on the stiffness of hydrogel matrix, indicating that the matrix in which implants are formed is of importance. Overall, the work showed that the UV-vis imaging-based platform...... with an agarose hydrogel mimicking the subcutaneous tissue holds potential in providing bio-relevant and mechanistic information on the phase separation processes of in situ forming implants....

  14. Effects of additional exercise training on epicardial, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in major depressive disorder: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, K G; Kerling, A; Tegtbur, U; Gützlaff, E; Herrmann, J; Borchert, L; Ates, Zeynep; Westhoff-Bleck, M; Hueper, K; Hartung, D

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased amounts of intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue, risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic disorders. Exercise has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat in different conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, thereby reducing cardio-metabolic risks. Therefore we examined the effects of exercise on adipose tissue compartments in patients with MDD. Of thirty depressed patients included, twenty received supervised exercise training, and ten received no specific training. Volumes of subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue were measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and factors constituting the metabolic syndrome were determined. Significant effects of the training condition were observed on the amount of epicardial adipose tissue (P=0.017), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P=0.023), weight (P=0.047), body-mass index (P=0.04), high density lipoproteins (P=0.021) and the number of metabolic syndrome factors (P=0.018). The amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue decreased slightly, although not significantly, in the exercise group. Exercise training reduces the amount of visceral, in particular epicardial adipose tissue, in patients with MDD, and ameliorates factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. Given the high prevalence of cardio-metabolic disorders in major depression, exercise training may be recommended as an additional treatment component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Sun

    Full Text Available Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  16. Real-time UV imaging identifies the role of pH in insulin dissolution behavior in hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrine S; Jensen, Henrik; Cornett, Claus

    2015-01-01

    in the development of new protein drug formulations. Using insulin as a model compound, the aim of this work was to develop a UV imaging-based method to study the real-time dissolution and diffusion behavior of solid protein drugs under stagnant conditions in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutaneous tissue...... in the vicinity of solid protein drug in a hydrogel matrix with the aim of achieving a better understanding of in vivo dissolution processes....

  17. Transcript profiles in longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue: a comparison of pigs with different postweaning growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Jones, C K; Schroyen, M; Severin, A J; Patience, J F; Tuggle, C K; Koltes, J E

    2015-05-01

    Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the 3-wk period postweaning. Nine pigs from both the lowest 10th percentile (low tADG) and the 60th to 70th percentile (high tADG) were harvested at 3 wk postweaning. Differential expression analysis was conducted in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue using RNA-Seq methodology. In LM, 768 transcripts were differentially expressed (DE), 327 with higher expression in low tADG and 441 with higher expression in high tADG pigs (q muscle metabolism and physiology, functional annotation analysis of the DE transcripts was conducted using DAVID and Pathway Studio analytic tools. The group of DE genes with lower expression in LM of low tADG pigs was enriched in genes with functions related to muscle contraction, glucose metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, muscle development, and response to hormone stimulus (enrichment score > 1.3). The list of DE genes with higher expression in low tADG LM was enriched in genes with functions related to protein catabolism (enrichment score > 1.3). Analysis of known gene-gene interactions identified possible regulators of these differences in gene expression in LM of high and low tADG pigs; these include forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), growth hormone (GH1), and the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Differences in gene expression between poor transitioning pigs and

  18. A small molecule approach to engineering vascularized tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Fernandes, H.A.M.; Le, B.Q.; van de Peppel, J.; van Leeuwen, J.P.T.M.; de Vries, M.R.; Aref, Z.; Quax, P.H.A.; Myklebost, O.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The repertoire of growth factors determines the biological engagement of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in processes such as immunomodulation and tissue repair. Hypoxia is a strong modulator of the secretome and well known stimuli to increase the secretion of pro-angiogenic molecules. In

  19. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...

  20. Outcomes of sympathectomy and vascular bypass for digital ischaemia in connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, R L; Hwang, B H; Levin, L S; Richard, M J; Ruch, D S; Mithani, S K

    2017-10-01

    All patients (36 hands) with connective tissue disorders who underwent periarterial sympathectomy of the hand alone or in conjunction with vascular bypass at our institution between 1995-2013 were reviewed. The durable resolution of ulcers was significantly higher in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy and bypass than in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy alone. Although there were more digital amputations in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy alone, the difference was not statistically significant. Vascular bypass in conjunction with sympathectomy may be better than sympathectomy alone in patients with digital ischaemia related to connective tissue disorders. IV.

  1. Impaired autoregulation of blood flow in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Vagn Nielsen, H; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow was studied in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients (median age: 36 years) with nephropathy and retinopathy and in eight normal subjects of the same age. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe washout...... technique. Reduction in arterial perfusion pressure was produced by elevating the limb 20 and 40 cm above heart level. Blood flow remained within 10% of control values when the limb was elevated in normal subjects. In five of the seven diabetic subjects blood flow fell significantly in both tissues when...

  2. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    inflammation, detoxification and coagulation pathways, as well as regulation of body fat mobilization in dairy animals. These findings are of particular interest in farm animals where health and production traits are important for animal welfare and for economic gains. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...... protein and gene expression patterns. In ruminants, fat tissues play important biological roles not only for animal health, but also for quality and gain in meat and milk production. Yet very few studies have explored the ruminant adipose tissue proteomes. The aim of our study was to compare subcutaneous...

  3. In vitro and in vivo effects of deoxyribonucleic acid-based coatings funtionalized with vascular endothelial growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beucken, J.J.J.P van der; Walboomers, X.F.; Nillesen, S.T.M.; Vos, M.R-J.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Nolte, R.J.M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Vascularization is important in wound healing and essential for tissue ingrowth into porous tissue-engineering matrices. Furthermore, peri-implant tissue vascularization is known to be important for the functionality of subcutaneously implanted biosensors (e.g., glucose sensors). As a first

  4. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H J; Middelkoop, E; van Heemstra-Hoen, M; Wildevuur, C H; Westerhof, W

    1995-10-01

    Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated within hours, which allows immediate treatment of full thickness defects. Porcine full thickness wounds were substituted with native collagen/alpha-elastin hydrolysate matrices. One group of matrices was left unseeded as negative control. The second was seeded with cultured dermal fibroblasts as positive control. The third was seeded with a stromal-vascular-fraction of adipose tissue, and the fourth was seeded with a stromal fraction with few vascular fragments (SF). All substitutes were covered with split skin mesh grafts and were protected against dehydration and infection with a microporous polyether urethane membrane. For 8 weeks, weekly biopsies were taken, myofibroblasts and fibroblasts were counted, thickness of the granulation tissue band was measured, and wound contraction and histology were evaluated. Negative control and stromal-vascular-fraction substitutes were invaded by high numbers of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts. They did not reduce wound contraction, and scar tissue was formed. SF substitutes reduced the accumulation of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts and prevented the formation of granulation tissue. As a result, dermal regeneration improved, and wound contraction was less than by the other substitutes. Adipose tissue cell isolates included vascular fragments containing endothelial cells. Seeded in dermal substitutes, these vascular fragments induced hypergranulation tissue formation and caused wound contraction. SF substitutes contained few endothelial cells. As a result, the contraction arresting effect of the seeded stromal cell fraction was effective. Our concept of a cellular dermal substitute seeded with stromal cells from adipose tissue is feasible and allows

  5. Breaking dogmas: the plant vascular pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans is able to invade non-vascular tissues despite its reduced genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Imène; Vernerey, Marie-Stéphanie; Gargani, Daniel; Nicole, Michel; Rott, Philippe

    2014-02-12

    Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugarcane leaf scald, is missing the Hrp type III secretion system that is used by many Gram-negative bacteria to colonize their host. Until now, this pathogen was considered as strictly limited to the xylem of sugarcane. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the localization of X. albilineans in diseased sugarcane. Sugarcane plants were inoculated with strains of the pathogen labelled with a green fluorescent protein. Confocal microscopy observations of symptomatic leaves confirmed the presence of the pathogen in the protoxylem and metaxylem; however, X. albilineans was also observed in phloem, parenchyma and bulliform cells of the infected leaves. Similarly, vascular bundles of infected sugarcane stalks were invaded by X. albilineans. Surprisingly, the pathogen was also observed in apparently intact storage cells of the stalk and in intercellular spaces between these cells. Most of these observations made by confocal microscopy were confirmed by TEM. The pathogen exits the xylem following cell wall and middle lamellae degradation, thus creating openings to reach parenchyma cells. This is the first description of a plant pathogenic vascular bacterium invading apparently intact non-vascular plant tissues and multiplying in parenchyma cells.

  6. Upregulation of Early and Downregulation of Terminal Pathway Complement Genes in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes in Acquired Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI [n = 26, within-pair difference (Δ in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m2] with as much as 18 kg mean Δweight. Additionally, 14 BMI-concordant (BMI <3 kg/m2 served as a reference group. The detailed measurements included body composition (DEXA, fat distribution (MRI, glucose, insulin, adipokines, C3a and SC5b-9 levels, and the expression of complement and insulin signaling pathway-related genes in AT and adipocytes. In both AT and isolated adipocytes, the classical and alternative pathway genes were upregulated, and the terminal pathway genes downregulated in the heavier co-twins of the BMI-discordant pairs. The upregulated genes included C1q, C1s, C2, ficolin-1, factor H, receptors for C3a and C5a (C5aR1, and the iC3b receptor (CR3. While the terminal pathway components C5 and C6 were downregulated, its inhibitor clusterin was upregulated. Complement gene upregulation in AT and adipocytes correlated positively with adiposity and hyperinsulinemia and negatively with the expression of insulin signaling-related genes. Plasma C3a, but not SC5b-9, levels were elevated in the heavier co-twins. There were no differences between the co-twins in BMI-concordant pairs. Obesity is associated with increased expression of the early, but not late, complement pathway components and of key receptors. The twins with acquired obesity have therefore an inflated inflammatory activity in the AT. The results suggest that complement is likely involved in orchestrating clearance of apoptotic debris

  7. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  8. Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule: a histological study using human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-05-01

    It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani.

  9. Rabbit tibial periosteum and saphenous arteriovenous vascular bundle as an in vivo bioreactor to construct vascularized tissue-engineered bone: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Guan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jian; Wei, Jiao; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this project was to construct vascularized tissue-engineered living bone with an autologous vascular network by means of a rabbit bioreactor in vivo. The key components of the in vivo bioreactor for bone formation were the vascularized tibial periosteum and the saphenous vascular bundle. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were implanted into the in vivo bioreactor (vascular pedicle implantation and vascularized periosteum encapsulation). At 4 weeks postsurgery, new bone formation was mainly "cartilage-bone inducing" in the inner periosteum, and was primarily seen in the outer aspects of the scaffold with some amount in the middle part as well. Microvascular infusion showed that direct revascularization of β-TCP was obtained by means of vascular implantation. Triple staining results showed a large amount of blue collagen fibers. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunohistochemical staining displayed endothelial cells of new blood vessels in bone tissue. The bioreactor established in this study can be used to prepare tissue-engineered bone with a vascular network. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  10. Large-scale identification of human cerebrovascular proteins: Inter-tissue and intracerebral vascular protein diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Lee

    Full Text Available The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system using expression data from the Human Protein Atlas, a large-scale project which allows public access to immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues. We screened 20,158 proteins in the HPA and identified 346 expression patterns correlating to blood vessels in human brain. Independent experiments showed that 51/52 of these distributions could be experimentally replicated across different brain samples. Some proteins (40% demonstrated endothelial cell (EC-enriched expression, while others were expressed primarily in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC; 18%; 39% of these proteins were expressed in both cell types. Most brain EC markers were tissue oligospecific; that is, they were expressed in endothelia in an average of 4.8 out of 9 organs examined. Although most markers expressed in endothelial cells of the brain were present in all cerebral capillaries, a significant number (21% were expressed only in a fraction of brain capillaries within each brain sample. Among proteins found in cerebral VSMC, virtually all were also expressed in peripheral VSMC and in non-vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC. Only one was potentially brain specific: VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor. HRC (histidine rich calcium binding protein and VHL were restricted to VSMC and not found in non-vascular tissues such as uterus or gut. In conclusion, we define a set of brain vascular proteins that could be relevant to understanding the unique physiology and pathophysiology of the human cerebrovasculature. This set of proteins defines inter-organ molecular differences in the vasculature and

  11. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Christoforou, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.christoforou@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Teo, Jeremy C.M., E-mail: jeremy.teo@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  12. RAPID ENDOTHELIALIZATION OF VASCULAR PROSTHESES BY SEEDING AUTOLOGOUS VENOUS TISSUE FRAGMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOISHIKI, Y; YAMANE, Y; TOMIZAWA, Y; OKOSHI, T; SATOH, S; WILDEVUUR, CRH; SUZUKI, K

    A method was developed to obtain rapid endothelialization of a fabric vascular prosthesis by seeding autologous venous tissue fragments into its wall. In an animal study, complete endothelialization was observed in the entire inner surface of the prosthesis within 2 weeks after implantation. A piece

  13. Concise Review: Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts for Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Maxfield, Mark W.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Developing a durable material with the potential to function with child growth will eliminate the need for reoperation and significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in some types of congenital heart defects. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts offer the ability to drastically improve morbidity and mortality and drastically improve the quality of life of patients after congenital heart defect surgery.

  14. Tissue vascularization through 3D printing: Will technology bring us flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, S J; Miller, J S

    2015-05-01

    Though in vivo models provide the most physiologically relevant environment for studying tissue function, in vitro studies provide researchers with explicit control over experimental conditions and the potential to develop high throughput testing methods. In recent years, advancements in developmental biology research and imaging techniques have significantly improved our understanding of the processes involved in vascular development. However, the task of recreating the complex, multi-scale vasculature seen in in vivo systems remains elusive. 3D bioprinting offers a potential method to generate controlled vascular networks with hierarchical structure approaching that of in vivo networks. Bioprinting is an interdisciplinary field that relies on advances in 3D printing technology along with advances in imaging and computational modeling, which allow researchers to monitor cellular function and to better understand cellular environment within the printed tissue. As bioprinting technologies improve with regards to resolution, printing speed, available materials, and automation, 3D printing could be used to generate highly controlled vascularized tissues in a high throughput manner for use in regenerative medicine and the development of in vitro tissue models for research in developmental biology and vascular diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vascularization after treatment of gingival recession defects with platelet-rich fibrin or connective tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gülnihal; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan; Sculean, Anton; Atilla, Gül

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the following treatment of bilateral localized gingival recessions with coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Tissue samples were harvested from 14 subjects either 1 or 6 months after the surgeries. The 2-mm punch biopsies were obtained from the mid-portion of the grafted sites. Neutral buffered formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded 5-μm thick tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin and Masson's trichrome in order to analyze the collagen framework, epithelium thickness and rete-peg length. Multiple sequential sections were cut from paraffin-embedded blocks of tissue and immunohistochemically prepared for detection of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31 and CD34, for the assessment of vascularization. Rete peg formation was significantly increased in the sites treated with PRF compared to the SCTG group after 6 months (p tissue maturation compared to connective tissue graft. PRF regulated the vascular response associated with an earlier wound healing.

  16. Limb salvage after vascular reconstruction followed by tissue transfer during the Global War on Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kevin; Sabino, Jennifer; Weiss, Jeffrey S; Kumar, Anand; Valerio, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Combat extremity wounds are complex and frequently require an immediate vascular reconstruction in the operational environment followed by delayed tissue coverage at a stateside medical treatment facility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate limb salvage outcomes after combat-related vascular reconstruction that subsequently required delayed soft tissue coverage during the Global War on Terror. Patients who incurred a war-related extremity injury necessitating an immediate vascular intervention followed by definitive limb reconstruction requiring flap coverage from combat injuries were reviewed. Patient demographics, types of vascular and extremity injuries, and surgical interventions were examined. Outcomes included limb salvage, primary and secondary graft patency, flap outcomes, and complications. Differences between upper extremities (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) were compared. From 2003 to 2012, 27 patients were treated for combat-related extremity injuries with an immediate vascular reconstruction followed by delayed tissue coverage. Fifteen LEs and 12 UEs were treated. The mean age was 24 years. An explosion was the cause in 77% of patients, with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 19. An autogenous vein bypass was the most common reconstruction performed in 20 patients (74%). Other vascular repairs included a primary repair, a patch angioplasty with bovine pericardium, and a bypass with use of a prosthetic graft. Eight patients (30%) had a concomitant venous injury, and 23 (85%) had a bone fracture. Thirty flaps were performed at a mean of 33 days from the original injury. Pedicle flaps were used in 24 limbs and free tissue flaps in six limbs. Muscle, fasciocutaneous, bone, and composite flaps were used for tissue coverage. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, primary patency rates of all arterial reconstructions were 66% in the UE and 53% in the LE (P = .69). Secondary patency rates were 100% in the UE and 86% in the LE (P = .48). The overall limb

  17. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  18. Subcutaneous ovarian tissue transplantation in nonhuman primates: duration of endocrine function and normalcy of subsequent offspring as demonstrated by reproductive competence, oocyte production, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Thomas, Carrie M; Xu, Fuhua; Yeoman, Richard R; Xu, Jing; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don P; Zelinski, Mary B

    2017-09-23

    The main purposes of the study were to investigate the endocrine function of ovarian tissue transplanted to heterotopic subcutaneous sites and the reproductive competence and telomere length of a nonhuman primate originating from transplanted tissue. Ovarian cortex pieces were transplanted into the original rhesus macaques in the arm subcutaneously, in the abdomen next to muscles, or in the kidney. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured weekly for up to 8 years following tissue transplantation. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted ovarian tissue entered time-mated breeding and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. Pregnancy and offspring were evaluated. Telomere lengths and oocytes obtained following controlled ovarian stimulation were assessed. Monkeys with transplants in the arm and abdomen had cyclic E2 of 100 pg/ml, while an animal with arm transplants had E2 of 50 pg/ml. One monkey with transplants in the abdomen and kidney had ovulatory cycles for 3 years. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted tissue conceived and had a normal gestation until intrapartum fetal demise. She conceived again and delivered a healthy offspring at term. Controlled ovarian stimulations of this monkey yielded mature oocytes comparable to controls. Her telomere length was long relative to controls. Heterotopic ovarian tissue transplants yielded long-term endocrine function in macaques. A monkey derived from an oocyte in transplanted tissue was reproductively competent. Her telomere length did not show epigenetically induced premature cellular aging. Ovarian tissue transplantation to heterotopic sites for fertility preservation should move forward cautiously, yet optimistically.

  19. Invasion of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains into vascular cells and tissue

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    Ingar Olsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major pathogen in adult periodontitis and is also associated with multiple systemic diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases. One of its most important virulence factors is invasion of host cells. The invasion process includes attachment, entry/internalization, trafficking, persistence, and exit. The present review discusses these processes related to P. gingivalis in cardiovascular cells and tissue. Although most P. gingivalis strains invade, the invasion capacity of strains and the mechanisms of invasion including intracellular trafficking among them differ. This is consistent with the fact that there are significant differences in the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis strains. P. gingivalis invasion mechanisms are also dependent on types of host cells. Although much is known about the invasion process of P. gingivalis, we still have little knowledge of its exit mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is intriguing that P. gingivalis can remain viable in human cardiovascular cells and atherosclerotic plaque and later exit and re-enter previously uninfected host cells.

  20. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  1. Discrepancy between the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of soft tissue vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbach, Sophie E R; Utami, Amalia M; Meijer-Jorna, Lorine B; Sillevis Smitt, J H; Spuls, Phyllis I; van der Horst, Chantal M A M; van der Wal, Allard C

    2017-11-01

    Soft tissue vascular malformations are generally diagnosed clinically, according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. Diagnostic histopathologic examination is rarely performed. We sought to evaluate the validity of the current diagnostic workup without routinely performed diagnostic histopathology. We retrospectively determined whether there were discrepancies between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of patients with clinically diagnosed vascular malformations undergoing therapeutic surgical resections in our center (2000-2015). Beforehand, a pathologist revised the histopathologic diagnoses according to the ISSVA classification. Clinical and histopathologic diagnoses were discrepant in 57% of 142 cases. In these cases, the pathologist indicated the diagnosis was not at all a vascular malformation (n = 24; 17%), a completely different type of vascular malformation (n = 26; 18%), or a partially different type with regard to the combination of vessel-types involved (n = 31; 22%). Possible factors associated with the discrepancies were both clinician-related (eg, diagnostic uncertainty) and pathology-related (eg, lack of immunostaining). Retrospective analysis of a subgroup of patients undergoing surgery. The large discrepancy between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses raises doubt about the validity of the current diagnostic workup for vascular malformations. Clear clinical and histopathologic diagnostic criteria might be essential for a uniform diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel transcutaneous, non-focused ultrasound energy delivering device is able to induce subcutaneous adipose tissue destruction in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding that adipocytes are greatly influenced by thermal changes combined with the advancement of non-invasive ultrasound technologies have led to the application of ultrasound as an energy source to induce thermal fat destruction. While application of high intensity focused, ultrasound energy have been widely explored, there is far less information regarding the effects of non-focused ultrasound on adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of a novel transcutaneous, multi-elements, non-focused ultrasound energy regimen in an animal model, as a proof-of-concept of its potential to treat non-invasive subcutaneous benign tumors. The non-invasive transcutaneous ultrasound system prototype (LUMENIS, Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) was applied to thermally induce adipocytes' death. During treatment, the ultrasound energy was transmitted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 12 domestic adult female pigs. Two modes of operation (long and short), which differ in both the acoustic energy applied to the tissue and in their time durations (i.e., differ in their power settings), were used in this study. Efficacy and safety assessments included: Temperature measurement of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) visual inspection and ultrasound imaging of the thermally affected areas, histopathological assessment of tissue samples using hematoxylin & eosin, and Masson's trichrome stains and in situ cell death detection kit for apoptosis assessment. The long and short treatment modes led to a 13.2°C and 17.8°C rise from baseline, respectively, in the SAT, whereas skin surface temperature was practically unaffected. Visual, ultrasonographic, and histopathological evaluation of the treated area showed SAT ablation. No treatment-related changes were observed in the epidermis, dermis subcutaneous muscle and nerves, or in livers and kidneys of treated animals. Additionally, no significant changes from baseline in blood- and urine

  3. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue.

  4. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging...

  5. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

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    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  6. Xenotransplantation of human intestine into mouse abdomen or subcutaneous tissue: Novel platforms for the study of the human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, N; Marsiano, N; Bruckner, R S; Scharl, M; Gutnick, M J; Yagel, S; Arciero, E; Goldstein, A M; Shpigel, N Y

    2017-09-08

    Current efforts to develop stem cell therapy as a novel treatment for neurointestinal diseases are limited by the unavailability of a model system to study cell transplantation in the human intestine. We propose that xenograft models support enteric nervous system (ENS) development in the fetal human intestine when transplanted into mice subcutaneously or intra-abdominally. Fetal human small and large intestine were grafted onto the small intestinal mesentery and into the subcutaneous tissue of immunodeficient mice for up to 4 months. Intestinal cytoarchitecture and ENS development were studied using immunohistochemistry. In both abdominal and subcutaneous grafts, the intestine developed normally with formation of mature epithelial and mesenchymal layers. The ENS was patterned in two ganglionated plexuses containing enteric neurons and glia, including cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal subtypes. c-Kit-immunoreactive interstitial cells of Cajal were present in the gut wall. Abdominal xenografts represent a novel model that supports the growth and development of fetal human intestine. This in vivo approach will be a useful method to study maturation of the ENS, the pathophysiology of neurointestinal diseases, and the long-term survival and functional differentiation of neuronal stem cells for the treatment of enteric neuropathies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

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    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  8. Development and in vivo validation of tissue-engineered, small-diameter vascular grafts from decellularized aortae of fetal pigs and canine vascular endothelial cells

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    Xu Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising alternative for small-diameter vascular grafts. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using decellularized aortae of fetal pigs (DAFPs to construct tissue-engineered, small-diameter vascular grafts and to test the performance and application of DAFPs as vascular tissue-engineered scaffolds in the canine arterial system. Methods DAFPs were prepared by continuous enzymatic digestion. Canine vascular endothelial cells (ECs were seeded onto DAFPs in vitro and then the vascular grafts were cultured in a custom-designed vascular bioreactor system for 7 days of dynamic culture following 3 days of static culture. The grafts were then transplanted into the common carotid artery of the same seven dogs from which ECs had been derived (two grafts were prepared for each dog with one as a backup; therefore, a total of 14 tissue-engineered blood vessels were prepared. At 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation, ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT were used to check the patency of the grafts. Additionally, vascular grafts were sampled for histological and electron microscopic examination. Results Tissue-engineered, small-diameter vascular grafts can be successfully constructed using DAFPs and canine vascular ECs. Ultrasonographic and CT test results confirmed that implanted vascular grafts displayed good patency with no obvious thrombi. Six months after implantation, the grafts had been remodeled and exhibited a similar structure to normal arteries. Immunohistochemical staining showed that cells had evenly infiltrated the tunica media and were identified as muscular fibroblasts. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the graft possessed a complete cell layer, and the internal cells of the graft were confirmed to be ECs by transmission electron microscopy. Conclusions Tissue-engineered, small-diameter vascular grafts constructed using DAFPs and

  9. Transplantation of artificial human lymphatic vascular tissues fabricated using a cell-accumulation technique and their engraftment in mouse tissue with vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-09-06

    Transplantation of engineered tissues with microvascular structure is advancing towards therapeutic application to improve the flow of blood and/or lymphatic fluids. In lymphatic disorders, transplantation of tissue-engineered lymphatic grafts can be an ideal treatment for draining excessive lymphatic fluid. In this study, we examined the transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human lymphatic network tissue (AHLT) fabricated by the cell accumulation technique into the subcutaneous tissue and fascia of mice. At 2 weeks after transplantation, the AHLT showed engraftment of artificial lymphatic vessels immunopositive for human CD31 and human podoplanin. Notably, we also observed the generation of blood vessel-like structure comprising endothelial cells immunopositive for human CD34 and mural-like cells immunopositive for human CD90 and αSMA, which were considered as myofibroblasts. In the fabrication of AHLT in vitro, the sporadic emergence of human CD34-positive / Prox-1-negative sites was observed, followed by the formation of blood vessel-like structure in the graft within 7 days after transplantation. The fine structure of engrafted AHLT observed by transmission electron microscopy showed that the engrafted artificial lymphatic vessels possess the specific structures of native lymphatic capillaries such as loose inter-endothelial connections and anchoring filaments. In contrast, blood vessel-like structure showed tight inter-endothelial connections, thick basement membranes, and layers of mural-like cells, which resemble small blood vessels. These results suggested the remodeling of artificial lymphatic network to form blood vessel-like structure associated with mural-like cells along with AHLT fabrication and engraftment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Association Between Body Weight at Weaning and Remodeling in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adult Mice With Undernourishment In Utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yukiko Kobayashi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Muramatsu, Keiko; Tamura, Naoaki; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 μm in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero. PMID:23296035

  11. Expression of Genes Related to Prostaglandin Synthesis or Signaling in Human Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue: Depot Differences and Modulation by Adipogenesis

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    Andréanne Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2α release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2 to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3 to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements. Methods. Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2α release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments (P≤0.01 for all. Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements. Conclusion. Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts.

  12. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

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    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  13. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice.

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    Laura J den Hartigh

    Full Text Available Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance.We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%, an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism.Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured.By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation.These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter promoting a healthier form of weight loss.

  14. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate...... assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (P... distribution (PPolycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol...

  15. Incorporation of photo-carbon monoxide releasing materials into electrospun scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eden; Abeyrathna, Nawodi; Patel, Aatish V; Liao, Yi; Bashur, Chris A

    2016-03-23

    Hyper-proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a reduction in endothelial cell function are reasons for poor patency rates of current tissue engineered small-diameter vascular grafts. The controlled delivery of carbon monoxide (CO), a gasotransmitter involved in cell signaling, could improve vascular cell function in these grafts. Current CO releasing molecules (CORMs) can improve endothelialization of injured vessels with appropriate doses, but they still have limitations. The goal of this project was to generate a novel tissue engineered scaffold that includes a non-toxic and photoactivatable CORM. This is the first use of a CORM for tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that CORM-loaded, electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds can be photo-activated and release CO. The fluorescence that develops after CO release can be used to non-destructively track the extent of reaction. Further, activation can occur when both dry and incubated in cell culture conditions. However, incubation in serum protein-containing media decreases the time frame for activation, demonstrating the importance of testing the release profile in culture conditions. Rat SMCs were able to attach, grow, and express contractile SMC markers on activated CORM-loaded meshes and controls. Overall, these findings demonstrate that CORM-loaded electrospun scaffolds provide a promising delivery system for vascular tissue engineering.

  16. Primary Sonographic Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis

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    M E Shivu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a small diffuse swelling on the left side of her face. She was diagnosed with intramuscular cysticercosis in the masseter muscle (case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the muscular system and subcutaneous tissues with surrounding phlegmon on high-resolution ultrasound and managed conservatively. To our knowledge, the imaging findings of disseminated muscular cysUcercosis have been reported before only a few numbers of times. In this case, the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of high-resolution sonography of the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. It showed multiple oval to circular, predominantly anechoic lesions, which were around 1 cm in diameter. Most of these cystic lesions showed a hyperechoic focus within suggestive of a scolex. There was no increased vascularity surrounding the lesions. Thus, sonography can primarily make the correct diagnosis of disseminated muscular cysticercosis if such lesions are seen. In endemic areas, cysticercosis should be considered one of the differential diagnosis of the subcutaneous swellings.

  17. The Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Non-atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

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    Tetsuo Horimatsu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT surrounds most large blood vessels and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT releases various chemokines and adipocytokines, functioning in an endocrine and paracrine manner to regulate vascular signaling and inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that PVAT plays an important role in atherosclerosis and hypertension; however, the role of PVAT in non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including neointimal formation, aortic aneurysm, arterial stiffness and vasculitis, has received far less attention. Increasing evidence suggests that PVAT responds to mechanical endovascular injury and regulates the subsequent formation of neointima via factors that promote smooth muscle cell growth, adventitial inflammation and neovascularization. Circumstantial evidence also links PVAT to the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms and vasculitic syndromes, such as Takayasu's arteritis, where infiltration and migration of inflammatory cells from PVAT into the vascular wall may play a contributory role. Moreover, in obesity, PVAT has been implicated to promote stiffness of elastic arteries via the production of reactive oxygen species. This review will discuss the growing body of data and mechanisms linking PVAT to the pathogenesis of non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases in experimental animal models and in humans.

  18. Female Longitudinal Anal Muscles or Conjoint Longitudinal Coats Extend into the Subcutaneous Tissue along the Vaginal Vestibule: A Histological Study Using Human Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vízquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Materials and Methods Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. Results In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. Conclusion In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani. PMID:23549829

  19. Evaluating 3D-printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Martha O; Vorwald, Charlotte E; Dreher, Maureen L; Mott, Eric J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M; Fisher, John P

    2015-01-07

    There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and models angiogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The impact of visceral adipose tissue and high-molecular weight adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index in asymptomatic Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Norihiko; Ito, Chikako; Fujikawa, Rumi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-07-01

    Few studies addressed the relation of visceral adiposity and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin to arterial stiffness. We investigated the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and HMW adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. We studied 487 consecutive subjects (271 men and 216 women) who underwent general health examination between October 2005 and May 2008. The abdominal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were determined by low-dose x-ray computed tomography. Serum levels of total and HMW adiponectin were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system based on a monoclonal antibody to humans. Cardio-ankle vascular index was positively correlated with VAT area and negatively correlated with HMW adiponectin levels. We also found the positive association of the number of metabolic syndrome components with CAVI in both sexes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, VAT area, serum HMW adiponectin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were independent determinants of CAVI. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that the predictive value of the VAT area for the extent of CAVI (mild: 75th percentile) exceeded that of total or HMW adiponectin levels in both sexes. In conclusion, increased CAVI is associated with both amounts of VAT measured by computed tomography and serum HMW adiponectin levels in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates that the VAT area is a lot better predictor of arterial stiffness than adiponectin levels.

  1. Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants investigated using a hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate and UV-vis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-10-25

    Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) implants with agarose hydrogels as the provider of nonsolvent (water) mimicking subcutaneous tissue was investigated using a novel UV-vis imaging-based analytical platform. In situ forming implants of PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin representing fast and slow phase separating systems, respectively, were evaluated using this platform. Upon contact with the agarose hydrogel, the phase separation of the systems was followed by the study of changes in light transmission and absorbance as a function of time and position. For the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system, the rate of spatial phase separation was determined and found to decrease with increasing the PLGA concentration from 20% to 40% (w/w). Hydrogels with different agarose concentrations (1% and 10% (w/v)) were prepared for providing the nonsolvent, water, to the in situ forming PLGA implants simulating the injection site environment. The resulting implant morphology depended on the stiffness of hydrogel matrix, indicating that the matrix in which implants are formed is of importance. Overall, the work showed that the UV-vis imaging-based platform with an agarose hydrogel mimicking the subcutaneous tissue holds potential in providing bio-relevant and mechanistic information on the phase separation processes of in situ forming implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Cell Fates of Induced Schwann Cells from Subcutaneous Fat Tissue and Naïve Schwann Cells in the Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

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    Mingzi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. Methods. Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat’s subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat. Results. At 12 weeks after transplantation, nSCs were detected only in the restricted area of cell transplantation site but iSCs were widely distributed all over the sciatic nerve. Based on double fluorescence observations, both iSCs and naïve ones were colocalized with P0-expressing myelin sheath, outbound by laminin-expressing basal membrane, and terminated at contactin-associated protein-expressing doublets. However, some of iSCs were also differentiated to the fibrocyte/fibroblast-like cells. In the histological analysis of repaired sciatic nerves, axon density was higher in iSC-received group than in the nSCs group and normal sciatic nerve. Conclusion. iSCs induced from subcutaneous fat tissues have higher engraftment and migration capacity than nSCs.

  3. The short-term and long-term effects of bariatric/metabolic surgery on subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Derek K; Larson, Ilona; Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Makar, Karen; Rubinow, Katya B; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; van Yserloo, Brian; Billing, Peter S; Landerholm, Robert W; Crouthamel, Matthew; Flum, David R; Cummings, David E; Kratz, Mario

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms mediating the short- and long-term improvements in glucose homeostasis following bariatric/metabolic surgery remain incompletely understood. To investigate whether a reduction in adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the metabolic improvements seen after bariatric/metabolic surgery, both in the short-term and longer-term. Fasting blood and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained before (n=14), at one month (n=9), and 6-12months (n=14) after bariatric/metabolic surgery from individuals with obesity who were not on insulin or anti-diabetes medication. Adipose tissue inflammation was assessed by a combination of whole-tissue gene expression and flow cytometry-based quantification of tissue leukocytes. One month after surgery, body weight was reduced by 13.5±4.4kg (pinflammation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue remained unchanged, the number of neutrophils increased in adipose tissue 15-20 fold (pinflammation were reflected by reductions in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP; -2.0±5.3mg/dL; p=0.002), and increased serum adiponectin (+1358±1406pg/mL; p=0.003). However, leukocyte infiltration of adipose tissue remained elevated relative to baseline, with pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression unchanged, while adiponectin mRNA expression trended downward (p=0.069). Both the short- and longer-term metabolic improvements following bariatric/metabolic surgery occur without significant reductions in measures of adipose tissue inflammation, as assessed by measuring the expression of genes encoding key mediators of inflammation and by flow cytometric immunophenotyping and quantification of adipose tissue leukocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RGD peptide and graphene oxide co-functionalized PLGA nanofiber scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Su-Jin; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Jong-Chul; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, much research has been suggested and examined for the development of tissue engineering scaffolds to promote cellular behaviors. In our study, RGD peptide and graphene oxide (GO) co-functionalized poly(lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) (RGD-GO-PLGA) nanofiber mats were fabricated via electrospinning, and their physicochemical and thermal properties were characterized to explore their potential as biofunctional scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the RGD-GO-PLGA nanofiber mats were readily fabricated and composed of random-oriented electrospun nanofibers with average diameter of 558 nm. The successful co-functionalization of RGD peptide and GO into the PLGA nanofibers was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the surface hydrophilicity of the nanofiber mats was markedly increased by co-functionalizing with RGD peptide and GO. It was found that the mats were thermally stable under the cell culture condition. Furthermore, the initial attachment and proliferation of primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on the RGD-GO-PLGA nanofiber mats were evaluated. It was revealed that the RGD-GO-PLGA nanofiber mats can effectively promote the growth of VSMCs. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the RGD-GO-PLGA nanofiber mats can be promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds effective for the regeneration of vascular smooth muscle.

  5. Long-term animal implantation study of biotube-autologous small-caliber vascular graft fabricated by in-body tissue architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Taiji; Kanda, Keiichi; Yamanami, Masashi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2011-07-01

    A mold for the preparation of an in-body tissue architecture-induced autologous vascular graft, termed "biotube," was prepared by covering a main silicone rod (outer diameter, 3 mm; length, 30 mm) with two pieces of polyurethane sponge tubes (internal diameter, 3 mm; length, 3 mm) at both ends. The molds were embedded into the dorsal subcutaneous pouch of rabbits (weighing ca. 2 kg) for 2 months. After harvesting the rods with the formed surrounding tissues, the rods were removed to create biotubes impregnated with anastomotic reinforcement cuffs at both ends. The biotubes had homogeneous, thin connective tissue wall (thickness, 76 ± 37 μm) that was primarily composed of collagen and fibroblasts. One biotube was loaded with argatroban and autoimplanted in the carotid artery for 26 months. Neither antiplatelet nor anticoagulant agents were administered, except for an intraoperative heparin injection. Follow-up angiography showed no aneurysm formation, rupturing, or stenosis during implantation. At the end of implantation, the wall thickness of biotube (212 ± 24 μm at the anastomosis portion and 150 ± 14 μm at the midportion) was similar to that of native artery (189 ± 23 μm). The luminal surface was completely covered with endothelial cells on the formed lamina elastica interna-like layer. The regenerated vascular walls comprised multilayered smooth muscle cells and dense collagen fibers with regular circumferential orientation. A remarkable multilayered elastin fiber network was observed near the anastomosis portion. Biotubes could thus be used as small-caliber vascular prostheses that greatly facilitate the healing process and exhibit excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Endothelial and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Abnormalities in Obesity-Related Vascular Dysfunction: Novel Targets for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine

    2017-06-01

    The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT is in intimate contact with the vessel wall, hence affecting vascular function and structure. In lean individuals, PVAT exerts anticontractile and anti-inflammatory activities to protect the vasculature. In obesity, instead, these beneficial properties are lost and PVAT releases inflammatory mediators, promotes oxidative stress, and contributes to vascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms elicited by these outside-in signals include resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin and activation of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. A number of adipokines and gut hormones, which are important modulators of food intake, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, have also positive vascular actions. This feature makes them promising tools for targeting both the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity, a view supported by recent large-scale clinical trials indicating that novel drugs for type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular potential may translate into clinically significant benefits. There is, therefore, real hope that unleashing the power of fat- and gut-derived substances might provide effective dual-action therapies for obesity and its complications.

  7. Evaluating the Use of Monocytes with a Degradable Polyurethane for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Kyle Giovanni

    Monocytes are one of the first cell types present following the implantation of a biomaterial or tissue engineered construct. Depending on the monocyte activation state supported by the biomaterial, monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDMs) can act as positive contributors to tissue regeneration and wound healing, or conversely promote a chronic inflammatory response that leads to fibrous encapsulation and implant rejection. A degradable polar hydrophobic iconic polyurethane (D-PHI) has been shown to reduce pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage response compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a substrate routinely used for in vitro culture of cells, as well as poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA), a standard synthetic biodegradable biomaterial in the tissue engineering field. D-PHI has also shown properties suitable for use in a vascular tissue engineering context. In order to understand the mechanism through which D-PHI attenuates pro-inflammatory monocyte response, this thesis investigated the ability of D-PHI to modulate interactions with adsorbed serum proteins and the properties of D-PHI that were important for this activity. D-PHI was shown to regulate protein adsorption in a manner that produced divergent monocyte responses compared to TCPS and PLGA when coated with the serum proteins alpha2-macroglobulin or immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the case of IgG, D-PHI was shown to reduce pro-inflammatory binding site exposure as a function of the material's polar, hydrophobic, and ionic character. Due to the favourable monocyte activation state supported by D-PHI, and the importance of monocytes/macrophages in regulating the response of tissue-specific cell types in vivo, the ability of a D-PHI-stimulated monocyte/macrophage activation state to contribute to modulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a vascular tissue engineering context was investigated. D-PHI- stimulated monocytes promoted VSMC growth and migration through biomolecule

  8. Vascular Tissue Engineering: Effects of Integrating Collagen into a PCL Based Nanofiber Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Bertram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of vascular grafts is a growing field in regenerative medicine. Although numerous attempts have been made, the current vascular grafts made of polyurethane (PU, Dacron®, or Teflon® still display unsatisfying results. Electrospinning of biopolymers and native proteins has been in the focus of research to imitate the extracellular matrix (ECM of vessels to produce a small caliber, off-the-shelf tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG as a substitute for poorly performing PU, Dacron, or Teflon prostheses. Blended poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL/collagen grafts have shown promising results regarding biomechanical and cell supporting features. In order to find a suitable PCL/collagen blend, we fabricated plane electrospun PCL scaffolds using various collagen type I concentrations ranging from 5% to 75%. We analyzed biocompatibility and morphological aspects in vitro. Our results show beneficial features of collagen I integration regarding cell viability and functionality, but also adverse effects like the loss of a confluent monolayer at high concentrations of collagen. Furthermore, electrospun PCL scaffolds containing 25% collagen I seem to be ideal for engineering vascular grafts.

  9. Polyphenols modulate calcium-independent mechanisms in human arterial tissue-engineered vascular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Myriam; Laflamme, Karina; Labbé, Raymond; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, an arterial tissue-engineered vascular media (TEVM) was produced from cultured human smooth muscle cells of the umbilical artery and we took advantage of this model to evaluate the regulation of contraction and the signalling pathways of polyphenols in arteries. Cultured human smooth muscle cells of the umbilical artery were used to produce arterial TEVMs. Contraction experiments were performed to determine intracellular targets involved in the modulation of contraction by polyphenols extract from red wine, Provinols (SEPPIC Groupe Air Liquide, Paris, France). Smooth muscle cells in arterial TEVM displayed a differentiated phenotype as demonstrated by the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a vascular smooth muscle-specific marker, and tissue contraction in response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. Contractions caused by histamine were associated with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and a Ca(2+)-independent signalling pathway. The latter pathway involved mechanisms sensitive to protein kinase C, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors. The regulation of contraction induced by Provinols shows that treatment of arterial TEVM with this compound significantly decreased histamine-induced contraction. This effect was associated with the inhibition of the Rho-associated protein kinase pathway and the decrease in alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. The use of arterial TEVM, brings new insights into the mechanisms by which polyphenols regulate vascular contraction in the human artery.

  10. Decreased expression of transient receptor potential channels in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Suess, Olaf; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    , TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPM4, TRPM6, and TRPM7 channels were detected in cerebral vascular tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Control cerebral vascular tissue was obtained from normotensive patients who underwent neurosurgical operation because of brain tumor. To examine a possible relation between......Recent data indicate that transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play an important role in hypertension. Now, we tested the hypothesis that TRP expression is altered in human cerebral vascular tissue in patients who had experienced hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. TRPC1, TRPC3...... the expression of TRP expression and hypoxic conditions caused by the intracerebral bleeding, we examined the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Transcripts of TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPM6, and HIF1a were significantly reduced in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral...

  11. Detergent-enzymatic decellularization of swine blood vessels: insight on mechanical properties for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegata, Alessandro F; Asnaghi, M Adelaide; Stefani, Ilaria; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Dominioni, Tommaso; Zonta, Sandro; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Mantero, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Small caliber vessels substitutes still remain an unmet clinical need; few autologous substitutes are available, while synthetic grafts show insufficient patency in the long term. Decellularization is the complete removal of all cellular and nuclear matters from a tissue while leaving a preserved extracellular matrix representing a promising tool for the generation of acellular scaffolds for tissue engineering, already used for various tissues with positive outcomes. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of a detergent-enzymatic decellularization protocol on swine arteries in terms of cell removal, extracellular matrix preservation, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the effect of storage at -80°C on the mechanical properties of the tissue is evaluated. Swine arteries were harvested, frozen, and decellularized; histological analysis revealed complete cell removal and preserved extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the residual DNA content in decellularized tissues was far low compared to native one. Mechanical testings were performed on native, defrozen, and decellularized tissues; no statistically significant differences were reported for Young's modulus, ultimate stress, compliance, burst pressure, and suture retention strength, while ultimate strain and stress relaxation of decellularized vessels were significantly different from the native ones. Considering the overall results, the process was confirmed to be suitable for the generation of acellular scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

  12. Detergent-Enzymatic Decellularization of Swine Blood Vessels: Insight on Mechanical Properties for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro F. Pellegata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small caliber vessels substitutes still remain an unmet clinical need; few autologous substitutes are available, while synthetic grafts show insufficient patency in the long term. Decellularization is the complete removal of all cellular and nuclear matters from a tissue while leaving a preserved extracellular matrix representing a promising tool for the generation of acellular scaffolds for tissue engineering, already used for various tissues with positive outcomes. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of a detergent-enzymatic decellularization protocol on swine arteries in terms of cell removal, extracellular matrix preservation, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the effect of storage at −80°C on the mechanical properties of the tissue is evaluated. Swine arteries were harvested, frozen, and decellularized; histological analysis revealed complete cell removal and preserved extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the residual DNA content in decellularized tissues was far low compared to native one. Mechanical testings were performed on native, defrozen, and decellularized tissues; no statistically significant differences were reported for Young’s modulus, ultimate stress, compliance, burst pressure, and suture retention strength, while ultimate strain and stress relaxation of decellularized vessels were significantly different from the native ones. Considering the overall results, the process was confirmed to be suitable for the generation of acellular scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

  13. Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to iRoot SP, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex, DiaRoot BioAggregate and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bósio, C C; Felippe, G S; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, M C S; Felippe, W T; Rivero, E R C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate connective tissue reactions to iRoot SP (Innovative Bioceramics, Vancouver, BC, Canada), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex (FLPX) (Angelus Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil), DiaRoot Bioaggregate (DiaDent Group International, Burnaby, BC, Canada) and white MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) in Wistar rats. A total of 128 dentine tubes filled with the materials and 32 empty tubes (control) were implanted into 32 rats. After 7, 15, 30 and 90 days (n = 8 per period), the animals were euthanized, and the tissues were processed for histological evaluation using haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Von Kossa (VK) staining. Observations were made for cellular inflammatory components and the presence of multinucleated giant cells (MNGC), macrophages and tissue necrosis. Data were analysed by Fisher's exact and Kruskal–Wallis tests (P MTA FLPX and iRoot SP scored higher than the other groups for the variable macrophages (P MTA FLPX scored higher than the other groups for the variable MNGC (P MTA FLPX. VK positivity was observed in areas of necrosis in all groups, except in the control group. The materials were considered biologically acceptable except MTA FLPX, which remained toxic to subcutaneous tissue even after 90 days.

  14. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis - association with clinical and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor - TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients' age. We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may contribute to maintenance of normal body composition and mass, (ii

  15. Tissue Transglutaminase Modulates Vascular Stiffness and Function Through Crosslinking-Dependent and Crosslinking-Independent Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppan, Jochen; Bergman, Yehudit; Viegas, Kayla; Armstrong, Dinani; Tan, Siqi; Wang, Huilei; Melucci, Sean; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Sung Yong; Barreto, Sebastian F; Isak, Abraham; Jandu, Sandeep; Flavahan, Nicholas; Butlin, Mark; An, Steven S; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E; Halushka, Marc K; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2017-02-03

    The structural elements of the vascular wall, namely, extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), contribute to the overall stiffness of the vessel. In this study, we examined the crosslinking-dependent and crosslinking-independent roles of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in vascular function and stiffness. SMCs were isolated from the aortae of TG2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. Cell adhesion was examined by using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing and PicoGreen assay. Cell motility was examined using a Boyden chamber assay. Cell proliferation was examined by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing and EdU incorporation assays. Cell micromechanics were studied using magnetic torsion cytometry and spontaneous nanobead tracer motions. Aortic mechanics were examined by tensile testing. Vasoreactivity was studied by wire myography. SMCs from TG2-/- mice had delayed adhesion, reduced motility, and accelerated de-adhesion and proliferation rates compared with those from WT. TG2-/- SMCs were stiffer and displayed fewer cytoskeletal remodeling events than WT. Collagen assembly was delayed in TG2-/- SMCs and recovered with adenoviral transduction of TG2. Aortic rings from TG2-/- mice were less stiff than those from WT; stiffness was partly recovered by incubation with guinea pig liver TG2 independent of crosslinking function. TG2-/- rings showed augmented response to phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction when compared with WT. In human coronary arteries, vascular media and plaque, high abundance of fibronectin expression, and colocalization with TG2 were observed. TG2 modulates vascular function/tone by altering SMC contractility independent of its crosslinking function and contributes to vascular stiffness by regulating SMC proliferation and matrix remodeling. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    -clearance method. Nine subjects were studied during 1-h basal rest, and then during continuous octreotide infusion during 1-h rest, 1-h exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption and 4-h post-exercise rest. A control study on seven subjects was performed under similar conditions but without octreotide infusion.......c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe...

  17. Subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2009-01-01

    regression analysis, adiponectin correlated negatively with CFM (r = -0.27; P multiple linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR (dependent variable......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...

  18. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  19. Impaired autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue of long-term type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Nørgaard, T; Parving, H H

    1985-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy, eight short-term Type 1 diabetic patients without clinical microangiopathy and seven healthy control...... subjects. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xenon washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevating to a maximum of 70 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constant and low...... by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising). Mean arterial blood pressure was thus varied between 60 and 160 mmHg. In normal and short-term diabetic subjects blood flow remained within 10% of control values during the changes in arterial blood pressure. In six of the eight Type 1 diabetic patients...

  20. SLIT3-ROBO4 activation promotes vascular network formation in human engineered tissue and angiogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D; Coulombe, Kareen L K; Toth, Peter T; Zhang, Yanmin; Marsboom, Glenn; Bindokas, Vytas P; Smith, David W; Murry, Charles E; Rehman, Jalees

    2013-11-01

    Successful implantation and long-term survival of engineered tissue grafts hinges on adequate vascularization of the implant. Endothelial cells are essential for patterning vascular structures, but they require supportive mural cells such as pericytes/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to generate stable, functional blood vessels. While there is evidence that the angiogenic effect of MSCs is mediated via the secretion of paracrine signals, the identity of these signals is unknown. By utilizing two functionally distinct human MSC clones, we found that so-called "pericytic" MSCs secrete the pro-angiogenic vascular guidance molecule SLIT3, which guides vascular development by directing ROBO4-positive endothelial cells to form networks in engineered tissue. In contrast, "non-pericytic" MSCs exhibit reduced activation of the SLIT3/ROBO4 pathway and do not support vascular networks. Using live cell imaging of organizing 3D vascular networks, we show that siRNA knockdown of SLIT3 in MSCs leads to disorganized clustering of ECs. Knockdown of its receptor ROBO4 in ECs abolishes the generation of functional human blood vessels in an in vivo xenogenic implant. These data suggest that the SLIT3/ROBO4 pathway is required for MSC-guided vascularization in engineered tissues. Heterogeneity of SLIT3 expression may underlie the variable clinical success of MSCs for tissue repair applications. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells With Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increases Angiogenesis of Implanted Tissue-Engineered Constructs Through Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Caroline; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Bascetin, Rumeyza; Ying, Hanru; Lesieur, Julie; Sadoine, Jérémy; Beckouche, Nathan; Berndt, Sarah; Novais, Anita; Lesage, Matthieu; Hosten, Benoit; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Le-Denmat, Dominique; Marchiol, Carmen; Letourneur, Didier; Nicoletti, Antonino; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Poliard, Anne; Salmon, Benjamin; Germain, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies based on implanting cellularized biomaterials are promising therapeutic approaches for the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A major hurdle for the reliable establishment of such therapeutic approaches is the lack of rapid blood perfusion of the tissue construct to provide oxygen and nutrients. Numerous sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) displaying angiogenic potential have been characterized in the past years, including the adult dental pulp. Establishment of efficient strategies for improving angiogenesis in tissue constructs is nevertheless still an important challenge. Hypoxia was proposed as a priming treatment owing to its capacity to enhance the angiogenic potential of stem cells through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The present study aimed to characterize additional key factors regulating the angiogenic capacity of such MSCs, namely, dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth (SHED). We identified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a potent inducer of the release of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by SHED. We found that FGF-2 limited hypoxia-induced downregulation of HGF release. Using three-dimensional culture models of angiogenesis, we demonstrated that VEGF and HGF were both responsible for the high angiogenic potential of SHED through direct targeting of endothelial cells. In addition, FGF-2 treatment increased the fraction of Stro-1+/CD146+ progenitor cells. We then applied in vitro FGF-2 priming to SHED before encapsulation in hydrogels and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. Our results showed that FGF-2 priming is more efficient than hypoxia at increasing SHED-induced vascularization compared with nonprimed controls. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF. Significance The results from the present study show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) priming is more

  2. Effects of dietary level of pantothenic acid and sex on carcass, meat quality traits and fatty acid composition of thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Minelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of i supranutritional doses of pantothenic acid (PA and ii sex on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pig. In trial 1, 59 Duroc x (LxLW pigs were fed the same diet containing either 10 [in the control (C group] or 110 ppm [in the treatment (T group] PA, from 107 to 168 kg live weight. At slaughtering, forty carcasses were sampled randomly. The T carcasses had lower backfat thickness (P<0.05, lower incidence of adipose cuts (P<0.05, higher lean cuts percentage (63.09 vs 60.64%; P<0.01 and lean meat yield (P<0.07. In trial 2, 42 pigs [Dumeco Cofok x (LxLW], evenly divided into three groups, were fed the same feed containing respectively 10 (C, 60 (T1 and 110 ppm (T2 PA, from 95 to 165 kg live weight. The treatment lowered total adipose cuts yield (P<0.05 and increased lean/adipose cuts ratio (P<0.07. In the outer layer of thighs subcutaneous adipose tissue, the treatment raised polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01, unsaturation coefficient (P<0.01 and polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S FA ratio (P<0.05. In the inner layer, the treatment led to a lower saturated FA (P<0.05 and higher polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01. In both trials, females generally provided leaner carcasses. In neither trials, vitamin level affected meat quality. Thus, feeding high levels of PA to heavy pigs can yield more valuable carcasses without affecting meat quality. However, effects on FA composition suggest caution in adopting this practice in the Italian heavy pig production.

  3. Chick subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots respond differently in lipolytic and adipogenic activity to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-07-01

    In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h. Plasma α-MSH was 3.06±0.57ng/ml. In subcutaneous tissue, melanocortin receptor 5 (MC5R) mRNA was increased in 10μg, MC2R and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) mRNAs increased in 50μg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and C/EBPα decreased in 5, 10 and 50μg, and Ki67 mRNA decreased in 50μg α-MSH-injected chicks, compared to vehicle-injected chicks. In abdominal tissue, adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA was greater in 10μg α-MSH- than vehicle-treated chicks. Cells isolated from abdominal fat that were treated with 10 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h expressed more MC5R and perilipin-1 than control cells (n=6). Cells that received 100nM α-MSH expressed more fatty acid binding protein 4 and comparative gene identification-58 mRNA than control cells. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity was greater in cells at 9days post-differentiation that were treated with 1 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h than in control cells (n=3). Results suggest that α-MSH increases lipolysis and reduces adipogenesis in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Engraftment and morphological development of vascularized human iPS cell-derived 3D-cardiomyocyte tissue after xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Hirokazu; Shima, Fumiaki; Yokoyama, Junya; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Yoshinari; Takamura, Yasushi; Hiura, Ayami; Fukumoto, Ken; Chiba, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Seiji; Sawa, Yoshiki; Akashi, Mitsuru; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2017-10-20

    One of the major challenges in cell-based cardiac regenerative medicine is the in vitro construction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues consisting of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (iPSC-CM) and a blood vascular network supplying nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue after implantation. We have successfully built a vascularized iPSC-CM 3D-tissue using our validated cell manipulation technique. In order to evaluate an availability of the 3D-tissue as a biomaterial, functional morphology of the tissues was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy through their implantation into the rat infarcted heart. Before implantation, the tissues showed distinctive myofibrils within iPSC-CMs and capillary-like endothelial tubes, but their profiles were still like immature. In contrast, engraftment of the tissues to the rat heart led the iPSC-CMs and endothelial tubes into organization of cell organelles and junctional apparatuses and prompt development of capillary network harboring host blood supply, respectively. A number of capillaries in the implanted tissues were derived from host vascular bed, whereas the others were likely to be composed by fusion of host and implanted endothelial cells. Thus, our vascularized iPSC-CM 3D-tissues may be a useful regenerative paradigm which will require additional expanded and long-term studies.

  5. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Graft of Small Diameter Based on Electrospun Polylactide Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Popryadukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular vascular grafts 1.1 mm in diameter based on poly(L-lactide microfibers were obtained by electrospinning. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data demonstrated that the samples treated at T=70°C for 1 h in the fixed state on a cylindrical mandrel possessed dense fibrous structure; their degree of crystallinity was approximately 44%. Strength and deformation stability of these samples were higher than those of the native blood vessels; thus, it was possible to use them in tissue engineering as bioresorbable vascular grafts. The experiments on including implantation into rat abdominal aorta demonstrated that the obtained vascular grafts did not cause pathological reactions in the rats; in four weeks, inner side of the grafts became completely covered with endothelial cells, and fibroblasts grew throughout the wall. After exposure for 12 weeks, resorption of PLLA fibers started, and this process was completed in 64 weeks. Resorbed synthetic fibers were replaced by collagen and fibroblasts. At that time, the blood vessel was formed; its neointima and neoadventitia were close to those of the native vessel in structure and composition.

  6. PDGFRβ Regulates Adipose Tissue Expansion and Glucose Metabolism via Vascular Remodeling in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Chie; Inata, Kento; Matsuzawa, Takatoshi; Inaba, Yuka; Kimura, Kumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Seiji; Ishii, Yoko; Koya, Daisuke; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2017-04-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a key factor in angiogenesis; however, its role in adult obesity remains unclear. In order to clarify its pathophysiological role, we investigated the significance of PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) in adipose tissue expansion and glucose metabolism. Mature vessels in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) were tightly wrapped with pericytes in normal mice. Pericyte desorption from vessels and the subsequent proliferation of endothelial cells were markedly increased in the eWAT of diet-induced obese mice. Analyses with flow cytometry and adipose tissue cultures indicated that PDGF-B caused the detachment of pericytes from vessels in a concentration-dependent manner. M1-macrophages were a major type of cells expressing PDGF-B in obese adipose tissue. In contrast, pericyte detachment was attenuated and vascularity within eWAT was reduced in tamoxifen-inducible conditional Pdgfrb-knockout mice with decreases in adipocyte size and chronic inflammation. Furthermore, Pdgfrb-knockout mice showed enhanced energy expenditure. Consequently, diet-induced obesity and the associated deterioration of glucose metabolism in wild-type mice were absent in Pdgfrb-knockout mice. Therefore, PDGF-B-PDGFRβ signaling plays a significant role in the development of adipose tissue neovascularization and appears to be a fundamental target for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Stienstra, R.; Diepen, J.A. van; Hijmans, A.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the

  8. Measuring Temperature Induced Phase Change Kinetics in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy, MR Imaging and Spectroscopy and OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Amir Y; Manstein, Dieter; Carp, Stefan A

    2017-12-19

    Monitoring phase transition in adipose tissue and formation of lipid crystals is important in Cryo-procedures such as Selective Cryolipolysis (SC). We exploited a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) method to monitor the onset of fat phase transition (freezing/melting) in human abdominal adipose tissue. The changes in optical scattering were compared to Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements as the gold standard method for measuring phase transition. For some samples, concurrent in vitro measurements of optical scattering using NIRS and the MR signal parameters (T2*) as well as spectral parameters using MR Spectroscopy were performed in a 3 T MR scanner during a cooling/heating cycle. To further investigate phase-transition in adipose tissue in microscopic level, an identical cooling/heating procedure was replicated on a small piece of fat harvested from the same tissue while being imaged under Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For all methods, their relationship with temperature shows inflexions in a narrow range, characteristic of lipid phase transition. In particular, the good agreement between DSC and Optical measurements suggests that such NIRS methods can be used to improve dosimetry and to minimize variations of clinical outcome for cryo-procedures.

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may enhance fatty acid re-esterification in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metab...

  10. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Stienstra, R.; Diepen, van J.A.; Hijmans, A.; Laak, van der J.A.; Vervoort, G.M.; Tack, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the

  11. Possible role of mechanical force in regulating regeneration of the vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan; Yuan, Yi; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    In plastic and reconstructive surgery, adipose tissue is widely used as effective filler for tissue defects. Strategies for treating soft tissue deficiency, which include free adipose tissue grafts, use of hyaluronic acid, collagen injections, and implantation of synthetic materials, have several clinical limitations. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, researchers have recently utilized tissue engineering chambers to produce large volumes of engineered vascularized fat tissue. However, the process of growing fat tissue in a chamber is still relatively limited, and can result in unpredictable or dissatisfactory final tissue volumes. Therefore, detailed understanding of the process is both necessary and urgent. Many studies have shown that mechanical force can change the function of cells via mechanotransduction. Here, we hypothesized that, besides the inflammatory response, one of the key factors to control the regeneration of vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber might be the balance of mechanical forces. To test our hypothesis, we intend to change the balance of forces by means of measures in order to make the equilibrium point in favor of the direction of regeneration. If those measures proved to be feasible, they could be applied in clinical practice to engineer vascularized adipose tissue of predictable size and shape, which would in turn help in the advancement of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods for histochemical demonstration of vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface from cryostate sections of demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1981-01-01

    In tissue decalcified with MgNa2EDTA at a neutral pH activity for ATPase can used be for demonstration of the vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface. The GOMORI method for alkaline phosphatase is only of value, when fresh unfixed tissue is to be examined. The azo-dye method for alkaline...

  13. Vascularized tissue to reduce fistula following salvage total laryngectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleri, Vinidh; Drinnan, Mike; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hinni, Michael L; Bradley, Patrick J; Wolf, Gregory T; de Bree, Remco; Fagan, Johannes J; Hamoir, Marc; Strojan, Primož; Rodrigo, Juan P; Olsen, Kerry D; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Shaha, Ashok R; Genden, Eric M; Silver, Carl E; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2014-08-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae (PCF) are known to occur in nearly one-third of patients after salvage total laryngectomy (STL). PCF has severe impact on duration of admission and costs and quality of life and can even cause severe complications such as bleeding, infection and death. Many patients need further surgical procedures. The implications for functional outcome and survival are less clear. Several studies have shown that using vascularized tissue from outside the radiation field reduces the risk of PCFs following STL. This review and meta-analysis aims to identify the evidence base to support this hypothesis. English language literature from 2004 to 2013 REVIEW METHODS: We searched the English language literature for articles published on the subject from 2004 to 2013. Adequate data was available to identify pooled incidence rates from seven articles. The pooled relative risk derived from 591 patients was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.85), indicating that patients who have flap reconstruction/reinforcement reduced their risk of PCF by one-third. This pooled analysis suggests that there is a clear advantage in using vascularized tissue from outside the radiation field in the laryngectomy defect. While some studies show a clear reduction in PCF rates, others suggest that the fistulae that occur are smaller and rarely need repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Uniaxial Mechanical Properties of Collagen Gel Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro M. Irastorza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.. When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  15. Mathematical modeling of uniaxial mechanical properties of collagen gel scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, Ramiro M; Drouin, Bernard; Blangino, Eugenia; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.). When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  16. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering: an advanced strategy for blood vessels regeneration and vascular disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Pei; Bian, Guang-Liang; Huang, Hao-Yue; Shen, Han; Yang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Zi-Ying; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2017-09-15

    Over the past years, vascular diseases have continued to threaten human health and increase financial burdens worldwide. Transplantation of allogeneic and autologous blood vessels is the most convenient treatment. However, it could not be applied generally due to the scarcity of donors and the patient's condition. Developments in tissue engineering are contributing greatly with regard to this urgent need for blood vessels. Tissue engineering-derived blood vessels are promising alternatives for patients with aortic dissection/aneurysm. The aim of this review is to show the importance of advances in biomaterials development for the treatment of vascular disease. We also provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of tissue reconstruction from stem cells and transplantable cellular scaffold constructs, focusing on the combination of stem cells and tissue engineering for blood vessel regeneration and vascular disease treatment.

  17. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  18. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gericke, Martin [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Berger, Claudia [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kunath, Anne [German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  19. Influence of genetic type, live weight at slaughter and carcass fatness on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham in the heavy pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiego, D P Lo; Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; De Leonibus, E

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to assess some quality traits of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham for Parma production, obtained from 56 "traditional" Landrace×Large White (L×LW) and 56 Cotswold commercial hybrid (CH) pigs reared in the same conditions and slaughtered at an average live weight (l.w.) of about 165 kg. Further, the relationships between lipid composition, l.w. and carcass fatness were studied. Compared to the CH, the fatty tissue of L×LW pigs showed a lower water (6.33% vs. 7.35%, P<0.01) and a higher lipid (91.18% vs. 90.18%, P<0.01) content. CH lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.53% vs. 13.75%, P<0.01), and smaller saturated fatty acids (38.20% vs. 40.26%, P<0.01) content and a higher iodine value (69.69 vs. 65.22, P<0.01). An increased slaughter weight was associated with a lower degree of lipid unsaturation, but only the lowest weight class (<160 kg) showed a significant difference compared to the other two classes (⩾160<170 and ⩾170 kg). Regardless of genetic type or l.w. class, an increase in backfat thickness is associated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a remarkable reduction in polyunsaturated content.

  20. Comparison of displacement and acceleration transducers for the characterization of mechanics of muscle and subcutaneous tissues by system identification of a mechanomyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Shinohara, Keita

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the performance of transducers for the mechanical characterization of muscle and subcutaneous tissue with the aid of a system identification technique. The common peroneal nerve was stimulated, and a mechanomyogram (MMG) of the anterior tibialis muscle was detected with a laser displacement meter or an acceleration sensor. The transfer function between stimulation and the MMG was identified by the singular value decomposition method. The MMG detected with a laser displacement meter, DMMG, was approximated with a second-order model, but that detected with an acceleration sensor, AMMG, was approximated with a sixth-order model. The natural frequency of the DMMG coincided with that in the literature and was close to the lowest natural frequency of the AMMG. The highest natural frequency of the AMMG was within the range of the resonance frequencies of human soft tissue. The laser displacement meter is suitable for the precise identification of the MMG, which has a natural frequency of around 3 Hz. The acceleration transducer is suitable for the identification of the MMG with natural frequencies of tens of hertz.

  1. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involved......) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was evaluated in biopsies from SCAAT. Lipolysis in SCAAT was substantially higher in IUGR than in CON subjects despite markedly lower mRNA expression of lipases. Blood flow was higher in IUGR compared with CON in both SCAAT and SCFAT...

  2. Quantifying three-dimensional rodent retina vascular development using optical tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasmine N.; Nowlin, Taylor M.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Abman, Steven H.; Shepherd, Douglas P.

    2017-07-01

    Retinal vasculature develops in a highly orchestrated three-dimensional (3-D) sequence. The stages of retinal vascularization are highly susceptible to oxygen perturbations. We demonstrate that optical tissue clearing of intact rat retinas and light-sheet microscopy provides rapid 3-D characterization of vascular complexity during retinal development. Compared with flat mount preparations that dissect the retina and primarily image the outermost vascular layers, intact cleared retinas imaged using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy display changes in the 3-D retinal vasculature rapidly without the need for point scanning techniques. Using a severe model of retinal vascular disruption, we demonstrate that a simple metric based on Sholl analysis captures the vascular changes observed during retinal development in 3-D. Taken together, these results provide a methodology for rapidly quantifying the 3-D development of the entire rodent retinal vasculature.

  3. Vascular endothelial-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation in angiogenic and quiescent adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeng, Nathalie; Wallez, Yann; Rampon, Christine; Cand, Francine; Christé, Georges; Gulino-Debrac, Danielle; Vilgrain, Isabelle; Huber, Philippe

    2005-02-18

    Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) plays a key role in angiogenesis and in vascular permeability. The regulation of its biological activity may be a central mechanism in normal or pathological angiogenesis. VE-cadherin has been shown to be phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro under various conditions, including stimulation by VEGF. In the present study, we addressed the question of the existence of a tyrosine phosphorylated form of VE-cadherin in vivo, in correlation with the quiescent versus angiogenic state of adult tissues. Phosphorylated VE-cadherin was detected in mouse lung, uterus, and ovary but not in other tissues unless mice were injected with peroxovanadate to block protein phosphatases. Remarkably, VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation was dramatically increased in uterus and ovary, and not in other organs, during PMSG/hCG-induced angiogenesis. In parallel, we observed an increased association of VE-cadherin with Flk1 (VEGF receptor 2) during hormonal angiogenesis. Additionally, Src kinase was constitutively associated with VE-cadherin in both quiescent and angiogenic tissues and increased phosphorylation of VE-cadherin-associated Src was detected in uterus and ovary after hormonal treatment. Src-VE-cadherin association was detected in cultured endothelial cells, independent of VE-cadherin phosphorylation state and Src activation level. In this model, Src inhibition impaired VEGF-induced VE-cadherin phosphorylation, indicating that VE-cadherin phosphorylation was dependent on Src activation. We conclude that VE-cadherin is a substrate for tyrosine kinases in vivo and that its phosphorylation, together with that of associated Src, is increased by angiogenic stimulation. Physical association between Flk1, Src, and VE-cadherin may thus provide an efficient mechanism for amplification and perpetuation of VEGF-stimulated angiogenic processes.

  4. A Dual-Mode Bioreactor System for Tissue Engineered Vascular Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, N; Meghezi, S; Soncini, M; Piola, M; Mantovani, D; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, vascular tissue engineering has made great strides towards bringing engineered vascular tissues to the clinics and, in parallel, obtaining in-lab tools for basic research. Herein, we propose the design of a novel dual-mode bioreactor, useful for the fabrication (construct mode) and in vitro stimulation (culture mode) of collagen-based tubular constructs. Collagen-based gels laden with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were molded directly within the bioreactor culture chamber. Based on a systematic characterization of the bioreactor culture mode, constructs were subjected to 10% cyclic strain at 0.5 Hz for 5 days. The effects of cyclic stimulation on matrix re-arrangement and biomechanical/viscoelastic properties were examined and compared vs. statically cultured constructs. A thorough comparison of cell response in terms of cell localization and expression of contractile phenotypic markers was carried out as well. We found that cyclic stimulation promoted cell-driven collagen matrix bi-axial compaction, enhancing the mechanical strength of strained samples with respect to static controls. Moreover, cyclic strain positively affected SMC behavior: cells maintained their contractile phenotype and spread uniformly throughout the whole wall thickness. Conversely, static culture induced a noticeable polarization of cell distribution to the outer rim of the constructs and a sharp reduction in total cell density. Overall, coupling the use of a novel dual-mode bioreactor with engineered collagen-gel-based tubular constructs demonstrated to be an interesting technology to investigate the modulation of cell and tissue behavior under controlled mechanically conditioned in vitro maturation.

  5. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis – association with clinical and laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kontny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21 and OA (n = 13, and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods: Basal and interleukin (IL-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Results : Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β(1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor – TNF and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI and visceral fat rating (FVSC. In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients’ age. Conclusions : We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i adiponectin and TNF

  6. Vascular malformations of upper and lower extremity - from radiological interventional therapy to surgical soft tissue reconstruction - an interdisciplinary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, M; Wohlgemuth, W; Müller-Wille, R; Prantl, L; Kehrer, A; Geis, S; Klein, S; Lamby, P; Schiltz, D; Uller, W; Aung, T; Dolderer, J H

    2017-01-01

    This article presents our experience in managing peripheral vascular malformations of upper and lower extremities over a 4-year period in a series of 46 patients of the Department of Plastic Surgery treated in the Interdisciplinary Center of Vascular Anomalies (ICVA) at the University of Regensburg. The patients presented vascular malformations of upper and lower extremity and were selected from our prospective vascular anomalies file archive from 2012 to 2016. During this period in the ICVA at University of Regensburg were performed more than 1400 radiological interventional treatments in patients with vascular malformations.The purpose of this retrospective study was to review combined embolotherapy, sclerotherapy (embolo/sclerotherapy), and surgical procedures (surgical excision and soft tissue reconstruction) to manage vascular malformations. Treatments were principally induced to reduce pain, daily physical limitations, social discomfort and recover tegument continuity after ulceration.The 46 patients were first examined with noninvasive radiological procedures. After diagnosis was posed, embolo/sclerotherapy, surgical procedures and clinically as well as radiological follow-ups were coordinated and established by the multidisciplinary team. All vascular malformations were categorized according to the classification approved at the April 2014 General Assembly of International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) in Melbourne, Australia. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were further classified following the Cho-Do and Schobinger classification.Embolo/sclerotherapy shows to be the most appropriate procedure in vascular malformations treatment. Nevertheless was found that in case of complications or lack of improvement as well as to improve functional or aesthetical results, a following partial or complete surgical excision and immediate soft tissue reconstruction seems to be the gold-standard treatment. In addition, the precise clinical and

  7. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  8. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  9. Colour of bovine subcutaneous adipose tissue: A review of contributory factors, associations with carcass and meat quality and its potential utility in authentication of dietary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, P G; Monahan, F J; O'Mara, F P; Moloney, A P

    2009-01-01

    The colour of bovine subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (carcass fat) depends on the age, gender and breed of cattle. Diet is the most important extrinsic factor but its influence depends on the duration of feeding. Cattle produced under extensive grass-based production systems generally have carcass fat which is more yellow than their intensively-reared, concentrate-fed counterparts and this is caused by carotenoids from green forage. Although yellow carcass fat is negatively regarded in many countries, evidence suggests it may be associated with a healthier fatty acid profile and antioxidant content in beef, synonymous with grass feeding. Nonetheless, management strategies to reduce fat colour of grass-fed cattle are sought after. Current research suggests that yellow colour of this tissue is reduced if pasture-fed cattle are converted to a grain-based diet, which results in accretion of adipose tissue and dilution of carotenoids. Colour changes may depend on the initial yellow colour, the carotene and utilisable energy in the finishing diet, the duration of finishing, the amount of fat accumulated during finishing and the rate of utilisation of carotene from body fat. Differences in nutritional strategies which cause differences in fatty acid composition may be reflected by differences in fat colour and carotenoid concentration. Fat colour and carotenoids are prominent among a panoply of measurements which can aid the authentication of the dietary history and thus to some extent, the origin of beef, although this potential utility is complicated by the simultaneous rather than discrete use of forages and concentrates in real production systems.

  10. Mechanical behavior of a cellulose-reinforced scaffold in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyan, Parisa; Tannenbaum, Rina; Garmestani, Hamid

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds constitute an essential structural component in tissue engineering of a vascular substitute for small grafts by playing a significant role in integrating the overall tissue constructs. The microstructure and mechanical properties of such scaffolds are important parameters to promote further cellular activities and neo-tissue development. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), an abundant, biocompatible material, could potentially constitute an acceptable candidate in scaffolding of a tissue-engineered vessel. Inspired by the advantages of cellulose and its derivatives, we have designed a biomaterial comprising CNWs embedded in a matrix of cellulose acetate propionate to fabricate a fully bio-based scaffold. To ensure uniform distribution, CNWs were delicately extracted from a multi-stage process and dispersed in an acetone suspension prior to the composite fabrication. Comparable to carbon nanotubes or kevlar, CNWs impart significant strength and directional rigidity even at 0.2 wt% and almost double that at only 3.0 wt%. To ensure the accuracy of our experimental data and to predict the unusual reinforcing effect of CNWs in a cellulose-based composite, homogenization schemes such as the mean field approach and the percolation technique were also investigated. Based on these comparisons, the tendency of CNWs to interconnect with one another through strong hydrogen bonding confirmed the formation of a three-dimensional rigid percolating network, fact which imparted an excellent mechanical stability to the entire structure at such low filler contents. Hence, our fibrous porous microstructure with improved mechanical properties could introduce a potential scaffold to withstand the physiological pressure and to mimic the profile features of native extracellular matrix in a human vessel. We believe that our nanohybrid design not only could expand the biomedical applications of renewable cellulose-based materials but also could provide a potential scaffold candidate

  11. Optical coherence tomography in quantifying the permeation of human plasma lipoproteins in vascular tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, M. G.; Mashiatulla, M.; Tuchin, V. V.; Morrisett, J. D.; Larin, K. V.

    2012-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common underlying cause of vascular disease, occurring in multiple arterial beds including the carotid, coronary, and femoral arteries. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process occurring in arterial tissue, involving the subintimal accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Little is known about the rates at which these accumulations occur. Measurements of the permeability rate of LDL, and other lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), could help gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The permeation of VLDL, LDL, HDL, and glucose was monitored and quantified in normal and diseased human carotid endarterectomy tissues at 20°C and 37°C using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The rates for LDL permeation through normal tissue at 20°C was (3.16 +/- 0.37) × 10-5 cm/sec and at 37°C was (4.77 +/- 0.48) × 10-5 cm/sec, significantly greater (plipoproteins.

  12. Granulocytes and Vascularization Regulate Uterine Bleeding and Tissue Remodeling in a Mouse Menstruation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Astrid; Walter, Alexander; Rudolph, Marion; Gashaw, Isabella; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Roese, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Menstruation-associated disorders negatively interfere with the quality of life of many women. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of menstrual disorders remain poorly investigated up to date. Among others, this is based on a lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models. We here employ a mouse menstruation model induced by priming mice with gonadal hormones and application of a physical stimulus into the uterus followed by progesterone removal. As in women, these events are accompanied by menstrual-like bleeding and tissue remodeling processes, i.e. disintegration of decidualized endometrium, as well as subsequent repair. We demonstrate that the onset of bleeding coincides with strong upregulation of inflammatory mediators and massive granulocyte influx into the uterus. Uterine granulocytes play a central role in regulating local tissue remodeling since depletion of these cells results in dysregulated expression of matrix modifying enzymes. As described here for the first time, uterine blood loss can be quantified by help of tampon-like cotton pads. Using this novel technique, we reveal that blood loss is strongly reduced upon inhibition of endometrial vascularization and thus, is a key regulator of menstrual bleeding. Taken together, we here identify angiogenesis and infiltrating granulocytes as critical determinants of uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model. Importantly, our study provides a technical and scientific basis allowing quantification of uterine blood loss in mice and thus, assessment of therapeutic intervention, proving great potential for future use in basic research and drug discovery. PMID:22879894

  13. Granulocytes and vascularization regulate uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Menning

    Full Text Available Menstruation-associated disorders negatively interfere with the quality of life of many women. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of menstrual disorders remain poorly investigated up to date. Among others, this is based on a lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models. We here employ a mouse menstruation model induced by priming mice with gonadal hormones and application of a physical stimulus into the uterus followed by progesterone removal. As in women, these events are accompanied by menstrual-like bleeding and tissue remodeling processes, i.e. disintegration of decidualized endometrium, as well as subsequent repair. We demonstrate that the onset of bleeding coincides with strong upregulation of inflammatory mediators and massive granulocyte influx into the uterus. Uterine granulocytes play a central role in regulating local tissue remodeling since depletion of these cells results in dysregulated expression of matrix modifying enzymes. As described here for the first time, uterine blood loss can be quantified by help of tampon-like cotton pads. Using this novel technique, we reveal that blood loss is strongly reduced upon inhibition of endometrial vascularization and thus, is a key regulator of menstrual bleeding. Taken together, we here identify angiogenesis and infiltrating granulocytes as critical determinants of uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model. Importantly, our study provides a technical and scientific basis allowing quantification of uterine blood loss in mice and thus, assessment of therapeutic intervention, proving great potential for future use in basic research and drug discovery.

  14. Electrospun biphasic tubular scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-Hay, Abdalla; Bartnikowski, Michal; Hamlet, Stephen; Ivanovski, Sašo

    2018-01-01

    Polymer scaffolds produced through an electrospinning process are frequently explored as tissue substitutes for regenerative medicine. Despite offering desirable surface area to volume ratios and tailorable pore sizes, their poor structural mechanical properties limit their applicability in load-bearing regions. In this study, we present a simple strategy to improve the mechanical properties of a vascular graft scaffold. We achieved the formation of biphasic tubular scaffolds by electrospinning polyurethane (PU) onto an airbrushed tube made of polycaprolactone (PCL). After preparation, the scaffold was subsequently thermally-crosslinked (60°C) to strengthen the bonding between the two materials. The tensile strength and tensile elastic (Young's) modulus of the biphasic scaffolds were significantly enhanced from 4.5±1.72 and 45±15MPa (PU-only) up to 67.5±2.4 and 1039±81.8MPa (PCL/PU; pmechanically robust vascular graft scaffold using a novel combination of well-established fabrication techniques. This study could also be extended to the fabrication of other biphasic scaffolds to better enhance the mechanical properties of the electrospun fibers mat without deteriorating its architecture structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastomeric degradable biomaterials by photopolymerization-based CAD-CAM for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Stefan; Nehl, Franziska; Ligon, S Clark; Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163MC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nigisch, Anneliese; Bernhard, David [Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergmeister, Helga [Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen, E-mail: robert.liska@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Material Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    A predominant portion of mortalities in industrial countries can be attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the last decades great efforts have been undertaken to develop materials for artificial vascular constructs. However, bio-inert materials like ePTFE or PET fail as material for narrow blood vessel replacements (coronary bypasses). Therefore, we aim to design new biocompatible materials to overcome this. In this paper we investigate the use of photoelastomers for artificial vascular constructs since they may be precisely structured by means of additive manufacturing technologies. Hence, 3D computer aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) offer the possibility of creating cellular structures within the grafts that might favour ingrowth of tissue. Different monomer formulations were screened concerning their suitability for this application but all had drawbacks, especially concerning the suture tear resistance. Therefore, we chose to modify the original network architecture by including dithiol chain transfer agents which effectively co-react with the acrylates and reduce crosslink density. A commercial urethane diacrylate was chosen as base monomer. In combination with reactive diluents and dithiols, the properties of the photopolymers could be tailored and degradability could be introduced. The optimized photoelastomers were in good mechanical accordance with native blood vessels, showed good biocompatibility in in vitro tests, degraded similar to poly(lactic acid) and were successfully manufactured with the 3D CAD-CAM technology.

  16. Determination of ceftiofur derivatives in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia in puerperal dairy cows with fever or acute puerperal metritis after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krueger, X; Scherpenisse, P; Roiger, S; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) is one of the most common diseases during the puerperal period. Systemic administration of ceftiofur for 5 consecutive days has been shown to be effective for treatment of APM. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia of cows with fever postpartum or APM 4 to 6d after treatment with a single subcutaneous dose of 6.6 mg of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA)/kg of estimated BW at the base of the ear. In the first experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with fever postpartum or APM (n=42) were taken on d 4, 5, or 6 after treatment. Concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives were quantified using an HPLC assay. Concentrations of active ceftiofur metabolite desfuroylceftiofuracetamide (DCA) were greatest at d 4 after treatment with CCFA in all samples, but they were considerably lower than the concentrations of DCA in healthy postpartum cows treated with the same dose of CCFA. The concentrations of DCA in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia were affected by odor of vaginal discharge before treatment with CCFA. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported minimal drug concentrations (minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC) required to inhibit relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in serum on all days and in endometrial tissue and lochia only on d 4 in CCFA-treated cows with fetid vaginal discharge before treatment. In the second experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with APM (n=8) were taken on d 0 (before treatment) and d 4, 5, and 6 after treatment. Mean concentrations of DCA in serum and lochia were similar on d 4 to 6 in both laboratories. Furthermore, determined concentrations of DCA from both laboratories were correlated for serum and lochia. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported MIC in serum and lochia only on d 4. Our 2 experiments demonstrated that in

  17. Decellularized ureter for tissue-engineered small-caliber vascular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yuji; Kagami, Hideaki; Matsunuma, Hiroshi; Murase, Yosuke; Ueda, Minoru; Ueda, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Previous attempts to create small-caliber vascular prostheses have been limited. The aim of this study was to generate tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts using decellularized ureters (DUs). Canine ureters were decellularized using one of four different chemical agents [Triton-X 100 (Tx), deoxycholate (DCA), trypsin, or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)] and the histology, residual DNA contents, and immunogenicity of the resulting DUs were compared. The mechanical properties of the DUs were evaluated in terms of water permeability, burst strength, tensile strength, and compliance. Cultured canine endothelial cells (ECs) and myofibroblasts were seeded onto DUs and evaluated histologically. Canine carotid arteries were replaced with the EC-seeded DUs (n = 4). As controls, nonseeded DUs (n = 5) and PTFE prostheses (n = 4) were also used to replace carotid arteries. The degree of decellularization and the maintenance of the matrix were best in the Tx-treated DUs. Tx-treated and DCA-treated DUs had lower remnant DNA contents and immunogenicity than the others. The burst strength of the DUs was more than 500 mmHg and the maximum tensile strength of the DUs was not different to that of native ureters. DU compliance was similar to that of native carotid artery. The cell seeding test resulted in monolayered ECs and multilayered alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells on the DUs. The animal implantation model showed that the EC-seeded DUs were patent for at least 6 months after the operation, whereas the nonseeded DUs and PTFE grafts become occluded within a week. These results suggest that tissue-engineered DUs may be a potential alternative conduit for bypass surgery.

  18. Mesoporous silica particle-PLA-PANI hybrid scaffolds for cell-directed intracellular drug delivery and tissue vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Hussein; Vanamo, Ulriika; Wiltschka, Oliver; Niinimäki, Jenni; Lerche, Martina; Levon, Kalle; Linden, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    Instructive materials are expected to revolutionize stem cell based tissue engineering. As many stem cell cues have adverse effects on normal tissue homeostasis, there is a need to develop bioactive scaffolds which offer locally retained and cell-targeted drug delivery for intracellular release in targeted cell populations. Further, the scaffolds need to support vascularization to promote tissue growth and function. We have developed an electrospun PLA-PANI fiber scaffold, and incorporated mesoporous silica nanoparticles within the scaffold matrix to obtain cell-targeted and localized drug delivery. The isotropy of the scaffold can be tuned to find the optimal morphology for a given application and the scaffold is electroactive to support differentiation of contractile tissues. We demonstrate that there is no premature drug release from particles under physiological conditions over a period of one week and that the drug is released upon internalization of particles by cells within the scaffold. The scaffold is biocompatible, supports muscle stem cell differentiation and cell-seeded scaffolds are vascularized in vivo upon transplantation on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. The scaffold is a step towards instructive biomaterials for local control of stem cell differentiation, and tissue formation supported by vascularization and without adverse effects on the homeostasis of adjacent tissues due to diffusion of biological cues.Instructive materials are expected to revolutionize stem cell based tissue engineering. As many stem cell cues have adverse effects on normal tissue homeostasis, there is a need to develop bioactive scaffolds which offer locally retained and cell-targeted drug delivery for intracellular release in targeted cell populations. Further, the scaffolds need to support vascularization to promote tissue growth and function. We have developed an electrospun PLA-PANI fiber scaffold, and incorporated mesoporous silica nanoparticles within

  19. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi; de Mello, Vanessa; Schwab, Ursula; Carlberg, Carsten; Myhrstad, Mari; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Dungner, Elisabeth; Sjölin, Eva; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Akesson, Björn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Hukkanen, Janne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dragsted, Lars O; Savolainen, Markku J; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Thorsdottir, Inga; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Uusitupa, Matti; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  1. Assessment of vascularity as an index of angiogenesis in periradicular granulomas. Comparison with oral carcinomas and normal tissue counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, K J; Perrier, S; Ohe, G; Gilbert, A D; Bankfalvi, A; Saunders, W P; Schor, S L; Schor, A M

    2008-11-01

    To quantify vascularity in periradicular granulomas using different endothelial markers, and assess its value as an index of angiogenesis by comparing granulomas with healthy periodontal ligament (PDL). To use oral tumours, compared with adjacent normal mucosa, as positive controls. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor (vWF), a pan-endothelial marker, and CD105, a putative marker for angiogenic vessels. Vascularity was quantified by different methods reflecting vessel volume and density. Irrespective of the marker or method used, vascularity values were similar in periradicular granuloma and PDL. Both tissues were highly vascularized, with levels similar to those found in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Vascularity was significantly higher in the latter than in normal mucosa. Fewer vessels were positive for CD105 than for vWF in the normal mucosa, whereas similar numbers were found in the other tissues examined. A comparison of vascularity in oral tumours and normal oral mucosa provided evidence of angiogenesis in the former. Staining with CD105 added limited value to staining with vWF in these tissues. In contrast, a comparison of periradicular granuloma and PDL failed to demonstrate evidence of angiogenesis in the granuloma. As all vessels were similarly stained with vWF and CD105 in granuloma and PDL, a possible hypothesis is that all vessels are newly formed in these tissues. A more plausible alternative is that CD105 expression may reflect the metabolic activity or intrinsic characteristics of the tissues, rather than the presence of angiogenic vessels.

  2. Characterization of poly (L-co-D,L Lactic Acid and a study of polymer-tissue interaction in subcutaneous implants in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Serafino Ciambelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid (PLDLA is an important biomaterial because of its biocompatibility properties that promote cellular regeneration and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymer-tissue interaction of PLDLA implants in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats at various intervals (2, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. Physical properties such as the glass transition point (Tg, degradation behavior and other mechanical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tension tests. Analysis of the degradation of PLDLA membranes in vitro showed that the polymer became crystalline as a function of the degradation time. Mechanical tension tests showed that the polymer behaved like a ductile material: when subjected to constant tension it initially suffered deformation, then elongation and finally ruptured. TGA/MEV provided evidence of PLDLA membrane degradation. For histological analysis, samples from each group were processed in xylol/paraffin, except for the 60 - and 90 - day samples. Each of the latter samples was divided in two: one half was treated with xylol/paraffin and the other with historesin. Light microscopy showed the adhesion of cells to the biomaterial, the formation of a conjunctive capsule around the implant, the presence of epithelioid cells, the formation of foreign body giant cells and angiogenesis. During degradation, the polymer showed a 'lace' - like appearance when processed in xylol/paraffin compared to the formation of "centripetal cracks in the form of glove fingers" when embedded in historesin.

  3. Characterization of poly (L-co-D,L Lactic Acid and a study of polymer-tissue interaction in subcutaneous implants in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Serafino Ciambelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid (PLDLA is an important biomaterial because of its biocompatibility properties that promote cellular regeneration and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymer-tissue interaction of PLDLA implants in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats at various intervals (2, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. Physical properties such as the glass transition point (Tg, degradation behavior and other mechanical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tension tests. Analysis of the degradation of PLDLA membranes in vitro showed that the polymer became crystalline as a function of the degradation time. Mechanical tension tests showed that the polymer behaved like a ductile material: when subjected to constant tension it initially suffered deformation, then elongation and finally ruptured. TGA/MEV provided evidence of PLDLA membrane degradation. For histological analysis, samples from each group were processed in xylol/paraffin, except for the 60 - and 90 - day samples. Each of the latter samples was divided in two: one half was treated with xylol/paraffin and the other with historesin. Light microscopy showed the adhesion of cells to the biomaterial, the formation of a conjunctive capsule around the implant, the presence of epithelioid cells, the formation of foreign body giant cells and angiogenesis. During degradation, the polymer showed a 'lace' - like appearance when processed in xylol/paraffin compared to the formation of "centripetal cracks in the form of glove fingers" when embedded in historesin.

  4. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  5. Ultrasonography modifications of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue after pioglitazone or glibenclamide therapy combined with rosuvastatin in type 2 diabetic patients not well controlled by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Pamela; Fogari, Elena; D'Angelo, Angela; Perrone, Tiziano; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To compare pioglitazone or glibenclamide alone and in combination with rosuvastatin on hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic patients. After 3 months of metformin, patients were randomized to add pioglitazone 15 mg twice a day or glibenclamide 5 mg twice a day for 6 months, and then rosuvastatin 5 mg was added for other 6 months. Patients underwent an ultrasound examination for evaluation of steatosis degree, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and visceral adipose tissue diameter, an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and blood sample collection for evaluation of glycemic control, fasting plasma insulin, lipid profile, adipocytokines at randomization, and after 6 and 12 months. Both pioglitazone and glibenclamide improved glycemic control. Pioglitazone reduced fasting plasma insulin, whereas glibenclamide increased it. Pioglitazone increased the glucose infusion rate compared with glibenclamide. Pioglitazone, but not glibenclamide, improved the lipid profile, and, when rosuvastatin was added, there was a greater improvement with pioglitazone and rosuvastatin. Adiponectin was increased by pioglitazone (+0.5 μg/ml), with a further increase (+0.4 μg/ml) when rosuvastatin was added. A significant decrease in leptin (-3.1 ng/ml) and interleukin-6 (-0.4 pg/ml) was found only with pioglitazone; a similar trend (-2.5 ng/ml and -0.3 pg/ml, respectively) was maintained after the addition of rosuvastatin.Rosuvastatin+pioglitazone decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (-0.3 ng/ml) and were superior to glibenclamide+rosuvastatin in reducing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-0.4 mg/l).Pioglitazone decreased ultrasound parameters, and the addition of rosuvastatin further decreased them both compared with randomization and glibenclamide. Pioglitazone was more effective than glibenclamide in improving inflammation and hepatic steatosis indices.

  6. Combined effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2014-05-01

    The cumulative effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig longissimus lumborum muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were investigated. The experiment was performed on fifty-four intact male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred), with a live weight ranging from 59 to 92 kg. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two levels of arginine supplementation (0 v. 1 %) and three levels of a basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet to achieve 2 % of leucine, RPDL). The results showed that dietary arginine supplementation did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and back fat thickness, but increased the total fat in SAT. This effect was associated with an increase in fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in SAT, which suggests that arginine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in pig muscle and SAT. The increase in IMF content under the RPD, with or without leucine supplementation, was accompanied by increased FASN and SCD mRNA levels. Arginine supplementation did not influence the percentage of main fatty acids, while the RPD had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in both tissues. Leucine supplementation of RPD did not change IMF, total fat of SAT and back fat thickness, but increased 16 : 0 and 18 : 1cis-9 and decreased 18 : 2n-6 in muscle.

  7. Site-dependent differences in both prelamin A and adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Vilar, D; Lattanzi, G; González-Méndez, B; Costa-Freitas, A T; Prieto, D; Columbaro, M; Mattioli, E; Victoria, B; Martínez-Sánchez, N; Ramazanova, A; Fraga, M; Beiras, A; Forteza, J; Domínguez-Gerpe, L; Calvo, C; Lado-Abeal, J

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2) is characterised by loss of fat in the limbs and buttocks and results from mutations in the LMNA gene. To evaluate the role of several genes involved in adipogenesis in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of regional loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) in patients with FPLD2. In total, 7 patients with FPLD2 and 10 healthy control participants were studied. A minimal model was used to calculate the insulin sensitivity (IS). scAT was obtained from abdomen and thigh by biopsy. Relative gene expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcription PCR in a thermal cycler. Prelamin A western blot analysis was carried out on scAT and prelamin A nuclear localisation was determined using immunofluorescence. Adipocyte nuclei were examined by electron microscopy. Patients with FPLD2 were found to have significantly lower IS. The expression of LMNA was similar in both groups. The expression of PPARG2, RB1, CCND3 and LPL in thigh but not in abdomen scAT was significantly reduced (67%, 25%, 38% and 66% respectively) in patients with FPLD2. Significantly higher levels of prelamin A were found in peripheral scAT of patients with FPLD2. Defects in the peripheral heterochromatin and a nuclear fibrous dense lamina were present in the adipocytes of patients with FPLD2. In FPLD2 participants, prelamin A accumulation in peripheral scAT is associated with a reduced expression of several genes involved in adipogenesis, which could perturb the balance between proliferation and differentiation in adipocytes, leading to less efficient tissue regeneration.

  8. Optically characterizing vascular tissue constructs made with soluble versus homogenized collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of optical imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) to non-destructively characterize tissue-engineered constructs has generated enormous interest recently. We are testing the hypothesis that OCT data can be used to characterize the cellularity of collagen-based vascular constructs made from 2 types of collagen scaffold matrix: soluble collagen and homogenized collagen. Smooth muscle cells were seeded in these 2 scaffold matrices at a seeding density of 1×10 6 cells/ml. The disk-shaped constructs were allowed to remodel and compact in the incubator for 96 hours. OCT imaging of the constructs occurred at 24 hour intervals. From the OCT data, the attenuation and reflectivity were evaluated by fitting the data to a theoretical model that relates the tissue optical properties (scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor) and imaging conditions to the OCT signal. The fitted optical properties were compared to the construct volume. Representative H&E histological sections of the constructs were used to assess cell proliferation. Our data showed that the optical properties of the solubilized constructs changed over time while those of the homogenized constructs did not, in agreement with the histology and compaction observations.

  9. Changes in the vascular tissue of fresh Hass avocados treated with cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Lourdes; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Saucedo, Cresenciano

    2002-03-01

    This research was based on fresh avocado fruit treated with gamma rays at quarantine doses and stored at room temperature. The effects of irradiation were analyzed and measured by three different types of studies: histological, biochemical and physiological. Histological studies were focused on the effect of Cobalt 60 gamma rays in the mesocarp of avocado irradiated at three different doses; 150, 250, and 350 Gy. Damage was observed principally in the parenchyma tissue where the cell membrane was plazmolized and a red color was observed due to the development of phenol compounds. Another important effect was an increase in the size of xylem and phloem cells in the vascular tissue even at the minimum dose of 150 Gy. The biochemical and the physiological studies were done on avocado fruit irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy. An increase in L-phenilalanine ammonialyase activity was observed and therefore, an increase in the concentration of phenol compounds. These changes were not perceived by panelists in a sensorial test. Irradiated fruits were accepted by panelists as well as control fruit as regards parameters of taste, internal color and external color. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using irradiation to disinfest avocado fruit using a minimum dose of 100 Gy.

  10. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  11. Dynamic Culturing of Smooth Muscle Cells in Tubular Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Yan; Wennink, Jos W. H.; Kamphuis, Marloes M. J.; Sterk, Lotus M. T.; Vermes, Istvan; Poot, Andre A.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Porous, tubular, flexible, and elastic poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) scaffolds (length 8 cm and inner diameter 3mm) for vascular tissue engineering were prepared by means of a dip-coating and particulate leaching procedure. Using NaCl as porogen, scaffolds with an average pore size of 110 mm

  12. Dynamic culturing of smooth muscle cells in tubular poly(trimethylene carbonate) scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.; Wennink, J.W.H.; Kamphuis, Marloes; Kamphuis, Marloes M.J.; Sterk, Lotus M.T.; Vermes, I.; Poot, Andreas A.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Porous, tubular, flexible, and elastic poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) scaffolds (length 8 cm and inner diameter 3 mm) for vascular tissue engineering were prepared by means of a dip-coating and particulate leaching procedure. Using NaCl as porogen, scaffolds with an average pore size of 110 μm

  13. USPIO-labeled textile materials for non-invasive MR imaging of tissue-engineered vascular grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Marianne E.; Koch, Sabine; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Schuster, Philipp; Wehner, Jakob; Wu, Zhuojun; Gremse, Felix; Schulz, Volkmar; Rongen, Lisanne; Wolf, Frederic; Frese, Julia; Gesche, Valentine N.; van Zandvoort, Marc; Mela, P.; Jockenhoeve, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging might assist in the clinical translation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVG). It can e.g. be used to facilitate the implantation of TEVG, to longitudinally monitor their localization and function, and to provide non-invasive and quantitative feedback on their remodeling

  14. Conjugation with RGD Peptides and Incorporation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Are Equally Efficient for Biofunctionalization of Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V. Antonova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The blend of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL has recently been considered promising for vascular tissue engineering. However, it was shown that PHBV/PCL grafts require biofunctionalization to achieve high primary patency rate. Here we compared immobilization of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD-containing peptides and the incorporation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF as two widely established biofunctionalization approaches. Electrospun PHBV/PCL small-diameter grafts with either RGD peptides or VEGF, as well as unmodified grafts were implanted into rat abdominal aortas for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following histological and immunofluorescence assessment. We detected CD31+/CD34+/vWF+ cells 1 and 3 months postimplantation at the luminal surface of PHBV/PCL/RGD and PHBV/PCL/VEGF, but not in unmodified grafts, with the further observation of CD31+CD34−vWF+ phenotype. These cells were considered as endothelial and produced a collagen-positive layer resembling a basement membrane. Detection of CD31+/CD34+ cells at the early stages with subsequent loss of CD34 indicated cell adhesion from the bloodstream. Therefore, either conjugation with RGD peptides or the incorporation of VEGF promoted the formation of a functional endothelial cell layer. Furthermore, both modifications increased primary patency rate three-fold. In conclusion, both of these biofunctionalization approaches can be considered as equally efficient for the modification of tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  15. A novel assessment of peripheral tissue microcirculatory vasoreactivity using vascular occlusion testing during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan S; Murkin, John M

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with release of inflammatory mediators and microcirculatory alterations that result in organ dysfunction. Near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and the vascular occlusion test (VOT) were utilized in a study of elective cardiac surgical patients as a novel, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculatory vasoreactivity during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether differences in microcirculatory function and vasoreactivity could be measured in cardiac surgery using StO2 and VOT. A prospective, observational trial. Tertiary care teaching hospital. Thirteen patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery using tepid, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients had continuous regional oxygen saturation monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy and vascular occlusion tests performed in the perioperative period before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Occlusion slope and hyperemic area did not vary significantly. Mean reperfusion slope was significantly lower during cardiopulmonary bypass (2.4%/second) compared to before and after bypass (4.1 and 3.5%/second, respectively). Reperfusion slope decreased as a function of CPB duration. This pilot study demonstrates a significant difference in reperfusion slopes during cardiopulmonary bypass when compared to prebypass and postbypass, suggesting impaired peripheral microvascular reactivity. Reperfusion slopes also exhibited a successive decline with duration of CPB, implying worsening microcirculatory dysfunction that returned to baseline values in all patients within 1 hour of separation from CPB. This noninvasive technique has potential to optimize circulatory parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of topical negative pressure therapy on tissue oxygenation and wound healing in vascular foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Rodda, Odette A; Sleigh, Jamie; Vasudevan, Thodur

    2017-08-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is widely used in the treatment of acute wounds in vascular patients on the basis of proposed multifactorial benefits. However, numerous recent systematic reviews have concluded that there is inadequate evidence to support its benefits at a scientific level. This study evaluated the changes in wound volume, surface area, depth, collagen deposition, and tissue oxygenation when using TNP therapy compared with traditional dressings in patients with acute high-risk foot wounds. This study was performed with hospitalized vascular patients. Forty-eight patients were selected with an acute lower extremity wound after surgical débridement or minor amputation that had an adequate blood supply without requiring further surgical revascularization and were deemed suitable for TNP therapy. The 22 patients who completed the study were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving TNP or to a control group receiving regular topical dressings. Wound volume and wound oxygenation were analyzed using a modern stereophotographic wound measurement system and a hyperspectral transcutaneous oxygenation measurement system, respectively. Laboratory analysis was conducted on wound biopsy samples to determine hydroxyproline levels, a surrogate marker to collagen. Differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the location of the foot wounds were not significant between the two groups. All patients, with the exception of two, had diabetes. The two patients who did not have diabetes had end-stage renal failure. There was no significance in the primary outcome of wound volume reduction between TNP and control patients on day 14 (44.2% and 20.9%, respectively; P = .15). Analyses of secondary outcomes showed a significant result of better healing rates in the TNP group by demonstrating a reduction in maximum wound depth at day 14 (36.0% TNP vs 17.6% control; P = .03). No significant findings were found for the other outcomes of changes

  17. Influence on chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in co-culture with donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Sansone, V; Preis, F W Baruffaldi; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) has been proposed for autologous cartilage cell-based therapies, to overcome the issues associated to limited availability of articular chondrocytes (ACs). To evaluate the potentiality of a co-culture approach in aged osteoarthritic patients, MSCs from infrapatellar fat pad (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs) were co-cultured with donor-matched osteoarthritic, expanded and cryopreserved, ACs in a 75%/25% ratio. Co-cultures were prepared also from nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to evaluate their possible use as an alternative to ACs. Pellets were differentiated for 14 days, using mono-cultures of each cell type as reference. Chondrogenic genes SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN were less expressed in co-cultures compared to ACs and NCs. Total GAGs content in co-cultures did not differ significantly from values predicted as the sum of each cell type contribution corrected for the co-culture ratio, as confirmed by histology. No significant differences were observed for GAGs/DNA in mono-cultures, demonstrating a reduced chondrogenic potential of ACs and NCs. In conclusion, a small percentage of expanded and cryopreserved ACs and NCs did not lead to IFP-MSCs and ASCs chondro-induction. Our results suggest that chondrogenic potential and origin of chondrocytes may play a relevant role in the outcome of co-cultures, indicating a need for further investigations to demonstrate their clinical relevance in the treatment of aged osteoarthritic patients.

  18. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  19. Changes in the MicroRNA Profile Observed in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Patients after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Nardelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB results in significant lasting weight loss and improved metabolism in obese patients. To evaluate whether epigenetic factors could concur to these benefits, we investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT microRNA (miRNA profile before (T0 and three years (T1 after LAGB in three morbidly obese women. Case Reports. SAT miRNA profiling, evaluated by TaqMan Array, showed four downexpressed (miR-519d, miR-299-5p, miR-212, and miR-671-3p and two upexpressed (miR-370 and miR-487a miRNAs at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that these miRNAs regulate genes belonging to pathways associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, and metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that PPAR-alpha, which is the target gene of miR-519d, increased after LAGB, thereby suggesting an improvement in SAT lipid metabolism. Accordingly, the number and diameter of adipocytes were significantly higher and lower, respectively, at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that the decreased levels of miR-212, miR-299-5p, and miR-671-3p at T1 concur in reducing SAT inflammation. Conclusion. We show that the miRNA profile changes after LAGB. This finding, although obtained in only three cases, suggests that this epigenetic mechanism, by regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism, could concur to improve SAT functionality in postoperative obese patients.

  20. Repressive effects of oat extracts on intracellular lipid-droplet formation in adipocytes and a three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Kato, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroki; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the repression of lipid-droplet formation in mouse mesenchymal stromal preadipocytes OP9 by specified oat extracts (Hatomugi, Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen) named "SPH" which were proteolytically and glucosyl-transferredly prepared from finely-milled oat whole-grain. Stimulation of OP9 preadipocytes with insulin-containing serum-replacement promoted differentiation to adipocytes, concurrently with an increase in the intracellular lipid droplets by 51.5%, which were repressed by SPH-bulk or SPH-water-extract at 840ppm, to 33.5% or 46.9%, respectively, but not by SPH-ethanol-extract at the same dose, showing the hydrophilic property of the anti-adipogenetic ingredients. The intracellular lipid droplets were scanty for intact preadipocytes, small-sized but abundant for the SPH-unadministered adipocytes, and large-sized but few for SPH-bulk-administered adipocytes being coexistent with many lipid-droplet-lacking viable cells, suggesting "the all-or-none rule" for lipid-droplet generation in cell-to-cell. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death in human epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT was prevented by SPH-bulk at 100 or 150ppm by 5.6-8.1%, being consistent with higher viabilities of SPH-bulk-administered OP9 cells, together with repressions of both cell shrinkage and cell detachment from the culture substratum. In three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue models reconstructed with HaCaT-keratinocytes and OP9-preadipocytes, lipid droplets were accumulated in dermal OP9-cell-parts, and repressed to 43.5% by SPH-bulk at 840ppm concurrently with marked diminishment of huge aggregates of lipid droplets. Thus SPH-bulk suppresses adipogenesis-associated lipid-droplet accumulation during differentiation of OP9 preadipocytes together with lowered cytotoxicity to either HaCaT keratinocytes or the preadipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  2. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  3. Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions in Two Recipients of Vascularized Composite Tissue Allografts (Face, Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kanitakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (RSOT have a highly increased risk for developing cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions, favored by the lifelong immunosuppression. Vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCA have been introduced recently, and relevant data are sparse. Two patients with skin cancers (one with basal cell carcinoma and one with squamous cell carcinomas have been so far reported in this patient group. Since 2000 we have been following 9 recipients of VCA (3 face, 6 bilateral hands for the development of rejection and complications of the immunosuppressive treatment. Among the 9 patients, one face-grafted recipient was diagnosed with nodular-pigmented basal cell carcinoma of her own facial skin 6 years after graft, and one patient with double hand allografts developed disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, a potentially premalignant dermatosis, on her skin of the arm and legs. Similar to RSOT, recipients of VCA are prone to develop cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions. Prevention should be applied through sun-protective measures, regular skin examination, and early treatment of premalignant lesions.

  4. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  5. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  6. Cryopreservation of stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue in a serum-free freezing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Devireddy, Ram V

    2010-03-01

    Developing effective techniques for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells could increase the usefulness of these cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, the use of serum and a commonly used cryoprotectant chemical, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), during cryopreservation storage restricts the direct translation of adult stem cells to in vivo applications. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue can be effectively cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen, using a freezing medium containing high molecular weight polymers, such as methylcellulose (MC) and/or polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP), as the cryoprotective agent (CPA) instead of DMSO. To this end, we investigated the post-freeze/thaw viability and apoptotic behaviour of SVF of adipose tissue frozen in 16 different media: (a) the traditional medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 80% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% DMSO; (b) DMEM with 80% human serum (HS) and 10% DMSO; (c) DMEM with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% or 10% DMSO; (d) DMEM with 1% MC and 10% of either HS or FCS or DMSO; (e) DMEM with 10% PVP and varying concentrations of FCS (0%, 10%, 40% or 80%); (f) DMEM with 10% PVP and 10% HS. Approximately 1 ml (10(6) cells/ml) of SVF cells were frozen overnight in a -80 degrees C freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks before being rapidly thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath (1-2 min agitation), resuspended in culture medium and seeded in separate wells of a six-well plate for a 24 h incubation period at 37 degrees C. After 24 h, the thawed samples were analysed by brightfield microscopy and flow cytometry. The results suggest that the absence of DMSO (and the presence of MC) significantly increases the fraction of apoptotic and/or necrotic SVF cells. However, the percentage of viable cells obtained with 10% PVP and DMEM was comparable with that obtained in freezing

  7. PVP formulated Fullerene (C60) increases Rho-kinase dependent Vascular Tissue Contractility in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanapathirana, Achini K.; Thompson, Leslie C.; Mann, Erin. E.; Odom, Jillian T.; Holland, Nathan A.; Sumner, Susan J.; Han, Li; Lewin, Anita H.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Brown, Jared M.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique physiological state, in which C60 fullerene is reported to be distributed in both maternal and fetal tissues. Tissue distribution of C60 differs between pregnant and non-pregnant states, presumably due to functional changes in vasculature during pregnancy. We hypothesized that, polyvinylpyrorrolidone (PVP) formulated C60 (C60/PVP) increases vascular tissue contractility during pregnancy by increasing Rho-kinase activity. C60/PVP was administered intravenously to pregnant and non-pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats. Vascular responses were assessed using wire myography 24 hours post-exposure. Increased stress generation was observed in uterine artery, thoracic aorta and umbilical vein. Rho-Rho-kinase mediated force maintenance was increased in arterial segments from C60/PVP exposed pregnant rats when compared to PVP exposed rats. Our findings suggest that intravenous exposure to C60/PVP during pregnancy increases vascular tissue contractility of the uterine artery through elements of Rho-Rho-kinase signaling during late stages of pregnancy. PMID:25088243

  8. Conjugation with RGD Peptides and Incorporation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Are Equally Efficient for Biofunctionalization of Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Larisa V; Seifalian, Alexander M; Kutikhin, Anton G; Sevostyanova, Victoria V; Matveeva, Vera G; Velikanova, Elena A; Mironov, Andrey V; Shabaev, Amin R; Glushkova, Tatiana V; Senokosova, Evgeniya A; Vasyukov, Georgiy Yu; Krivkina, Evgeniya O; Burago, Andrey Yu; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A; Barbarash, Olga L; Barbarash, Leonid S

    2016-11-16

    The blend of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has recently been considered promising for vascular tissue engineering. However, it was shown that PHBV/PCL grafts require biofunctionalization to achieve high primary patency rate. Here we compared immobilization of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides and the incorporation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as two widely established biofunctionalization approaches. Electrospun PHBV/PCL small-diameter grafts with either RGD peptides or VEGF, as well as unmodified grafts were implanted into rat abdominal aortas for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following histological and immunofluorescence assessment. We detected CD31⁺/CD34⁺/vWF⁺ cells 1 and 3 months postimplantation at the luminal surface of PHBV/PCL/RGD and PHBV/PCL/VEGF, but not in unmodified grafts, with the further observation of CD31⁺CD34-vWF⁺ phenotype. These cells were considered as endothelial and produced a collagen-positive layer resembling a basement membrane. Detection of CD31⁺/CD34⁺ cells at the early stages with subsequent loss of CD34 indicated cell adhesion from the bloodstream. Therefore, either conjugation with RGD peptides or the incorporation of VEGF promoted the formation of a functional endothelial cell layer. Furthermore, both modifications increased primary patency rate three-fold. In conclusion, both of these biofunctionalization approaches can be considered as equally efficient for the modification of tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  9. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel: A Novel Adipose Tissue-Derived Injectable for Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, Ziqing; Liao, Yunjun; Zhang, Pan; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells and other stromal vascular fraction cells were used more often for stem cell therapy, even though limitations such as poor cell retention rate, complicated and expensive isolation processes, and the use of specific laboratory equipment need to be overcome. Here, the authors developed a novel but simple method for generating an injectable mixture of stromal vascular fraction cells and native adipose extracellular matrix. It is a purely mechanical process in which lipoaspirate is processed into an extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel. The standard processing procedure was established using quantized tests. The therapeutic potential of the product for wound healing was then tested. Extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel derived from lipoaspirate and processed using a standard Coleman technique, followed by 1 minute of mechanical processing by passage back and forth between two 10-ml syringes at a flow rate of 10 ml/second, showed the highest adipose-derived stem cell and endothelial cell density. The stromal vascular fraction cells within the product also showed potential for multipotent differentiation similar to that of normal fat samples. In addition, the product showed better therapeutic results than stromal vascular fraction cell suspension when used to treat a nude mouse model of wound healing. Extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel is an autologous injectable derived from native extracellular matrix and is a functional cellular component generated using a simple mechanical process. As such, it may offer a novel mode of tissue repair suitable for clinical application in stem cell therapies.

  10. A Novel Strategy to Engineer Pre-Vascularized Full-Length Dental Pulp-like Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athirasala, Avathamsa; Lins, Fernanda; Tahayeri, Anthony; Hinds, Monica; Smith, Anthony J; Sedgley, Christine; Ferracane, Jack; Bertassoni, Luiz E

    2017-06-12

    The requirement for immediate vascularization of engineered dental pulp poses a major hurdle towards successful implementation of pulp regeneration as an effective therapeutic strategy for root canal therapy, especially in adult teeth. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to engineer pre-vascularized, cell-laden hydrogel pulp-like tissue constructs in full-length root canals for dental pulp regeneration. We utilized gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties to determine the microenvironmental conditions (microstructure, degradation, swelling and elastic modulus) that enhanced viability, spreading and proliferation of encapsulated odontoblast-like cells (OD21), and the formation of endothelial monolayers by endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). GelMA hydrogels with higher polymer concentration (15% w/v) and stiffness enhanced OD21 cell viability, spreading and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. We then fabricated pre-vascularized, full-length, dental pulp-like tissue constructs by dispensing OD21 cell-laden GelMA hydrogel prepolymer in root canals of extracted teeth and fabricating 500 µm channels throughout the root canals. ECFCs seeded into the microchannels successfully formed monolayers and underwent angiogenic sprouting within 7 days in culture. In summary, the proposed approach is a simple and effective strategy for engineering of pre-vascularized dental pulp constructs offering potentially beneficial translational outcomes.

  11. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  12. Far-off and close-up dry matter intake modulate indicators of immunometabolic adaptations to lactation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Farina, G; Batistel, F; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2017-03-01

    The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Sixty mid-lactation, grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups that were managed through late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale) at dry-off. The low BCS cows were then overfed ME to ensure that they achieved the same BCS as the higher BCS group by calving. Within each rate of BCS gain treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (i.e., 10 cows/treatment). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA and microRNA expression of targets related to adipogenesis and inflammation. Cows overfed in the far-off period had increased expression of miR-143 and miR-378 prepartum (-1 wk) indicating greater adipogenesis, consistent with their rapid gain in BCS following dry-off. Furthermore, the lower postpartum expression of IL6, TNF, TLR4, TLR9, and miR-145, and a higher abundance of miR-99a indicated lower body fat mobilization in early lactation in the same group. In the close-up period, feeding either 65 or 120% of ME requirements caused changes in FASN, IL1B, IL6R, TLR9, and the microRNA miR-143, miR-155, and miR-378

  13. Donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from knee infrapatellar and subcutaneous adipose tissue of osteoarthritic donors display differential chondrogenic and osteogenic commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Stanco, D; de Girolamo, L; Sansone, V; Moretti, M

    2014-04-23

    Cell-based therapies have recently been proposed for the treatment of degenerative articular pathologies, such as early osteoarthritis, with an emphasis on autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as an alternative to terminally differentiated cells. In this study, we performed a donor-matched comparison between infrapatellar fat pad MSCs (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs), as appealing candidates for cell-based therapies that are easily accessible during surgery. IFP-MSCs and ASCs were obtained from 25 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total knee replacement and compared for their immunophenotype and differentiative potential. Undifferentiated IFP-MSCs and ASCs displayed the same immunophenotype, typical of MSCs (CD13+/CD29+/CD44+/CD73+/CD90+/CD105+/CD166+/CD31-/CD45-). IFP-MSCs and ASCs showed similar adipogenic potential, though undifferentiated ASCs had higher LEP expression compared to IFP-MSCs (p<0.01). Higher levels of calcified matrix (p<0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05) in ASCs highlighted their superior osteogenic commitment compared to IFP-MSCs. Conversely, IFP-MSCs pellets showed greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (p<0.01) and superior expression of ACAN (p<0.001), SOX9, COMP (p<0.001) and COL2A1 (p<0.05) compared to ASCs pellets, revealing a superior chondrogenic potential. This was also supported by lower COL10A1 (p<0.05) and COL1A1 (p<0.01) expression and lower alkaline phosphatase release (p<0.05) by IFP-MSCs compared to ASCs. The observed dissimilarities between IFP-MSCs and ASCs show that, despite expressing similar surface markers, MSCs deriving from different fat depots in the same surgical site possess specific features. Furthermore, the in vitro peculiar commitment of IFP-MSCs and ASCs from osteoarthritic donors towards the chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage may suggest a preferential use for cartilage and bone cell-based treatments, respectively.

  14. ESKIMO1 disruption in Arabidopsis alters vascular tissue and impairs water transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Lefebvre

    Full Text Available Water economy in agricultural practices is an issue that is being addressed through studies aimed at understanding both plant water-use efficiency (WUE, i.e. biomass produced per water consumed, and responses to water shortage. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the ESKIMO1 (ESK1 gene has been described as involved in freezing, cold and salt tolerance as well as in water economy: esk1 mutants have very low evapo-transpiration rates and high water-use efficiency. In order to establish ESK1 function, detailed characterization of esk1 mutants has been carried out. The stress hormone ABA (abscisic acid was present at high levels in esk1 compared to wild type, nevertheless, the weak water loss of esk1 was independent of stomata closure through ABA biosynthesis, as combining mutant in this pathway with esk1 led to additive phenotypes. Measurement of root hydraulic conductivity suggests that the esk1 vegetative apparatus suffers water deficit due to a defect in water transport. ESK1 promoter-driven reporter gene expression was observed in xylem and fibers, the vascular tissue responsible for the transport of water and mineral nutrients from the soil to the shoots, via the roots. Moreover, in cross sections of hypocotyls, roots and stems, esk1 xylem vessels were collapsed. Finally, using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, severe chemical modifications of xylem cell wall composition were highlighted in the esk1 mutants. Taken together our findings show that ESK1 is necessary for the production of functional xylem vessels, through its implication in the laying down of secondary cell wall components.

  15. A comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns between different vascular tissues from patients with coronary heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Nazarenko

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in context of cardiovascular diseases are of considerable interest. So far, our current knowledge of the DNA methylation profiles for atherosclerosis affected and healthy human vascular tissues is still limited. Using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in right coronary artery in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques, atherosclerotic-resistant internal mammary arteries, and great saphenous veins obtained from same patients with coronary heart disease. The resulting DNA methylation patterns were markedly different between all the vascular tissues. The genes hypomethylated in athero-prone arteries to compare with atherosclerotic-resistant arteries were predominately involved in regulation of inflammation and immune processes, as well as development. The great saphenous veins exhibited an increase of the DNA methylation age in comparison to the internal mammary arteries. Gene ontology analysis for genes harboring hypermethylated CpG-sites in veins revealed the enrichment for biological processes associated with the development. Four CpG-sites located within the MIR10B gene sequence and about 1 kb upstream of the HOXD4 gene were also confirmed as hypomethylated in the independent dataset of the right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in comparison with the other vascular tissues. The DNA methylation differences observed in vascular tissues of patients with coronary heart disease can provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of pathology and explanation for the difference in graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  16. Insulin resistance in multiple tissues in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is present in lean patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with matched healthy controls. We studied eight patients (four men and four women) with

  17. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart l...

  18. The role of endothelial cells in myofiber differentiation and the vascularization and innervation of bioengineered muscle tissue in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Tracy L; Corona, Benjamin T; Wang, Zhan; Zhou, Yu; Niu, Guoguang; Xu, Yong; Christ, George J; Soker, Shay

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major cause of disability and effective treatments are currently lacking. Tissue engineering affords the possibility of new therapies utilizing cells and biomaterials for the recovery of muscle volume and function. A major consideration in skeletal muscle engineering is the integration of a functional vasculature within the regenerating tissue. In this study we employed fluorescent cell labels to track the location and differentiation of co-cultured cells in vivo and in vitro. We first utilized a co-culture of fluorescently labeled endothelial cells (ECs) and muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) to investigate the ability of ECs to enhance muscle tissue formation and vascularization in an in vivo model of bioengineered muscle. Scaffolds that had been seeded with both MPCs and ECs showed significantly greater vascularization, tissue formation and enhanced innervation as compared to scaffolds seeded with MPCs alone. Subsequently, we performed in vitro experiments using a 3-cell type system (ECs, MPCs, and pericytes (PCs)) to demonstrate the utility of fluorescent cell labeling for monitoring cell growth and differentiation. The growth and differentiation of individual cell types was determined using live cell fluorescent microscopy demonstrating the utility of fluorescent labels to monitor tissue organization in real time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of vascular network and nanoparticles on heat transfer and intracellular ice formation in tumor tissues during cryosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianfeng; Yi, Jungru; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yuntian

    2014-01-01

    Cryosurgery is a physical therapy of tumor treatment which is welcome in clinics for its minimally invasive advantage. However, the high recurrence rate makes the conventional cryosurgery unsatisfactory, which needs adjuvant treatment such as introduction of nanoparticles. This study is to examine the effects of vascular network and MgO nanoparticles on heat transfer and intracellular ice formation in tumor tissues during cryosurgery. We developed a multi-scale model to study the efficiency of cryosurgery, including the macro-level (mass tumor tissue) heat transfer and the micro-level (tumor cells) probability of intracellular ice formation (PIF). The model is used to examine the effects of fractal vascular network (VN) and nanoparticles with different concentration on heat transfer and PIF during cryosurgery in the breast cancer tissue (MCF-7 cells). The nucleation rate kinetic parameter and the thermodynamic parameter of MCF-7 cells are determined by nonlinear curve-fitting the published experimental data, and then the probability of intracellular ice formation of the picked points in the tumor tissue are determined using the classic model for intracellular ice nucleation with the simulated thermal profiles at those points during cryosurgery. The introduction of nanoparticles have significantly enhanced the heat transfer in the mass tumor tissue and increased the PIF of tumor cells, indicating the nanocryosurgery is more efficient than conventional cryosurgery.

  20. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  1. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  2. A Unique Immunofluorescence Protocol to Detect Protein Expression in Vascular Tissues: Tacking a Long Standing Pathological Hitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet GANDHI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging. Material and Method: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a protein implicated as a proliferation marker, was chosen relevant to its expression in solid tumors along with 3 other intracellular proteins exhibiting nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Staining was performed on 10 glioma tissue sections along with 5 of their cryo sections, 5 sections each of hepatocellular, lung, papillary-thyroid and renal cell carcinoma, with 10 non-malignant brain tissue samples serving as control. Specimens were imaged using epifluorescence microscopy, followed by software-based quantification of fluorescence signals for statistical analysis and validation. Results: We observed that the combined application of sodium-borohydride followed by crystal violet before antigen retrieval and a Sudan black B treatment after secondary antibody application proved to be most efficacious for masking autofluorescence/non-specific background in vascular tissues. Conclusion: This unique trio-methodology provides quantifiable observations with maximized fluorescence signal intensity of the target protein for longer retention time of the signal even after prolonged storage. The results can be extrapolated to other human tissues for different protein targets.

  3. Microvascular proliferation in congenital vascular malformations of skin and soft tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer-Jorna, Lorine B.; van der Loos, Chris M.; de Boer, Onno J.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; van der Wal, Allard C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital vascular malformations (VMs) are mass-forming lesions that usually progress slowly, but may become symptomatic because of episodes of sudden growth and pain, particularly those with a substantial component of arteriovenous shunting. AIM: To systematically investigate the

  4. Preseeding of human vascular cells in decellularized bovine pericardium scaffold for tissue-engineered heart valve : An in vitro and in vivo feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Min; Chen, Chang-Zhi; Shu, Yu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Shao-Fei; Gu, Y. John

    Human vascular cells from saphenous veins have been used for cell seeding on the synthetic scaffolds for constructing tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV). However, little is known about the seeding of human vascular cells on bovine pericardium, a potential natural scaffold for TEHV. This study was

  5. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  6. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  7. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  8. Epidural, paraspinal, and subcutaneous lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R. Nuri [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    A unique case of idiopathic diffuse lipomatosis is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with diffuse lipomatosis in the epidural space, paraspinal muscles, and thoracolumbar subcutaneous regions. Epidural lipomatosis involved the entire thoracolumbar spine and was associated with filar thickening and lipoma. In addition, paraspinal muscles, especially the erector spinae group, had diffuse fatty infiltration. The ultimate clinical effect of this fatty tissue was urinary dysfunction, radicular pain and hypoesthesia in both legs and difficulty walking. (orig.)

  9. Transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human vascular tissues fabricated using an extracellular matrix nanofilm-based cell-accumulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Okano, Daisuke; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V., E-mail: vmiller@coe.drexel.edu; Lin, A.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A. [AJ Drexel Plasma Institute, Drexel University, Camden, New Jersey 08103 (United States); Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Autieri, M. [Department of Physiology, Independence Blue Cross Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  11. [Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis on interleukin-33 expression in rabbit vascular endothelium tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishan, Li; Dechao, Li; Rongrong, Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate interleukin-33 (IL-33) in the arterial vascular endothelium of rabbits infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and to explore the relationship between P. gingivalis and atherosclerosis. A total of 24 rabbits were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group received intravenous injection of P. gingivalis once a week for 12 weeks to establish a coronary atherosclerosis model. The rabbits in the control group were injected with equal volume of physiological saline. All the rabbits were killed after 13 weeks. The IL-33 expression levels in the arterial vascular endothelium of the rabbits were detected through immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. The effects of P. gingivalis on the IL-33 expression in the arterial vascular endothelium of the rabbits were analyzed. The relative expression levels of IL-33 mRNA in the vascular endothelium cells were 58.244±2.407, and the relative expression levels of IL-33 protein were 1.863±0.171 in the experimental group. The relative expression levels of IL-33 mRNA were 3.143±0.805, and the relative expression levels of IL-33 protein were 0.537±
0.028 in the control group. The expression levels of IL-33 mRNA and protein of vascular endothelium cells in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (Pgingivalis infection promotes IL-33 expression levels in vascular endothelial cells and may regulate the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
.

  12. Systematic review of clinical applications of monitoring muscle tissue oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy in vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezeman, Reinout P E; Moll, Frans L; Ünlü, Çağdaş; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M

    2016-03-01

    The use of wavelengths of the near-infrared region by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been studied for several applications in vascular disease. This systematic review aims to explore the clinical relevance of monitoring muscle tissue oxygenation in vascular disease with NIRS. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases was performed to identify clinical NIRS studies, published until April 2015, involving muscle tissue oxygenation in vascular disease. After screening 183 manuscripts, 38 studies (n=2010) were included. Studies concerned peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (twelve studies, n=848), compartment syndrome of lower extremities (seven studies, n=205), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (six studies, n=429), buttock and lower extremity ischaemia in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (six studies, n=139), free flap failure (five studies, n=354), and spinal cord ischaemia in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (two studies, n=35). Nine studies compared NIRS with gold standards and provided cut-off values. Four studies regarding chronic compartment syndrome and DVT determined higher sensitivity (78%-97%) than specificity (56%-76%). Two studies regarding PAD and buttock claudication determined higher specificity (87%-95%) than sensitivity (33%-88%). Three studies regarding free flap failure determined sensitivity and specificity of 100%. We found sufficient evidence to use NIRS in clinical setting for assessment of chronic compartment syndrome of lower extremities, and as surveillance tool for detection of free flap failure. So far, clinical relevance of routine use of NIRS in other vascular applications is less clear. Cut-off values to discriminate are not yet unanimous and better validation has to be awaited for. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological Function and Transplantation of Scaffold-Free and Vascularized Human Cardiac Muscle Tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K. R. Stevens; K. L. Kreutziger; S. K. Dupras; F. S. Korte; M. Regnier; V. Muskheli; M. B. Nourse; K. Bendixen; H. Reinecke; C. E. Murry; William A. Catterall

    2009-01-01

    Success of human myocardial tissue engineering for cardiac repair has been limited by adverse effects of scaffold materials, necrosis at the tissue core, and poor survival after transplantation due to ischemie injury...

  14. Culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue - derived stromal vascular fraction cells in two different cell culture media. Five adult horses were submitted to bone marrow aspiration from the sternum, and then from the adipose tissue of the gluteal region near the base of the tail. Mononuclear fraction and stromal vascular fraction were isolated from the samples and cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or in AIM-V medium. The cultures were observed once a week with an inverted microscope, to perform a qualitative analysis of the morphology of the cells as well as the general appearance of the cell culture. Colony-forming units (CFU were counted on days 5, 15 and 25 of cell culture. During the first week of culture, differences were observed between the samples from the same source maintained in different culture media. The number of colonies was significantly higher in samples of bone marrow in relation to samples of adipose tissue.

  15. Urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator stimulate human vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, M.J.; Nieuwenbroek, N.M.E.; Slomp, J.; Quax, P.H.A.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the plasminogen activation system in the migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. After wounding of confluent human smooth muscle cell cultures by stripping cells from their extracellular matrix, cells start to migrate from

  16. Sonographic Appearance of Dermal and Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Bae, Young A; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Kwon, Kye Won [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that mainly involves lung and skin, but rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. While some studies have reported on CT or MR imaging findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, there is only one report on sonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, recently published in the US. Familiarity with ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis might be helpful for the early diagnosis in patient with palpable nodules and image follow-up for subcutaneous sarcoidosis. Here we report on the sonographic appearance of subcutaneous sarcoidosis involving dermal and subcutaneous tissue over axilla and sole, a case diagnosed as sarcoidosis and improved by steroid treatment, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  17. Evaluation of the responses of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages play a pivotal role in mediating the host tissue response to biomaterials. This study investigated the responses of these cells to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MetaSEAL respectively) in rat connective tissue. Silicone tubes loaded with one of the sealers or solid silicone rods (control) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats for three time periods of 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue specimens were immunoperoxidase-stained for MHC class II molecules and CD68 (a general macrophage marker). Results showed that AH Plus-implanted tissue displayed significantly more MHC class II-positive cells than the control at 14 and 28 days, whereas MetaSEAL-implanted tissue showed significantly more CD68-positive cells than both AH Plus-implanted tissue and the control at all time periods. It was concluded that the epoxy resin-based sealer induced the infiltration of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells, whereas 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based sealer elicited macrophage infiltration.

  18. Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Bourget

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from two different sources: (1 bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2 umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC- like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material.

  19. Finasteride reduces microvessel density and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal tissue of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He-lin; Zhao, Chao-xian; Wu, Hai-ying; Xu, Zhong-xin; Wei, Li-shun; Zhao, Ru-tong; Jin, Dong-ling

    2015-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. Finasteride has been confirmed to decrease VEGF expression in prostate and prostatic suburethral tissue resulting in limiting hematuria from human benign prostatic hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of finasteride on microvessel density (MVD), VEGF protein and mRNA expressions in the renal tissue of diabetic rats. Diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin were intragastrically given finasteride at 30 mg/kg body weight once a day for 4 weeks. Histomorphologic changes in kidney were observed under light microscope. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF on kidney sections was performed to assess MVD and VEGF protein expression in glomeruli of rats, respectively. The VEGF mRNA expression in the renal tissue was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The glomerular tuft area, glomerular volume, MVD, VEGF protein expression in glomeruli and VEGF mRNA expression in the renal cortex tissue were significantly increased in diabetic rats and finasteride-treated rats when compared with controls (P finasteride-treated rats were significantly decreased (P Finasteride reduces the VEGF expression and decreases the MVD in the renal tissue of diabetic rats, suggesting the therapeutic potential of finasteride on diabetic microvascular complications.

  20. Enhancing the radiation response of tumors but not early or late responding normal tissues using a vascular disrupting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    % increase in ventilation rate measured by plethysmography within 9 months). A Chi-squared test was used for statistical comparisons (significance level of p radiation dose controlling 50% of irradiated tumors was 52 Gy. This significantly decreased to 45 Gy with CA4P. The radiation......INTRODUCTION: Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) damage tumor vasculature and enhance tumor radiation response. In this pre-clinical study, we combined radiation with the leading VDA in clinical development, combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P), and compared the effects seen in tumors and relevant...... normal tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiation was applied locally to tissues in CDF1 mice to produce full radiation dose-response curves. CA4P (250 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected within 30 minutes after irradiating. Response of 200 mm3 foot implanted C3H mammary carcinomas was assessed...

  1. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  2. Doppler ultrasound findings correlate with tissue vascularity and inflammation in surgical pathology specimens from patients with small intestinal Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kunisaki, Reiko; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Kimura, Hideaki; Kodera, Teruaki; Nozawa, Akinori; Hanzawa, Akiho; Shibata, Naomi; Yonezawa, Hiromi; Miyajima, Eiji; Morita, Satoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Numata, Kazushi; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Tanaka, Masanori; Maeda, Shin

    2014-06-14

    Crohn's disease (CD) is routinely evaluated using clinical symptoms, laboratory variables, and the CD activity index (CDAI). However, clinical parameters are often nonspecific and do not precisely reflect the actual activity of CD small-intestinal lesions. The purposes of this prospective study were to compare color Doppler ultrasound (US) findings with histological findings from surgically resected specimens and confirm the hypothesis that color Doppler US can distinguish tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Among 1764 consecutive patients who underwent color Doppler US examinations, 10 patients with CD (12 small-intestinal CD lesions) who underwent US examinations before elective small-intestine resection were evaluated in the present study. Areas of thickened intestinal walls were evaluated in terms of blood flow using color Doppler US imaging. The blood flow was semiquantitatively classified as "hyper-flow" and "hypo-flow" according to the Limberg score. Resected lesions were macroscopically and histopathologically processed. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and vascularity were evaluated by myeloperoxidase (granulocytes), CD163 (macrophages), CD79a (B cells), CD3 (T cells), Masson's trichrome (fibrosis), and factor VIII staining (vascular walls). All histopathological images were entered into virtual slide equipment and quantified using a quantitative microscopy integrated system (TissueMorph™). There were no significant differences in disease features or laboratory findings between "hypo-flow" lesions (n = 4) and "hyper-flow" lesions (n = 8). Histopathologically, "hyper-flow" lesions showed significantly greater bowel wall vascularity (factor VIII) (p = 0.047) and inflammatory cell infiltration, including CD163 macrophages (p = 0.008), CD3 T cells, and CD79a B cells (p = 0.043), than did "hypo-flow" lesions. There was no apparent association between the blood flow and CDAI. In this study, active CD lesions were macroscopically

  3. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. A pharmacological investigation of the venom extract of the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, in cardiac and vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard J A; Angus, James A; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E

    2012-02-25

    The pharmacology of Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, unpurified (crude) nematocyst venom extract (CVE) was investigated in rat isolated cardiac and vascular tissues and in anaesthetised rats. In small mesenteric arteries CVE (0.01-30 μg/ml) caused contractions (EC(50) 1.15±0.19 μg/ml) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.1 μM), bosentan (10 μM), CGRP(8-37) (1 μM) or tetrodotoxin (1 μM). Box jellyfish antivenom (5-92.6 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve with no change in the maximum. In the presence of l-NAME (100 μM) the sensitivity and maximum response to CVE were increased, whilst MgSO(4) (6 mM) decreased both parameters. CVE (1-10 μg/ml) caused inhibition of the contractile response to electrical sympathetic nerve stimulation. Left atrial responses to CVE (0.001-30 μg/ml) were bi-phasic, composed of an initial positive inotropy followed by a marked negative inotropy and atrial standstill. CVE (0.3 μg/ml) elicited a marked decrease in right atrial rate followed by atrial standstill at 3 μg/ml. These responses were unaffected by 1 μM of propranolol, atropine or CGRP(8-37). Antivenom (54 and 73 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve and prevented atrial standstill in left and right atria. The effects of CVE do not appear to involve autonomic nerves, post-synaptic α(1)- or β(1)-adrenoceptors, or muscarinic, endothelin or CGRP receptors, but may occur through direct effects on the cardiac and vascular muscle. Box jellyfish antivenom was effective in attenuating CVE-induced responses in isolated cardiac and vascular tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Manipulation of cellular spheroid composition and the effects on vascular tissue fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, T.R.; Mattix, B.; Casco, M.; Herbst, A.; Williams, C.; Tarasidis, A.; Simionescu, D.; Visconti, R.P.; Alexis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular spheroids were investigated as tissue-engineered building blocks that can be fused to form functional tissue constructs. While spheroids can be assembled using passive contacts for the fusion of complex tissues, physical forces can be used to promote active contacts to improve tissue homogeneity and accelerate tissue fusion. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the fusion of spheroids is critical to fabricating tissues. Here, manipulation of the spheroid composition was used to accelerate the fusion process mediated by magnetic forces. The Janus structure of magnetic cellular spheroids spatially controls iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form two distinct domains: cells and extracellular MNPs. Studies were performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) content and cell number on the fusion of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs). Results showed that the integration of iron oxide MNPs into spheroids increased the production of collagen over time when compared to spheroids without MNPs. The results also showed that ring tissues composed of JMCSs with high ECM concentrations and high cell numbers fused together, but exhibited less contraction when compared to their lower concentration counterparts. Results from spheroid fusion in capillary tubes showed that low ECM concentrations and high cell numbers experienced more fusion and cellular intermixing over time when compared to their higher counterparts. These findings indicate that cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions play an important role in regulating fusion, and this understanding sets the rationale of spheroid composition to fabricate larger and more complex tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25463485

  6. Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De B.; Adibi, M.; Breda, A.S.; Wendrich, J.R.; Smit, M.E.; Novák, O.; Yamaguchi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Isterdael, van G.; Palovaara, J.; Nijsse, B.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Beeckman, T.; Wagner, D.; Ljung, K.; Fleck, C.; Weijers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of cell division and pattern formation is central to tissue and organ development, particularly in plants where walls prevent cell migration. Auxin and cytokinin are both critical for division and patterning, but it is unknown how these hormones converge upon tissue development. We

  7. [Pathology analysis of CD31,CD34 and vWF expression in vascular endothelial cell of granulation tissue of eyelid chalazion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Ding, Yungang; Li, Yongping

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the variable expressions of CD31, CD34, vWF during the vascular development process of growing granulation tissue of eyelid chalazion. The samples of growing granulation tissue were obtained during chalazion removal surgery. Immunohistochemistry staining technique was used to detect the expression of CD31, CD34 and vWF in vascular endothelial cells. CD31 and CD34 were expressed in all vascular endothelial cells, whereas the CD34 was more effectively expressed and strengthened in the capillary sprouts. The vWF was not expressed in capillary sprouts, but the expression was stronger in the tissues from superficial to deeper layers. CD31, CD34 and vWF expression in microvascular endothelial cells of growing granulation tissue is diversified. CD34 may be an import marker for active angiogenesis and vWF is an effective marker for inactive angiogenesis.

  8. Characterization of DLK1(PREF1+/CD34+ cells in vascular stroma of human white adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit E. Zwierzina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of native (unpermeabilized SVF-cells from human subcutaneous (sWAT for cell surface staining (cs of DLK1 and CD34 identified three main populations: ~10% stained cs-DLK1+/cs-CD34−, ~20% cs-DLK1+/cs-CD34+dim and ~45% cs-DLK1−/cs-CD34+. FACS analysis after permeabilization showed that all these cells stained positive for intracellular DLK1, while CD34 was undetectable in cs-DLK1+/cs-CD34− cells. Permeabilized cs-DLK1−/cs-CD34+ cells were positive for the pericyte marker α-SMA and the mesenchymal markers CD90 and CD105, albeit CD105 staining was dim (cs-DLK1−/cs-CD34+/CD90+/CD105+dim/α-SMA+/CD45−/CD31−. Only these cells showed proliferative and adipogenic capacity. Cs-DLK1+/cs-CD34− and cs-DLK1+/cs-CD34+dim cells were also α-SMA+ but expressed CD31, had a mixed hematopoietic and mesenchymal phenotype, and could neither proliferate nor differentiate into adipocytes. Histological analysis of sWAT detected DLK1+/CD34+ and DLK1+/CD90+ cells mainly in the outer ring of vessel-associated stroma and at capillaries. DLK1+/α-SMA+ cells were localized in the CD34− perivascular ring and in adventitial vascular stroma. All these DLK1+ cells possess a spindle-shaped morphology with extremely long processes. DLK1+/CD34+ cells were also detected in vessel endothelium. Additionally, we show that sWAT contains significantly more DLK1+ cells than visceral (vWAT. We conclude that sWAT has more DKL1+ cells than vWAT and contains different DLK1/CD34 populations, and only cs-DLK1−/cs-CD34+/CD90+/CD105+dim/α-SMA+/CD45−/CD31− cells in the adventitial vascular stroma exhibit proliferative and adipogenic capacity.

  9. Comparison of the effects of letrozole and cabergoline on vascular permeability, ovarian diameter, ovarian tissue VEGF levels, and blood PEDF levels, in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Nur; Apaydın, Nesin; Töz, Emrah; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Genç, Mine; Turan, Gülüzar Arzu; Cengiz, Hakan; Eskicioğlu, Fatma

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of letrozole and cabergoline in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In this prospective, controlled experimental study, the 28 female Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups (one non-stimulated control and three OHSS-positive groups: placebo, letrozole, and cabergoline). To induce OHSS, rats were injected with 10 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin from day 29 to day 32 of life, followed by subcutaneous injection of 30 IU hCG on day 33. Letrozole rats received with a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg letrozole via oral gavage, on the hCG day. Cabergoline rats received with a single dose of 100 µg/kg cabergoline via oral gavage, on the hCG day. All animals were compared in terms of body weight, vascular permeability (VP), ovarian diameter, ovarian tissue VEGF expression (assessed via immunohistochemical staining), and blood pigment epithelium-derived growth factor (PEDF) levels. The OHSS-positive placebo group (group 2) exhibited the highest VP, ovarian diameter, extent of VEGF staining, and lowest PEDF level, as expected. No significant difference was evident between the letrozole and cabergoline groups in terms of any of body weight; VP; PEDF level; ovarian diameter; or the staining intensity of, or percentage staining for, VEGF in ovarian tissues. Letrozole and cabergoline were equally effective to prevent OHSS, reducing the ovarian diameter, VP, and PEDF and VEGF levels to similar extents.

  10. [The prediction of pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular resistance by using tricuspid annular tissue Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Osman; Hobikoğlu, Gültekin; Norgaz, Tuğrul; Asiltürk, Recep; Unal, Sennur; Gürkan, Ufuk; Narin, Ahmet

    2002-12-01

    This study was planned to determine pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance by using tricuspid annular tissue Doppler imaging in patients with valvular and congenital heart disease. The study group consisted of patients with valvular and congenital heart disease (n=28). Healthy volunteers (n=10) were included into the control group. Systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late diastolic velocity (Am), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRTm) were measured from tricuspid annulus by tissue Doppler imaging. Patients of the study group underwent cardiac catheterization and right atrial mean pressure, right ventricle and pulmonary artery systolic- diastolic pressures (PASP and PADP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PVR, dyn/s/cm-5) were obtained. There were no significant differences between the groups according to age, gender, left and right ventricle ejection fraction, tricuspid annular Sm, Em and Am velocities and velocity- time integrales (p>0.05). IVRTm was increased in the study group (73.75+/-3.1 ms, p/=30 mmHg was calculated with specificity of 57%, sensitivity of 93%, positive predictive value of 88%, negative predictive value of 68% and accuracy of 75%. For Sm velocities - time integral value of 2.7 cm/sec, prediction of the PVR >/=65 dyn/s/cm-5 was estimated with sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 36%, positive predictive value of 68%, negative predictive value of 66% and accuracy of 68 %. Pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with valvular and congenital heart disease can be predicted by using the Sm wave parameters detected with tricuspid annular tissue Doppler imaging.

  11. Ischemic flap survival improvement by composition-selective fat grafting with novel adipose tissue derived product - stromal vascular fraction gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Feng, Jingwei; Liao, Yunjun; Cai, Junrong; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Mingliang; Gao, Jianhua; Gao, Kai

    2017-11-30

    Flap necrosis due to insufficient blood supply is a common postoperative complication in random pattern flaps. Stem cell therapies have emerged as promising biologics for tissue ischemia. A novel fat derived product, stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), can be prepared with lipoaspirate through simple mechanical processing, removing only the lipid content. SVF-gel enriches adipose-derived stem cells and potentially beneficial for flap necrosis. Nude mice ischemic flaps were treated with human SVF-gel, stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell suspension or saline (n = 10). They were injected to the flap recipient beds, and necrosis and vascularization was assessed on postoperative day 14. We harvested the necrosis-free distal to evaluated skin healthiness and neovasculogenesis by Masson's trichrome stain and immunofluorescence, etc. Pro-angiogenic factors were assessed with tissue qRT-PCR. Finally, we traced the grafted human tissue with immunofluorescence. SVF-gel-treated flaps have the smallest necrotic zones (22.05% ± 0.0438) compared with the saline controls (53.78% ± 0.1412) or SVF-treated ones (35.54% ± 0.0850, p = 0.039). Numerous functional musculocutaneous perforators were developed around SVF-gel grafts. The SVF-gel-treated skin had the best fat restoration (231.3 ± 48.1 μm) among three groups (F = 10.83, p = 0.0102) while saline-treated flap distal appeared fibrotic. SVF-gel-treated flaps also had ∼43% more CD31 + capillaries (p = 0.0152) with ∼3 folds more gene expression of angiogenic cytokines of VEGF and bFGF (p = 0.0310 and 0.0303, respectively) than saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we found hSVF-gel cells (hGolgi+) had directly engrafted as vessel component (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA+) to the flap. Adipose cellular matrix enhanced flap neovascularization partly by direct incorporation, improved flap survival and fat restoration. The composition-selective fat grafting with SVF-gel demonstrated efficacy

  12. Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permana, Paska A; Nair, Saraswathy; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Expansion of adipose tissue mass results from increased number and size of adipocyte cells. We hypothesized that subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes in obese individuals might have an intrinsically higher propensity to differentiate into adipocytes. Thus we investigated the relationship between...... obesity and the level of in vitro preadipocyte differentiation in Pima Indians. Subcutaneous abdominal stromal vascular fractions containing preadipocytes were cultured from 58 nondiabetic subjects [31 M/27 F, 30 +/- 6 yr, body fat 34 +/- 8% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (means +/- SD)]. The average...... not (IGF-IR, r = 0.003, P = 1.0; PPARgamma, r = -0.1, P = 0.5; GATA-3, r = 0.02, P = 0.9; CUP/AP-2alpha, r = -0.2, P = 0.1; ECSM2, r = 0.04, P = 0.7). Contrary to our hypothesis, the results may indicate a blunted in vitro differentiation potential of preadipocytes in centrally obese individuals. The lower...

  13. Vascularized Composite Tissue Spare Part Transfer for Central Hand Defect Reconstruction: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Jessica; Johnson, Shepard P; Ogawa, Takeshi; Chung, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hand with loss of joints, tendons, nerves, and soft tissue may require complex, innovative reconstructive techniques to achieve a favorable functional and aesthetic outcome. We present a case of a manual laborer who sustained a multifaceted injury from a metal press machine with loss of composite structures including the middle and ring finger metacarpophalangeal joints, flexor and extensor tendons, digital nerves, and dorsal/volar soft tissues. Reconstruction included using the spare parts technique for transferring his ring finger proximal interphalangeal joint as a pedicle to reconstitute the missing metacarpophalangeal joint of his middle finger. The soft tissue from the ring finger was rearranged to provide aesthetic coverage of the hand with like-to-like reconstruction of the glabrous and nonglabrous skin. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  15. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Sarah B.; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene

    2017-01-01

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils...... in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability...... of these mediators. We conclude that adipose tissue eosinophils play a key role in the regulation of normal PVAT anti-contractile function....

  16. S.E. Mitchell Vascular Anomalies Flow Chart (SEMVAFC): a visual pathway combining clinical and imaging findings for classification of soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, A; Koshy, J; Kalayci, T O; Puttgen, K; Cohen, B; Redett, R; Mitchell, S E

    2014-05-01

    Classification of vascular anomalies (VAs) is challenging due to overlapping clinical symptoms, confusing terminology in the literature and unfamiliarity with this complex entity. It is important to recognize that VAs include two distinct entities, vascular tumours (VTs) and vascular malformations (VaMs). In this article, we describe SE Mitchell Vascular Anomalies Flow Chart (SEMVAFC), which arises from a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates clinical symptoms, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings to establish International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA)-based classification of the VAs. SEMVAFC provides a clear visual pathway for physicians to accurately diagnose Vas, which is important as treatment, management, and prognosis differ between VTs and VaMs. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-01

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  18. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-12

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  19. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pcells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  20. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  1. A novel comprehensive approach for human vascular allografts cryopreservation and radiation sterilization for the tissue engineering industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauk-Dubitsky S.E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to verify new techniques for human cadaveric vascular allografts cryopreservation, thawing and sterilization for the tissue engineering purposes. We use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a well-known, promising coolant. This allowed us to completely omit any cryoprotective or vitrifying solutions. Using of PDMS also makes possible an applying these allografts directly after freezing and decellularization and also it will also provide an opportunity to develop secure protocols of tissue— engineered vascular conduits cryopreservation. Matherial and methods. After mathematical modeling of cooling process and its validation the experiment for sealed (isolated freezing at low temperature conditions of 30 femoral arterial segments has been conducted. The segments were at least 10 cm in length and taken from 15 cadaveric donors in the age of 65-85 years. The freezing process was carried out using the abovementioned coolant— PDMS, and then physico-mechanical properties of these allografts were evaluated with the special Instron machine. According to the results obtained, a modeling of their sterilization conditions was conducted (the grafts were freezed. Results. By physico-mechanical properties validation and restricted histological analysis it was shown that there was an accordance between freezed/thawed allografts properties and native vessels. Conclusion. The abovementioned approach for allografts cryopreservation and thawing was efficient enough for further work in this direction.

  2. Side-to-side symmetry of radioprotein transfer from tissue space to systemic vasculature following subcutaneous injection in normal subjects and patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, Simon J.; O' Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie [Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Barber, Robert W.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Peters, A.Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Box 170, CB2 2QQ, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mortimer, Peter S. [Department of Physiological Medicine, St George' s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy can be used for investigation of unilateral lymphatic disease of the limbs, such as breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). Previous studies have compared lymphatic function in the affected limb with that in the unaffected contralateral limb. This study aims to confirm that the assumption of pre-morbid symmetry, never previously demonstrated, is valid. A dual-isotope technique, with bilateral subcutaneous hand injection of polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) labelled with either technetium-99m or indium-111, was performed on a total of 37 subjects. The use of two different labels, one for each limb, enabled comparison not only of the rate of clearance from the injection depot, but also of the rate of appearance in venous blood. Results demonstrate clear symmetry between the two arms with respect to both depot clearance and blood appearance rates, as well as the coupling between these two variables. In unilateral lymphatic disease, results of quantitative lymphoscintigraphy should be expressed in relation to the normal arm rather than to an independent control population. (orig.)

  3. Microparticles in vascular disorders: How tissue factor-exposing vesicles contribute to pathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, Ankie; Böing, Anita N.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation is initiated by tissue factor (TF). Coagulant TF is constitutively expressed by extravascular cells, but there is increasing evidence that TF can also be present within the blood, in particular during pathological conditions. Such TF is exposed on circulating cell-derived vesicles, and

  4. Testing for Starch, Respiring Tissues, and Vascular Bundles: Inquiry-Based Seed and Stem Anatomy Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florine, Sara; Hammond, Paul; Pomart, Katrina; Balschweid, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes some inquiry-based labs in which students identify starch in popped popcorn, then determine whether starch is present in the kernels prior to them being cooked. Students distinguish monocot and dicot stems as well as determining whether boiling kills tissues in seeds that have been soaked in water. (DDR)

  5. Digital Image Analysis for Morphometric Evaluation of Tissue Response after Implanting Alloplastic Vascular Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Roland; Hoene, Andreas; Walschus, Uwe; Jarchow, Raymond; Ueberrueck, Torsten; Patrzyk, Maciej; Schlosser, Michael; Wilhelm, Lutz

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of digital image analysis, using the KS400 software system, for the morphometric evaluation of the tissue response after prosthesis implantation in an animal model. Twenty-four female pigs aged 10 weeks were implanted with infrarenal Dacron® prostheses for 14, 21, 28, and 116 days. Following the explantation and investigation of the neointima region, the expression of beta-1-integrin, the proliferation rate by means of Ki-67 positive cells, and the intima thickness were evaluated as exemplary parameters of the tissue response after implantation. Frozen tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained and subsequently examined using computer-aided image analysis. A maximum expression of 32.9% was observed for beta-1-integrin 14 days after implantation, gradually declining over time to 9.8% after 116 days. The proliferation rate was found to be 19% on day 14, increasing to 39% on day 21 with a subsequent gradual decline to 5% after 116 days. The intima thickness increased from 189.9 [mu]m on day 14 to 1228.0 [mu]m on day 116. In conclusion, digital image analysis was found to be an efficient and reproducible method for the morphometric evaluation of a peri-prosthetic tissue response.

  6. A Combination of Radiosurgery and Soluble Tissue Factor Enhances Vascular Targeting for Experimental Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiosurgery for glioblastoma is limited to the development of resistance, allowing tumor cells to survive and initiate tumor recurrence. Based on our previous work that coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide following radiosurgery selectively induced thrombosis in cerebral arteriovenous malformations, achieving thrombosis of 69% of the capillaries and 39% of medium sized vessels, we hypothesized that a rapid and selective shutdown of the capillaries in glioblastoma vasculature would decrease the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, reducing tumor growth, preventing intracranial hypertension, and improving life expectancy. Glioblastoma was formed by implantation of GL261 cells into C57Bl/6 mouse brain. Mice were intravenously injected tissue factor, lipopolysaccharide, a combination of both, or placebo 24 hours after radiosurgery. Control mice received both agents after sham irradiation. Coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide led to the formation of thrombi in up to 87 ± 8% of the capillaries and 46 ± 4% of medium sized vessels within glioblastoma. The survival rate of mice in this group was 80% versus no survivor in placebo controls 30 days after irradiation. Animal body weight increased with time in this group (r=0.88, P=0.0001. Thus, radiosurgery enhanced treatment with tissue factor, and lipopolysaccharide selectively induces thrombosis in glioblastoma vasculature, improving life expectancy.

  7. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expressed...

  8. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala' vascular tissue and phloem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkonyi-Gasic Erika

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Results Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'. We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. Conclusions This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  9. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Sarah B; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene; Sorobetea, Daniel; Sitnik, Kasia; Hopwood, Thomas; Lawrence, Catherine B; Agace, William W; Else, Kathryn J; Heagerty, Anthony M; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M

    2017-03-17

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that adiponectin and nitric oxide are released after activation of adipocyte-expressed β3 adrenoceptors by catecholamines, and identified eosinophils as a novel source of these mediators. We conclude that adipose tissue eosinophils play a key role in the regulation of normal PVAT anti-contractile function.

  10. [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in different breast tissues and clinical significance thereof].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Guo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yang; Zou, Yu-Huan; Song, Ji-Ning; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Wen-Ya

    2008-03-25

    To investigate the differences in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) count in breast benign affection, breast atypical hyperplasia, and breast carcinoma in situ and to clarify the association of VEGF expression and MVD with the clinicopathological features of these diseases. Immunohistochemistry (SP-method) was used to examine the expression of VEGF and MVD count in 100 samples of breast benign affection (including 35 cases of breast fibroid tumor, 35 cases of breast cystic hyperplasia, and 30 cases of intraductal papilloma), and 15 samples of breast atypical hyperplasia, and 25 samples of breast carcinoma in situ, obtained during operation. The positive rate of VEGF of the breast carcinoma in situ group was 56% , significantly higher than hose of the breast benign affection and breast atypical hyperplasia groups (22% and 33% respectively, P breast fibroid tumor, breast cystic hyperplasia, and intraductal papilloma (all P > 0.05). The MVD value of the breast carcinoma in situ group was 20.1 +/- 6.1, significantly higher than those of the breast benign affection group and breast atypical hyperplasia groups (14.3 +/- 3. 5 and 18.5 +/- 3.6 respectively, both P breast fibroid tumor, breast cystic hyperplasia, and intraductal papilloma (all P > 0.05). In breast tumors, angiogenesis is probably mediated mainly by VEGF. The occurrence and progression of breast cancer may be related with the expression of VEGF.

  11. Novel tissue-engineered vascular patches based on decellularized canine aortas and their recellularization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiufen; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Dongxia; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Huaiqing

    2008-11-01

    Decellularized allo- or xenogeneic vascular grafts have been found to give more promising results than some biodegradable synthetic polymers. However, owing to absence of well-organized cells, especially confluent endothelial cells, their long-term patency is limited. Seeding vessel-originated cells on these grafts may overcome the deficiency. In this study, canine aortas were decellularized and cross-linked. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Masson' trichrome staining showed complete removal of cell debris, while structure integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) was remained. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were seeded on these decellularized aorta patches in three manners, ECs alone (EC/O), SMCs alone (SMC/O) and ECs on SMCs layer (EC/SMC). In EC/O and SMC/O, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated both cells could form confluent layers on the decellularized patches when seeded at high density, but their morphology and alignment changed with seeding density. In EC/SMC, ECs could grow well on SMCs layer, but their morphology, alignment, and confluence degree were deeply influenced by the density of SMCs beneath.

  12. Free tissue transfer as a vascular source for the vessel-depleted neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chung-Kan; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Barrera, Joaquim Megias

    2016-11-01

    Reconstructing head and neck defects postoncologic resection can be challenging. This problem is further amplified when tackling the vessel-depleted or hostile neck. Free flaps still provide the gold standard of reconstructing such defects. However, with increasing reconstructions, recipient vessel options rapidly diminish. This article provides a technique and strategy in managing such difficult cases using previous free flap pedicles. It also highlights the importance of flap selection in paving the way for future successful reconstructions. We present a fifth sequential free flap reconstruction postoncologic buccal resection and mention the key steps taken to ensure the safe and successful reuse of previous free flap pedicles. Intraoperative and postoperative photographs are clearly presented with a particular focus on the management of the recipient pedicle. Adequate planning and strategic selection of free flaps with long pedicles can provide the necessary vascular sources needed for future successful free flap head and neck reconstructions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2515-E2518, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Biomaterials with persistent growth factor gradients in vivo accelerate vascularized tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Banu; Jiang, Bin; Somo, Sami I; Appel, Alyssa A; Larson, Jeffery C; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Brey, Eric M

    2015-12-01

    Gradients of soluble factors play an important role in many biological processes, including blood vessel assembly. Gradients can be studied in detail in vitro, but methods that enable the study of spatially distributed soluble factors and multi-cellular processes in vivo are limited. Here, we report on a method for the generation of persistent in vivo gradients of growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D) biomaterial system. Fibrin loaded porous poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds were generated using a particulate leaching method. Platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was encapsulated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres which were placed distal to the tissue-material interface. PLGA provides sustained release of PDGF-BB and its diffusion through the porous structure results in gradient formation. Gradients within the scaffold were confirmed in vivo using near-infrared fluorescence imaging and gradients were present for more than 3 weeks. The diffusion of PDGF-BB was modeled and verified with in vivo imaging findings. The depth of tissue invasion and density of blood vessels formed in response to the biomaterial increased with magnitude of the gradient. This biomaterial system allows for generation of sustained growth factor gradients for the study of tissue response to gradients in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Human in vitro 3D co-culture model to engineer vascularized bone-mimicking tissues combining computational tools and statistical experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Arrigoni, Chiara; Talò, Giuseppe; Zamai, Moreno; Zagra, Luigi; Caiolfa, Valeria; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The generation of functional, vascularized tissues is a key challenge for both tissue engineering applications and the development of advanced in vitro models analyzing interactions among circulating cells, endothelium and organ-specific microenvironments. Since vascularization is a complex process guided by multiple synergic factors, it is critical to analyze the specific role that different experimental parameters play in the generation of physiological tissues. Our goals were to design a novel meso-scale model bridging the gap between microfluidic and macro-scale studies, and high-throughput screen the effects of multiple variables on the vascularization of bone-mimicking tissues. We investigated the influence of endothelial cell (EC) density (3-5 Mcells/ml), cell ratio among ECs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteo-differentiated MSCs (1:1:0, 10:1:0, 10:1:1), culture medium (endothelial, endothelial + angiopoietin-1, 1:1 endothelial/osteo), hydrogel type (100%fibrin, 60%fibrin+40%collagen), tissue geometry (2 × 2 × 2, 2 × 2 × 5 mm(3)). We optimized the geometry and oxygen gradient inside hydrogels through computational simulations and we analyzed microvascular network features including total network length/area and vascular branch number/length. Particularly, we employed the "Design of Experiment" statistical approach to identify key differences among experimental conditions. We combined the generation of 3D functional tissue units with the fine control over the local microenvironment (e.g. oxygen gradients), and developed an effective strategy to enable the high-throughput screening of multiple experimental parameters. Our approach allowed to identify synergic correlations among critical parameters driving microvascular network development within a bone-mimicking environment and could be translated to any vascularized tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A case series of flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap to augment the vascularity of ischaemic limbs with soft tissue defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a world of fast moving vehicles, heavy machinery and industries crush injury to limbs with vascular compromise and soft tissue defect is common. The traditional treatment is a 2 step one dealing with vascular repair and soft tissue cover separately, in the same operation. We report a series of single step vascular repair and soft tissue cover with flow through anterolateral thigh flap (ALT flap for limb salvage. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with soft tissue defect and vascular injury were included in this study. A two team approach was used to minimise operative time, team one prepared the vessels and team 2 harvested the flap. Observations and Results: Of the ten patients operated (8 males, eight flaps were done for upper limb and two for lower limb salvage. Six anastomosis were done with ulnar vessels, two with radial and two with posterior tibial vessels. Nine extremities could be salvaged while one patient developed progressive thrombosis leading to amputation. Conclusion: The ALT flow-through flap is a versatile single step procedure that can be used to salvage an ischemic limb with soft tissue loss avoiding the need for interpositional vein graft.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is a key molecule that enhances lymphatic metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi, E-mail: tyanagaw@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Shinozaki, Tetsuya [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideomi [Department of Physical Therapy, Gunma University School of Health Science, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Saito, Kenichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Raz, Avraham [Tumor Progression and Metastasis Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 110 E. Warren Ave., Detroit, MI (United States); Takagishi, Kenji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Studies on lymph node metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas are insufficient because of its rarity. In this study, we examined the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D in soft tissue sarcomas metastasized to lymph nodes. In addition, the effects of the two molecules on the barrier function of a lymphatic endothelial cell monolayer against sarcoma cells were analyzed. We examined 7 patients who had soft tissue sarcomas with lymph node metastases and who had undergone neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy before lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 2 of 7 sarcomas that metastasized to lymph nodes expressed VEGF-C both in primary and metastatic lesions. On the other hand, VEGF-D expression was detected in 4 of 7 primary and 7 of 7 metastatic lesions, respectively. Interestingly, 3 cases that showed no VEGF-D expression at primary sites expressed VEGF-D in metastatic lesions. Recombinant VEGF-C at 10{sup -8} and VEGF-D at 10{sup -7}and 10{sup -8} g/ml significantly increased the random motility of lymphatic endothelial cells compared with controls. VEGF-D significantly increased the migration of sarcoma cells through lymphatic endothelial monolayers. The fact that VEGF-D induced the migration of fibrosarcomas through the lymphatic endothelial monolayer is the probable reason for the strong relationship between VEGF-D expression and lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcomas. The important propensities of this molecule for the increase of lymph node metastases are not only lymphangiogenesis but also down-regulation of the barrier function of lymphatic endothelial monolayers, which facilitates sarcoma cells entering the lymphatic circulation.

  17. Effects of fly ash and boric acid on Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 dispersed with MgAl2O4: An experimental study on rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Gulfem; Guru, Metin; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Yilmaz, Dervis

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue reaction around zirconia-based materials. Forty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Disk-shaped (1mm height and 5mm diameter) samples composed of 67% spinel (MgAl2O4), 27% tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, 4% (m/m) fly ash and 2% (m/m) boric acid were inserted into dorsal muscles of rats. After 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and zirconia materials were removed with the surrounding tissue. Tissue sections were made with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were evaluated for the intensity of inflammation. Additionally, the somatic and visceral lymph nodes were evaluated. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests at a significant level of p < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences between mean inflammatory scores in different experimental periods (p <0.05). In addition, the inflammatory reaction decreased over time. The tested materials had no damaging effect on the rat lymph nodes and did not have a toxic action on the internal organs. Therefore, zirconia polycrystal tested in the present study may offer a promising treatment alternative after further mechanical and biological studies are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidative properties of acetylsalicylic Acid on vascular tissues from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Lamontagne, Daniel; de Champlain, Jacques

    2002-01-22

    The mechanisms of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) therapy are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ASA treatment could reduce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation in aortic ring and in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHRs) rats by means of the Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method. Although ASA did not show any short-term effect in vitro and in vivo, long-term oral treatment (100 mg/kg/day, 12 days) significantly reduced the basal O(2)(-) production by 27% and 45% in aorta of normotensive and hypertensive rats, respectively, in association with a reduction of the NAD(P)H oxidase activity in both groups. These effects were dose-dependent from 10 to 100 mg/kg/day. Similar effects were observed in SMCs following long-term incubation (48 hours) with ASA. ASA treatment also completely inhibited the angiotensin II-induced hypertension and O(2)(-) production. Moreover, ASA treatment significantly improved the impaired aortic relaxation response to acetylcholine and markedly attenuated the age-dependent development of hypertension in SHRs. Long-term ASA treatment in vivo markedly reduced vascular O(2)(-) production through lowering the NAD(P)H oxidase activity in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. These antioxidative properties of ASA are likely involved in the restoration of aortic vasorelaxation, in the attenuation of the development of hypertension in young SHRs, and in the prevention of hypertension following long-term angiotensin II infusion.

  19. Vascular and Psychophysical Effects of Topical Capsaicin Application to Orofacial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Shellie A.; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Aims To characterize and contrast human sensory and vascular changes produced by topical application of the algesic chemical capsaicin to the glabrous lips and tongue. Methods Applications of 1% capsaicin or vehicle cream to the glabrous lips and tongue were randomized between two two-trial sessions. The capsaicin trial followed the vehicle trial for each session. Before and 5, 15, and 30 minutes after capsaicin or vehicle cream application, six parameters were recorded from the glabrous lips or the tongue dorsum: (1) burning pain intensity, as measured on a visual analog scale; (2) burning pain area, as indicated by subjects on an orofacial drawing; (3) mechanical sensitivity, as measured by a von Frey filament; (4) visual flare; (5) blood flow and temperature, as measured by laser-Doppler imaging and thermography, respectively; and (6) areas of increased temperature (hot spots), as calculated by a digital tracer from the thermographs. Data were analyzed by ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlations. Results Compared to vehicle application, capsaicin elicited burning pain, increases in blood flow and temperature, but no change in mechanical sensitivity in the glabrous lips or tongue. Greater increases in blood flow and temperature paralleled more intense burning pain and larger areas of perceived pain for the lips compared to the tongue. The location of distinct areas of increased temperature within the orofacial area differed between the capsaicin-lip and capsaicin-tongue trials. Conclusion The several differences between these responses to noxious stimulation of the glabrous lips and tongue may have implications for examinations of orofacial somatosensory functions. PMID:19639105

  20. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H. J.; Middelkoop, E.; van Heemstra-Hoen, M.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated

  1. Weight loss-induced cellular stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the risk for weight regain in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, N.J.T.; Vink, R.G.; Bouwman, F.G.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Baak, van M.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose

  2. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Cao Minh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense pulsed light (IPL has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production.

  3. Gelatin-based hydrogel for vascular endothelial growth factor release in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, S; di Blasio, L; Tonda-Turo, C; Mancardi, A; Primo, L; Ciardelli, G; Gambarotta, G; Geuna, S; Perroteau, I

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogels are promising materials in regenerative medicine applications, due to their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and capacity to release drugs and growth factors in a controlled manner. In this study, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels based on blends of natural polymers were used in in vitro and ex vivo experiments as a tool for VEGF-controlled release to accelerate the nerve regeneration process. Among different candidates, the angiogenic factor VEGF was selected, since angiogenesis has been long recognized as an important and necessary step during tissue repair. Recent studies have pointed out that VEGF has a beneficial effect on motor neuron survival and Schwann cell vitality and proliferation. Moreover, VEGF administration can sustain and enhance the growth of regenerating peripheral nerve fibres. The hydrogel preparation process was optimized to allow functional incorporation of VEGF, while preventing its degradation and denaturation. VEGF release was quantified through ELISA assay, whereas released VEGF bioactivity was validated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a Schwann cell line (RT4-D6P2T) by assessing VEGFR-2 and downstream effectors Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia explants cultured on VEGF-releasing hydrogels displayed increased neurite outgrowth, providing confirmation that released VEGF maintained its effect, as also confirmed in a tubulogenesis assay. In conclusion, a gelatin-based hydrogel system for bioactive VEGF delivery was developed and characterized for its applicability in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue in mice: a paracrine mechanism contributing to vascular redox dysregulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-07-01

    Obesity in the elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue, which contributes to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in a paracrine manner. To test this hypothesis, we assessed changes in the secretome, reactive oxygen species production, and macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue of young (7 month old) and aged (24 month old) high-fat diet-fed obese C57BL/6 mice. High-fat diet-induced vascular reactive oxygen species generation significantly increased in aged mice, which was associated with exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In young animals, high-fat diet-induced obesity promoted oxidative stress in the perivascular adipose tissue, which was associated with a marked proinflammatory shift in the profile of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and significantly increased macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue. Using cultured arteries isolated from young control mice, we found that inflammatory factors secreted from the perivascular fat tissue of obese aged mice promote significant prooxidative and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in the vascular wall, mimicking the aging phenotype. Overall, our findings support an important role for localized perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in exacerbation of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, an effect that likely enhances the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases from obesity in the elderly individuals.

  5. Investigating the Vascularization of Tissue-Engineered Bone Constructs Using Dental Pulp Cells and 45S5 Bioglass(®) Scaffolds.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gendy, R; J Kirkham; Newby, PJ; Mohanram, Y; Boccaccini, AR; Yang, XB

    2015-01-01

    Identification of a suitable cell source combined with an appropriate 3D scaffold is an essential prerequisite for successful engineering of skeletal tissues. Both osteogenesis and angiogenesis are key processes for bone regeneration. This study investigated the vascularization potential of a novel combination of human dental pulp stromal cells (HDPSCs) with 45S5 Bioglass(®) scaffolds for tissue-engineered mineral constructs in vivo and in vitro. 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds were produced by the f...

  6. Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five year old entire mixed breed dog was admitted to the University of Nairobi's small animal clinic with a 5-months history of subcutaneous masses. Physical examination revealed firm and mobile masses in the subcuticular tissues, on the mandible and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Visual inspection ...

  7. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via ...

  8. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor in the vascular wall. Analysis of human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Gåfvels, M E; Kariko, K

    1996-01-01

    for the uptake and transport of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and perhaps facilitate the development of atherosclerosis in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether VLDL receptor mRNA and protein was expressed in human vascular tissue. We...

  9. Presence and vascular pharmacology of KATP channel subtypes in rat central and peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    -inducing effects of K(ATP) channel openers and that a Kir6.1/SUR2B specific blocker might be effective in the treatment of primary headaches such as migraine. Since K(ATP) channels are ubiquitous, we characterized the K(ATP) channel subtypes in major rat cranial and peripheral arteries and organs in order...... to understand the possible adverse effects of a Kir6.1/SUR2B blocker. We studied the mRNA expression of K(ATP) channel subunits in rat femoral, mesenteric, renal, coronary, basilar, middle cerebral and middle meningeal arteries and in tissue from rat heart, brain, liver, colon, lung, kidney and pancreas. We...

  10. Tissue engineering of vascular/valvular equivalents on the base of the xenogeneic decellularized matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchuk M. V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO, in 2008 cardiovascular diseases claimed the lives of 17.5 million people (30 % of all diseases. Often the only option to save a patient’s life is a replacing the injured part of an organ by the prosthesis. Aim. This research was aimed to produce biomodificated cardiovascular graft by decellularisation of porcine heart valve. Methods. Our method of decellularization permits to make morphologically and physically non-modified decellularised extracellular matrix. Results. The analysis of matrix shows a decrease of the total number of cells, preservation of the collagen and elastin fibers structure, and safety of physiological adhesion. Conclusions. The matrix can be used as a framework for the vessel-valvular tissue-engineering prosthesis after its recellularization by the recipient’s autologous cells.

  11. Uremic Solute-Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Tissue Factor Axis Associates with Thrombosis after Vascular Injury in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachalama, Vijaya B; Shashar, Moshe; Alousi, Faisal; Shivanna, Sowmya; Rijal, Keshab; Belghasem, Mostafa E; Walker, Joshua; Matsuura, Shinobu; Chang, Gary H; Gibson, C Michael; Dember, Laura M; Francis, Jean M; Ravid, Katya; Chitalia, Vipul C

    2018-01-17

    Individuals with CKD are particularly predisposed to thrombosis after vascular injury. Using mouse models, we recently described indoxyl sulfate, a tryptophan metabolite retained in CKD and an activator of tissue factor (TF) through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling, as an inducer of thrombosis across the CKD spectrum. However, the translation of findings from animal models to humans is often challenging. Here, we investigated the uremic solute-AHR-TF thrombosis axis in two human cohorts, using a targeted metabolomics approach to probe a set of tryptophan products and high-throughput assays to measure AHR and TF activity. Analysis of baseline serum samples was performed from 473 participants with advanced CKD from the Dialysis Access Consortium Clopidogrel Prevention of Early AV Fistula Thrombosis trial. Participants with subsequent arteriovenous thrombosis had significantly higher levels of indoxyl sulfate and kynurenine, another uremic solute, and greater activity of AHR and TF, than those without thrombosis. Pattern recognition analysis using the components of the thrombosis axis facilitated clustering of the thrombotic and nonthrombotic groups. We further validated these findings using 377 baseline samples from participants in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction II trial, many of whom had CKD stage 2-3. Mechanistic probing revealed that kynurenine enhances thrombosis after vascular injury in an animal model and regulates thrombosis in an AHR-dependent manner. This human validation of the solute-AHR-TF axis supports further studies probing its utility in risk stratification of patients with CKD and exploring its role in other diseases with heightened risk of thrombosis. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w./day. Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α, compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  13. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  14. Inoculation of Lacazia loboi into the subcutaneous tissue of the hamster cheek pouch Inoculação de Lacazia loboi no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diltor Vladimir Araujo OPROMOLLA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The subcutaneous tissue of the hamster cheek pouch, a site of immunologic privilege, has been used to investigate the potential infectivity of different types of parasites. It has been demonstrated that the implantation of fragments of lesions induced by the fungus Lacazia loboi, the etiologic agent of Jorge Lobo's disease, into the subcutaneous tissue of the hamster cheek pouch resulted in parasite multiplication and dissemination to satellite lymph nodes16. Here we describe the evolution of lesions induced by the inoculation of the isolated fungus into this immunologically privileged site. The morphology of the inflammatory response and fungal viability and proliferation were evaluated. Inoculation of the fungus into the cheek pouch induced histiocytic granulomas with rare lymphocytes. Although fungal cells were detected for a period of up to 180 days in these lesions, the fungi lost viability after the first day of inoculation. In contrast, when the parasite was inoculated into the footpad, non-organized histiocytic lesions were observed. Langhan's giant cells, lymphocytes and fungal particles were observed in these lesions. Fungal viability was observed up to 60 days after inoculation and non-viable parasites were present in the persistent lesions up to 180 days post-inoculation. These data indicate that the subcutaneous tissue of the hamster cheek pouch is not a suitable site for the proliferation of Lacazia loboi when the fungus isolated from human tissues is tested.O tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, um local de privilégio imunológico, tem sido usado para a investigação da infectividade potencial de diferentes tipos de parasitas. Está demonstrado que o implante de fragmentos de lesões induzidas pelo fungo Lacazia loboi, o agente etiológico da doença de Jorge Lobo, no tecido subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster resultou na multiplicação e disseminação do parasita para linfonodos satélites16. Neste trabalho

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Increases Osteogenesis in an Experimental Design Zygomatic Bone Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu, Gaye; Ozcelik, Derya; Serin, Merdan; Erdem, Havva; Topacoglu, Arzu Turkseven

    2017-11-01

    Facial bone defects are frequently encountered problems in clinical practice. Bone grafts, flaps, and alloplastic materials are often used in their treatment. This leads to donor site morbidity and prolongation of the operation. The authors have planned this study to examine whether adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has an osteogenic effect in the critical sized membranous bone defect of the zygomatic bone. Twenty male Wistar Albino rats were used. Bilateral zygomatic arches were opened with lateral incisions. A standard 3-mm bone defect was created bilaterally on the zygomatic arches of the rats. In the experiment side, the stem cell-rich SVF that was obtained by applying centrifugal process to the adipose tissue derived from the inguinal fat pad was injected into the site of the right zygomatic arch bone defect. In the control side, left zygomatic arch was left for secondary bone healing without any treatment after a 3-mm critical bone defect was created. In the postoperative 10th (n:5) and 20th weeks (n:13), the healing areas of bone defects were assessed by a 3-dimensional tomography, and then, the rats were sacrificed and bone healing was examined histologically. There were no statistically significant differences on the 10th week results. At the 20th week new bone formation amount calculated from the 3-dimensional computed tomography results was significantly higher in the experiment side (P = 0.033). In the histological examination at the 20th week, there was significantly more callus formation in the experiment side (P = 0.0112). Stem cells can increase the rate of bone healing by differentiating into certain tissues. It is predicted that adipose tissue-derived SVF rich with mesenchymal stem cells can increase bone healing in facial bone defects and this application could replace the use of bone grafts and flaps in clinical practice. As a result, it is concluded that adipose tissue-derived stem cells can potentiate osteogenesis

  16. Enhancing vascularization of a gelatin-based micro-cavitary hydrogel by increasing the density of the micro-cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiayin; Fan, Changjiang; Lai, Wei Shan; Wang, Dongan

    2016-10-07

    The transport of nutrients and oxygen by vascular networks into engineered tissue constructs is critical to their successful integration into host tissues. Hydrogel has achieved some promising results as scaffolds for vascularization. However, the vascularization of hydrogel is still constrained by its inherent submicron- or nano-sized pores. In this study, two gelatin-based micro-cavitary gel (Gel-MCG) constructs with varying densities of micro-cavities were developed with a photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (Gel-MA) precursor and porogenic gelatin microspheres (MS), and their functions in supporting vascularization within hydrogels were evaluated with endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs). The increase of cavitary density could enhance the vascularization of Gel-MCG constructs. After 14 d of culture in vitro, the vascularization of Gel-MCG constructs with higher cavitary density was significantly superior to that of gelatin spongy control and the fusion of vascularized cavities in the constructs could be observed. Further subcutaneous implantation of the Gel-MCG constructs with higher cavitary density into nude mice also showed obvious vascular invasion from host tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the increase in cavitary density can efficiently facilitate the vascularization of Gel-MCG constructs both in vitro and in vivo and that such highly-porous Gel-MCG constructs have great potential to be a promising scaffold for the development of vascularized tissue constructs.

  17. Reduced Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate obese mice is recovered after atorvastatin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Poletto, Ana Cl?udia; David-Silva, Aline; Yamamoto, Aline Pedro de Melo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Furuya, Daniela Tomie

    2015-01-01

    Background Decreased expression of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, encoded by the solute carrier 2A4 (Slc2a4) gene, is involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Local tissue inflammation, by nuclear factor-?B (NF?B)-mediated pathway, has been related to Slc2a4 repression; a mechanism that could be modulated by statins. Using a model of obesity with insulin resistance, this study investigated whether (1) inflammatory markers and Slc2a4 expression are altered; (2) atorvastatin has bene...

  18. Enzymatic Cross-Linking of Resilin-Based Proteins for Vascular Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeji; Gill, Emily E; Liu, Julie C

    2016-08-08

    Protein-based biomaterials have received significant attention for tissue engineering applications. For example, resilin-based protein gels have been produced with different cross-linking chemistries for applications in cartilage, cardiovascular, and vocal fold engineering. In this study, we investigate an alternative cross-linking chemistry to form resilin-based protein hydrogels and demonstrate the versatility of the gels for investigating cell response to matrix stiffness. Specifically, transglutaminase was used to cross-link proteins and resulted in gel surfaces more suitable for long-term cell attachment compared to those formed by a Mannich-type condensation reaction. Since matrix stiffness is an important determinant in modulating cell response, we first tuned matrix stiffness by varying total protein concentration. Next, we observed that matrix stiffness modulated cell spreading and endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, our results show that cells differentiated on our matrices, which have a stiffness similar to subendothelial layers, had statistically equivalent endothelial function compared to cells differentiated on hard glass surfaces. Thus, our protein-based matrix system is a promising tool to provide substrates favorable for long-term cell attachment and better mimics the native subendothelial environment compared to conventional hard culture substrates.

  19. H2O2 generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain in thoracic perivascular adipose tissue is crucial for modulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Tostes, Rita C; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Akamine, Eliana H; Lobato, Nubia S

    2016-09-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases a variety of factors that affect vascular function. PVAT in the thoracic aorta shares characteristics with the brown adipose tissue, including a large amount of mitochondria. PVAT-derived factors influence both endothelial and smooth muscle function via several signaling mechanisms including the release/generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. Considering the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on vascular function and that mitochondria are an important source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria-derived ROS in the PVAT modulates vascular reactivity. Vascular reactivity to norephinephrine (NE) was evaluated in thoracic aortic rings, with or without endothelium and/or PVAT, from male Wistar rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, increased the contraction in vessels surrounded by PVAT. PVAT stimulated with NE exhibited increased protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis, of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and decreased protein expression of catalase. Ultimately, NE increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation in PVAT via increases in intracellular calcium. These results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in PVAT contributes to modulation of aortic muscle contraction by generating higher amounts of O2(-) that is, in turn, dismutated to hydrogen peroxide, which then acts as a pivotal signaling molecule regulating vascular smooth muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  1. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  2. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  3. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  4. Development of endothelium-denuded human umbilical veins as living scaffolds for tissue-engineered small-calibre vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicka, Markus; Schrammel, Siegfried; Bursa, Jiri; Huber, Georgine; Bronger, Holger; Schmid, Christof; Birnbaum, Dietrich E

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-engineered small-calibre vessel grafts may help to alleviate the lack of graft material for coronary and peripheral bypass grafting in an increasing number of patients. This study explored the use of endothelium-denuded human umbilical veins (HUVs) as scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering in a perfusion bioreactor. Vessel diameter (1.2 ± 0.4 mm), wall thickness (0.38 ± 0.09 mm), uniaxial ultimate failure stress (8029 ± 1714 kPa) and burst pressure (48.4 ± 20.2 kPa, range 28.4-83.9 kPa) were determined in native samples. The effects of endothelium removal from HUVs by enzymatic digestion, hypotonic lysis and dehydration were assessed. Dehydration did not significantly affect contractile function, tetrazolium dye reduction, mechanical strength and vessel structure, whereas the other methods failed in at least one of these parameters. Denudation by dehydration retained laminin, fibronectin, collagen and elastic fibres. Denuded HUVs were seeded in a perfusion bioreactor with either allogeneic HUVs endothelial cells or with saphenous vein endothelial cells harvested from patients with coronary artery disease. Seeding in a perfusion bioreactor resulted in a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells from both sources, as judged by histology and scanning electron microscopy. Seeded cells contained von Willebrand factor and CD31. In conclusion, denuded HUVs should be considered an alternative to decellularized blood vessels, as the process keeps the smooth muscle layer intact and functional, retains proteins relevant for biomechanic properties and for cell attachment and provides a suitable scaffold for seeding an autologous and flow-resistant endothelium. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. USE OF AUTOLOGOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE DERIVED STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CHONDRAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be caused by aging, heredity and injury from trauma or disease. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, containing large amount of stem cells and other regenerative cells, can be easily obtained from loose connective tissue that is associated with adipose tissue. Here we evaluated safety and clinical efficacy of freshly isolated autologous SVF cells in patients with grade 2 - 4 degenerative osteoarthritis (OA. A total of 31 patients underwent standard liposuction under local anesthesia and SVF cells were isolated and prepared for application into joints. A total of 61 joints, mainly knee and hip joints, were treated with a single dose of SVF cells. 19 patients were fol lowed for minimum 6 weeks for safety and efficacy. Modified KOOS Clinical Score was used to evaluate clinical effect and was based on pain, non - steroid analgesic usage, limping, extent of joint movement, and stiffness evaluation before and at pre - operative , 1 week post - op, 1 month and 6 weeks after the treatment. No serious side effects, systemic infection or cancer was associated with SVF cell therapy. All patients improved after the treatment. Average KOOS score improved from pre - operative 37.5 to post - op erative 6 week average 66.6. All sub scale parameter for pain, symptoms, activity of living & quality of life are also improved. Higher grade of OA were associated with slower healing. In conclusion, here we report a novel and promising treatment approach for patients with degenerative OA that is safe, cost - effective, and relying only on autologous cells, and can be used as one of the minimal invasive treatment modality for osteoarthritis

  6. Evaluation of decellularized human umbilical vein (HUV) for vascular tissue engineering - comparison with endothelium-denuded HUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Silvia; Schrammel, Siegfried; Huber, Georgine; Niemeyer, Markus; Schmid, Christof; Stangassinger, Manfred; Hoenicka, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical vessels have been recognized as a valuable and widely available resource for vascular tissue engineering. Whereas endothelium-denuded human umbilical veins (HUVs) have been successfully seeded with a patient-derived neoendothelium, decellularized vessels may have additional advantages, due to their lower antigenicity. The present study investigated the effects of three different decellularization procedures on the histological, mechanical and seeding properties of HUVs. Vessels were decellularized by detergent treatment (Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate, IGEPAL-CA630), osmotic lysis (3 m NaCl, distilled water) and peroxyacetic acid treatment. In all cases, nuclease treatments were required to remove residual nucleic acids. Decellularization resulted in a partial loss of fibronectin and laminin staining in the subendothelial layer and affected the appearance of elastic fibres. In addition to removing residual nucleic acids, nuclease treatment weakened all stainings and substantially altered surface properties, as seen in scanning electron micrographs, indicating additional non-specific effects. Detergent treatment and osmotic lysis caused failure stresses to decrease significantly. Although conditioned medium prepared from decellularized HUV did not severely affect endothelial cell growth, cells seeded on decellularized HUV did not remain viable. This may be attributed to the partial removal of essential extracellular matrix components as well as to changes of surface properties. Therefore, decellularized HUVs appear to require additional modifications in order to support successful cell seeding. Replacing the vessels' endothelium may thus be a superior alternative to decellularization when creating tissue-engineered blood vessels with non-immunogenic luminal interfaces. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Biomimetic L-aspartic acid-derived functional poly(ester amide)s for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl K; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-08-01

    Functionalization of polymeric biomaterials permits the conjugation of cell signaling molecules capable of directing cell function. In this study, l-phenylalanine and l-aspartic acid were used to synthesize poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) with pendant carboxylic acid groups through an interfacial polycondensation approach. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (HCASMC) attachment, spreading and proliferation was observed on all PEA films. Vinculin expression at the cell periphery suggested that HCASMCs formed focal adhesions on the functional PEAs, while the absence of smooth muscle α-actin (SMαA) expression implied the cells adopted a proliferative phenotype. The PEAs were also electrospun to yield nanoscale three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds with average fiber diameters ranging from 130 to 294nm. Immunoblotting studies suggested a potential increase in SMαA and calponin expression from HCASMCs cultured on 3-D fibrous scaffolds when compared to 2-D films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and immunofluorescence demonstrated the conjugation of transforming growth factor-β1 to the surface of the functional PEA through the pendant carboxylic acid groups. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PEAs containing aspartic acid are viable biomaterials for further investigation in vascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endothelial Cell Migration and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Are the Result of Loss of Breast Tissue Polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Amy; Cuevas, Ileana; Kenny, Paraic A; Miyake, Hiroshi; Mace, Kimberley; Ghajar, Cyrus; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina; Boudreau, Nancy

    2009-05-26

    Recruiting a new blood supply is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. In a three-dimensional model of breast carcinogenesis, disorganized, proliferative transformed breast epithelial cells express significantly higher expression of angiogenic genes compared with their polarized, growth-arrested nonmalignant counterparts. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by malignant cells enhanced recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) in heterotypic cocultures. Significantly, phenotypic reversion of malignant cells via reexpression of HoxD10, which is lost in malignant progression, significantly attenuated VEGF expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha}-independent fashion and reduced EC migration. This was due primarily to restoring polarity: forced proliferation of polarized, nonmalignant cells did not induce VEGF expression and EC recruitment, whereas disrupting the architecture of growth-arrested, reverted cells did. These data show that disrupting cytostructure activates the angiogenic switch even in the absence of proliferation and/or hypoxia and restoring organization of malignant clusters reduces VEGF expression and EC activation to levels found in quiescent nonmalignant epithelium. These data confirm the importance of tissue architecture and polarity in malignant progression.

  9. Fusible core molding for the fabrication of branched, perfusable, three-dimensional microvessels for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cristina; Sofla, Aarash; Zhang, Boyang; Nunes, Sara S; Radisic, Milica

    2013-03-01

    A novel method for fabrication of branched, tubular, perfusable microvessels for use in vascular tissue engineering is reported. A tubular, elastomeric, biodegradable scaffold is first fabricated via a new, double fusible injection molding technique that uses a ternary alloy with a low melting temperature, Field's metal, and paraffin as sacrificial components. A cylindrical core metal of 500 μm or lower dia-meter with the target branching scaffold geometry is first constructed, then the metal structure is coated with paraffin and, finally, the metal-paraffin construct is embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The paraffin layer is then removed by heating and replaced by a biodegradable elastomeric pre-polymer that is subsequently UV-cured inside the PDMS. Next, the metal core is melted away and the PDMS is removed to attain the branched tubular elastomeric biodegradable scaffold. Finally, it is also demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were able to spread on the surface of the scaffold and form a confluent monolayer, confirming the potential of this new technique for making engineered blood vessels.

  10. THE USE OF A NOVEL ALDEHYDE-FUNCTIONALIZED CHITOSAN HYDROGEL TO PREPARE POROUS TUBULAR SCAFFOLDS FOR VASCULAR TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P. Azevedo

    Full Text Available In this work, porous tubular scaffolds were prepared from a novel water soluble aldehyde-functionalized chitosan (ALDCHIT hydrogel, which was obtained by dissolving this chitosan derivative in water and using oxidized dextrose (OXDEXT as the crosslinking agent at different ALDCHIT:OXDEXT mole ratios (10:1, 10:2 and 10:4. By increasing the amount of OXDEXT in respect to ALDCHIT the hydrogels became more rigid and could absorb more than 200% of its weight in water. Since the ALDCHIT:OXDEXT 10:4 was the most stable hydrogel, its ability to form porous tubular scaffolds was investigated. The tubular scaffolds were prepared by the lyophilization method, where the orientation of the pores was controlled by exposing either the internal or the external surface of the frozen hydrogel during the sublimation step. When only the inner surface of the frozen hydrogel was exposed, tubular scaffolds with a highly porous lumen and a sealed outer surface were obtained, where the orientation of the pores, their sizes and interconnectivity seem to be optimum for vascular tissue engineering application.

  11. Co-electrospun blends of PU and PEG as potential biocompatible scaffolds for small-diameter vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heyun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Beisi Road, Shihezi 830002 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: fengyakai@yahoo.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-GKSS Research Centre, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China); Fang, Zichen; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-12-01

    A small-diameter vascular graft (inner diameter 4 mm) was fabricated from polyurethane (PU) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions by blend electrospinning technology. The fiber diameter decreased from 1023 {+-} 185 nm to 394 {+-} 106 nm with the increasing content of PEG in electrospinning solutions. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds showed randomly nanofibrous morphology, high porosity and well-interconnected porous structure. The hydrophilicity of these scaffolds had been improved significantly with the increasing contents of PEG. The mechanical properties of electrospun hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds were obviously different from that of PU scaffold, which was caused by plasticizing or hardening effect imparted by PEG composition. Under hydrated state, the hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated low mechanical performance due to the hydrophilic property of materials. Compared with dry PU/PEG scaffolds with the same content of PEG, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of hydrated PU/PEG scaffolds decreased significantly, while the elongation at break increased. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated a lower possibility of thrombi formation than blank PU scaffold in platelet adhesion test. The hemolysis assay illustrated that all scaffolds could act as blood contacting materials. To investigate further in vitro cytocompatibility, HUVECs were seeded on the scaffolds and cultured over 14 days. The cells could attach and proliferate well on the hybrid scaffolds than blank PU scaffold, and form a cell monolayer fully covering on the PU/PEG (80/20) hybrid scaffold surface. The results demonstrated that the electrospun hybrid PU/PEG tubular scaffolds possessed the special capacity with excellent hemocompatibility while simultaneously supporting extensive endothelialization with the 20 and 30% content of PEG in hybrid scaffolds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop small-diameter vascular grafts made of PU and PEG by electrospinning. Black

  12. A Nodular Type of Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu Ho; Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Byoung Suck; Joo, Jong Eun; Jung, Yoon Young; Cho, Young Kwon; An, Jin Kyung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Woo, Jung Joo [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystemic disorder that rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. We describe the MR imaging findings of a subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient that presented with a nontender, palpable soft tissue mass on the left buttock, which was confirmed after surgical excision. The MR images showed the presence of a subcutaneous mass that breached the adjacent fascia with an irregular outline and homogeneous, slightly higher signal intensity than the surrounding muscle as seen on a T2-weighted image and with homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. The lesion could not be differentiated from a sarcoma or a malignancy.

  13. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst</