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Sample records for subcutaneous tissue response

  1. Proinflammatory tissue response and recovery of adipokines during 4 days of subcutaneous large-pore microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    was originally designed for sampling of small molecules but recently the availability of catheters with large-pore membranes has made it possible to recover larger molecules such as adipokines. The present study investigated tissue response towards large-pore microdialysis catheters inserted into human SAT for 4......INTRODUCTION: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is increasingly being recognized as a highly active tissue secreting adipokines involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Microdialysis is a technique used for in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid from e.g. SAT. The technique......: Insertion of a large-pore microdialysis catheter into human SAT results in tissue trauma leading to changes in the interstitial concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and adiponectin....

  2. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  3. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

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    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  4. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement.

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    Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila de Oliveira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

  5. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

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    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  6. Human Subcutaneous Tissue Response to Glucose Sensors: Macrophages Accumulation Impact on Sensor Accuracy.

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    Rigla, Mercedes; Pons, Belén; Rebasa, Pere; Luna, Alexis; Pozo, Francisco Javier; Caixàs, Assumpta; Villaplana, Maria; Subías, David; Bella, Maria Rosa; Combalia, Neus

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose sensors have become a key component in type 1 diabetes management. However, their usability is limited by the impact of foreign body response (FBR) on their duration, reliability, and accuracy. Our study gives the first description of human acute and subacute s.c. response to glucose sensors, showing the changes observed in the sensor surface, the inflammatory cells involved in the FBR and their relationship with sensor performance. Twelve obese patients (seven type 2 diabetes) underwent two abdominal biopsies comprising the surrounding area where they had worn two glucose sensors: the first one inserted 7 days before and the second one 24 h before biopsy procedure. Samples were processed and studied to describe tissue changes by two independent pathologists (blind regarding sensor duration). Macrophages quantification was studied by immunohistochemistry methods in the area surrounding the sensor (CD68, CD163). Sensor surface changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Seven-day continuous glucose monitoring records were considered inaccurate when mean absolute relative difference was higher than 10%. Pathologists were able to correctly classify all the biopsies regarding sensor duration. Acute response (24 h) was characterized by the presence of neutrophils while macrophages were the main cell involved in subacute inflammation. The number of macrophages around the insertion hole was higher for less accurate sensors compared with those performing more accurately (32.6 ± 14 vs. 10.6 ± 1 cells/0.01 mm 2 ; P sensor-tissue interface is related with decrease in accuracy of the glucose measure.

  7. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...... was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P

  8. The Tissue Response and Degradation of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone/Poly(trimethylene-carbonate Scaffold in Subcutaneous Space of Mice

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    Tao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantage of controllability on the mechanical property and the degradation rates, electrospun PCL/PTMC nanofibrous scaffold could be appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. However, the tissue response and degradation of electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffold in vivo have never been evaluated in detail. So, electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffolds with different blend ratios were prepared in this study. Mice subcutaneous implantation showed that the continuous degradation of PCL/PTMC scaffolds induced a lasted macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction, which could be in favor of the tissue regeneration in graft.

  9. Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

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    Peppler, Willem T; Townsend, Logan K; Knuth, Carly M; Foster, Michelle T; Wright, David C

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. To test this, male C57BL/6 mice were provided access to voluntary wheel running (VWR) or remained as a cage control (SED) for 11 nights after iWAT removal via lipectomy (LIPX) or SHAM surgery. We found that SHAM and LIPX mice with access to VWR ran similar distances and had comparable reductions in body mass, increased food intake, and increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Further, VWR improved indexes of glucose homeostasis and insulin tolerance in both SHAM and LIPX mice. The lack of effect of LIPX in the response to VWR was not explained by compensatory increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue, or interscapular brown adipose tissue. Together, these data demonstrate that mice with and without iWAT have comparable adaptations to VWR, suggesting that iWAT may be dispensable for the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

  10. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    -cellular matrix (ECM) or estrogen. Methods Ten implants of each type were tested for 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. Histological assessment of connective tissue organization, inflammation, vascularization, and thickness of regenerated tissue was undertaken. Results All implants had a high degree of biocompatibility....... ECM-enriched implants had significantly higher inflammatory scores compared to pure implants at 3 weeks. At 8 weeks, neither of the parameters differed significantly. No trace of the implants remained. Conclusions The MPEG-PLGA is highly biocompatible, degrades quickly, and seems inert in the process...

  11. Primary Kaposi sarcoma of the subcutaneous tissue

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    Dezube Bruce J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of the subcutis by Kaposi sarcoma (KS occurs primarily when cutaneous KS lesions evolve into deep penetrating nodular tumors. Primary KS of the subcutaneous tissue is an exceptional manifestation of this low-grade vascular neoplasm. Case presentation We present a unique case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated KS manifesting primarily in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thigh in a 43-year-old male, which occurred without overlying visible skin changes or concomitant KS disease elsewhere. Radiological imaging and tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of KS. Conclusion This is the first documented case of primary subcutaneous KS occurring in the setting of AIDS. The differential diagnosis of an isolated subcutaneous lesion in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individual is broad, and requires both imaging and a histopathological diagnosis to guide appropriate therapy.

  12. Subcutaneous tissue flaps for hallux covering.

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    Vaienti, Luca; Urzola, Victor; Scotti, Andrea; Masetto, L

    2010-03-01

    With the understanding of the extensive vascular supply of the subcutaneous tissue, of its efficacy in the protection of the anatomical structures and of its capability of promoting the adequate functioning of very stressed regions of the human body, the use of subcutaneous adipose flaps has become a valid and sometimes the only reasonable therapeutic weapon in the treatment of small and medium-sized tissue loss. Such a defect represents a common complication of great toe injuries and surgery. Here subcutaneous flap reconstruction is proposed for the treatment of dorsal and medial soft tissue losses of the hallux complicated with infection. Two case are reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this application has not been reported in this anatomical site so far. The technique might be worth knowing both for orthopedic and plastic surgeons, as it may represent a safe, less invasive solution for most tegumentary problems of the dorso-medial side of the first ray.

  13. miRNAs in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M.; Davidsen, Peter K.; Vigelso, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. Methods The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose ...

  14. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sidossis, Labros S.; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT w...

  15. Secretion of autoimmune antibodies in the human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

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    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Thaller, Seth; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2018-01-01

    The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we show that the SAT generates autoimmune antibodies. During the development of obesity, reduced oxygen and consequent hypoxia and cell death lead to further release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, "self" protein antigens, cell-free DNA and lipids. All these stimulate class switch and the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies which have been described to be pathogenic. In addition to hypoxia, we have measured cell cytotoxicity and DNA damage mechanisms, which may also contribute to the release of "self" antigens in the SAT. All these processes are significantly elevated in the SAT as compared to the blood. We definitively found that fat-specific IgG antibodies are secreted by B cells in the SAT and that B cells express mRNA for the transcription factor T-bet and the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. Finally, the SAT also expresses RNA for cytokines known to promote Germinal Center formation, isotype class switch, and plasma cell differentiation. Our results show novel mechanisms for the generation of autoimmune antibody responses in the human SAT and allow the identification of new pathways to possibly manipulate in order to reduce systemic inflammation and autoantibody production in obese individuals.

  16. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

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    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  17. Divergent responses to thermogenic stimuli in BAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue from interleukin 18 and interleukin 18 receptor 1-deficient mice.

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    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Tovar, Sulay; González-Touceda, David; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C

    2015-12-10

    Brown and beige adipocytes recruitment in brown (BAT) or white adipose tissue, mainly in the inguinal fat pad (iWAT), meet the need for temperature adaptation in cold-exposure conditions and protect against obesity in face of hypercaloric diets. Using interleukin18 (Il18) and Il18 receptor 1- knockout (Il18r1-KO) mice, this study aimed to investigate the role of IL18 signaling in BAT and iWAT activation and thermogenesis under both stimuli. Il18-KO, extremely dietary obesity-prone as previously described, failed to develop diet-induced thermogenesis as assessed by BAT and iWAT Ucp1 mRNA levels. Overweight when fed standard chow but not HFD, HFD-fed Il18r1-KO mice exhibited increased iWAT Ucp1 gene expression. Energy expenditure was reduced in pre-obese Il18r1-KO mice and restored upon HFD-challenge. Cold exposure lead to similar results; Il18r1-KO mice were protected against acute body temperature drop, displaying a more brown-like structure, alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene expression in iWAT than WT controls. Opposite effects were observed in Il18-KO mice. Thus, Il18 and Il18r1 genetic ablation disparate effects on energy homeostasis are likely mediated by divergent BAT responses to thermogenic stimuli as well as iWAT browning. These results suggest that a more complex receptor-signaling system mediates the IL18 adipose-tissue specific effects in energy expenditure.

  18. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  19. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

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    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  20. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

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    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  1. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  2. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

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    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  3. Temperature of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue during the application of aerosols in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Andre de Oliveira Teixeira; Cassio Noronha Martins; Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva; Alexandro Marques Tozetti; Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz; Luis Ulisses Signori

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the thermal changes of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues exposed to different aerosols. Thirty-six adults Wistar rats were arranged in two treatment groups, one exposed to methyl salicylate (GSM; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous) and the other exposed to diclofenac diethylammonium (GDD; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous) aerosols. Five jets were applied for one-second through an apparatus to reduce spray dispersion (3 cmdiameter) in the lateral left thigh of the animals....

  4. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

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    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  5. Biocompatibility of a new nanomaterial based on calcium silicate implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

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    Petrović Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate rat connective tissue response to a new calcium silicate system 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after implantation. Twenty Wistar albino male rats received two tubes half-filled with a new calcium silicate system (NCSS or MTA in subcutaneous tissue. The empty half of the tubes served as controls. Five animals were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and samples of the subcutaneous tissue around implanted material were submitted to histological analysis. The intensity of inflammation was evaluated based on the number of inflammatory cells present. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA and Holm Sidak's multiple comparison tests. Mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was observed after 7, 15 and 30 days around a NCSS while mild inflammatory reaction was detected after 60 days of implantation. In the MTA group, mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was found after 7 and 15 days while mild inflammatory reaction was present after 30 and 60 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammatory reactions between the tested materials and control groups in any experimental period (ANOVA p>0.05. Regarding the intensity of inflammatory reactions at different experimental periods, a statistically significant difference was observed between 7 and 30 days, 7 and 60 days and 15 to 60 days for both materials. For the controls, a statistically significant difference was found between 7 and 60 days and 15 and 60 days of the experiment (Holm Sidak < p 0.001. Subcutaneous tissue of rats showed good tolerance to a new calcium silicate system. Inflammatory reaction was similar to that caused by MTA. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  6. Metformin Mitigates Fibrosis and Glucose Intolerance Induced by Doxorubicin in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

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    Luana A. Biondo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DX is a chemotherapeutic drug that is used in clinical practice that promotes deleterious side effects in non-tumor tissues such as adipose tissue. We showed that DX leads to extensive damage in adipose tissue via a disruption in 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and PPAR-gamma signaling. Thus, we investigated whether co-treatment with the biguanide drug metformin (MET could prevent the side effects of DX through the activation of AMPK in adipose tissue. The goal of the present study was to verify the effects of DX and adjuvant MET treatment in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and to determine whether MET could protect against chemotherapy-induced side effects. C57/BL6 mice received DX hydrochloride (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 times per week for 2 weeks (DX, concomitantly or not, with MET administration (300 mg/kg oral daily (DX + MET. The control group (CTRL was pair-fed according to the food consumption of the DX group. After euthanasia, adipose tissue fat pads were collected, and SAT was extracted so that adipocytes could be isolated. Glucose uptake was then measured, and histological, gene, and protein analyses were performed. One-way analysis of variance was also performed, and significance was set to 5%. DX reduced retroperitoneal fat mass and epididymal pads and decreased glycemia. In cultured primary subcutaneous adipocytes, mice in the DX group had lower glucose uptake when stimulated with insulin compared with mice in the CTRL group. Adipocytes in the DX group exhibited a reduced area, perimeter, and diameter; decreased adiponectin secretion; and decreased fatty acid synthase gene expression. SAT from MET-treated mice also showed a reduction in collagen deposition. Treatment with MET prevented fibrosis and restored glucose uptake in SAT after insulin stimulation, yet the drug was unable to prevent other side effects of DX such as tissue loss and inflammatory response.

  7. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

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    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  8. Temperature of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue during the application of aerosols in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre de Oliveira Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the thermal changes of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues exposed to different aerosols. Thirty-six adults Wistar rats were arranged in two treatment groups, one exposed to methyl salicylate (GSM; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous and the other exposed to diclofenac diethylammonium (GDD; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous aerosols. Five jets were applied for one-second through an apparatus to reduce spray dispersion (3 cmdiameter in the lateral left thigh of the animals. Temperatures were measured every minute (min. during 30 min., with a digital thermometer. In the skin tissue the sensor was positioned manually, in the subcutaneous tissue it was surgically inserted through the rear face and positioned in the lateral thigh. The skin temperature has homogeneously reduced in both groups. In the subcutaneous tissue the GDD has induced hypothermia from the 2nd to 20th min., the lowest temperature was recorded on the 7th min. (-3.6 ± 0.2ºC in relation to basal. Lowering the temperature by GSM took place from the 1st to 21st min, and the lowest temperature occurred on the 1st min (-9.7 ± 0.5ºC in relation to basal. In the three initial minutes the GSM had temperatures 25, 10 and 5% lower than the GDD. Aerosols have induced hypothermia in the tissues, while the GSM has decreased faster and reached lower values of temperature shown in the subcutaneous tissue.

  9. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  10. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelnes, R.

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 μCi 133-Xenon in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive indicator. After reconstructive vascular surgery, the 24-hour blood flow pattern normalized although the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index did not come within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructuve hyperamia seems improper, at least in a long-term context, normalization of preoperative ischaemia is a more correct notation. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal SBF was calculated to 10%. The method thus seems apt as a monitor in medical therapy for occlusive arterial disease. Changes of λ has, however, to be considered in each study. 94 refs. (EG)

  11. Anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, B; Barton, F E

    1987-08-01

    Dissections on 8 fresh and 10 embalmed cadavers were used to determine the anatomy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the trunk and extremities. These dissections, along with CT scans, confirmed Gray's original description of the subcutaneous tissue consisting of a superficial and deep adipose layer. The superficial adipose layer is contained within organized, compact fascial septa. The deep adipose layer demonstrated regional variations with respect to its fascial framework, but was contained within a relatively loose, less organized, and more widely spaced fascial septa. We observed that the adipose layers are partitioned by a discrete subcutaneous fascia which fuses with the underlying muscle fascia at particular anatomic locations. The deep layer is thus contained by the subcutaneous fascia above and the muscle fascia below to form what we termed the deep adipose compartments. The deep adipose compartments contributed significantly to overall adipose thickness, are bilateral, and are found in the abdomen and paralumbar and gluteal-thigh regions.

  12. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations......: the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  13. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    in the tomographic reconstructions and the amount of drug in each tissue class was quantified. With a scan time of about 45min per sample, and a robust segmentation it was possible to analyze differences in the spatial drug distribution between several similar injections. It was studied how the drug distribution...

  14. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  15. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  16. Investigation of the mechanisms that influence the accretion of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms that differ between breeds of cattle and their ability to deposit intramuscular adipose tissue is imperative to profitable beef production. Thus, the interactions among breeds, metabolic substrates and specific hormones in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues were obtained from 10 Angus and 9 Santa Gertrudis steers immediately postmortem. The adipose tissues were incubated for 2 h and 48 h with and without 1 mU/ml insulin and 30 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) to measure the incorporation of 14 C-labeled acetate and glucose into lipid fractions. At the same chronological age, Angus steers had a more youthful lean maturity score, higher USDA marbling scores and higher USDA quality grades than carcasses from Santa Gertrudis steers

  17. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Cunningham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW gain after feed restriction and realimentation. We compared adipose samples from cows with greater gain based on average daily gain (ADG during realimentation with samples from cows with lesser gain. Specifically, there were four comparisons including two comparing the high and low gain animals across each feeding period (feed restriction and realimentation and two that compared differences in feed restriction and realimentation across high or low gain classifications. Using microarray analysis, we provide a set of differentially expressed genes identified between the high and low gain at both periods of nutrient restriction and realimentation. These data identify multiple differentially expressed genes between these two phenotypes across both nutritional environments. Keywords: Beef cows, Subcutaneous fat, Transcriptome

  18. The effect of irradiation on the subcutaneous fatty layer and the perirectal tissue by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that the subcutaneous fatty layer is affected by irradiation, the available reports have not been able to find out yet. While, it is reported that the intrapelvic fat increases in volume after whole pelvic irradiation. This paper report a study about the effect of irradiation on subcutaneous fatty layer and intrapelvic fat. The subjects studied were 20 cases treated by whole pelvic irradiation. The x-ray CT film was used to measure the subcutaneous fatty layer and the intrapelvic fat. Three slices, the lower end of sacro-iliac joint, upper end of the femoral head and upper rim of the pubic symphysis, were chosen as the cross section level, and the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer on 6 points of the body and the presacral space (PS) were measured. Irradiation group was followed by measuring the thickness of fatty layer; before irradiation, 1 month, 3 or 4 months, 6 or 7 months and 12 months after irradiation. At the three of four points, which are included within the irradiation area, the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer tended to increase after irradiation, though it showed increase or decrease at each period. This tendency was prominent at the lower than the upper slice of the pelvis. The other points, which are out of the irradiation field, showed no significant change and some of them even showed the tendency of decrease. Fatty layer of the presacral space tended to increase following irradiation, but there was no correlation with the irradiation dose. It is considered that the injury of subcutaneous tissue by irradiation results in the disturbance of blood flow and then it accelerates deposition of fat to the irradiated area. (author)

  19. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen; Papich, Mark G; Howard, Antwain; Long, Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Green, Sherril

    2013-03-01

    As part of an enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic study, concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (metabolite) were measured in various tissues (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen) collected from treated (subcutaneous delivery, n = 3; intramuscular delivery, n = 3; untreated controls, n = 2) adult female Xenopus laevis by using HPLC. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after administration by either route and readily diffused into all sampled tissues. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were present in the tissue samples collected at 8 h. The highest average tissue concentrations for enrofloxacin were found in kidney, with the lowest concentrations in liver. Ciprofloxacin tissue concentrations paralleled but were always lower than those of enrofloxacin for all time points and tissues except brain and kidney. These results, together with previously published pharmacokinetic data and known minimal inhibitory concentrations of common pathogenic bacteria, provide a strong evidence-based rationale for choosing enrofloxacin to treat infectious diseases in X. laevis.

  20. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  2. Elevation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and its downstream mediators in subcutaneous foreign body capsule tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Allen G; Quinn, Matthew J; Siddiqui, Yasmin; Wood, Michael D; Federiuk, Isaac F; Duman, Heather M; Ward, W Kenneth

    2007-08-01

    Foreign body encapsulation represents a chronic fibrotic response and has been a major obstacle that reduces the useful life of implanted biomedical devices. The precise mechanism underlying such an encapsulation is still unknown. We hypothesized that, considering its central role in many other fibrotic conditions, transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) may play an important role during the formation of foreign body capsule (FBC). In the present study, we implanted mock sensors in rats subcutaneously and excised FBC samples at day 7, 21, and 48-55 postimplantation. The most abundant TGFbeta isoform in all tissues was TGFbeta1, which was expressed minimally in control tissue. The expression of both TGFbeta1 RNA and protein was significantly increased in FBC tissues at all time points, with the highest level in day 7 FBC. The number of cells stained for phosphorylated Smad2, an indication of activated TGFbeta signaling, paralleled the expression of TGFbeta. A similar dynamic change was also observed in the numbers of FBC myofibroblasts, which in response to TGFbeta, differentiate from quiescent fibroblasts and synthesize collagen. Type I collagen, the most prominent downstream target of TGFbeta in fibrosis, was found in abundance in the FBC, especially during the latter time periods. We suggest that TGFbeta plays an important role in the FBC formation. Inhibition of TGFbeta signaling could be a promising strategy in the prevention of FBC formation, thereby extending the useful life of subcutaneous implants.

  3. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  4. Omega-6 Fat Supplementation Alters Lipogenic Gene Expression in Bovine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Pratt, Scott L.; Pavan, Enrique; Rekaya, Romdhane; Duckett., Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to rodents, adipose tissue serves as the major site of lipogenesis and storage reservoir for excess dietary energy in cattle. Research in rodents shows that adding corn oil (57% C18:2 n-6) to the diet alters lipogenesis enhancing deposition of omega-6 fatty acids. This study examines changes in lipogenic gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue from eighteen steers fed increasing levels of dietary corn oil [0 (NONE), 0.31 kg/d (MED) and 0.62 kg/d (HI)] using two platforms, q...

  5. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  6. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... adipose tissue at a specific site measured by ultrasound, is used in the pig industry to assess adiposity and inform management decisions that have an impact on reproduction, food conversion performance and sow longevity. The measurement site, called "P2", is used throughout the industry. We propose...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...

  7. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  8. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  9. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine; Lohmann, Tobias; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  10. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lohmann, Tobias [Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt, Dresden (Germany); Schön, Michael R. [Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dietrich, Arne [Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan [Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB AdiposityDiseases, Junior Research Group 2 “Animal Models of Obesity”, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  11. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  12. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  13. Proteome dataset of subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from late pregnant dairy cows during summer heat stress and winter seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zachut

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue has a central role in the regulation of metabolism in dairy cows, and many proteins expressed in this tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress (Peinado et al., 2012 [1]. Environmental heat stress is one of the main stressors limiting production in dairy cattle (Fuquay, 1981; West, 2003 [2,3], and there is a complex interaction between heat stress and the transition period from late pregnancy to onset of lactation, which is manifested in heat-stressed late-gestation cows (Tao and Dahl, 2013 [4]. We recently defined the proteome of adipose tissue in peripartum dairy cows, identifying 586 proteins of which 18.9% were differentially abundant in insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive adipose tissue (Zachut, 2015 [5]. That study showed that proteomic techniques constitute a valuable tool for identifying novel biomarkers in adipose tissue that are related to metabolic adaptation to stress in dairy cows. The objective of the present work was to examine the adipose tissue proteome under thermo-neutral or seasonal heat stress conditions in late pregnant dairy cows. We have collected subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from 10 late pregnant dairy cows during summer heat stress and from 8 late pregnant dairy cows during winter season, and identified and quantified 1495 proteins in the adipose tissues. This dataset of adipose tissue proteome from dairy cows adds novel information on the variety of proteins that are abundant in this tissue during late pregnancy under thermo-neutral as well as heat stress conditions. Differential abundance of 107 (7.1% proteins was found between summer and winter adipose. These results are discussed in our recent research article (Zachut et al., 2017 [6].

  14. Subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ryan W; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Ridge, Tonya K; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-12-01

    Canine obesity leads to shortened life span and increased disease incidence. Adipose tissue depots are known to have unique metabolic and gene expression profiles in rodents and humans, but few comparisons of depot gene expression have been performed in the dog. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes and enriched functional pathways between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose of lean and obese dogs to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity in the dog. Because no depot × body weight status interactions were identified in the microarray data, depot differences were the primary focus. A total of 946 and 703 transcripts were differentially expressed (FDR P metabolism and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. We have identified a core set of genes differentially expressed between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue in dogs regardless of body weight. These genes contribute to depot-specific differences in immune function, extracellular matrix remodeling and lysosomal function and may contribute to the physiological differences noted between depots. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Interstitial Matrix Prevents Therapeutic Ultrasound From Causing Inertial Cavitation in Tumescent Subcutaneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakis, John P; Rouch, Joshua; Huynh, Nhan; Dubrovsky, Genia; Dunn, James C Y; Putterman, Seth

    2018-01-01

    We search for cavitation in tumescent subcutaneous tissue of a live pig under application of pulsed, 1-MHz ultrasound at 8 W cm -2 spatial peak and pulse-averaged intensity. We find no evidence of broadband acoustic emission indicative of inertial cavitation. These acoustic parameters are representative of those used in external-ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty and in physical therapy and our null result brings into question the role of cavitation in those applications. A comparison of broadband acoustic emission from a suspension of ultrasound contrast agent in bulk water with a suspension injected subcutaneously indicates that the interstitial matrix suppresses cavitation and provides an additional mechanism behind the apparent lack of in-vivo cavitation to supplement the absence of nuclei explanation offered in the literature. We also find a short-lived cavitation signal in normal, non-tumesced tissue that disappears after the first pulse, consistent with cavitation nuclei depletion in vivo. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  17. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: a secondary level biocompatibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, P; Manjunath, M K; Kuriakose, E S

    2013-01-01

    This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue stores across lipodystrophy types shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Little, Cynthia Harper; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by redistributed subcutaneous fat stores. We previously quantified subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the legs of two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, respectively). We now extend the MRI analysis across the whole body of patients with different forms of lipodystrophy. We studied five subcutaneous fat stores (supraclavicular, abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf) and the abdominal visceral fat stores in 10, 2, 1, 1 and 2 female subjects with, respectively, FPLD2, FPLD3, HIV-related partial lipodystrophy (HIVPL), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and in six normal control subjects. Compared with normal controls, FPLD2 subjects had significantly increased supraclavicular fat, with decreased abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf subcutaneous fat. FPLD3 subjects had increased supraclavicular and abdominal subcutaneous fat, with less severe reductions in gluteal, thigh and calf fat compared to FPLD2 subjects. The repartitioning of fat in the HIVPL subject closely resembled that of FPLD3 subjects. APL and CGL subjects had reduced upper body, gluteal and thigh subcutaneous fat; the APL subject had increased, while CGL subjects had decreased subcutaneous calf fat. Visceral fat was markedly increased in FPLD2 and APL subjects. Semi-automated MRI-based adipose tissue quantification indicates differences between various lipodystrophy types in these studied clinical cases and is a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenomic analysis of genetic metabolic disorders. Further studies with a larger sample size are essential for confirming these preliminary findings

  19. Three-dimensional analysis and classification of arteries in the skin and subcutaneous adipofascial tissue by computer graphics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H; Minabe, T; Imanishi, N

    1998-09-01

    To develop new types of surgical flaps that utilize portions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (e.g., a thin flap or an adipofascial flap), three-dimensional investigation of the vasculature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue has been anticipated. In the present study, total-body arterial injection and three-dimensional imaging of the arteries by computer graphics were performed. The full-thickness skin and subcutaneous adipofascial tissue samples, which were obtained from fresh human cadavers injected with radio-opaque medium, were divided into three distinct layers. Angiograms of each layer were introduced into a personal computer to construct three-dimensional images. On a computer monitor, each artery was shown color-coded according to the three portions: the deep adipofascial layer, superficial adipofascial layer, and dermis. Three-dimensional computerized images of each artery in the skin and subcutaneous tissue revealed the components of each vascular plexus and permitted their classification into six types. The distribution of types in the body correlated with the tissue mobility of each area. Clinically, appreciation of the three-dimensional structure of the arteries allowed the development of several new kinds of flaps.

  20. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI...

  1. Glyceroneogenesis is inhibited through HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammation in human subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroyer, Stéphanie; Vatier, Camille; Kadiri, Sarah; Quette, Joëlle; Chapron, Charles; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Glyceroneogenesis, a metabolic pathway that participates during lipolysis in the recycling of free fatty acids to triglycerides into adipocytes, contributes to the lipid-buffering function of adipose tissue. We investigated whether glyceroneogenesis could be affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) responsible or not for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. We treated explants obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) depots from lean individuals. We observed that the dyslipidemic PIs nelfinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir, but not the lipid-neutral PI atazanavir, increased lipolysis and decreased glyceroneogenesis, leading to an increased release of fatty acids from SAT but not from VAT. At the same time, dyslipidemic PIs decreased the amount of perilipin and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in SAT but not in VAT. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway, counteracted PI-induced increased inflammation and decreased glyceroneogenesis. IL-6 (100 ng) inhibited the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, in SAT but not in VAT. Our data show that dyslipidemic but not lipid-neutral PIs decreased glyceroneogenesis as a consequence of PI-induced increased inflammation in SAT that could have an affect on adipocytes and/or macrophages. These results add a new link between fat inflammation and increased fatty acids release and suggest a greater sensitivity of SAT than VAT to PI-induced inflammation. PMID:21068005

  2. Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HuiLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP and Triglyceride (TG (LAT vs High ASP and TG (HAT. Subcutaneous (SC and omental (OM adipose tissues (n = 21 were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined. Methods LAT and HAT groups were matched in age, obesity, insulin, and glucose, and had similar expression of insulin-related genes (InsR, IRS-1. ASP related genes tended to be increased in the HAT group and were correlated (factor B, adipsin, complement C3, p Results HAT adipose tissue demonstrated increased lipid related genes for storage (CD36, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD1, FASN, and LPL, lipolysis (HSL, CES1, perilipin, fatty acid binding proteins (FABP1, FABP3 and adipocyte differentiation markers (CEBPα, CEBPβ, PPARγ. By contrast, oxidation related genes were decreased (AMPK, UCP1, CPT1, FABP7. HAT subjects had increased anti-inflammatory genes TGFB1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and TIMP4 while proinflammatory PIG7 and MMP2 were also significantly increased; all genes, p Conclusion Taken together, the profile of C5L2 receptor, ASP gene expression and metabolic factors in adipose tissue from morbidly obese HAT subjects suggests a compensatory response associated with the increased plasma ASP and TG.

  3. The role of subcutaneous tissue stiffness on microneedle performance in a representative in vitro model of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkeji, K; Todd, S; Dawidowska, I; Barrett, S D; Akhtar, R

    2017-11-10

    There has been growing interest in the mechanical behaviour of skin due to the rapid development of microneedle devices for drug delivery applications into skin. However, most in vitro experimentation studies that are used to evaluate microneedle performance do not consider the biomechanical properties of skin or that of the subcutaneous layers. In this study, a representative experimental model of skin was developed which was comprised of subcutaneous and muscle mimics. Neonatal porcine skin from the abdominal and back regions was used, with gelatine gels of differing water content (67, 80, 88 and 96%) to represent the subcutaneous tissue, and a type of ballistic gelatine, Perma-Gel®, as a muscle mimic. Dynamic nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of each of these layers. A custom-developed impact test rig was used to apply dense polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microneedles to the skin models in a controlled and repeatable way with quantification of the insertion force and velocity. Image analysis methods were used to measure penetration depth and area of the breach caused by microneedle penetration following staining and optical imaging. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that the tissue mimics matched expected values for subcutaneous and muscle tissue, and that the compliance of the subcutaneous mimics increased linearly with water content. The abdominal skin was thinner and less stiff as compared to back skin. The maximum force decreased with gel water content in the abdominal skin but not in the back skin. Overall, larger and deeper perforations were found in the skin models with increasing water content. These data demonstrate the importance of subcutaneous tissue on microneedle performance and the need for representative skin models in microneedle technology development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The regulation of HSL and LPL expression by DHT and flutamide in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; McTernan, P G; Harte, A L; Barnett, A H; Kumar, S

    2002-05-01

    Clinical observations suggest a role for testosterone in the accumulation of central adiposity and with an associated increased risk of disease. To date, no human study has analysed the role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on adipose tissue mass regulation in vitro. This study investigated the role of DHT and androgen receptors (AR) in the regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis by examining the key enzymes hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) respectively. Isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes (Scad) (n = 15) were treated with either DHT (10(-7)-10(-9) m), an antiandrogen, flutamide (FLT: 10(-7)-10(-9) m) or a combination of DHT (10(-7)-10(-9) m) with FLT (10(-8) m). Relative protein expression of HSL, LPL and AR was determined. In Scad, DHT inhibited HSL expression maximally at 10(-9) m (0.7 +/- 0.4**; p DHT10(-9) m (2.22 +/- 0.48*; p DHT + FLT compared with DHT alone. Androgen receptor expression studies showed an inverse correlation with DHT, whereas DHT + FLT reduced AR expression. These studies indicate that DHT may alter HSL and LPL expression, whereas only LPL expression appears mediated by AR. These findings suggest a physiological role for DHT in the control of adipose tissue mass in women, and indicate that androgens may also play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism.

  5. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gameren, Ingrid I.; Hazenberg, BPC; Bijzet, J.; van Rijswijk, M.H.

    Objective. Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is a simple and fast method for detecting systemic amyloidosis; however, the sensitivity of this approach remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and the

  7. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease of bone, subcutaneous tissue and paranasal sinus mucosa with a review of its pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Angela J.; Parisien, May; Feldman, Frieda; Young-In Lee, Francis

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting in a 36-year-old man with lesions of bone, subcutaneous tissue of the arm and maxillary sinus mucosa unassociated with lymphadenopathy or systemic symptoms. These lesions appeared metachronously within a 6-month period. The diagnostic light microscopic and immunohistochemical findings and pathogenesis of this interesting disease are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of alendronic- and undecylenic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of rosiglitazone to subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Katayoun; Tod, Sarah E; Leung, Donna; Nicholson, Kenton E; Andreu, Irene; Buchwalder, Christian; Schmitt, Veronika; Häfeli, Urs O; Gray, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a state of positive energy balance where excess white adipose tissue accumulates to the detriment of metabolic health. Improving adipocyte function with systemic administration of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improves metabolic outcomes in obesity, however TZD use is limited clinically due to undesirable side effects. Here we evaluate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a tool to target rosiglitazone (Rosi) specifically to adipose tissue. Results show Rosi can be adsorbed to MNPs (Rosi-MNPs) with hydrophobic coatings for which we present binding and release kinetics. Rosi adsorbed to MNPs retained the ability to induce PPARγ target gene expression in cells. Biodistribution analysis of radiolabeled Rosi-MNPs revealed a fat-implanted magnet significantly enhanced localization of Rosi to the targeted adipose tissue when administered by subcutaneous injection to obese mice. We propose MNPs for targeted delivery of anti-diabetic agents to superficially located subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound intensity on subcutaneous tissue temperature and ulnar nerve conduction velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J F

    1985-02-01

    Twenty subjects completed 5 min. periods of sonation, at each of six US intensities, over the ulnar nerve in the proximal forearm. All posttreatment NCV's differed significantly from the respective pretreatment velocities. The immediate posttreatment NCV associated with placebo US was significantly (p less than 0.01) less than that observed immediately pretreatment (2.81 m/s), while the five clinical US intensities produced significantly increased immediate posttreatment velocities: 0.5 w/cm2 (2.23 m/s) at (p less than 0.05), and 1.0 w/cm2 (2.78 m/s), 1.5 w/cm2 (3.15 m/s), 2.0 w/cm2 (4.47 m/s) and 2.5 w/cm2 (2.97 m/s) at (p less than 0.01). The posttreatment velocities associated with the five clinical intensities were all significantly greater (p less than 0.01) than that associated with placebo US. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures were directly related to the intensity of US. Not until US intensity had reached 1.5 w/cm2 did the heating effect of US negate the cooling effect of the US transmission gel, to produce significantly increased subcutaneous tissue temperatures after 5 min. sonation. The decreased ulnar motor NCV's associated with placebo US are attributed to the cooling effect of the US transmission gel. The increased ulnar motor NCV's associated with the clinical intensities of US are attributed to the deep heating effect of US. The breakdown of this linear relationship at 2.5 w/cm2 intensity suggests that at this point heating on the nerve and/or the mechanical effects of US were of sufficient magnitude so as to limit the increase in conduction velocity. Sonation over an area of approximately 4.5 times the soundhead for 5 min., along the proximal forearm, at clinical intensities did not have a bipositive effect on motor NCV.

  10. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  11. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer; RS (RealSeal Sealer; RP (RealSeal Primer; CG (control group - empty tube. After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05. There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031. RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04. CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content.

  12. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  13. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...... intensity, and for another 60 min during post-exercise recovery. The results show that there are not significant sex differences with respect to the steady-state fatty acid and glycerol mobilizations neither during resting condition nor during exercise....... and glycerol from the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe-clearance technique in 16 healthy, young normal weight men and women during rest, during 1 h of exercise at moderate...

  14. Dose response of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe Sørensen; Kipnes, M S; Harley, R E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of the recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes, with respect to reductions in fasting, postprandial and 11-h serum glucose profiles....

  15. CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecke, Sheila B; Morsch, Débora M; Spritzer, Poli M

    2011-11-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypertension has been linked to androgen excess and insulin resistance. Aromatase, an enzyme encoded by the CYP19 gene, affects androgen metabolism and estrogen synthesis, influencing the androgen to estrogen balance. We characterized CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with PCOS and normal controls and evaluated the association between subcutaneous fat CYP19 mRNA, circulating hormone levels, and blood pressure. This case-control study was carried out with 31 PCOS patients and 27 BMI-matched normotensive non-hirsute women with regular cycles. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, collection of blood samples, and adipose tissue biopsy (28 PCOS and 19 controls). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg. PCOS patients were divided into normotensive and hypertensive. Main outcome measures were serum estrogen and androgen levels, estrogen-to-androgen ratio, and CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous CYP19 mRNA was higher in hypertensive PCOS than in control and normotensive PCOS women (p = 0.014). Estrogen-to-androgen ratio was lower in hypertensive PCOS than controls (p androgen ratio ≤ 0.06 (median for the three groups) was observed in 91% of hypertensive PCOS women, vs. 37% and 61% in the control and normotensive PCOS groups (p = 0.011). CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous fat of PCOS patient correlated positively with systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009). Androgen excess and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in the molecular mechanisms that activate aromatase mRNA transcription in abdominal fat tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    and visceral adipose tissues of goat, focusing on proteins involved in immune and inflammatory response. A 2-D LC-MS/MS approach followed by cluster analysis shows a clear distinction between subcutaneous and visceral fat tissue proteomes, and qualitative RT-PCR based analysis of 30 potential adipokines...... further confirmed the individual expression patterns of 26 of these, including 7 whose mRNA expression was observed for the first time in adipose tissues. This study provides a first description of adipose tissue proteomes in goat, and presents observations on novel proteins related to metabolic...... inflammation, detoxification and coagulation pathways, as well as regulation of body fat mobilization in dairy animals. These findings are of particular interest in farm animals where health and production traits are important for animal welfare and for economic gains. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  17. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Castro, Cláudio Campi de; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer

    2014-01-01

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure

  18. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Alexandre Costa [Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Cláudio Campi de; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A. [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer, E-mail: msbittencourt@mail.harvard.edu [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure.

  19. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003–2015

    OpenAIRE

    IGISSINOV, Nurbek; KULMIRZAYEVA, Dariyana; BILYALOVA, Zarina; AKPOLATOVA, Gulnur; MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. Methods: This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003–2015. Results: The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. T...

  20. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive...... within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructive hyperaemia seems improper, at least in a long-term...

  1. Changes of noradrenergic activity and lipolysis in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of hypo- and hyperthyroid patients: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvidkova, Jara; Haluzik, Martin; Bartak, Vladimir; Dostalova, Ivana; Vlcek, Petr; Racek, Pavel; Taus, Michal; Behanova, Magdalena; Svacina, Stepan; Alesci, Salvatore; Pacak, Karel

    2004-06-01

    Thyroid function plays an important role in the regulation of overall metabolic rate and lipid metabolism. However, it is uncertain whether thyroid hormones directly affect lipolysis in adipose tissue and to what extent those changes contribute to overall metabolic phenotype. Our study was designed, using the microdialysis technique, to determine basal and isoprenaline-stimulated local lipolysis and to determine local concentrations of lipolysis-regulating catecholamines in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 12 patients with hypothyroidism, 6 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 12 healthy control subjects. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in hypothyroid subjects were significantly higher than in the control and hyperthyroid groups. In contrast, systemic, adipose NE levels in hypothyroid patients were decreased relative to controls. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, resulted in four-fold higher adipose NE levels. Basal lipolysis measured by glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue was significantly attenuated in hypothyroid patients and markedly increased in hyperthyroid patients in comparison with the control group. In addition to differences in basal lipolysis, hypothyroidism resulted in attenuated, and hyperthyroidism in enhanced, lipolytic response to local stimulation with beta(1,2)-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. These results demonstrate that lipolysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is strongly modulated by thyroid function. We suggest that thyroid hormones regulate lipolysis primarily by affecting local NE concentration and/or adrenergic postreceptor signaling.

  2. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal...... adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... after weight loss, Pobese subjects, weight...

  3. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  4. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle...... and adipose tissue, and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. Research Design and Methods. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62-83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25-32 years......) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO...

  5. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  6. Host inflammatory response to polypropylene implants: insights from a quantitative immunohistochemical and birefringence analysis in a rat subcutaneous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prudente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham. The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment; one unstained (birefringence evaluation and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 (collagen metabolism and CD-31 (angiogenesis. The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002. After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001 immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06 and IL-1 (p=0.08. After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010 and TNF (p=0.016 for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010 for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018. Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively. Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization.

  7. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that the postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increase is accompanied by capillary recruitment in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the postprandial capillary recruitment in adipose tissue is affected in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight type 2 diabetic overweight male....... No significant changes were found in the ATBF or in capillary recruitment in the type 2 diabetic subjects. There was no significant blood flow or microvascular blood volume changes in forearm skeletal muscle in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: After an oral glucose load, the abdominal ATBF and microvascular...... blood volume changes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are impaired in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched healthy subjects....

  8. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  9. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Habitual dietary intake of fatty acids are associated with leptin gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of patients without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hosein; Samadi, Mohammad; Yuzbashian, Emad; Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshafrooz, Afsoon; Mirmiran, Parvin; Khalaj, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by Real-Time PCR. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and insulin, energy-adjusted dietary intake of SFA was positively and MUFA and n-3 fatty acids were negatively associated with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues leptin gene expression. Besides, a significant negative association of PUFA, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids with leptin mRNA from visceral adipose tissue were observed. In order to better interpretations of the results, the participants were allocated two groups including non-obese (BMI fatty acids had a negative association with visceral leptin gene expression. Habitual intake of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, suggesting an important role of quality and quantity of fatty acids intake in adipose tissue to regulate leptin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced mitogenesis in stromal vascular cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Wagyu compared with those of Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S; Fu, X; Liang, X; Zhu, M J; Jiang, Z; Parish, S M; Dodson, M V; Zan, L; Du, M

    2015-03-01

    Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling and lower subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with Angus cattle. However, mechanisms for differences in adipose deposition are unknown. The objective of this paper was to evaluate breed differences in the structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipogenesis, and mitogenesis of stromal vascular (SV) cells between Wagyu and Angus cattle. Subcutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from 5 Wagyu (BW = 302 ± 9 kg) and 5 Angus (BW = 398 ± 12 kg) heifers at 12 mo of age, and samples were divided into 3 pieces for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and harvest of SV cells. Adipogenesis of SV cells was assessed by the expression of adipogenic markers and Oil Red-O staining, while mitogenesis was evaluated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium dromide) test, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB; AKT). Based on histological analysis, Wagyu had larger adipocytes compared with Angus. At the tissue level, protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in Wagyu was much lower compared with that of Angus. Similarly, a lower mRNA expression of PPARG was found in Wagyu SV cells. No significant difference was observed for the zinc finger protein 423 (ZNF423) expression between Wagyu and Angus. As assessed by Oil Red-O staining, Wagyu SV cells possessed a notable trend of lower adipogenic capability. Interestingly, higher mitogenic ability was discovered in Wagyu SV cells, which was associated with an elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. There was no difference in AKT phosphorylation of SV cells between Wagyu and Angus. Moreover, exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) enhanced mitogenesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of SV cells to a greater degree in Angus compared with that in Wagyu. Expression of transforming growth factor β 3 (TGFB3) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in Wagyu SV

  12. The double isotope technique for in vivo determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for xenon in human subcutaneous adipose tissue--an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A; Bülow, J

    1985-01-01

    the partition coefficient found by the double isotope technique, significantly lower values are obtained than if the in vitro determined coefficient is used. This difference is explained mainly by local dilution when injecting xenon subcutaneously. In short-term studies, utilization of the double isotope...... technique reduces the coefficient of variation on average flow determinations, thus an improvement in accuracy of local blood flow estimation can be obtained compared to the method in which an average partition coefficient is used. For long-term studies a partition coefficient of 7.5 ml g-1 seems valid.......Local subcutaneous 133xenon (133Xe) elimination was registered in the human forefoot in 34 patients. The tissue/blood partition coefficient for Xe was estimated individually by simultaneous registration of 133Xe and [131I]antipyrine ([131I]AP) washout from the same local depot. When measured...

  13. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  14. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... injections, or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMC were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...

  15. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2 receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Bilyalova, Zarina; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Mamyrbayeva, Marzya; Zhumagaliyeva, Galina

    2017-11-01

    Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003-2015. The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. This represents 4835.0±156.1 for children, 5503.2±141.8 for adolescents and 2646.6±106.7 for adults per 100000 inhabitants. Space and time incidence rate was evaluated according to the administrative division. The overall trend decreased to 3.5% in children to 2.8% in adolescents to 1.9%, and in adults to 3.9%. Considerable variation in rates was seen across the country, with highest rates in East Kazakhstan, Mangystau and Aktobe regions, the lowest - in Atyrau and South-Kazakhstan regions. Non-neoplastic diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue continue to be an urgent public health problem, especially among children in many regions of Kazakhstan.

  17. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  18. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...... to total abdominal volume. Results Girls had a higher SAT% than did boys in early and late puberty (16 vs. 13%, Pfat% (standard deviation score (SDS)), suprailiac skinfold...... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted...

  19. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  20. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  1. Tailoring the foreign body response for in situ vascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuizen, T.C.; Damanik, Febriyani; Anderson, J.; Lavrijsen, T.; Cox, M.A.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a screening platform for a guided in situ vascular tissue engineering approach. Polymer rods were developed that upon 3 weeks of subcutaneous implantation evoke a controlled inflammatory response culminating in encapsulation by a tube-shaped autologous fibrocellular tissue

  2. Liver fat content is linked to inflammatory changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henry J; Vervoort, Gerald M; van der Graaf, Marinette; Stienstra, Rinke; Tack, Cees J

    2013-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are typically overweight and have an increased liver fat content (LFAT). High LFAT may be explained by an increased efflux of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue, which is partly instigated by inflammatory changes. This would imply an association between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. To analyse associations between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. A cross-sectional study. Twenty-seven obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM were studied. LFAT content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A subcutaneous (sc) fat biopsy was obtained to determine morphology and protein levels within adipose tissue. In addition to fat cell size, the percentage of macrophages and the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) within sc fat were assessed by CD68-immunohistochemical staining. Mean LFAT percentage was 11·1 ± 1·7% (range: 0·75-32·9%); 63% of the patients were diagnosed with an elevated LFAT (upper range of normal ≤5·5%). Whereas adipocyte size did not correlate with LFAT, 3 of 4 subjects with CLSs in sc fat had elevated LFAT and the percentage of macrophages present in sc adipose tissue was positively associated with LFAT. Protein concentrations of adiponectin within adipose tissue negatively correlated with LFAT. Adipose tissue protein levels of the key inflammatory adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with LFAT. Several pro-inflammatory changes in sc adipose tissue associate with increased LFAT content in obese insulin-treated patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes at the level of the adipose tissue may drive liver fat accumulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modular tissue engineering for the vascularization of subcutaneously transplanted pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Alexander E; Cober, Nicholas; Sefton, Michael V

    2017-08-29

    The transplantation of pancreatic islets, following the Edmonton Protocol, is a promising treatment for type I diabetics. However, the need for multiple donors to achieve insulin independence reflects the large loss of islets that occurs when islets are infused into the portal vein. Finding a less hostile transplantation site that is both minimally invasive and able to support a large transplant volume is necessary to advance this approach. Although the s.c. site satisfies both these criteria, the site is poorly vascularized, precluding its utility. To address this problem, we demonstrate that modular tissue engineering results in an s.c. vascularized bed that enables the transplantation of pancreatic islets. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic SCID/beige mice, the injection of 750 rat islet equivalents embedded in endothelialized collagen modules was sufficient to restore and maintain normoglycemia for 21 days; the same number of free islets was unable to affect glucose levels. Furthermore, using CLARITY, we showed that embedded islets became revascularized and integrated with the host's vasculature, a feature not seen in other s.c. Collagen-embedded islets drove a small (albeit not significant) shift toward a proangiogenic CD206 + MHCII - (M2-like) macrophage response, which was a feature of module-associated vascularization. While these results open the potential for using s.c. islet delivery as a treatment option for type I diabetes, the more immediate benefit may be for the exploration of revascularized islet biology.

  4. Vascular infarction by subcutaneous application of tissue factor targeted to tumor vessels with NGR-peptides: activity and toxicity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischalück, Johannes; Schwöppe, Christian; Spieker, Tilmann; Kessler, Torsten; Tiemann, Klaus; Liersch, Ruediger; Schliemann, Christoph; Kreuter, Michael; Kolkmeyer, Astrid; Hintelmann, Heike; Mesters, Rolf M; Berdel, Wolfgang E

    2010-12-01

    tTF-NGR consists of the extracellular domain of the (truncated) tissue factor (tTF), a central molecule for coagulation in vivo, and the peptide GNGRAHA (NGR), a ligand of the surface protein aminopeptidase N (CD13). After deamidation of the NGR-peptide moiety, the fusion protein is also a ligand for integrin αvβ3 (CD51/CD61). Both surface proteins are upregulated on endothelial cells of tumor vessels. tTF-NGR showed binding to specific binding sites on endothelial cells in vitro as shown by flow cytometry. Subcutaneous injection of tTF-NGR into athymic mice bearing human HT1080 fibrosarcoma tumors induced tumor growth retardation and delay. Contrast enhanced ultrasound detected a decrease in tumor blood flow in vivo after application of tTF-NGR. Histological analysis of the tumors revealed vascular disruption due to blood pooling and thrombotic occlusion of tumor vessels. Furthermore, a lack of resistance was shown by re-exposure of tumor-bearing mice to tTF-NGR after regrowth following a first cycle of treatment. However, after subcutaneous (s.c.) push injection with therapeutic doses (1-5 mg/kg bw) side effects have been observed, such as skin bleeding and reduced performance. Since lethality started within the therapeutic dose range (LD10 approximately 2 mg/kg bw) no safe therapeutic window could be found. Limiting toxicity was represented by thrombo-embolic events in major organ systems as demonstrated by histology. Thus, subcutaneous injection of tTF-NGR represents an active, but toxic application procedure and compares unfavourably to intravenous infusion.

  5. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macropage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-kB stress pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal was to examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), Beta-cell function, and SAT gene expression. SAT biopsies were obtained from...

  6. Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass Index, Intramuscular Adipose Tissue Content, and Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Area Ratio on Early Mortality of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kaido, Toshimi; Okumura, Shinya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yagi, Shintaro; Kamo, Naoko; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain computed tomography imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively. The cutoff values of these parameters were determined for men and women separately using the data of 657 healthy donors for LDLT between 2005 and 2016. Impact of these parameters on outcomes after LDLT was analyzed. VSR was significantly correlated with patient age (P = 0.041), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (P mass index (P normal group. On multivariate analysis, low SMI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.367, P = 0.002), high IMAC (HR, 2.096, P = 0.004), and high VSR (HR, 2.213, P = 0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for death after LDLT. Preoperative visceral adiposity, as well as low muscularity, was closely involved with posttransplant mortality.

  7. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Comparative Analysis Between Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Giuliani, Patricia; Pierdomenico, Laura; Marchisio, Marco; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Quaresima, Raimondo; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2017-06-01

    White adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that are actively studied for their possible therapeutic use in bone tissue repair/remodeling. To better appreciate the osteogenic potential of these cells, we compared some properties of MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue [subcutaneous-adipose stromal cells (S-ASCs)] and dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs) of third-impacted molars, the latter representing a well-established MSC source. Both undifferentiated cell types showed similar fibroblast-like morphology and mesenchymal marker expression. However, undifferentiated S-ASCs displayed a faster doubling time coupled to greater proliferation and colony-forming ability than DPSCs. Also, the osteogenic differentiation of S-ASCs was greater than that of DPSCs, as evaluated by the higher levels of expression of early osteogenic markers Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase at days 3-14 and of extracellular matrix mineralization at days 14-21. Moreover, S-ASCs showed a better colonization of the titanium scaffold. In addition, we investigated whether S-ASC osteogenic commitment was enhanced by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) stimulation, as previously shown for DPSCs. Although A1R expression was constant during DPSC differentiation, it increased in S-ASC at day 21 from osteogenesis induction. Accordingly, A1R stimulation by the agonist 2-chloro-N 6 -cyclopentyl-adenosine, added to the cultures at each medium change, stimulated proliferation only in differentiating DPSC and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation earlier in DPSCs than in S-ASCs. These effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with a selective A1R antagonist. Thus, our findings suggest that S-ASCs could be advantageously used in regenerative orthopedics/dentistry, and locally released or exogenously added purines may play a role in bone repair/remodeling, even though this aspect should be more thoroughly evaluated.

  8. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Selim

    Full Text Available Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG or semi-natural grassland (NG from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05 and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM; P=0.02, and larger waist circumference (P=0.03 than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04, but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03 during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05 was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ, adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05. Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01. In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season.

  9. Meal fat storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue: comparison of pioglitazone and glipizide treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Pattan, Vishwanath; Rizza, Robert A; Jensen, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-(14)C]triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue biopsies were collected 6 and 24 h later to measure meal fatty acid storage. The portion of meal fatty acids stored in upper body sc and lower body sc adipose tissue did not differ between non-DM and T2DM subjects either at 6 or 24 h. Likewise, meal fatty acid storage did not differ between the T2DM participants treated with pioglitazone or glipizide. We conclude that meal fatty acid storage in upper body and lower body sc adipose tissue is not abnormal in T2DM patients treated with pioglitazone or glipizide.

  10. Increased expression of Interleukin-13 and connective tissue growth factor, and their potential roles during foreign body encapsulation of subcutaneous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W Kenneth; Li, Allen G; Siddiqui, Yasmin; Federiuk, Isaac F; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand whether interleukin-13 (IL-13) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are highly expressed during foreign body encapsulation of subcutaneous devices. Mock biosensors were implanted into rats for three lengths of time (7-, 21- and 48-55 days) to address different stages of the foreign body response. Using quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, the expression of IL13, CTGF, collagen 1, decorin and fibronectin were measured in this tissue. IL-13, a product of Th2 cells, was highly expressed at all time points, with greatest expression at day 21. The IL-13 expression was paralleled by increased presence of T-cells at all time points. CTGF was also found to be more highly expressed in foreign body tissue than in controls. Collagen and decorin were highly expressed at the middle and later stages. Given the increased expression of IL-13 and CTGF in foreign body tissue, and their roles in other fibrotic disorders, these cytokines may well contribute to the formation of the foreign body capsule. Since the peak gene expression of IL-13 occurred later than the previously-reported TGFbeta expression peak, IL-13 is probably not the major stimulus to TGFbeta expression during foreign body encapsulation and may contribute to fibrosis independently.

  11. Continuous glucose monitoring in subcutaneous tissue using factory-calibrated sensors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Udo; Jeddi, Iman; Schulz, Mark; Budiman, Erwin; Bhogal, Claire; McGarraugh, Geoffrey

    2010-08-01

    Commercial continuous subcutaneous glucose monitors require in vivo calibration using capillary blood glucose tests. Feasibility of factory calibration, i.e., sensor batch characterization in vitro with no further need for in vivo calibration, requires a predictable and stable in vivo sensor sensitivity and limited inter- and intra-subject variation of the ratio of interstitial to blood glucose concentration. Twelve volunteers wore two FreeStyle Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) continuous glucose monitoring systems for 5 days in parallel for two consecutive sensor wears (four sensors per subject, 48 sensors total). Sensors from a prototype sensor lot with a low variability in glucose sensitivity were used for the study. Median sensor sensitivity values based on capillary blood glucose were calculated per sensor and compared for inter- and intra-subject variation. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) calculation and error grid analysis were performed using a single calibration factor for all sensors to simulate factory calibration and compared to standard fingerstick calibration. Sensor sensitivity variation in vitro was 4.6%, which increased to 8.3% in vivo (P glucose monitoring is feasible with similar accuracy to standard fingerstick calibration. Additional data are required to confirm this result in subjects with diabetes.

  12. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  13. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cycle...... phentolamine and propranolol while another probe was perfused with the phosphodiesterase and adenosine receptor inhibitor aminophylline. Compared with the control condition, infusion of octreotide reduced plasma insulin levels in lean (from approximately 3.5 to 0.5 microU/ml) and in obese (from approximately 9...... to 2 microU/ml), blunted the exercise-induced rise in plasma GH and epinephrine levels in both groups, and enhanced the exercise-induced natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in lean but not in obese subjects. In both groups, octreotide infusion resulted in higher exercise-induced increases in dialysate...

  14. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...... individuals. In conclusion, blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors during exercise performed during infusion of octreotide (blocking the exercise-induced rise in adrenaline but not that of noradrenaline) does not alter the exercise-induced lipolysis. This suggests that adrenaline is the main adrenergic agent...

  15. Determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 131iodo-antipyrine in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R; Astrup, A

    1985-01-01

    131Iodo-antipyrine (131I-AP) is commonly used for blood flow measurements in adipose tissue. These estimations have been based on the assumption of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient being 1 ml g-1. No exact determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 131I-AP in adipose...... tissue has been carried out. In the present study a partition coefficient of 1.12 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.D.) for 131I-AP in adipose tissue has been determined based on the partition coefficient for 131I-AP between lipid-saline (1.24 ml g-1), red blood cells-plasma (0.64 ml g-1), protein-saline (0.19 ml g-1...

  16. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario [Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Bergman, Richard N. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McTernan, Philip G. [Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M.S. [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jacobson, Peter, E-mail: peter.jacobson@medfak.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  17. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe

    Full Text Available To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs. wet wick and implantation time on COP(i.In 50 healthy volunteers interstitial fluid (IF was collected by subcutaneous implantation of multi-filamentous nylon wicks. Study subjects were allocated to two groups; one for comparing COP(i obtained from dry and saline soaked wicks, and one for comparing COP(i from unanaesthetized skin, and skin after application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA®, Astra Zeneca cream. IF was sampled from the skin of the shoulders, and implantation time was 30, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured with a colloid osmometer. Pain assessment during the procedure was compared for EMLA cream and no topical anaesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS in a subgroup of 10 subjects.There were no significant differences between COP(i obtained from dry compared to wet wicks, except that the values after 75 and 90 min. were somewhat higher for the dry wicks. Topical anaesthesia with EMLA cream did not affect COP(i values. COP(i decreased from 30 to 75 min. of implantation (23.2 ± 4.4 mmHg to 19.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.008 and subsequently tended to increase until 120 min. EMLA cream resulted in significant lower VAS score for the procedure.COP(i from subcutaneous tissue was easily obtained and fluid harvesting was well tolerated when topical anaesthetic was used. The difference in COP(i assessed by dry and wet wicks between 75 min. and 90 min. of implantation was in accordance with previous reports. The use of topical analgesia did not influence COP(i and topical analgesia may make the wick technique more acceptable for subjects who dislike technical procedures, including children.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044979.

  18. Warfarin affects acute inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Demenesku, Jelena; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin (WF) is an anticoagulant which also affects physiological processes other than hemostasis. Our previous investigations showed the effect of WF which gained access to the organism via skin on resting peripheral blood granulocytes. Based on these data, the aim of the present study was to examine whether WF could modulate the inflammatory processes as well. To this aim the effect of WF on the inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous sponge implantation in rats was examined. Warfarin-soaked polyvinyl sponges (WF-sponges) were implanted subcutaneously and cell infiltration into sponges, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by sponge cells were measured as parameters of inflammation. T cell infiltration and cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured at day 7 post implantation. Warfarin exerted both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending on the parameter examined. Flow cytometry of cells recovered from sponges showed higher numbers of granulocytes (HIS48 + cells) at days 1 and 3 post implantation and CD11b + cells at day 1 compared to control sponges. Cells from WF-sponges had an increased NO production (Griess reaction) at days 1 and 7. In contrast, lower levels of TNF (measured by ELISA) production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges were found in the early (day one) phase of reaction with unchanged levels at other time points. While IL-6 production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges was decreased at day 1, it was increased at day 7. Higher T cell numbers were noted in WF sponges at day 7 post implantation, and recovered cells produced more IFN-γ and IL-17, while IL-10 production remained unchanged. Warfarin affects some of the parameters of inflammatory reaction induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation. Differential (both stimulatory as well as inhibitory) effects of WF on

  19. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity.

  20. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  1. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  2. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  3. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rickson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar grew Cladophialophora boppii. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole for a year and the response monitored with dermal ultrasound. This is the first case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cl. boppii in India.

  4. Higher Ratio of Abdominal Subcutaneous to Visceral Adipose Tissue Related with Preservation of Islet β-Cell Function in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between abdominal adipose tissue distribution, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (IS in a Chinese population. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight healthy subjects (healthy group, 239 with normal glucose, and 1~4 abnormal metabolic traits (metabolic dysfunction group, MD group and 125 with hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia group were studied. HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, Matsuda index, early- (I0–30/G0–30 and late-phase (I30–120/G30–120 insulin responses and the corresponding disposition indexes (DI were calculated. The area of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured and the ratio of ASAT to VAT (SVR was calculated. Results. SVR was correlated positively with Matsuda index in healthy, MD, and hyperglycemia groups, and inversely with HOMA-IR. SVR positively related with both early- and late-phase DI in the healthy group only. In the healthy group, the hyperbolas of I0–30/G0–30 and I30–120/G30–120 versus Matsuda index in the highest quarter of SVR were significantly right shifted compared to those in the lowest (both P<0.05. Conclusions. In healthy adults, higher SVR was a protective factor for β-cell function and IS, while in those with glucometabolic abnormality, higher SVR contributed to a relative better IS, indicating SVR is possible to be an early predicator of type 2 diabetes development.

  5. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... plasma (approximately 100-fold, approximately 200-fold and approximately 1000-fold, respectively, PResistin concentrations did not differ significantly between compartments. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) showed no regional difference (P>0.05). The intra- and inter-subject variations of all...

  6. Short-and long-term glucocorticoid treatment enhances insulin signalling in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Gathercole, LL; Morgan, SA; Bujalska, IJ; Stewart, PM; Tomlinson, JW

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) is characterized by increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Although GCs cause global insulin resistance in vivo, we have previously shown that GCs are able to augment insulin action in human adipose tissue, contrasting with their action in skeletal muscle. Cushing's syndrome develops following chronic GC exposure and, in addition, is a state of hyperinsulinemia. Objectives: We have therefore compared the ...

  7. Pilot study: whole body manual subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) therapy improved pain and SAT structure in women with lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna

    2017-09-20

    Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p < 0.007), LEFS (p = 0.002) and average pain (p = 0.007) significantly decreased from baseline. Fibrosis significantly decreased in the nodules, hips and groin. Ultrasound showed improved SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.

  8. Marrow Adipose Tissue in Older Men: Association with Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat, Bone Volume, Metabolism, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Hassan, Ebrahim; Demontiero, Oddom; Vogrin, Sara; Ng, Alvin; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-03-26

    Marrow (MAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues display different metabolic profiles and varying associations with aging, bone density, and fracture risk. Using a non-invasive imaging methodology, we aimed to investigate the associations between MAT, SAT, and visceral fat (VAT) with bone volume, bone remodeling markers, insulin resistance, and circulating inflammatory mediators in a population of older men. In this cross-sectional study, 96 healthy men (mean age 67 ± 5.5) were assessed for anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum biochemistry, and inflammatory panel. Using single-energy computed tomography images, MAT (in L2 and L3 and both hips), VAT, and SAT (at the level of L2-L3 and L4-L5) were measured employing Slice-O-Matic software (Tomovision), which enables specific tissue demarcation applying previously reported Hounsfield unit thresholds. MAT volume was similar in all anatomical sites and independent of BMI. In all femoral regions of interest (ROIs) there was a strong negative association between bone and MAT volumes (r = - 0.840 to - 0.972, p strong inverse correlations between MAT and bone mass, which have been previously observed in women, were also confirmed in older men. However, MAT volume in all ROIs was interrelated and unlike women, mainly independent of VAT or SAT. The lack of strong association between MAT vs VAT/SAT, and its discordant associations with metabolic and inflammatory mediators provide further evidence on MAT's distinct attributes in older men.

  9. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Subcutaneous fluid collection: An imaging marker for treatment response of infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakigi, Takahide, E-mail: tkakigi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sakai, Osamu, E-mail: osamu.sakai@bmc.org [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, 820 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Iwamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: iwacame@hotmail.co.jp [Department of General Internal Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Kubo, Soichi, E-mail: kubo-s@mbox.kyoto-inet.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: nmdioffice@kuhp.kyoto-ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • No imaging marker for treatment response of spondylodiscitis (SD) has been proposed. • Volume changes of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) had significant correlation with changes of C-reactive protein (CRP). • SFC can be used as an imaging marker for treatment response of SD on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate prevalence of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) in infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis (SD) compared with control patients and to investigate correlation between volume changes of SFC and treatment response of SD. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. From April 2011 to March 2012, 49 patients (24 SD and 25 non-SD patients) were enrolled. Prevalence of SFC was evaluated respectively for SD and non-SD patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the sagittal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging or fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and compared. In SD patients with SFC, correlation was investigated between SFC volume on the 1st MRI and initial clinical status. The same analysis was conducted also for SFC volume changes from the 1st to 2nd or last MRI. Results: SFC was found in 20 patients with SD (83.3%) and 3 non-SD patients (12%) with significant difference (p < .001). In 20 SD patients with SFC, 17 patients had follow-up MRI. For the 1st MRI, no significant correlation was found between volume of SFC and initial status of patients, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), white blood cell (WBC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, significant positive correlations were found between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP) and SFC volume from the 1st to 2nd as well as from the 1st to the last MRI (each p < .05). Conclusion: SD patients had significantly higher prevalence of SFC than non-SD patients. Volume changes of SFC had significant correlation with changes of CRP, which can be used as an imaging

  11. Subcutaneous fluid collection: An imaging marker for treatment response of infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Sakai, Osamu; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Soichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • No imaging marker for treatment response of spondylodiscitis (SD) has been proposed. • Volume changes of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) had significant correlation with changes of C-reactive protein (CRP). • SFC can be used as an imaging marker for treatment response of SD on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate prevalence of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) in infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis (SD) compared with control patients and to investigate correlation between volume changes of SFC and treatment response of SD. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. From April 2011 to March 2012, 49 patients (24 SD and 25 non-SD patients) were enrolled. Prevalence of SFC was evaluated respectively for SD and non-SD patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the sagittal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging or fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and compared. In SD patients with SFC, correlation was investigated between SFC volume on the 1st MRI and initial clinical status. The same analysis was conducted also for SFC volume changes from the 1st to 2nd or last MRI. Results: SFC was found in 20 patients with SD (83.3%) and 3 non-SD patients (12%) with significant difference (p < .001). In 20 SD patients with SFC, 17 patients had follow-up MRI. For the 1st MRI, no significant correlation was found between volume of SFC and initial status of patients, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), white blood cell (WBC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, significant positive correlations were found between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP) and SFC volume from the 1st to 2nd as well as from the 1st to the last MRI (each p < .05). Conclusion: SD patients had significantly higher prevalence of SFC than non-SD patients. Volume changes of SFC had significant correlation with changes of CRP, which can be used as an imaging

  12. Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Relation to Circulating Androgens, SHBG, and LH in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Hagen, Claus; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Context: No large studies have examined the relation between circulating androgen levels and regional, abdominal adiposity in young men using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objective: To study the role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) on circulating androgens...

  13. Effect of red and infrared low-level laser therapy in endodontic sealer on subcutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivieri-Araujo, G.; Berbert, F. L. C. V.; Ramalho, L. T. O.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Crisci, F. S.; Bonetti-Filho, I.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the reactions of connective tissue after the implant of one endodontic sealer (Endofill) that was irradiated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Sixty mice were distributed into three Groups ( n = 20): GI—the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT; GII—the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAlP, λ = 685 nm, P = 35 mW, t = 58 s, D = 72 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous mode) and GIII—the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl, λ = 830 nm, P = 50 mW, t = 40 s, D = 70 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous wave) both are semiconductor diode laser device. The animals were killed after 7 and 30 days. Series sections of 6 μm thickness were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson Trichrome. The data of the histopathological evaluation were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% significance level. At the 7th day: GI showed the presence of inflammation; GII and GIII reduced inflammation. At 30th day: GI showed low inflammation; GII and GII the absence of inflammation. It was possible show that LLLT reduced the irritating effect promoted by the Endofill, in the period of 7 days ( p > 0.05). The tissue repair occurred in 30 days, regardless of the use of LLLT.

  14. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  15. Detection and volume estimation of artificial hematomas in the subcutaneous fatty tissue: comparison of different MR sequences at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogris, Kathrin; Petrovic, Andreas; Scheicher, Sylvia; Sprenger, Hanna; Urschler, Martin; Hassler, Eva Maria; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-06-01

    In legal medicine, reliable localization and analysis of hematomas in subcutaneous fatty tissue is required for forensic reconstruction. Due to the absence of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly suited to examining living persons with forensically relevant injuries. However, there is limited experience regarding MRI signal properties of hemorrhage in soft tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate MR sequences with respect to their ability to show high contrast between hematomas and subcutaneous fatty tissue as well as to reliably determine the volume of artificial hematomas. Porcine tissue models were prepared by injecting blood into the subcutaneous fatty tissue to create artificial hematomas. MR images were acquired at 3T and four blinded observers conducted manual segmentation of the hematomas. To assess segmentability, the agreement of measured volume with the known volume of injected blood was statistically analyzed. A physically motivated normalization taking into account partial volume effect was applied to the data to ensure comparable results among differently sized hematomas. The inversion recovery sequence exhibited the best segmentability rate, whereas the T1T2w turbo spin echo sequence showed the most accurate results regarding volume estimation. Both sequences led to reproducible volume estimations. This study demonstrates that MRI is a promising forensic tool to assess and visualize even very small amounts of blood in soft tissue. The presented results enable the improvement of protocols for detection and volume determination of hemorrhage in forensically relevant cases and also provide fundamental knowledge for future in-vivo examinations.

  16. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  17. Subcutaneous L-tyrosine elicits cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the ability of L-tyrosine to induce cutaneous analgesia and to investigate the interaction between L-tyrosine and the local anesthetic lidocaine. After subcutaneously injecting the rats with L-tyrosine and lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner, cutaneous analgesia (by blocking the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex-CTMR) was evaluated in response to the local pinprick. The drug-drug interaction was analyzed by using an isobolographic method. We showed that both L-tyrosine and lidocaine produced dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was lidocaine (5.09 [4.88-5.38] μmol)>L-tyrosine (39.1 [36.5-41.8] μmol) (Ptyrosine lasted longer than that caused by lidocaine (Ptyrosine exhibited an additive effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Our pre-clinical study demonstrated that L-tyrosine elicits the local/cutaneous analgesia, and the interaction between L-tyrosine and lidocaine is additive. L-tyrosine has a lower potency but much greater duration of cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Adding L-tyrosine to lidocaine preparations showed greater duration of cutaneous analgesia compared with lidocaine alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. miRNAs in human subcutaneous adipose tissue: Effects of weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Malene M; Davidsen, Peter K; Vigelsø, Andreas; Hansen, Christina N; Jensen, Lars J; Jessen, Niels; Bruun, Jens M; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed to elucidate the biological consequences of the miRNA dysregulation. Lastly, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein expression of multiple predicted targets as well as several proteins involved in lipolysis were investigated. The intervention led to upregulation of miR-29a-3p and miR-29a-5p and downregulation of miR-20b-5p. The mRNA and protein expression of predicted targets was not significantly affected by the intervention. However, negative correlations between miR-20b-5p and the protein levels of its predicted target, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, were observed. Several other miRNA-target relationships correlated negatively, indicating possible miRNA regulation, including miR-29a-3p and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels. Proteins involved in lipolysis were not affected by the intervention. Weight loss influenced several miRNAs, some of which were negatively correlated with predicted targets. These dysregulated miRNAs may affect adipocytokine signaling and forkhead box protein O signaling. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  20. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R S =0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R S =0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R S =0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R S =0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects

  1. Epicardial and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids Profiles in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have recently shown that in high cholesterol-fed rabbits, the sensitivity of epicardial adipose tissue to changes in dietary fat is higher than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although the effects of diabetes on epicardial adipose tissue thickness have been studied, the influence of diabetes on profile of epicardial free fatty acids (FFAs has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes on the FFAs composition in serum and in the subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissues in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Methods: Forty non-diabetic and twenty eight diabetic patients candidate for CABG with > 75% stenosis participated in this study.Fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles were assayed by auto analyzer. Phospholipids and non-estrified FFA of serum and the fatty acids profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined using gas chromatography method. Results: In the phospholipid fraction of diabetic patients’ serum, the percentage of 16:0, 18:3n-9, 18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs was lower than the corresponding values of the non-diabetics; whereas, 18:0 value was higher. A 100% increase in the amount of 18:0 and 35% decrease in the level of 18:1n-11 was observed in the diabetic patients’ subcutaneous adipose tissue. In epicardial adipose tissue, the increase of 18:0 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA and decrease of 18:1n-11, ω3 (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significant; but, the contents of arachidonic acid and its precursor linoleic acid were not affected by diabetes. Conclusion: The fatty acids’ profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues is not equally affected by diabetes. The significant decrease of 16:0 and ω3 fatty acids and increase of trans and conjugated fatty acids in epicardial adipose tissue in the diabetic patients may worsen the formation of atheroma in the related arteries.

  2. Subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole therapy before and concurrent with neoadjuvant breast chemotherapy: clinical response and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca L; York, Anne E; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2017-07-01

    Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers respond favorably to subcutaneous testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor. However, the effect of testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor on tumor response to chemotherapy was unknown. This study investigated the effect of testosterone-letrozole implants on breast cancer tumor response before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A 51-year-old woman on testosterone replacement therapy was diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer. Six weeks before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was treated with subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole implants and instructed to follow a low-glycemic diet. Clinical status was followed. Tumor response to "testosterone-letrozole" and subsequently, "testosterone-letrozole with chemotherapy" was monitored using serial ultrasounds and calculating tumor volume. Response to therapy was determined by change in tumor volume. Cost of therapy was evaluated. There was a 43% reduction in tumor volume 41 days after the insertion of testosterone-letrozole implants, before starting chemotherapy. After the initiation of concurrent chemotherapy, the tumor responded at an increased rate, resulting in a complete pathologic response. Chemotherapy was tolerated. Blood counts and weight remained stable. There were no neurologic or cardiac complications from the chemotherapy. Cost of therapy is reported. Subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole was an effective treatment for this patient's breast cancer and did not interfere with chemotherapy. This novel combination implant has the potential to prevent side effects from chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and warrants further investigation.

  3. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  4. Determination of the subcutaneous tissue to blood partition coefficient in patients with severe leg ischaemia by a double isotope washout technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Jepsen, K; Faris, I; Henriksen, O

    1982-01-01

    Knowledge of the tissue to blood partition coefficient (lambda) is essential for calculation of the perfusion coefficient in a single tissue based on measurements of the washout of locally injected isotopes. No measurements of lambda for Xenon in subcutaneous tissue in the leg have been done...... in patients with occlusive arterial disease. In 12 patients with occlusive arterial disease in the legs lambda for Xenon was determined in subcutaneous tissue in the calf region and foot as the ratio between the washout rate constant of 131I-Antipyrine and 133Xe. A mixture of the two indicators was injected....... Mean value was 3.7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 7-10 X 7) in the calf and 2 X 7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 2-4 X 9) in the foot. It is concluded that lambda measurements are necessary for determination of subcutaneous blood flow from 133Xe washout curves in these patients. Determination of lambda is especially...

  5. Growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, altered glucose homeostasis, and no change in white adipose tissue cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Householder, Lara; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests long-lived GH resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine white adipose tissue (WAT) senescence, WAT distribution, and glucose homeostasis in dwarf growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. METHODS 18mo old female GHA mice and wild type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining to quantify the senescent cell burden and real time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. RESULTS GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, 33% reduction in lean mass, and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p<.05) and a 1.7 fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p<.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. CONCLUSIONS Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin

  6. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  7. Android subcutaneous adipose tissue topography in lean and obese women suffering from PCOS: comparison with type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Rackl, S; Giuliani, A; Freytag, U; Crailsheim, K; Sudi, K; Tafeit, E

    2004-07-01

    The new optical device, the lipometer, enables the noninvasive, quick, safe, and precise determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers at any given site of the human body. Fifteen anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf describe a SAT topography (SAT-Top) like an individual "fingerprint" of a subject. This SAT-Top was examined in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared to the body fat distribution of 87 age-matched healthy controls and 20 type-2 diabetic women. SAT-Top differences of these three groups were described and, to render the possibility of visual comparison, the 15-dimensional body fat information was condensed to a two-dimensional factor plot by factor analysis. All PCOS patients had an android body fat distribution with significantly thinner SAT layers on the legs as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in two distinctly different groups of PCOS women, a lean (PCOSL) and an obese (PCOSO) cluster: compared to healthy women, lean PCOS patients had significantly lower total SAT development, even though height, weight, and body mass index did not deviate significantly. Especially on the legs, their SAT layers were significantly lowered, indicating a more "apple-like" fat distribution type. Obese PCOS women showed a SAT-Top pattern very similar to that of women with type-2 diabetes, although the mean age difference between these groups was more than 30 years. Compared to healthy controls, the SAT-Top of these obese PCOS patients was strongly shifted into the android direction, appearing as "super-apples" with a significantly increased upper trunk obesity to 237.8% and a significantly decreased leg SAT development to 79.8%. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  9. DNA methylation map in circulating leukocytes mirrors subcutaneous adipose tissue methylation pattern: a genome-wide analysis from non-obese and obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A. B.; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; Milagro, F. I.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Carreira, M. C.; Gomez, A.; Hervas, D.; Monteiro, M. P.; Casanueva, F. F.; Esteller, M.; Martinez, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n = 45) and non-obese (n = 8–10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC > 0.80; p obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue. PMID:28211912

  10. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  11. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Transgenic Mice Have Increased Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Mass, Altered Glucose Homeostasis and No Change in White Adipose Tissue Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R; Householder, Lara A; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests that long-lived GH-resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. The objective of this study was to examine WAT senescence, WAT distribution and glucose homeostasis in dwarf GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. 18-month-old female GHA mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose as well as glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining to quantify the senescent cell burden, and real-time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, a 33% reduction in lean mass and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p < 0.05) and a 1.7-fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p < 0.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin sensitivity, but no change in cellular senescence. The similar abundance of

  12. Gene expression of tumour necrosis factor and insulin signalling-related factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rahmani, H R; Ghorbani, G R; Morel, I; van Dorland, H A

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression of adipose factors, which may be part of the mechanisms that underlie insulin sensitivity, were studied in dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. In the adipose tissue samples, mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), insulin-independent glucose transporter (GLUT1), insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p85) and catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin. Plasma parameters followed a pattern typically observed in dairy cows. Gene expression changes were observed, but there were no changes in TNFα concentrations, which may indicate its local involvement in catabolic adaptation of adipose tissue. Changes in GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA abundance may reflect their involvement in reduced insulin sensitivity and in sparing glucose for milk synthesis in early lactation. Unchanged gene expression of IRS1, IRS2 and p85 over time may imply a lack of their involvement in terms of insulin sensitivity dynamics. Alternatively, it may indicate that post-transcriptional modifications of these factors came into play and may have concealed an involvement. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Impaired autoregulation of blood flow in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Vagn Nielsen, H; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow was studied in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients (median age: 36 years) with nephropathy and retinopathy and in eight normal subjects of the same age. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe washout...... technique. Reduction in arterial perfusion pressure was produced by elevating the limb 20 and 40 cm above heart level. Blood flow remained within 10% of control values when the limb was elevated in normal subjects. In five of the seven diabetic subjects blood flow fell significantly in both tissues when...

  14. Microarray analysis of the transcriptional response to single or multiple doses of ionizing radiation in human subcutaneous fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2005-01-01

    cell lines after various ionizing radiation (IR) schemes in order to provide information on potential targets for prevention and to suggest candidate genes for SNP association studies aimed at predicting individual risk of radiation-induced morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty different human......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcriptional profiling of fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients might improve our understanding of subcutaneous radiation-induced fibrosis. The aim of this study was to get a comprehensive overview of the changes in gene expression in subcutaneous fibroblast...... fibroblast cell lines were included in the study, and two different radiation schemes; single dose experiments with 3.5 Gy or fractionated with 3 x 3.5 Gy. Expression analyses were performed on unexposed and exposed cells after different time points. The IR response was analyzed using the statistical method...

  15. Screening for amyloid in subcutaneous fat tissue of Egyptian patients with rheumatoid arthritis : clinical and laboratory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Mansoury, T.M.; Hazenberg, B. P. C.; Badawy, S. A. El; Ahmed, A.H.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Van Rijswijk, M.H.

    Objective: To screen for amyloid and to assess associated clinical and laboratory characteristics in Egyptian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat aspirates were consecutively collected from 112 patients (103 women, nine men) having RA for five years or more.

  16. Occurrence of ticks in the subcutaneous tissue of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes in Czech Republic and Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Amico, G.; Juránková, J.; Tăbăran, F. A.; Frgelecová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Hodžić, A.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 309-312 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Red fox * subcutaneous * ticks * Czech Republic * Romania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  17. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique

    2018-01-23

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  19. Immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by a species-specific panel of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovska, Ana; Grolli, Stefano; Borghetti, Paolo; Ravanetti, Francesca; Conti, Virna; De Angelis, Elena; Macchi, Francesca; Ramoni, Roberto; Martelli, Paolo; Gazza, Ferdinando; Cacchioli, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Immunophenotypical characterization of mesenchymal stem cells is fundamental for the design and execution of sound experimental and clinical studies. The scarce availability of species-specific antibodies for canine antigens has hampered the immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to select a panel of species-specific direct antibodies readily useful for canine mesenchymal stem cells characterization. They were isolated from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples collected during regular surgeries from 8 dogs. Single color flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (P3) deriving from subcutaneous and perivisceral adipose tissue with a panel of 7 direct anti-canine antibodies revealed two largely homogenous cell populations with a similar pattern: CD29 + , CD44 + , CD73 + , CD90 + , CD34 - , CD45 - and MHC-II - with no statistically significant differences among them. Antibody reactivity was demonstrated on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The similarities are reinforced by their in vitro cell morphology, trilineage differentiation ability and RT-PCR analysis (CD90 + , CD73 + , CD105 + , CD44 + , CD13 + , CD29 + , Oct-4 + gene and CD31 - and CD45 - expression). Our results report for the first time a comparison between the immunophenotypic profile of canine MSC deriving from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The substantial equivalence between the two populations has practical implication on clinical applications, giving the opportunity to choose the source depending on the patient needs. The results contribute to routine characterization of MSC populations grown in vitro, a mandatory process for the definition of solid and reproducible laboratory and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate...... assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (P... distribution (PPolycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol...

  1. Female Longitudinal Anal Muscles or Conjoint Longitudinal Coats Extend into the Subcutaneous Tissue along the Vaginal Vestibule: A Histological Study Using Human Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vízquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Materials and Methods Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. Results In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. Conclusion In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani. PMID:23549829

  2. Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants investigated using a hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate and UV-vis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-10-25

    Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) implants with agarose hydrogels as the provider of nonsolvent (water) mimicking subcutaneous tissue was investigated using a novel UV-vis imaging-based analytical platform. In situ forming implants of PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin representing fast and slow phase separating systems, respectively, were evaluated using this platform. Upon contact with the agarose hydrogel, the phase separation of the systems was followed by the study of changes in light transmission and absorbance as a function of time and position. For the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system, the rate of spatial phase separation was determined and found to decrease with increasing the PLGA concentration from 20% to 40% (w/w). Hydrogels with different agarose concentrations (1% and 10% (w/v)) were prepared for providing the nonsolvent, water, to the in situ forming PLGA implants simulating the injection site environment. The resulting implant morphology depended on the stiffness of hydrogel matrix, indicating that the matrix in which implants are formed is of importance. Overall, the work showed that the UV-vis imaging-based platform with an agarose hydrogel mimicking the subcutaneous tissue holds potential in providing bio-relevant and mechanistic information on the phase separation processes of in situ forming implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  4. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133 Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133 Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133 Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and 133 Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes. (author)

  5. Comparison between /sup 133/Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-10-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by /sup 133/Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and /sup 133/Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The /sup 133/Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and /sup 133/Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes.

  6. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  7. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L; Paulsen, S K; Pedersen, S B

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate the association between these enzymes and different measures of insulin sensitivity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 60 women, 36 women with PCOS, 17 lean (lean PCOS, LP) and 19 obese (obese PCOS, OP) and 24 age- and weight-matched control women, 8 lean (lean controls, LC) and 16 obese (obese controls, OC). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from the abdomen. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and determined as glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity index. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was calculated using homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PPCOS or obesity on11beta-HSD2 or H6PDH mRNA expression. Decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity (P<0.001) and increased upper body fat distribution (P<0.01) were associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1, but neither 11beta-HSD2 nor H6PDH. Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol in the peripheral adipose tissue and subsequently increased glucocorticoid activity. Decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity and central obesity was associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1.

  8. Fast and sensitive HPLC/UV method for cefazolin quantification in plasma and subcutaneous tissue microdialysate of humans and rodents applied to pharmacokinetic studies in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eduardo Celia; Laureano, João Victor; de Araújo, Bibiana Verlindo; Meinhardt, Nelson Guardiola; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2018-04-14

    Antimicrobial prophylactic dosing of morbidly obese patients may differ from normal weighted individuals owing to alterations in drug tissue distribution. Drug subcutaneous tissue distribution can be investigated by microdialysis patients and animals. The need for cefazolin prophylactic dose adjustment in obese patients remains under discussion. The paper describes the validation of an HPLC-UV method for cefazolin quantification in plasma and microdialysate samples from clinical and pre-clinical studies. A C 18 column with an isocratic mobile phase was used for drug separation, with detection at 272 nm. Total and unbound cefazolin lower limit of quantitation was 5 μg/mL in human plasma, 2 μg/mL in rat plasma, and 0.5 and 0.025 μg/mL in human and rat microdialysate samples, respectively. The maximum intra- and inter-day imprecisions were 10.7 and 8.1%, respectively. The inaccuracy was <9.7%. The limit of quantitation imprecision and inaccuracy were < 15%. Cefazolin stability in the experimental conditions was confirmed. Cefazolin plasma concentrations and subcutaneous tissue penetration were determined by microdialysis in morbidly obese patients (2 g i.v. bolus) and diet-induced obese rats (30 mg/kg i.v. bolus) using the method. This method has the main advantages of easy plasma clean-up and practicability and has proven to be useful in cefazolin clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe....... The results show that octreotide infusion during rest increased lipolysis and fatty acid release from the abdominal, s.c. adipose tissue. The exercise-induced increase in lipolysis and fatty acid release does not seem to be affected by octreotide when compared with the control study without octreotide...... infusion while the post-exercise increase in lipolysis is inhibited by octreotide, suggesting that the exercise-induced increase in GH secretion plays a role for the post-exercise lipolysis in s.c., abdominal adipose tissue....

  10. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes...... in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. DESIGN: Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence...... sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. CONCLUSION: A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT...

  11. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart...... forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated...... level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated...

  12. Metabolomics and transcriptomics identify pathway differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in colorectal cancer patients: the ColoCare study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesenfeld, David B; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F; Salou, Mariam; Scherer, Dominique; Toth, Reka; Habermann, Nina; Böhm, Jürgen; Schrotz-King, Petra; Gigic, Biljana; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Herpel, Esther; Schirmacher, Peter; Fiehn, Oliver; Lampe, Johanna W; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions. Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients' tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed. Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I-IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina's HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips. Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis-related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients' adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage. As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC tumor stage. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT, which

  13. Subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies on the association between adiponectin, body composition, and insulin resistance (IR) have been conflicting. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of body composition on adiponectin and IR determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in a population-based study......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...... regression analysis, adiponectin correlated negatively with CFM (r = -0.27; P HOMA-IR (dependent variable...

  14. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  15. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man: effect of beta-adrenoceptor inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    : the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  16. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may enhance fatty acid re-esterification in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metab...

  17. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were consistent with this being a less-developed adipose

  18. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  19. Effect of sodium nitroprusside-induced hypotension on the blood flow in subcutaneous and intramuscular BT4An tumors and normal tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krossnes, Baard Kronen; Mella, Olav; Tyssebotn, Ingvald

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of infusion of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the blood flow in normal tissues and BT 4 An tumors growing subcutaneously or intramusculary in BD IX rats. Methods and Materials: Sodium nitroprusside was given as a continuous intravenous infusion to keep the mean arterial pressure stable at 60 mmHg. The cardiac output, organ blood flow, and perfusion of the BT 4 An tumors were measured by injection of radiolabelled microspheres at control conditions and after 20 min SNP infusion in each animal. Two series of experiments were performed with two anesthetics with different mechanisms of action, Inactin and the midazolam-fentanyl-fluanisone combination (MFF), to secure reliable conclusions. Results: Cardiac output, heart rate, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles, heart, and liver increased during SNP infusion in either anesthetic group. In the kidneys and particularly in the skin, decreased blood flow by SNP was observed. When located subcutaneously on the foot, the blood flow in the tumor fell to 23.4% and 21.4% of the control values in the MFF- and Inactin-anesthetized animals, respectively. This was accompanied by a similar fall in the blood flow in the foot (tumor bed) itself. In the intramuscular tumor the blood flow fell to 24.8% of the control value in the MFF group, whereas the corresponding figure was 36.2% in the Inactin group. In the surrounding muscle (tumor bed) the blood flow increased significantly, most pronounced in the MFF experiment, where it was tripled. Conclusion: The fall in the tumor perfusion by SNP may be exploited therapeutically to increase the tumor temperature during hyperthermia. Predominant heating of the tumor compared to the tumor bed can be expected if the tumor is growing in or near skeletal muscles

  20. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA 1c , triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA 1c , triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition

  1. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gericke, Martin [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Berger, Claudia [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kunath, Anne [German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  2. Nanomaterial N-CP/DLPLG as potent1onal tissue graft in osteoreparation in combination with bone marrow cells on subcutaneous implantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Jelena M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for bone graft materials in osteoreparation is tremendous. Many researches have shown that calcium-phosphate bioceramics have good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. We used nanocomposite biomaterial calcium phosphate coated with poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide or N-CP/DLPLG. The goal of this investigation was to examine weather N-CP/DLPLG has ability to sustain growth of bone marrow cells after subcutaneous implantation in Balb/c mice. For that purpose N-CP/DLPLG implants with and without bone marrow cells (control were made. Implants were extracted after eight days and eight weeks. In implants loaded with bone marrow cells after eight days and eight weeks we observed fields rich in cells, angiogenesis and collagen genesis. These results showed that N-CP/DLPLG has property of tissue scaffold which sustain bone marrow cells growth and collagen production. This represents a good way for further examination of N-CP/DLPLG as potentional tissue scaffold in osteoreparation.

  3. Lymphatic flow in humans as indicated by the clearance of 125I-labeled albumin from the subcutaneous tissue of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.J.; Davies, W.T.; Owen, G.M.; Tyler, A.

    1983-01-01

    Since the removal of albumin from the extracellular space and its return to the vascular compartment is the essential function of the lymphatic system, the rate at which it is removed from the interstitial tissue may be regarded as a means of estimating lymphatic efficiency. An objective measure of lymphatic function can be obtained by monitoring the rate of clearance following injection of 125 I-labeled albumin (RIHSA) from the subcutaneous tissue of a limb. The clearance of 125 I-RIHSA from lower limb was monitored in a group of patients with normal limbs, patients with unilateral edema due to deep vein thrombosis, and patients with bilateral edema due to hypoproteinemia. The mean T1/2 in normal legs was 32.7 hr, compared to 23.7 hr in edematous limbs due to deep vein thrombosis and 19.4 in edematous limbs due to hypoproteinemia. There is a clear-cut difference in clearance rate between edematous and nonedematous limbs. This suggests that lymphatic flow is increased in edema due to venous obstruction and hypoproteinemia

  4. Risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in TGFB1, SOD2, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX and ATM - a study based on DNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In two previously published studies, associations with risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis were found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TGFB1 (transforming growth factor beta 1 gene), XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 gene), XRCC3 (X-ray repair cross...... the influence of genetic variation upon normal tissue radiosensitivity...

  5. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Murphey, M.D.; Temple, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  6. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed...... and degree of vascular collapse is dependent on heating time, temperature and tumour model used. Such vascular collapse generally occurs at temperatures that cause a substantial blood flow increase in certain normal tissues, thus preferential anti-tumour effects can be achieved. The tumour vascular supply...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  7. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi; de Mello, Vanessa; Schwab, Ursula; Carlberg, Carsten; Myhrstad, Mari; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Dungner, Elisabeth; Sjölin, Eva; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Akesson, Björn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Hukkanen, Janne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dragsted, Lars O; Savolainen, Markku J; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Thorsdottir, Inga; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Uusitupa, Matti; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Relations of Visceral and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference to Serum Concentrations of Parameters of Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schlecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different measures of body fat composition may vary in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Methods: We assessed the relations of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC to serum concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin in 97 healthy adults using multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, and use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Parameters of chronic inflammation were mutually adjusted. Results: VAT (β = 0.34, SAT (β = 0.43, BMI (β = 0.40, and WC (β = 0.47 were all significantly associated with hs-CRP. BMI was additionally inversely related to adiponectin (β = -0.29. In exploratory subgroup analyses defined by gender, BMI, smoking, and use of aspirin or NSAIDs, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of IL-6, SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP, and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC showed to be a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. Conclusion: VAT, SAT, BMI, and WC show distinct associations with parameters of chronic inflammation. Whether these differences reflect differential metabolic risks requires clarification by longitudinal studies.

  9. A low-protein diet induces body weight loss and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue through enhanced expression of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martí, Albert; Garcia-Guasch, Maite; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Alexandra; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2017-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD. This diet increased FGF21 production by inducing its overexpression in liver, and this correlated with a body weight decrease without changes in food intake. The LPD also caused FGF21-dependent browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), as indicated by an increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In a subgroup of 78 individuals from the PREDIMED trial, we observed an inverse correlation between protein intake and circulating FGF21 levels. Our results reinforce the involvement of FGF21 in coordinating energy homeostasis under a range of nutritional conditions. Moreover, here we describe an approach to increase the endogenous production of FGF21, which if demonstrated functional in humans, could generate a treatment for obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Calcium hydroxide associated with a new vehicle: Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts. Tissue response evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego VALENTIM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate edemogenic activity and subcutaneous inflammatory reaction induced by Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts associated with Ca(OH2. Thirty male Wistar rats, split equally into three groups [aqueous extract + Ca(OH2; ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2; and propylene glycol + Ca(OH2], were assessed every 3 h or 6 h (five animals in each period. Under general anesthesia, 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein and each combination to be evaluated was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal region 30 min thereafter. Edemogenic activity was analyzed by spectrophotometry (λ=630 nm. For inflammatory reaction analysis, 50 rats received four polyethylene tubes (three experimental groups and an empty tube (control group. The assessments were made at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by the assignment of scores for evaluation of tissue response intensity. Ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2 yielded the largest edemogenic activity at 3 h. Intergroup differences at 6 h were not significant. The histological analysis showed progressive repair over time (p<0.05 and aqueous and ethanolic extracts produced similar responses to those of the control and Ca(OH2 + propylene glycol groups. Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts used as Ca(OH2 vehicles evoked similar tissue response when compared to Ca(OH2 associated with propylene glycol.

  11. Longitudinal changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: Results from the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Andrew W; Humphries, Karin H; Lear, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined whether longitudinal changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), independent of each other, are associated with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of VAT and SAT on MetS and metabolic risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of Canadians followed for 5-years. In total, 598 adults of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT) were included in this study. Assessments of body composition using computed tomography (CT) and metabolic risk factors were conducted at baseline, 3-, and 5-years. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to model the longitudinal effects of VAT and SAT on MetS and metabolic risk factors. There were significant between-person (cross-sectional) effects such that for every 10cm 2 higher VAT, the odds of MetS, high-risk fasting glucose levels and high-risk HDL-C levels significantly increased by 16% (95% CI: 9-24%), 11% (3-20%), and 7% (0-14%) respectively. Significant within-person (longitudinal) effects were also found such that for every 10cm 2 increase in VAT the odds of MetS and high-risk triglyceride levels significantly increased by 23% (9-39%) and 30% (14-48%), respectively. Cross-sectional or longitudinal changes in SAT were not associated with MetS or metabolic risk factors. This study found a direct relationship between longitudinal change in VAT and MetS risk independent of changes in SAT. Clinical practice should focus on the reduction of VAT to improve cardiovascular health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of poly (L-co-D,L Lactic Acid and a study of polymer-tissue interaction in subcutaneous implants in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Serafino Ciambelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid (PLDLA is an important biomaterial because of its biocompatibility properties that promote cellular regeneration and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymer-tissue interaction of PLDLA implants in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats at various intervals (2, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. Physical properties such as the glass transition point (Tg, degradation behavior and other mechanical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tension tests. Analysis of the degradation of PLDLA membranes in vitro showed that the polymer became crystalline as a function of the degradation time. Mechanical tension tests showed that the polymer behaved like a ductile material: when subjected to constant tension it initially suffered deformation, then elongation and finally ruptured. TGA/MEV provided evidence of PLDLA membrane degradation. For histological analysis, samples from each group were processed in xylol/paraffin, except for the 60 - and 90 - day samples. Each of the latter samples was divided in two: one half was treated with xylol/paraffin and the other with historesin. Light microscopy showed the adhesion of cells to the biomaterial, the formation of a conjunctive capsule around the implant, the presence of epithelioid cells, the formation of foreign body giant cells and angiogenesis. During degradation, the polymer showed a 'lace' - like appearance when processed in xylol/paraffin compared to the formation of "centripetal cracks in the form of glove fingers" when embedded in historesin.

  13. Immune response and reactogenicity of intradermal administration versus subcutaneous administration of varicella-zoster virus vaccine: an exploratory, randomised, partly blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Chan R; Railkar, Radha A; Schaeffer, Andrea K; Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Meyer, Brian K; Evans, Robert K; Sheldon, Eric A; Lasseter, Kenneth; Lang, Nancy; Weinberg, Adriana; Canniff, Jennifer; Levin, Myron J

    2016-08-01

    The licensed live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine prevents herpes zoster in adults older than 50 years. We aimed to determine whether intradermal administration of zoster vaccine could enhance vaccine immunogenicity compared with conventional needle subcutaneous administration. In this randomised, dose-ranging study, adults aged 50 years or older who had a history of varicella or who had resided in a country with endemic varicella-zoster virus infection for 30 years or more were eligible. Participants received the approved full or a 1/3 dose of zoster vaccine given subcutaneously or one of four intradermal doses (full, 1/3, 1/10, or 1/27 dose) using the MicronJet600 device. The two subcutaneous doses and the four intradermal doses were randomised (1·5:1:1:1:1:1) by computer generated sequence with randomisation stratified by age (50-59 years or 60 years or older). The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the change from baseline in IgG antibody to varicella-zoster virus-specific glycoproteins (gpELISA) measured at 6 weeks. All patients were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01385566. Between Sept 2, 2011, and Jan 13, 2012, 224 participants were enrolled from three clinics in the USA and 223 were randomly assigned: 52 to receive the full dose subcutaneous zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the 1/3 dose subcutaneous zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the full dose intradermal zoster vaccine, 35 to receive the 1/3 dose intradermal zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the 1/10 dose intradermal zoster vaccine, and 34 to receive the 1/27 dose intradermal zoster vaccine. Full dose zoster vaccine given subcutaneously resulted in a gpELISA geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of 1·74 (90% CI 1·48-2·04) at 6 weeks post-vaccination compared with intradermal administration which resulted in a significantly higher gpELISA GMFR of 3·25 (2·68-3·94; p<0·0001), which also remained high at 18 months. An apparent dose-response

  14. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  15. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  16. INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with increased subcutaneous fat in women and poor response to resistance training in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoeller Robert F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605 (g.-10,1025G>C, Chr2:118,552,255, NT_022135.15, was reported to be associated with obesity (Body Mass Index, [BMI] in a genome-wide association scan using the Framingham Heart Study but has not been reproduced in other cohorts. As BMI is a relatively insensitive measure of adiposity that is subject to many confounding variables, we sought to determine the relationship between the INSIG2 SNP and subcutaneous fat volumes measured by MRI in a young adult population. Methods We genotyped the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 in college-aged population enrolled in a controlled resistance-training program, (the Functional Polymorphism Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength, FAMuSS cohort, n = 752 volunteers 18–40 yrs. In this longitudinal study, we examined the effect of the INSIG2 polymorphism on subcutaneous fat and muscle volumes of the upper arm measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after 12 wks of resistance training. Gene/phenotype associations were tested using an analysis of covariance model with age and weight as covariates. Further, the % variation in each phenotype attributable to genotype was determined using hierarchical models and tested with a likelihood ratio test. Results Women with a copy of the C allele had higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat (GG: n = 139; 243473 ± 5713 mm3 vs. GC/CC: n = 181; 268521 ± 5003 mm3; p = 0.0011; but men did not show any such association. Men homozygous for the G ancestral allele showed a loss of subcutaneous fat, while those with one or two copies of the C allele gained a greater percentage of subcutaneous fat with resistance training (GG: n = 103; 1.02% ± 1.74% vs. GC/CC: n = 93; 6.39% ± 1.82%; p = 0.035. Conclusion Our results show that the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism underlies variation in subcutaneous adiposity in young adult women and suppresses the positive effects of resistance training on men. This

  17. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    in lipodystrophic patients compared to nonlipodystrophic patients, whereas luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin were similar and normal in both study groups. Ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, limb fat, and insulin sensitivity, which were all decreased in lipodystrophic...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...

  18. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Gatidis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT.120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data.Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%. Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness.We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  19. Insulin resistance in multiple tissues in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is present in lean patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with matched healthy controls. We studied eight patients (four men and four women) with

  20. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

  1. Comparison of tumour age response to radiation for cells derived from tissue culture or solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.; Rochester Univ., NY; Rochester Univ., NY; Wheeler, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct comparison of the cell age response of 9L and KHT tumour cells derived either from tissue culture or solid tumours was achieved. Cells from dissociated KHT and 9L tumours (the latter implanted either subcutaneously or intracerebrally) and cells from tissue culture were separated into homogenous sized populations by centrifugal elutriation. In both tumour models these homogeneous sized populations correspond to populations enriched at different stages of the cell cycle. The survival of these elutriated cell populations was measured after a single dose of Cs-137 gamma rays. For cells isolated from 9L solid tumours, there was little variation in radiosensitivity throughout the cell cycle; however, a very small but significant increase in resistance was found in late G 1 cells. This lack of a large variation in radiosensitivity through the cell cycle for 9L cells from solid tumours also was seen in 9L cells growing in monolayer tissue culture. When similar experiments were performed using the KHT sarcoma tumour model, the results showed that KHT cells in vitro exhibited a fairly conventional increase in radioresistance in both mid G 1 and late S. However, the cell age response of KHT cells from solid tumours was different; particularly in the late S and G 2 + M phases. (author)

  2. Exposure‐Response Model of Subcutaneous C1‐Inhibitor Concentrate to Estimate the Risk of Attacks in Patients With Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorici, Michael A.; Pawaskar, Dipti; Pragst, Ingo; Machnig, Thomas; Hutmacher, Matthew; Zuraw, Bruce; Cicardi, Marco; Craig, Timothy; Longhurst, Hilary; Sidhu, Jagdev

    2018-01-01

    Subcutaneous C1‐inhibitor (HAEGARDA, CSL Behring), is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)‐approved, highly concentrated formulation of a plasma‐derived C1‐esterase inhibitor (C1‐INH), which, in the phase III Clinical Studies for Optimal Management in Preventing Angioedema with Low‐Volume Subcutaneous C1‐inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial, reduced the incidence of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks when given prophylactically. Data from the COMPACT trial were used to develop a repeated time‐to‐event model to characterize the timing and frequency of HAE attacks as a function of C1‐INH activity, and then develop an exposure–response model to assess the relationship between C1‐INH functional activity levels (C1‐INH(f)) and the risk of an attack. The C1‐INH(f) values of 33.1%, 40.3%, and 63.1% were predicted to correspond with 50%, 70%, and 90% reductions in the HAE attack risk, respectively, relative to no therapy. Based on trough C1‐INH(f) values for the 40 IU/kg (40.2%) and 60 IU/kg (48.0%) C1‐INH (SC) doses, the model predicted that 50% and 67% of the population, respectively, would see at least a 70% decrease in the risk of an attack. PMID:29316335

  3. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  4. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  5. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  6. Evaluation of normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halnan, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical results presented have been analysed to evaluate normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations. Damage to brain, spinal cord, gut, skin, connective tissue and bone has occurred. A high RBE is probable for brain and possible for spinal cord and gut but other reasons for damage are also discussed. A net gain seems likely. Random controlled trials are advocated. (author)

  7. Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1985-01-01

    The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of 133 xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant in NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for 133 Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method ( 133 Xe and [ 131 I]antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin

  8. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  9. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Ashley J

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of 'Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue' maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes: 1. light propagation and diagnostic appl...

  11. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  12. Mouse genetic approaches applied to the normal tissue radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haston, Christina K.

    2012-01-01

    The varying responses of inbred mouse models to radiation exposure present a unique opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and tissue injury. Such studies are complementary to human association studies as they permit both the analysis of clinical features of disease, and of specific variants associated with its presentation, in a controlled environment. Herein I review how animal models are studied to identify specific genetic variants influencing predisposition to radiation-induced traits. Among these radiation-induced responses are documented strain differences in repair of DNA damage and in extent of tissue injury (in the lung, skin, and intestine) which form the base for genetic investigations. For example, radiation-induced DNA damage is consistently greater in tissues from BALB/cJ mice, than the levels in C57BL/6J mice, suggesting there may be an inherent DNA damage level per strain. Regarding tissue injury, strain specific inflammatory and fibrotic phenotypes have been documented for principally, C57BL/6 C3H and A/J mice but a correlation among responses such that knowledge of the radiation injury in one tissue informs of the response in another is not evident. Strategies to identify genetic differences contributing to a trait based on inbred strain differences, which include linkage analysis and the evaluation of recombinant congenic (RC) strains, are presented, with a focus on the lung response to irradiation which is the only radiation-induced tissue injury mapped to date. Such approaches are needed to reveal genetic differences in susceptibility to radiation injury, and also to provide a context for the effects of specific genetic variation uncovered in anticipated clinical association studies. In summary, mouse models can be studied to uncover heritable variation predisposing to specific radiation responses, and such variations may point to pathways of importance to phenotype development in the clinic.

  13. Intrinsic regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Nielsen, Steen Levin; Paaske, W

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies on intact human subcutaneous tissue have shown, that blood flow remains constant during minor changes in perfusion pressure. This so-called autoregulatory response has not been demonstrable in isolated preparations of adipose tissue. In the present study on isolated, denervated...... subcutaneous tissue in female rabbits only 2 of 12 expts. revealed an autoregulatory response during reduction in arterial perfusion pressure. Effluent blood flow from the tissue in the control state was 15.5 ml/100 g-min (S.D. 6.4, n = 12) corresponding to slight vasodilatation of the exposed tissue...... vasoconstriction with pronounced flow reduction. These two reactions may be important for local regulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue during orthostatic changes in arterial and venous pressure. It is concluded that the response in adipose tissue to changes in arterial pressure (autoregulation), venous...

  14. Soft tissue response and facial symmetry after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermker, Kai; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Jung, Susanne; Dirksen, Dieter

    2014-09-01

    In orthognathic surgery aesthetic issues and facial symmetry are vital parameters in surgical planning. Aim of this investigation was to document and analyze the results of orthognathic surgery on the base of a three-dimensional photogrammetric assessment, to assess the soft tissue response related to the skeletal shift and the alterations in facial symmetry after orthognathic surgery. In this prospective clinical trial from January 2010 to June 2011, 104 patients were examined who underwent orthognathic surgery due to mono- or bimaxillary dysgnathia. The standardized measurements, based on optical 3D face scans, took place one day before orthognathic surgery (T1) and one day before removal of osteosynthesis material (T2). Soft tissue changes after procedures involving the mandible showed significant positive correlations and strong soft tissue response (p  0.05). The facial surfaces became more symmetric and harmonic with the exception of surgical maxillary expansion, but improvement of facial symmetry revealed no statistical significance. Soft tissue response after orthognathic surgery and symmetry are only partially predictable, especially in the maxillary and midfacial region. Computer programs predicting soft tissue changes are not currently safely reliable and should not be used or with caution to demonstrate a patient potential outcome of surgery. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of clusterin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia, very-low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloučková, J; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Trachta, P; Kasalický, M; Haluzíková, D; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2016-07-18

    Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with wide range of functions. To further explore its possible regulatory role in energy homeostasis and in adipose tissue, we measured plasma clusterin and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 15 healthy lean women, 15 obese women (OB) and 15 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent a 2-week very low-calorie diet (VLCD), 10 obese women without T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 8 patients with T2DM, 8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 8 normoglycemic patients who underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). VLCD decreased plasma clusterin in OB but not in T2DM patients while LSG and HEC had no effect. Clusterin mRNA expression in SCAT at baseline was increased in OB and T2DM patients compared with controls. Clusterin mRNA expression decreased 6 months after LSG and remained decreased 12 months after LSG. mRNA expression of clusterin was elevated at the end of HEC compared with baseline only in normoglycemic but not in IGT or T2DM patients. In summary, our data suggest a possible local regulatory role for clusterin in the adipose tissue rather than its systemic involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  16. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  17. T lymphocytes and normal tissue responses to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that lymphocytes are a recurring feature in radiation damaged normal tissues, but assessing their functional significance has proven difficult. Contradictory roles have been postulated in both tissue pathogenesis and protection, although these are not necessarily mutually exclusive as the immune system can display what may seem to be opposing faces at any one time. While the exact role of T lymphocytes in irradiated normal tissue responses may still be obscure, their accumulation after tissue damage suggests they may be critical targets for radiotherapeutic intervention and worthy of further study. This is accentuated by recent findings that pathologically damaged “self,” such as occurs after exposure to ionizing radiation, can generate danger signals with the ability to activate pathways similar to those that activate adoptive immunity to pathogens. In addition, the demonstration of T cell subsets with their recognition radars tuned to “self” moieties has revolutionized our ideas on how all immune responses are controlled and regulated. New concepts of autoimmunity have resulted based on the dissociation of immune functions between different subsets of immune cells. It is becoming axiomatic that the immune system has the power to regulate radiation-induced tissue damage, from failure of regeneration to fibrosis, to acute and chronic late effects, and even to carcinogenesis. Our understanding of the interplay between T lymphocytes and radiation-damaged tissue may still be rudimentary but this is a good time to re-examine their potential roles, their radiobiological and microenvironmental influences, and the possibilities for therapeutic manipulation. This review will discuss the yin and yang of T cell responses within the context of radiation exposures, how they might drive or protect against normal tissue side effects and what we may be able do about it.

  18. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxygen may enhance faster absorption of air from extra-pulmonary tissues while needle aspiration and/ or surgical decompression may be useful if mediastinal structures are compressed [2,9,]. Conclusion. Extra-pulmonary extravasations of air manifested as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.

  19. Unsupervised Assessment of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Larsen, Rasmus; Wraae, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a. method for unsupervised assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region by MRI. The identification of the subcutaneous and the visceral regions were achieved by dynamic programming constrained by points acquired from an active shape model...

  20. Measurement of human normal tissue and tumour responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The scarcity of quantitative measures of normal tissue damage and tumour response in patients undergoing radiotherapy is an obstacle to the clinical evaluation of new treatment strategies. Retrospective studies of complications in critical normal tissues taught important lessons in the past concerning the potential dangers of hypofractionation. However, it is unethical to use serious complications as planned end-points in prospective studies. This paper reviews the desirable characteristics of clinical end-points required to compare alternative treatments employing radiotherapy, with emphasis on simple scales applied by clinicians or even the patients themselves

  1. Sustained Response Following Discontinuation of Methotrexate in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated With Subcutaneous Tocilizumab: Results From a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joel M; Rigby, William; Singer, Nora G; Birchwood, Christine; Gill, Darcy; Reiss, William; Pei, Jinglan; Michalska, Margaret

    2018-03-25

    To evaluate whether tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy is non-inferior to TCZ + methotrexate (MTX) in maintaining clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieve low disease activity with TCZ+MTX. Patients with RA who experienced an inadequate response to MTX received MTX plus TCZ 162 mg subcutaneous. At 24 weeks, patients who achieved Disease Activity Score 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) ≤3.2 were randomized to receive TCZ monotherapy or continue TCZ+MTX until week 52. The primary outcome was the comparison of mean change in DAS28-ESR from weeks 24 to 40 between the TCZ monotherapy and TCZ+MTX arms (non-inferiority margin of 0.6). Secondary outcomes included DAS28-ESR worsening ≥1.2, achievement of DAS28-ESR <2.6 and ≤3.2 and safety and immunogenicity. Of 718 patients enrolled, 294 were randomized at week 24 (TCZ monotherapy, n = 147; TCZ+MTX, n = 147). The mean changes in DAS28-ESR from weeks 24 to 40 were 0.46 and 0.14 in the TCZ monotherapy and TCZ+MTX arms, respectively (weighted difference between the groups, 0.318 [95% CI 0.045, 0.592]); discontinuing MTX in TCZ responders was non-inferior to continuing MTX. Safety events were broadly similar between the randomized treatment groups; the most common serious adverse event was infection, occurring in 2.1% of patients in the TCZ monotherapy group and 2.2% in the TCZ+MTX group. Patients with RA receiving TCZ+MTX who achieve low disease activity can discontinue MTX without significant worsening of disease activity in the 16 weeks following MTX discontinuation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipidomic Adaptations in White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Response to Exercise Demonstrate Molecular Species-Specific Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. May

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylcholines (PC, phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and phosphatidylserines (PS in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.

  3. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  4. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  5. Histologic response of soft tissue sarcoma to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Schiller, A.L.; Suit, H.D.; Mankin, H.J.; Rosenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma had preoperative radiotherapy, limb-sparing marginal surgical resection and whole-mount tumor histologic analysis. Incisional biopsy specimens before radiotherapy were reviewed for tumor type, grade, and extent of necrosis. Preoperative radiotherapy was given in either of two regimens: 13 patients received a mean total dose of 5250 cGy in one daily 180 to 200 cGy fractions and 14 patients a mean total dose of 4770 cGy in two daily fractions of 180 to 200 cGy separated by 4 hours. Twenty-one specimens had at least 80% necrosis or severely altered cells, a 3+ to 4+ response. Grade and size of the tumor appeared to be indicators of response to treatment rather than histologic type. Three of five patients (60%) with Grade 1, eight of 11 patients (73%) with Grade 2 lesions, and ten of 11 patients (91%) with Grade 3 tumors had 80% or greater necrosis or severely altered cells. For tumors 10 cm or less in greatest diameter, the 3+ to 4+ histologic response was seen in 12 of 14 patients (86%) whereas for lesions greater than 10 cm, this response was observed in nine of 13 patients (69%). For patients with Grade 2 or 3 soft tissue sarcoma, 13 of 14 patients (93%) treated with two fractions per day and two of four patients (50%) receiving one fraction per day exhibited significant response. All six patients treated twice daily for lesions greater than 10 cm had 3+ to 4+ histologic response compared to three of seven (43%) patients treated once per day. Therefore, grade and size of soft tissue sarcoma are important predictors of response to radiotherapy and preoperative twice daily radiotherapy may more likely permit the conservative surgical excision of sarcomas of borderline resectability

  6. Hypoxic Response of Tumor Tissues in a Microfluidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Adnan; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Inside a tumor tissue, cells growing further away from the blood vessel often suffer from low oxygen levels known as hypoxia. Cancer cells have shown prolonged survival in hostile hypoxic conditions by sharply changing the cellular metabolism. In this work, different stages of growth of the tumor tissue and the oxygen transport across the tissue are investigated. The tissue was modeled as a contiguous block of cells inside a microfluidic environment with nutrient transport through advection and diffusion. While oxygen uptake inside the tissue is through diffusion, ascorbate transport from the extracellular medium is addressed by a concentration dependent uptake model. By varying the experimentally observed oxygen consumption rate, different types of cancer cells and their normoxic and hypoxic stages were studied. Even when the oxygen supply in the channel is maintained at normoxic levels, our results show the onset of hypoxia within minutes inside the cellblock. Interestingly, modeled cell blocks with and without a structured basal layer showed less than 5% variation in hypoxic response in chronic hypoxia. Results also indicate that the balance of cell survival and growth are affected by the flow rate of nutrients and the oxygen consumption rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMS 1317671.

  7. A prospective clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cellulite treatment using the combination of optical and RF energies for subcutaneous tissue heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadick, Neil S; Mulholland, R Stephen

    2004-12-01

    There have not been any published studies on the use of radiofrequency (RF)-light-based technologies for the treatment of cellulite. Only preliminary results have recently been reported (ASDS Proceedings, September 2004). This two-center study investigated the safety and effectiveness of combined energies for cellulite treatment using the VelaSmoothtrade mark system. Thirty-five female subjects with cellulite and/or skin irregularities on the thighs and/or buttocks were treated with the VelaSmooth device. Patients received from eight to 16 treatments twice weekly. All patients maintained their normal lifestyle, and diet and fluid consumption. The circumference of the right and left medial thighs was measured at both baseline and approximately 4 weeks after the last treatment. During the last follow-up visit, the physician graded the level of improvement in skin smoothing and/or cellulite improvement using pre- and post-treatment photographs. Three patients provided biopsy specimens for histological assessment. All study patients showed some level of reduction in thigh circumference after 8 weeks of treatment; indeed, 70% of all patients showed such a reduction after 4 weeks of treatment. Also, 100% of all patients showed some level of improvement in skin texture and cellulite. The mean decrease in circumference was 0.8 inches. Some patients demonstrated reductions of more than 2 inches. There were minimal complications associated with treatment. This preliminary study demonstrates that the VelaSmooth system can have a beneficial effect on cellulite appearance. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanisms by which RF and light energies affect subdermal tissues and develop a method of quantified cellulite analysis.

  8. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitam...

  9. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man - I. Gustatory tissues response during photon and neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative radiation dose-response curves for normal gustatory tissue in man were studied. Taste function, expressed as taste loss, was evaluated in 84 patients who were given either photon or neutron radiotherapy for tumors in the head and neck region. Patients were treated to average tumor doses of 6600 cGy (photon) or 2200 cGy intervals for photon patients and 320-cGy intervals for neutron patients during radiotherapy. The dose-response curves for photons and neutrons were analyzed by fitting a four-parameter logistic equation to the data. Photon and neutron curves differed principally in their relative position along the dose axis. Comparison of the dose-response curves were made by determination of RBE. At 320 cGy, the lowest neutron dose at which taste measurements were made, RBE = 5.7. If this RBE is correct, then the therapeutic gain factor may be equal to or less than 1, indicating no biological advantage in using neutrons over photons for this normal tissue. These studies suggest measurements of taste function and evaluation of dose-response relationships may also be useful in quantitatively evaluating the efficacy of chemical modifiers of radiation response such as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and radioprotectors

  10. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  11. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    is available. In-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in control of placental vascular tone are needed to develop new tissue targets for therapeutic intervention. Method: From fresh born placentas segments of stem villous arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided....... The surrounding trophoblast was removed from one end and left intact in the other, and the segment was divided to give two ring preparations, with or without trophoblast. The preparations were mounted in wire myographs and responses to vasoactive agents were compared. Results: pD2values for PGF2α, Tx-analog U...... or endotheline-1. These differences partly disappeared in the presence of L-NAME. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly reduces sensitivity and force development of stem villous arteries, partly due to release of NO This represents a new mechanism for control of human stem villous artery tone....

  12. Subcutaneous emphysema, a different way to diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José da Costa Medeiros

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a clinical condition that occurs when air gets into soft tissues under the skin. This can occur in any part of the body depending on the type of pathology. The most common site is under the skin that covers the chest wall or neck. It is characterized by painless swelling of tissues. The classic clinical sign is a crackling sensation upon touch, resembling that of touching a sponge beneath your fingers. Objective: To describe a new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema. Method: Our finding was a matter of serendipity while inspecting a patient with subcutaneous emphysema using a stethoscope. Instead only hearing the patient's chest, the stethoscope was gently pressed against the skin with SE and so we were able to detect a different sound. Results: This new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema consists in pressing the diaphragm part of stethoscope against the patient's skin where SE is supposed to be. Thus, we are able to hear a sound of small bubbles bursting. Crackle noise has an acoustic emission energy that varies between 750-1,200 Hz, considered high frequency. Conclusion: Although currently the use of imaging methods is widespread worldwide, we would like to strengthen the value of clinical examination. Auscultation is an essential diagnostic method that has become underestimated with the advances of healthcare and medicine as a whole. We therefore propose a different approach to diagnose SE.

  13. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia: studies in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-08-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. Two hours after onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms, subcutaneous blood flow was still significantly decreased compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. In normal subjects local nerve blockade had no effect on blood flow changes during hypoglycaemia, whereas local alpha-receptor blockade abolished the vasoconstrictor response. We suggest that circulating catecholamines stimulating vascular alpha-receptors are probably responsible for flow reduction in the subcutaneous tissue during hypoglycaemia.

  14. Mathematical models of tumour and normal tissue response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Dale, R.G.; Charing Cross Group of Hospitals, London

    1999-01-01

    The historical application of mathematics in the natural sciences and in radiotherapy is compared. The various forms of mathematical models and their limitations are discussed. The Linear Quadratic (LQ) model can be modified to include (i) radiobiological parameter changes that occur during fractionated radiotherapy, (ii) situations such as focal forms of radiotherapy, (iii) normal tissue responses, and (iv) to allow for the process of optimization. The inclusion of a variable cell loss factor in the LQ model repopulation term produces a more flexible clonogenic doubling time, which can simulate the phenomenon of 'accelerated repopulation'. Differential calculus can be applied to the LQ model after elimination of the fraction number integers. The optimum dose per fraction (maximum cell kill relative to a given normal tissue fractionation sensitivity) is then estimated from the clonogen doubling times and the radiosensitivity parameters (or α/β ratios). Economic treatment optimization is described. Tumour volume studies during or following teletherapy are used to optimize brachytherapy. The radiation responses of both individual tumours and tumour populations (by random sampling 'Monte-Carlo' techniques from statistical ranges of radiobiological and physical parameters) can be estimated. Computerized preclinical trials can be used to guide choice of dose fractionation scheduling in clinical trials. The potential impact of gene and other biological therapies on the results of radical radiotherapy are testable. New and experimentally testable hypotheses are generated from limited clinical data by exploratory modelling exercises. (orig.)

  15. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  16. Oral mucosa tissue response to titanium cover screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Paparella, María L; Spielberg, Martín; Brandizzi, Daniel; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2012-08-01

    Titanium is the most widely used metal in dental implantology. The release of particles from metal structures into the biologic milieu may be the result of electrochemical processes (corrosion) and/or mechanical disruption during insertion, abutment connection, or removal of failing implants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate tissue response of human oral mucosa adjacent to titanium cover screws. One hundred fifty-three biopsies of the supra-implant oral mucosa adjacent to the cover screw of submerged dental implants were analyzed. Histologic studies were performed to analyze epithelial and connective tissue as well as the presence of metal particles, which were identified using microchemical analysis. Langerhans cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. The surface of the cover screws was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty-one percent of mucosa biopsies exhibited metal particles in different layers of the section thickness. Particle number and size varied greatly among specimens. Immunohistochemical study confirmed the presence of macrophages and T lymphocytes associated with the metal particles. Microchemical analysis revealed the presence of titanium in the particles. On SEM analysis, the surface of the screws exhibited depressions and irregularities. The biologic effects seen in the mucosa in contact with the cover screws might be associated with the presence of titanium or other elements, such as aluminum or vanadium. The potential long-term biologic effects of particles on soft tissues adjacent to metallic devices should be further investigated because these effects might affect the clinical outcome of the implant.

  17. Canine tumor and normal tissue response to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.; McChesney, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas of dogs were treated with either irradiation alone or combined with hyperthermia. Tumor control was assessed as no evidence of disease one year following treatment. Dogs were randomized to variable radiation doses which were given in ten fractions three times a week for three weeks. Heat was given three hours after the first and third radiation dose each week for seven treatments. The attempt was made to achieve a minimum tumor temperature of 42 0 C for thirty minutes with a maximum normal tissue temperature of 40 0 C. It was usually possible to selectively heat tumors. The TCD 50 for irradiation alone was about 400 rads greater than for heat plus irradiation. The dose response curve for heat plus radiation was much steeper than for radiation alone indicating less heterogeneity of tumor response. That also implies a much greater effectiveness of radiation combined with heat at higher tumor control probabilities. Early necrosis caused by heating healed with conservative management. No increase in late radiation necrosis was observed

  18. Characterization of the antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response induced by prime-boost strategies with CAF01 and CpG adjuvants administered by the intranasal and subcutaneous routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa eCiabattini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of heterologous prime-boost vaccine combinations that optimally shape the immune response is of critical importance for the development of next generation vaccines. Here we tested different prime-boost combinations using the tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56 with CAF01 or CpG ODN 1821 adjuvants, administered by the parenteral and nasal routes. By using peptide-MHC class II tetramers, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were tracked following primary and booster immunizations. Both parenteral priming with H56 plus CAF01 and nasal priming with H56 plus CpG elicited significant expansion of CD4+ tetramer-positive T cells in the spleen, however only parenterally primed cells responded to booster immunization. Subcutaneous priming with H56 and CAF01 followed by nasal boosting with H56 and CpG showed the greater expansion of CD4+ tetramer-positive T cells in the spleen and lungs compared to all the other homologous and heterologous prime-boost combinations. Nasal boosting exerted a recruitment of primed CD4+ T cells into lungs that was stronger in subcutaneously than nasally primed mice, in accordance with different chemokine receptor expression induced by primary immunization. These data demonstrate that subcutaneous priming is fundamental for eliciting CD4+ T cells that can be efficiently boosted by the nasal route and results in the recruitment of antigen-experienced cells into the lungs. Combination of different vaccine formulations and routes of delivery for priming and boosting is a strategic approach for improving and directing vaccine-induced immune responses.

  19. stausartikel: behandling af subcutane abscesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Petersen, Klaus Kjær

    2017-01-01

    Simple subcutaneous abscesses are common, and we have examined the literature concerning the ideal treatment of subcutaneous abscesses. We recommend radical debridement with removal of all pus, the abscess wall and any necrosis. If primary suture is chosen, preoperative antibiotics should be admi...

  20. Tissue response to silicone rubber when used as a root canal filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, F G; Goldman, M

    1977-04-01

    To test the tissue compatibility of silicone rubber when it is used as a root canal filler, excess material was intentionally forced into the apical tissues in primates. The tissue response was one of general acceptance, with the usual response being fibrotic encapsulation. A low degree of inflammation was noted. Further studies are in progress.

  1. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  2. Model Study of the Pressure Build-Up during Subcutaneous Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Hernandez Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In this study we estimate the subcutaneous tissue counter pressure during drug infusion from a series of injections of insulin in type 2 diabetic patients using a non-invasive method. We construct a model for the pressure evolution in subcutaneous tissue based on mass continuity and the flow laws...

  3. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  4. The subcutaneous inoculation of pH 6 antigen mutants of Yersinia pestis does not affect virulence and immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey P; Bakhteeva, Irina V; Panfertsev, Evgeniy A; Svetoch, Tat'yana E; Kravchenko, Tat'yana B; Platonov, Mikhail E; Titareva, Galina M; Kombarova, Tat'yana I; Ivanov, Sergey A; Rakin, Alexander V; Amoako, Kingsley K; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V

    2009-01-01

    Two isogenic sets of Yersinia pestis strains were generated, composed of wild-type strains 231 and I-1996, their non-polar pH 6(-) mutants with deletions in the psaA gene that codes for its structural subunit or the whole operon, as well as strains with restored ability for temperature- and pH-dependent synthesis of adhesion pili or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen. The mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the psa operon and subsequent complementation in trans. It was shown that the loss of synthesis or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen did not influence Y. pestis virulence or the average survival time of subcutaneously inoculated BALB/c naïve mice or animals immunized with this antigen.

  5. Pretreatment IgE sensitization patterns determine the molecular profile of the IgG4 response during updosing of subcutaneous immunotherapy with timothy grass pollen extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Würtzen, Peter Adler; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical efficacy is associated with improvement of basophil sensitivity and an increase in allergen-specific immunoglobulin concentration. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether changes in allergen...... component-specific serum IgE and IgG4 levels during the updosing phase of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are biomarkers of the immunologic changes that can lead to treatment efficacy. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized 3:1 to receive SCIT...... (Alutard SQ) or to an open control group. IgE and IgG4 concentrations were determined for the major allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5 by using ImmunoCAP and for 8 grass pollen molecules by using Immuno Solid-phase Allergy Chip (ISAC) before treatment and after updosing. RESULTS: Levels of specific IgE against...

  6. Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infections after subcutaneous injections with Vietnamese traditional medicine: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; van Dung, Nguyen; Campbell, James I.; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Le, Dien Hoa

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic skin and soft tissue infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria are described with increasing frequency, especially among immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an immunocompetent patient with extensive Mycobacterium fortuitum skin and soft tissue infections after subcutaneous

  7. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baaijen, Johannes C.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by

  8. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  9. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  10. Gigantic subcutaneous lipoma – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lyngsaa Lang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumour. The solitary subcutaneous lipoma accounts for approximately one-quarter to one-half of all soft tissue tumours. The preferred locations include the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, and the neck. In this case report, we present a gigantic axillary lipoma weighing 23.35 kg. Due to the tumour mass and its long-term presence, the lipoma caused anatomical changes in the axilla making its removal challenging and difficult.

  11. Tissue specificity of the hormonal response in sex accessory tissues is associated with nuclear matrix protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzenberg, R H; Coffey, D S

    1990-09-01

    The DNA of interphase nuclei have very specific three-dimensional organizations that are different in different cell types, and it is possible that this varying DNA organization is responsible for the tissue specificity of gene expression. The nuclear matrix organizes the three-dimensional structure of the DNA and is believed to be involved in the control of gene expression. This study compares the nuclear structural proteins between two sex accessory tissues in the same animal responding to the same androgen stimulation by the differential expression of major tissue-specific secretory proteins. We demonstrate here that the nuclear matrix is tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, and undergoes characteristic alterations in its protein composition upon androgen withdrawal. Three types of nuclear matrix proteins were observed: 1) nuclear matrix proteins that are different and tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, 2) a set of nuclear matrix proteins that either appear or disappear upon androgen withdrawal, and 3) a set of proteins that are common to both the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle and do not change with the hormonal state of the animal. Since the nuclear matrix is known to bind androgen receptors in a tissue- and steroid-specific manner, we propose that the tissue specificity of the nuclear matrix arranges the DNA in a unique conformation, which may be involved in the specific interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences, resulting in tissue-specific patterns of secretory protein expression.

  12. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when the air from the high-speed dental handpiece is forced into the soft tissue through the reflected flap and invades the adjacent tissues, leading to swelling, crepitus on palpation and occasionally spreading through the tissue spaces of the fascial planes. Although rare, iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Care should be taken when using air-driven handpieces. The access of air into the facial tissues is not limited to tooth extractions, but may also occur through other portals of entrance, such as endodontically treated teeth, periodontium and lacerations of intraoral soft tissues. When subcutaneous emphysema occurs, it must be quickly diagnosed and properly managed to reduce the risk of further complications. This report presents a case of subcutaneous emphysema occurred during extraction of a mandibular third molar extraction with the use of an air turbine handpiece. Case management is described and issues relative to the diagnosis and prevention of this surgical complication are discussed.

  13. Effect-independent measures of tissue response to fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors are measures of sparing from dose fractionation, in the absence of proliferation. A desirable feature of any repair factor is that it be independent of the level of injury induced in the tissue, since otherwise the comparison of tissues on the basis of the factor would not be meaningful. The repair factors F/sub R/ and F/sub rec/ are increasing functions of D/sub 1/, and depend on level of skin reaction after fractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow. For late fibrotic reactions in the kidney, there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury that was statistically insignificant. The halftime, T/sub 1/2/, for intracellular repair processes in tissues is a measure of repair kinetics. Effect-independence is defend for T/sub 1/2/ as independence from size of dose per fraction. T/sub 1/2/ is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (1.3 hours). Therefore, early and late-responding normal tissues may be distinguished in terms of both repair capacity and repair kinetics: repair is slower in late-responding tissues, which are also more sensitive to changes in dose fractionation

  14. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6–9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson’s Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial. PMID:27328066

  15. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT......-term weight maintenance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637. ©American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved....

  16. Possession of ATM Sequence Variants as Predictor for Late Normal Tissue Responses in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Fan, Grace; Atencio, David P.; Green, Sheryl; Formenti, Silvia C.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Iyengar, Preetha B.A.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The ATM gene product is a central component of cell cycle regulation and genomic surveillance. We hypothesized that DNA sequence alterations in ATM predict for adverse effects after external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 131 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow-up who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were screened for sequence alterations in ATM using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Genetic variants were identified using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring schemes for skin and subcutaneous tissues were applied to quantify the radiation-induced effects. Results: Of the 131 patients, 51 possessed ATM sequence alterations located within exons or in short intron regions flanking each exon that encompass putative splice site regions. Of these 51 patients, 21 (41%) exhibited a minimum of a Grade 2 late radiation response. In contrast, of the 80 patients without an ATM sequence variation, only 18 (23%) had radiation-induced adverse responses, for an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2). Fifteen patients were heterozygous for the G→A polymorphism at nucleotide 5557, which causes substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid at position 1853 of the ATM protein. Of these 15 patients, 8 (53%) exhibited a Grade 2-4 late response compared with 31 (27%) of the 116 patients without this alteration, for an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.4). Conclusion: Sequence variants located in the ATM gene, in particular the 5557 G→A polymorphism, may predict for late adverse radiation responses in breast cancer patients

  17. MRI of a Subcutaneous Myolipoma in the Ankle: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Sang Eun; Lee, Jung Uee; Choi, Eun Seok [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Myolipoma is a rare benign tumor, composed of irregularly admixed adipose tissue and smooth muscle fibers. Few literature studies have described the radiologic appearance of myolipoma, especially in the soft tissue. No MRI findings in subcutaneous myolipoma of an extremity have been reported. Here, we report on the case of a 34-year-old woman with myolipoma in the subcutaneous tissue of the ankle and describe MRI features of the lesion.

  18. Correlated responses in tissue weights measured in vivo by computer tomography in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsoso, S.J.; Young, M.J.; Beatson, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate correlated responses in lean, fat and bone weights in vivo in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth. Over the period 1986-1992 inclusive, the lean tissue growth line had been selected using two economic indices for an increased aggregate breeding value incorporating predicted lean and fat weights with positive and negative economic weightings, respectively. The control line was selected for no change in lean tissue growth each year. Animals were born and run on pasture all year round. X-ray computer tomography was used to estimate the weights of lean, fat and bone in vivo in the 1994-born sheep, aged 265-274 days and selected randomly into 12 rams and 12 ewes from the selected line and 10 rams and 9 ewes from the control line. The lean tissue growth line had significantly greater responses in lean weight (+0.65 + 0.10 kg) and lean percentage (+1.19 + 0.17%) and significantly lesser fat weight (-0.36 + 0.08 kg) and fat percentage (-1.88 + 0.20%) compared to the control line. There was a significant increase in bone weight (+0.27 + 0.03 kg) and bone percentage (+0.69 + 0.09%) in the lean tissue growth line compared to the control line. Responses differed significantly between sexes of the lean tissue growth line, rams having a greater response in weight of lean (+1.22 + 0.20 vs. +0.08 + 0.22 kg) and bone (+0.45 + 0.06 vs. +0.09 + 0.07 kg), and a lesser response in weight of fat (-0.03 + 0.15 vs. -0.70 + 0.16 kg) than the ewes. Selection led to significant changes in lean (increase) and fat weights (decrease), and bone weight increased. Although responses in the lean tissue growth line differed significantly between sexes, there were confounding factors due to differences in management and lack of comparison at equal stage of development. Therefore, to assess real genetic differences further studies should be conducted taking these factors into consideration

  19. The response of MRI contrast parameters in in vitro tissues and tissue mimicking phantoms to fractionation by histotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven P.; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Shi, Jiaqi; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive, focused ultrasound lesioning technique that can ablate precise volumes of soft tissue using a novel mechanical fractionation mechanism. Previous research suggests that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be a sensitive image-based feedback mechanism for histotripsy. However, there are insufficient data to form some unified understanding of the response of the MR contrast mechanisms in tissues to histotripsy. In this paper, we investigate the response of the MR contrast parameters R1, R2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to various treatment levels of histotripsy in in vitro porcine liver, kidney, muscle, and blood clot as well in formulations of bovine red blood cells suspended in agar gel. We also make a histological analysis of histotripsy lesions in porcine liver. We find that R2 and the ADC are both sensitive to ablation in all materials tested here, and the degree of response varies with tissue type. Correspondingly, under histologic analysis, the porcine liver exhibited various levels of mechanical disruption and necrotic debris that are characteristic of histotripsy. While the area of intact red blood cells and nuclei found within these lesions both decreased with increasing amounts of treatment, the area of red blood cells decreased much more rapidly than the area of intact nuclei. Additionally, the decrease in area of intact red blood cells saturated at the same treatment levels at which the response of the R2 saturated while the area of intact nuclei appeared to vary linearly with the response of the ADC.

  20. Multiaxial mechanical response and constitutive modeling of esophageal tissues: Impact on esophageal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gerhard; Schriefl, Andreas; Zeindlinger, Georg; Katzensteiner, Andreas; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Saxena, Amulya; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-12-01

    Congenital defects of the esophagus are relatively frequent, with 1 out of 2500 babies suffering from such a defect. A new method of treatment by implanting tissue engineered esophagi into newborns is currently being developed and tested using ovine esophagi. For the reconstruction of the biological function of native tissues with engineered esophagi, their cellular structure as well as their mechanical properties must be considered. Since very limited mechanical and structural data for the esophagus are available, the aim of this study was to investigate the multiaxial mechanical behavior of the ovine esophagus and the underlying microstructure. Therefore, uniaxial tensile, biaxial tensile and extension-inflation tests on esophagi were performed. The underlying microstructure was examined in stained histological sections through standard optical microscopy techniques. Moreover, the uniaxial ultimate tensile strength and residual deformations of the tissue were determined. Both the mucosa-submucosa and the muscle layers showed nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical behavior during uniaxial, biaxial and inflation testing. Cyclical inflation of the intact esophageal tube caused marked softening of the passive esophagi in the circumferential direction. The rupture strength of the mucosa-submucosa layer was much higher than that of the muscle layer. Overall, the ovine esophagus showed a heterogeneous and anisotropic behavior with different mechanical properties for the individual layers. The intact and layer-specific multiaxial properties were characterized using a well-known three-dimensional microstructurally based strain-energy function. This novel and complete set of data serves the basis for a better understanding of tissue remodeling in diseased esophagi and can be used to perform computer simulations of surgical interventions or medical-device applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging features in calcinosis circumscripta, a rare type of subcutaneous calcification in localized scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcinosis cutis circumscripta is a rare condition in which abnormal deposition of calcium seen in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, it is associated with localized scleroderma. A 30-year-old female presented with an area of extensive calcification involving the right gluteal region, lateral aspect of right thigh and a small area on left thigh detected on radiograph with atrophy of subcutaneous tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were done for further evaluation and the findings were of calcification and atrophy involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

  2. Effect-independent measures of tissue responses to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors measure the sparing that can be achieved from dose fractionation in the absence of proliferation. Four repair factors are analysed in these terms: Fsub(R),Fsub(rec), the ratio of linear-quadratic survival model parameters β/α and the half-time Tsub(1/2) for intracellular repair processes. Theoretically, Fsub(R) and Fsub(rec) are increasing functions of D 1 , and thus depend on level of effect. This is confirmed by analysis of skin reactions after multifractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow, tissues for which it is reasonable to assume that survival of identifiable target cells is the primary determinant of the endpoint. For a functional endpoint not clearly connected with the depletion of a specific target-cell population (late fibrotic reactions in the kidney), there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury, but this was statistically insignificant. Tsub(1/2) is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (Tsub(1/2) less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (Tsub(1/2) approx. 1.3 hours). (author)

  3. Penile Subcutaneous Fibrolipoma Postaugmentative Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Vicini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are a rare subtype of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who three months earlier has been submitted to an augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. After six months from the excision of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and sexual life. To our knowledge, this is the first reported penile subcutaneous fibrolipoma case in the literature. The diagnostics and surgical features of this case are discussed.

  4. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  5. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  6. Computational methods for describing the laser-induced mechanical response of tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucano, T.; McGlaun, J.M.; Farnsworth, A.

    1994-02-01

    Detailed computational modeling of laser surgery requires treatment of the photoablation of human tissue by high intensity pulses of laser light and the subsequent thermomechanical response of the tissue. Three distinct physical regimes must be considered to accomplish this: (1) the immediate absorption of the laser pulse by the tissue and following tissue ablation, which is dependent upon tissue light absorption characteristics; (2) the near field thermal and mechanical response of the tissue to this laser pulse, and (3) the potential far field (and longer time) mechanical response of witness tissue. Both (2) and (3) are dependent upon accurate constitutive descriptions of the tissue. We will briefly review tissue absorptivity and mechanical behavior, with an emphasis on dynamic loads characteristic of the photoablation process. In this paper our focus will center on the requirements of numerical modeling and the uncertainties of mechanical tissue behavior under photoablation. We will also discuss potential contributions that computational simulations can make in the design of surgical protocols which utilize lasers, for example, in assessing the potential for collateral mechanical damage by laser pulses.

  7. Predicting and monitoring response to chemotherapy by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea in subcutaneously implanted 9L glioma using the apparent diffusion coefficient of water and 23Na MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babsky, Andriy M; Hekmatyar, S K; Zhang, Hong; Solomon, James L; Bansal, Navin

    2006-07-01

    To examine the effects of the alkylating anticancer drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) on (23)Na MRI and the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in subcutaneously- (sc-) implanted 9L glioma in rats. (23)Na MRI and (1)H water ADC measurements were performed on sham-treated control (N = 6) and BCNU-treated (N = 15) Fisher rats one day before BCNU injection and then one, three, and five days after BCNU injection. The BCNU-treated tumors were divided into BCNU-responsive (R(BCNU)) and BCNU-nonresponsive (NR(BCNU)) groups depending on the tumor volume changes that occurred after therapy. The pretreatment (23)Na MRI signal intensity (SI) and water ADC values were higher in R(BCNU) tumors compared to NR(BCNU) tumors. (23)Na MRI SI and water ADC increased with tumor growth in control and NR(BCNU) groups, but these changes were interrupted by BCNU therapy in R(BCNU) group. (23)Na MRI and water ADC measurements may be useful for predicting and monitoring response to chemotherapy in some tumors. However, the changes that occurred in (23)Na MRI SI and water ADC in sc-implanted 9L tumors are in contrast to previously published results for BCNU therapy of orthotopic 9L tumors. This may have important implications for monitoring therapy response in tumors. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [ 14 C]sucrose, [ 3 H]inulin, and 51 Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [ 3 H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  9. The effect of micro-ECoG substrate footprint on the meningeal tissue response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Amelia A.; Nonte, Michael W.; Vokoun, Corinne; Richner, Thomas J.; Brodnick, Sarah K.; Atry, Farid; Frye, Seth; Bostrom, Paige; Pashaie, Ramin; Thongpang, Sanitta; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. There is great interest in designing implantable neural electrode arrays that maximize function while minimizing tissue effects and damage. Although it has been shown that substrate geometry plays a key role in the tissue response to intracortically implanted, penetrating neural interfaces, there has been minimal investigation into the effect of substrate footprint on the tissue response to surface electrode arrays. This study investigates the effect of micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) device geometry on the longitudinal tissue response. Approach. The meningeal tissue response to two micro-ECoG devices with differing geometries was evaluated. The first device had each electrode site and trace individually insulated, with open regions in between, while the second device had a solid substrate, in which all 16 electrode sites were embedded in a continuous insulating sheet. These devices were implanted bilaterally in rats, beneath cranial windows, through which the meningeal tissue response was monitored for one month after implantation. Electrode site impedance spectra were also monitored during the implantation period. Main results. It was observed that collagenous scar tissue formed around both types of devices. However, the distribution of the tissue growth was different between the two array designs. The mesh devices experienced thick tissue growth between the device and the cranial window, and minimal tissue growth between the device and the brain, while the solid device showed the opposite effect, with thick tissue forming between the brain and the electrode sites. Significance. These data suggest that an open architecture device would be more ideal for neural recording applications, in which a low impedance path from the brain to the electrode sites is critical for maximum recording quality.

  10. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  11. Gender discrimination in the influence of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity on rat aortic tissue responses to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nikki L; Achike, Francis I

    2010-08-09

    Hyperglycaemia initiates endothelial dysfunction causing diabetic macro- and micro-vasculopathy, the main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The vasculopathy exhibits gender peculiarities. We therefore explored gender differences in comparing the effects of hyperglycaemia (50 mM) per se with its hyperosmolar (50 mM) effects on vascular tissue responses to insulin. Endothelium-intact or denuded thoracic aortic rings from age-matched male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 10 min or 6 h (acute versus chronic exposure) in normal, hyperglycaemic or hyperosmolar Krebs solution. Relaxant responses to insulin (6.9x10(-7)-6.9x10(-5) M) of the phenylephrine-contracted tissues were recorded. Endothelium denudation in both genders inhibited relaxation to insulin in all conditions, more significantly in female than in male tissues, suggesting the female response to insulin is more endothelium-dependent than the male. Acutely and chronically exposed normoglycemic endothelium-intact or -denuded tissues responded similarly to insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic or hyperosmolar exposure did not alter the endothelium-denuded tissue responses to insulin, whereas the responses of the endothelium-intact male and female hyperosmolar, and male hyperglycemic tissues were enhanced. The results show that insulin exerts an endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation with the female tissue responses more endothelium-dependent than the male. The data also suggest that hyperosmolarity per se enhances aortic tissue relaxant responses to insulin whereas hyperglycemia per se inhibits the same and more so in female than male tissues. These effects are endothelium-dependent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Referred pain and cutaneous responses from deep tissue electrical pain stimulation in the groin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2015-01-01

    , supporting individual differences in anatomy and sensory processing. Future studies investigating the responses to deep tissue electrical stimulation in persistent postherniotomy pain patients may advance our understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and strategies for treatment...

  13. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  14. The influence of dose fractionation and dose rate on normal tissue responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of responses of a variety of normal tissues in animals to fractionated irradiations has been made with the aim of developing a formalism for the prediction of tolerance doses as a function of the dose per fraction and the overall treatment time. An important feature of the formalism is that it is directly based on radiological insights and therefore provides a logical concept to account for the diversity of tissue responses. (Auth.)

  15. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  17. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multicompartment Drug Release System for Dynamic Modulation of Tissue Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron H; Mahal, Rajwant S; Udell, Jillian; Wu, Michelle; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacological modulation of responses to injury is complicated by the need to deliver multiple drugs with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, a novel controlled delivery system containing three separate compartments with each releasing its contents over different timescales is fabricated. Core-shell electrospun fibers create two of the compartments in the system, while electrosprayed spheres create the third. Utility is demonstrated by targeting the foreign body response to implants because it is a dynamic process resulting in implant failure. Sequential delivery of a drug targeting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and an antifibrotic is characterized in in vitro experiments. Specifically, macrophage fusion and p65 nuclear translocation in the presence of releasate or with macrophages cultured on the surfaces of the constructs are evaluated. In addition, releasate from pirfenidone scaffolds is shown to reduce transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced pSMAD3 nuclear localization in fibroblasts. In vivo, drug eluting constructs successfully mitigate macrophage fusion at one week and fibrotic encapsulation in a dose-dependent manner at four weeks, demonstrating effective release of both drugs over different timescales. Future studies can employ this system to improve and prolong implant lifetimes, or load it with other drugs to modulate other dynamic processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Subcutaneous tissue response and osteogenic performance of calcium phosphate nanoparticle-enriched hydrogels in the tibial medullary cavity of guinea pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongio, M; van den Beucken, J; Nejadnik, M.R.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Habibovic, Pamela; Kinard, L.A.; Kasper, F.K.; Mikos, A.G.; Leeuwenburg, S.C.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF)-based hydrogels were tested for the first time as injectable bone substitute materials. The primary feature of the material design was the incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix in order to

  20. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis associated with sarcoid tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenauer, R J; Waterhouse, W J; West, S G

    1996-10-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis and sarcoid tenosynovitis are unusual manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis. We report two Japanese women with disseminated sarcoidosis presenting with subcutaneous and tenosynovial involvement demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Sarcoidosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained subcutaneous nodulosis or tenosynovitis in patients with or without a previous diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  1. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiological and pathological response following pre-operative radiotherapy for soft-tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, David; Skamene, Tanya; Nahal, Ayoub; Turcotte, Robert E.; Powell, Tom; Freeman, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report radiological and pathological response to neo-adjuvant radiotherapy for extremity and trunk soft-tissue sarcomas. Materials/methods: Fifty patients were identified retrospectively. All patients had MRI imaging pre and post neo-adjuvant external beam radiotherapy. Tumor volumes were measured in 3D on T1 Gadolinium enhanced sequences. Pathological treatment response was quantified in terms of percentage of treatment-related necrosis for each case. Results: Histopathologic responses to treatment varied from 0% to 100%. The median pathological treatment response was 67.5% for low-grade sarcomas and 50% for high-grade sarcomas. The median decrease in tumor volume was 13.8% for non-myxoid low-grade sarcomas, 82.1% for myxoid liposarcomas and <1% for high-grade sarcomas. A partial response on MRI (volume reduction ≥ 50%) was highly predictive of a good pathological response (p < 0.001). Patients with stable disease on imaging or volumetric progression had wide ranging pathological responses. Conclusions: Soft-tissue sarcomas show significant pathological treatment responses in the form of hyaline fibrosis, necrosis and granulation tissue. Despite this, there is minimal early volumetric response to radiation, especially for high-grade tumors. Although radiological partial response was predictive of pathological response, the significance of radiological progression was unclear. Myxoid liposarcoma tumor type was predictive of both pathological and radiological tumor response.

  3. Associations between the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Kristin; Cornelissen, Bart; Scollard, Deborah A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chun, Kathy [North York General Hospital, Genetics Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, tumour HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) of human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice. The tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab in athymic mice bearing BC xenografts with increasing HER2 density (0 to 3+) was evaluated. Specific uptake ratios were established in biodistribution (SUR) and imaging studies (ROI-SUR) using {sup 111}In-labeled mouse IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-mIgG). Further corrections were made for circulating radioactivity using tumour-to-blood ratios defined as a localization index (LI) and region-of-interest localization index (ROI-LI), respectively. Mice were treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin). A tumour growth inhibition index (TGI) was calculated and relative TGIs calculated by dividing the TGI of control by that of trastuzumab-treated mice. Strong, nonlinear associations with HER2 density were obtained if the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was corrected for nonspecific IgG localization (i.e., SUR; r{sup 2}=0.99) and circulating radioactivity (i.e., LI; r{sup 2} =0.87), but without these corrections, the association between HER2 density and tumour uptake was poor (r{sup 2}=0.22). There was a strong association between ROI-SUR and ROI-LI values and HER2 expression (r{sup 2}=0.90 and r{sup 2}=0.95), respectively. All tumours were imaged. Relative TGI values were associated with increasing uncorrected tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab but not always with HER2 density (i.e., MCF-HER2-18 cells with trastuzumab-resistance). HER2 expression (0 to 3+) can be differentiated using {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, but requires correction of tumour uptake for nonspecific IgG localization and circulating radioactivity. The uncorrected uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was associated with tumour response to trastuzumab. (orig.)

  4. Circulating cortisol-associated signature of glucocorticoid-related gene expression in subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-05-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Dosimetric precision requirements and quantities for characterizing the response of tumors and normal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahme, A [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1996-08-01

    Based on simple radiobiological models the effect of the distribution of absorbed dose in therapy beams on the radiation response of tumor and normal tissue volumes are investigated. Under the assumption that the dose variation in the treated volume is small it is shown that the response of the tissue to radiation is determined mainly by the mean dose to the tumor or normal tissue volume in question. Quantitative expressions are also given for the increased probability of normal tissue complications and the decreased probability of tumor control as a function of increasing dose variations around the mean dose level to these tissues. When the dose variations are large the minimum tumor dose (to cm{sup 3} size volumes) will generally be better related to tumor control and the highest dose to significant portions of normal tissue correlates best to complications. In order not to lose more than one out of 20 curable patients (95% of highest possible treatment outcome) the required accuracy in the dose distribution delivered to the target volume should be 2.5% (1{sigma}) for a mean dose response gradient {gamma} in the range 2 - 3. For more steeply responding tumors and normal tissues even stricter requirements may be desirable. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs.

  7. Modelling the Molecular Transportation of Subcutaneously Injected Salubrinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the subcutaneous administration of a chemical agent (salubrinal, we constructed a mathematical model of molecule transportation and subsequently evaluated the kinetics of diffusion, convection, and molecular turnover. Salubrinal is a potential therapeutic agent that can reduce cellular damage and death. The understanding of its temporal profiles in local tissue as well as in a whole body is important to develop a proper strategy for its administration. Here, the diffusion and convection kinetics was formulated using partial and ordinary differential equations in one- and three-dimensional (semi-spherical coordinates. Several key parameters including an injection velocity, a diffusion coefficient, thickness of subcutaneous tissue, and a permeability factor at the tissue-blood boundary were estimated from experimental data in rats. With reference to analytical solutions in a simplified model without convection, numerical solutions revealed that the diffusion coefficient and thickness of subcutaneous tissue determined the timing of the peak concentration in the plasma, and its magnitude was dictated by the permeability factor. Furthermore, the initial velocity, induced by needle injection, elevated an immediate transport of salubrinal at t < 1h. The described analysis with a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations contributes to the prediction of local and systemic effects and the understanding of the transportation mechanism of salubrinal and other agents.

  8. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  9. Tumor and normal tissue responses to fractioned non-uniform dose delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellman, P; Aegren, A; Brahme, A [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1996-08-01

    The volume dependence of the radiation response of a tumor is straight forward to quantify because it depends primarily on the eradication of all its clonogenic cells. A tumor therefore has a parallel organization as any surviving clonogen in principle can repopulate the tumor. The difficulty with the response of the tumor is instead to know the density and sensitivity distribution of the most resistant clonogenic cells. The increase in the 50% tumor control dose and the decrease in the maximum normalized slope of the dose response relation, {gamma}, in presence of small compartments of resistant tumor cells have therefore been quantified to describe their influence on the dose response relation. Injury to normal tissue is a much more complex and gradual process. It depends on earlier effects induced long before depletion of the differentiated and clonogenic cells that in addition may have a complex structural and functional organization. The volume dependence of the dose response relation of normal tissues is therefore described here by the relative seriality, s, of the infrastructure of the organ. The model can also be generalized to describe the response of heterogeneous tissues to non uniform dose distributions. The new model is compared with clinical and experimental data on normal tissue response, and shows good agreement both with regard to the shape of dose response relation and the volume dependence of the isoeffect dose. The response of tumors and normal tissues are quantified for arbitrary dose fractionations using the linear quadratic cell survival parameters {alpha} and {beta}. The parameters of the dose response relation are derived both for a constant dose per fraction and a constant number of dose fractions, thus in the latter case accounting also for non uniform dose delivery. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs.

  10. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane alters tissue response to implanted Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCroos, Francis Char; Ahmad, Sameer; Kondo, Yuji; Chow, Jessica; Mordes, Daniel; Lee, Maria Regina; Asrani, Sanjay; Allingham, R Rand; Olbrich, Kevin C; Klitzman, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Long-term intraocular pressure control by glaucoma drainage implants is compromised by the formation of an avascular fibrous capsule that surrounds the glaucoma implant and increases aqueous outflow resistance. It is possible to alter this fibrotic tissue reaction and produce a more vascularized and potentially more permeable capsule around implanted devices by enclosing them in a porous membrane. Ahmed glaucoma implants modified with an outer 5-microm pore size membrane (termed porous retrofitted implant with modified enclosure or PRIME-Ahmed) and unmodified glaucoma implants were implanted into paired rabbit eyes. After 6 weeks, the devices were explanted and subject to histological analysis. A tissue response containing minimal vascularization, negligible immune response, and a thick fibrous capsule surrounded the unmodified Ahmed glaucoma implant. In comparison, the tissue response around the PRIME-Ahmed demonstrated a thinner fibrous capsule (46.4 +/- 10.8 microm for PRIME-Ahmed versus 94.9 +/- 21.2 microm for control, p vascularized near the tissue-material interface. A prominent chronic inflammatory response was noted as well. Encapsulating the aqueous outflow pathway with a porous membrane produces a more vascular tissue response and thinner fibrous capsule compared with a standard glaucoma implant plate. Enhanced vascularity and a thinner fibrous capsule may reduce aqueous outflow resistance and improve long-term glaucoma implant performance.

  11. A Review of the Responses of Two- and Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues to Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The application of external biophysical signals is one approach to tissue engineering that is explored less often than more traditional additions of exogenous biochemical and chemical factors to direct cell and tissue outcomes. The study of bioelectromagnetism and the field of electrotherapeutics have evolved over the years, and we review biocompatible electric stimulation devices and their successful application to tissue growth. Specifically, information on capacitively coupled alternating current, inductively coupled alternating current, and direct current devices is described. Cell and tissue responses from the application of these devices, including two- and three-dimensional in vitro studies and in vivo studies, are reviewed with regard to cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, morphology, and migration and tissue function. The current understanding of cellular mechanisms related to electric stimulation is detailed. The advantages of electric stimulation are compared with those pf other techniques, and areas in which electric fields are used as an adjuvant therapy for healing and regeneration are discussed. PMID:22046979

  12. Continuous subcutaneous delivery of medications for home care palliative patients-using an infusion set or a pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Sasson; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety, feasibility, and efficacy of continuous drug delivery by the subcutaneous route through a solution bag connected to an infusion set compared with an infusion pump in a home palliative care setting. Patients in need of continuous subcutaneous medication delivery for pain control, nausea, and/or vomiting were recruited. The study was designed as a double-blind, crossover study. The patient was connected to two parallel subcutaneous lines running simultaneously, connected together to a line entering the subcutaneous tissue. One line is connected to an infusion set and the other to a pump. The infusion set included a 500-cc solution bag connected to a 1.5-m plastic tube containing a drip chamber controlled by a roller clamp that is gravity driven without hyaluronidase. Active medications were randomly assigned to start in either administration method and switched after 24 h. An independent research assistant evaluated symptom control and side effects at baseline and every 24 h for 2 days using a structured questionnaire. Another independent research assistant connected the lines after adding medications and evaluated technical and clinical failures. Twenty-seven patients were recruited, and of them, 18 completed the study. Incidents in fluid administration were more common through the infusion set (18 times) compared to the pump (only twice). On the other hand, no clinical significant change was noted in the average symptom levels and side effects when medications were given through the infusion set versus the pump. No local edema or irritation was observed in either way of administration. In a home palliative care setting with a medical staff on call for 24 h, using medications for symptom control can be considered to be infused to a fluid solution bag through an infusion set instead of using a syringe driver or a pump when there is a responsible caregiver to follow up on the fluid. Subcutaneous constant drug delivery

  13. Responses of some normal tissues to low doses of γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    The response of four normal tissues to low doses of γ-radiation was measured in mice using three indirect methods. The survival curves for cells of the tissues studied (colon, jejunum, testis and haemoleucopoietic system) may be exponential over an uncertain dose range (from zero to between 100 to 230 rad), the slope being about one third of that in the high-dose region. Some of the uncertainties in the data probably reflect variations in age-density distribution. (author)

  14. Gustatory tissue injury in man: radiation dose response relationships and mechanisms of taste loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this report dose response data for gustatory tissue damage in patients given total radiation doses ranging from 3000 to 6000 cGy are presented. In order to evaluate direct radiation injury to gustatory tissues as a mechanism of taste loss, measurements of damage to specific taste structures in bovine and murine systems following radiation exposure in the clinical range are correlated to taste impairment observed in radiotherapy patients. (author)

  15. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  16. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection

  17. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  18. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  19. Biomarkers of Necrotising Soft Tissue Infections Aspects of the Innate Immune Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo

    2017-01-01

    -existent in this group of patients. Instead data regarding biomarkers are extrapolated from the wide and heterogenic group of patients with sepsis, even though the immunological responses are likely to differ because of the large amount of necrotic tissue seen in patients with NSTI. We performed the largest prospective......Necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is a life-threatening and rapidly progressing bacterial infection involving one or more layers of the soft tissue compartments causing necrosis. The amputation and mortality rates remain high despite increased focus on the patients. Timely treatment...... of the innate immune response, which included the investigation of acute-phase proteins, pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway, and inflammatory cytokines. The objective was to investigate aspects of the innate immune response in patients with NSTI, focusing on biomarkers as prognostic...

  20. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  1. Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region of migraine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region (TSBF) was measured by the local 133 Xenon washout technique in 43 migraine patients; 19 were reexamined in the course of spontaneous attacks. During attacks, TSBF was normal compared to headache-free state. In 13 unilateral attacks, the median ipsilateral to contralateral ratio TSBF was 1: 1.276, (NS). During 30 deg C passive head-up tilt, TSBF descreased by a median of 27% during headache-free intervals and by a median, 21% during migraine attacks. The difference between the 2 occasions was not significant. Head-up tilt resulted in a median 4.5% increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and a median 5.3% increase in heart rate (HR) during headache-free intervals and 3.4% and 3.2% respectively during migraine attacks. These results are evidence against a vasomotor disturbance of the extracranial tissues during attacks of migraine. The cardio-vascular response to the orthostatic stimulus indicates a normal function of this part of the autonomic nervous system during migraine attacks. (author)

  2. Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region of migraine patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region (TSBF) was measured by the local 133 Xenon washout technique in 43 migraine patients; 19 were reexamined in the course of spontaneous attacks. During attacks, TSBF was normal compared to headache-free state. In 13 unilateral attacks, the median ipsilateral to contralateral ratio TSBF was 1: 1.276, (NS). During 30 deg C passive head-up tilt, TSBF descreased by a median of 27% during headache-free intervals and by a median, 21% during migraine attacks. The difference between the 2 occasions was not significant. Head-up tilt resulted in a median 4.5% increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and a median 5.3% increase in heart rate (HR) during headache-free intervals and 3.4% and 3.2% respectively during migraine attacks. These results are evidence against a vasomotor disturbance of the extracranial tissues during attacks of migraine. The cardio-vascular response to the orthostatic stimulus indicates a normal function of this part of the autonomic nervous system during migraine attacks.

  3. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man. II. Response of the salivary glands during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative dose-response curve for salivary gland function in patients during radiotherapy is presented. Salivary-function data used in this study were obtained from four previously published reports. All patients were treated with 60 Co teletherapy to the head and neck using conventional treatment techniques. Salivary dysfunction was determined at specific dose levels by comparing salivary flow rates before therapy with flow rates at specific dose intervals during radiotherapy up to a total dose of 6000 cGy. Fifty percent salivary dysfunction occurred after 1000 cGy and eighty percent dysfunction was observed by the end of the therapy course (6000 cGy). The salivary-function curve was also compared to the previously published dose-response curve for taste function. Comparisons of the two curves indicate that salivary dysfunction precedes taste loss and that the shapes of the dose-response curves are different. A new term, tissue tolerance ratio, defined as the ratio of responses of two tissues given the same radiation dose, was used to make the comparisons between gustatory and salivary gland tissue effects. Measurements of salivary gland function and analysis of dose-response curves may be useful in evaluating chemical modifiers of radiation response

  4. Depot-Specific Response of Adipose Tissue to Diet-Induced Inflammation: The Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor α (RORα) Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Sarah; Auclair, Martine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2017-11-01

    Epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat depot, is more closely associated with metabolic dysfunction than inguinal adipose tissue (IAT), a subcutaneous depot. This study evaluated whether the nuclear receptor RORα, which controls inflammatory processes, could be implicated. EAT and IAT were compared in a RORα loss-of-function mouse (sg/sg) and in wild-type (WT) littermates, fed a standard diet (SD) or a Western diet (WD), to evaluate the impact of RORα expression on inflammatory status and on insulin sensitivity (IS) of each fat depot according to the diet. Sg/sg mice fed the SD exhibited a decreased inflammatory status and a higher IS in their fat depots than WT mice. WD-induced obesity had distinct effects on the two fat depots. In WT mice, EAT exhibited increased inflammation and insulin resistance while IAT showed reduced inflammation and improved IS, together with a depot-specific increase of RORα, and its target gene IκBα, in the stroma vascular fraction (SVF). Conversely, in sg/sg mice, WD increased inflammation and lowered IS of IAT but not of EAT. These findings suggest an anti-inflammatory role for RORα in response to WD, which occurs at the level of SVF of IAT, thus possibly contributing to the "healthy" expansion of IAT. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Irradiation-induced hypoxia in bones and soft tissues: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitasalo, K.; Aro, H.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow and subcutaneous tissue pO 2 and pCO 2 were measured by means of implanted tissue tonometers in irradiated and nonirradiated rabbit hind limbs. The x-ray dose was 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 rads. Tissue gas tensions were measured 1 day and 5 and 11 weeks after radiation. The pCO 2 changes in both tissues were slight but not statistically significant. The subcutaneous tissue pO 2 decreased during the acute phase of irradiation injury, and the effect of irradiation was dose-dependent. Later on, irradiation had no significant effects on the subcutaneous pO 2 , although light microscopy of the affected tissues showed fibrosis and blood vessel changes. The response of the subcutaneous pO 2 to systemic hyperoxia also increased in the chronic phase of irradiation injury as a sign of improved microcirculation. The bone marrow showed a high radiosensitivity. Irradiation caused a rapid dose-dependent decrease of the marrow pO 2 , and the marrow pO 2 decreased with time during the chronic phase of irradiation injury. The marrow pO 2 responded slowly and marginally to an increment of arterial pO 2 during breathing 100% oxygen as further evidence of impaired vascular pattern. The results showed that irradiation causes only a transient impairment of tissue perfusion in the skin. However, irradiation-damaged marrow was characterized by progressive tissue hypoxia

  6. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  7. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  8. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  9. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-05-30

    Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed "sleep specific" changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific molecular functions and that it has a

  10. Contrast of artificial subcutaneous hematomas in MRI over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Eva Maria; Ogris, Kathrin; Petrovic, Andreas; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2015-03-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, hematomas and other externally visible injuries build the basis for the reconstruction of events. However, dating of subcutaneous hematomas based on their external aspect is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its use in dating intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, the aim was to investigate if MRI can also be used for dating subcutaneous hematomas and to analyze an eventual influence of the hematoma shape. In 20 healthy volunteers (11 females, 9 males, aged 26.9 ± 3.8 years), 4 ml of autologous blood were injected subcutaneously in the thigh. The hematoma was scanned immediately after the injection, after 3 and 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 days using three sequences with different contrast. Data was analyzed by measuring signal intensities of the hematoma, the muscle, and the subcutaneous tissue over time, and the Michelson contrast coefficients between the tissues were calculated. In the analysis, hematoma shape was considered. Signal intensity of blood in the proton density-weighted sequence reached its maximum 3 h after the injection with a subsequent decrease, whereas the signal intensities of muscle and fatty tissue remained constant. The time course of the Michelson coefficient of blood versus muscle decreased exponentially with a change from hyperintensity to hypointensity at 116.9 h, depending on hematoma shape. In the other sequences, either variability was large or contrast coefficients stayed constant over time. The observed change of contrast of blood versus muscle permits a quick estimate of a hematoma's age. The consideration of the hematoma shape is expected to further enhance dating using MRI.

  11. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    are coding for immunological factors and tissue regeneration. Locale, inflammatory responses were seen as strong up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8 in both groups of fish, but it was more pronounced in infected fish. Expression of the toll-like receptors showed induction of TLR-5m following infection, but TLR-9...

  12. Engineering flesh : towards professional responsibility for 'lived bodies' in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Flesh. Towards professional responsibility for ‘lived bodies’ in Tissue Engineering This study analyses the work of biomedical engineers as normative work that affects people’s daily lives as bodies. In biomedical engineering, engineers study bodies as machine-like objects and develop

  13. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  14. Microdosimetric characterisation of radiation fields for modelling tissue response in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our overall goal is the development of an approach to model tissue response to radiotherapy in which a tissue is viewed as a statistical ensemble of interacting cells. This involves characterisation of radiation fields on the spatial scale of subcellular structures. On this scale, the spatial distribution of radiation energy imparted to tissue is highly non-uniform and should be characterised in statistical terms. Microdosimetry provides a formalism developed for that purpose. This study addresses limitations of the standard microdosimetric approach to modelling tissue response by introducing two new characteristics that include additional information in a form convenient for this application.Methods: The standard microdosimetric approach is based on the concept of a sensitive volume (SV representing a target volume in the cell. It is considered in isolation from other SVs, implying that energy depositions in different SVs are statistically independent and that individual cells respond to radiation independent of each other. In this study, we examined the latter approximation through analysis of correlation functions. All calculations were performed with Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo code. Results: We found that for some realistic scenarios, spatial correlations of deposited energy can be significant. Two new characteristics of radiation fields are proposed. The first is the specific energy-volume histogram (zVH, which is a microscopic analogue of the dose-volume histogram. The second describes the probability distribution of deposited energies in two SVs without assuming statistical independence between the SVs. Numerical examples for protons and carbon ions of therapeutic energies are presented and discussed.Conclusion: We extended the microdosimetric approach to modelling tissue response by including additional important characteristics and presented them in a more conventional radiotherapy format

  15. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  16. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Otaduy, Maria Concepción García; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Arruda, Walquiria; Veiga, Raquel Ramos; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children ( P creatine supplementation in any group, and delta changes in brain PCr (-0.7 to +3.9%) were inferior to those in muscle PCr content (+10.3 to +27.6%; P creatine protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) may be affected by age, diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernqvist, E.; Gunnarsson, R.; Linde, B.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

  18. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  19. Red fluorescent protein responsible for pigmentation in trematode-infected Porites compressa tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline V; Roth, Melissa S; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-02-01

    Reports of coral disease have increased dramatically over the last decade; however, the biological mechanisms that corals utilize to limit infection and resist disease remain poorly understood. Compromised coral tissues often display non-normal pigmentation that potentially represents an inflammation-like response, although these pigments remain uncharacterized. Using spectral emission analysis and cryo-histological and electrophoretic techniques, we investigated the pink pigmentation associated with trematodiasis, infection with Podocotyloides stenometre larval trematode, in Porites compressa. Spectral emission analysis reveals that macroscopic areas of pink pigmentation fluoresce under blue light excitation (450 nm) and produce a broad emission peak at 590 nm (+/-6) with a 60-nm full width at half maximum. Electrophoretic protein separation of pigmented tissue extract confirms the red fluorescence to be a protein rather than a low-molecular-weight compound. Histological sections demonstrate green fluorescence in healthy coral tissue and red fluorescence in the trematodiasis-compromised tissue. The red fluorescent protein (FP) is limited to the epidermis, is not associated with cells or granules, and appears unstructured. These data collectively suggest that the red FP is produced and localized in tissue infected by larval trematodes and plays a role in the immune response in corals.

  20. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  1. Tissue Biomarkers in Predicting Response to Sunitinib Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Ivan; Branžovský, Jindřich; Kalusová, Kristýna; Hes, Ondřej; Holubec, Luboš; Pele, Kevin Bauleth; Ürge, Tomáš; Hora, Milan

    2015-10-01

    To identify tissue biomarkers that are predictive of the therapeutic effect of sunitinib in treatment of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCRCC). Our study included 39 patients with mCRCC treated with sunitinib. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their response to sunitinib treatment: non-responders (progression), and responders (stable disease, regression). The effect of treatment was measured by comparing imaging studies before the initiation treatment with those performed at between 3rd and 7th months of treatment, depending on the patient. Histological samples of tumor tissue and healthy renal parenchyma, acquired during surgery of the primary tumor, were examined with immunohistochemistry to detect tissue targets involved in the signaling pathways of tumor growth and neoangiogenesis. We selected mammalian target of rapamycine, p53, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and 2 and carbonic anhydrase IX. We compared the average levels of biomarker expression in both, tumor tissue, as well as in healthy renal parenchyma. Results were evaluated using the Student's t-test. For responders, statistically significant differences in marker expression in tumor tissue versus healthy parenchyma were found for mTOR (4%/16.7%; p=0.01031), p53 (4%/12.7%; p=0.042019), VEGF (62.7%/45%; p=0.019836) and CAIX (45%/15.33%; p=0.001624). A further significant difference was found in the frequency of high expression (more than 60%) between tumor tissue and healthy parenchyma in VEGF (65%/35%; p=0.026487) and CAIX (42%/8%; p=0.003328). CAIX was expressed at high levels in the tumor tissue in both evaluated groups. A significantly higher expression of VEGF in CRCC in comparison to healthy parenchyma can predict a better response to sunitinib. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  3. The effect of very-low-calorie diet on mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraz, M; Lacinova, Z; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Horinek, A; Matoulek, M; Trachta, P; Kavalkova, P; Svacina, S; Haluzik, M

    2011-04-01

    Low-grade inflammation links obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases. To explore the expression profile of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes (PM) of obese patients with and without T2DM at baseline and after dietary intervention. Two-week intervention study with very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). University hospital. Twelve obese females with T2DM, 8 obese nondiabetic females (OB) and 15 healthy age-matched females. Two weeks of VLCD (2500 kJ/d). Metabolic parameters, circulating cytokines, hormones, and mRNA expression of 39 genes in sc adipose tissue (SCAT) and PM. Both T2DM and OB group had significantly increased serum concentrations of circulating proinflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8), mRNA expression of macrophage antigen CD68 and proinflammatory chemokines (CCL-2, -3, -7, -8, -17, -22) in SCAT and complementary chemokine receptors (CCR-1, -2, -3, -5) and other proinflammatory receptors (toll-like receptor 2 and 4, TNF receptor superfamily 1A and 1B, IL-6R) in PM, with OB group showing less pronounced chemoattracting and proinflammatory profile compared to T2DM group. In T2DM patients VLCD decreased body weight, improved metabolic profile, and decreased mRNA expression of up-regulated CCRs in PM and chemokines [CCL 8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10] in SCAT. VLCD markedly increased mRNA expression of T-lymphocyte attracting chemokine CCL-17 in SCAT. Obese patients with and without T2DM have increased mRNA expression of chemotactic and proinflammatory factors in SCAT and expression of corresponding receptors in PM. Two weeks of VLCD significantly improved this profile in T2DM patients.

  4. Protein 53 expression in a mixed Labrador subcutaneous lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annahita Rezaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An 11 year – old mixed female Labrador was presented with two masses in trunk and neck. The tumoral masses were excised and sent for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of masses revealed diffuse infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells in subcutaneous tissue which were intense around the blood vessels. More than 10% lymphoid cells were CD3 positive in the immunohistochemical staining and most of them were accumulated around vessels. Protein 53 (p53 expression was detected by brown nuclei in immunohistochemical staining. Subcutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed according to histopathological results. After 6 months the case was referred with multicentric lymphoma and based on the owner request euthanasia was performed. These findings emphasize on poor prognosis for tumors with p53 mutation.

  5. The development and evaluation of a subcutaneous infusion delivery system based on osmotic pump control and gas drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yanfang; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Hui; Chi, Qiang; Cai, Xingshi; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, self-administration drug delivery system for subcutaneous infusion was developed and evaluated. The device includes two main components: an osmotic tablet controlled gas actuator and a syringe catheter system. The sodium carbonate in the osmotic pump tablet will release into the surround citric acid solution and produce CO 2 gas, which will drive the drug solution into subcutaneous tissue. The key formulation factors of the osmotic tablet that would influence the infusion profiles of the device were investigated by single factor exploration. The formulation was optimized via a response surface methodology. With an 18 ± 4 min of lag time, the delivery system was able to infuse at an approximate zero-order up to 5.90 ± 0.37 h with a precision of 9.0% RSD (n = 6). A linear correlation was found for the infusion profile and the fitting equation was Y = 0.014X - 0.004 (r = 0.998). A temperature change of 4 °C was found to modify the flow rate by about 12.0%. In vivo results demonstrated that the present subcutaneous infusion device was similar to the commercial infusion pump, and it could bring a long and constant ampicillin plasma level with minimized fluctuations.

  6. Response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth to the action of citric acid and EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berthold Sperandio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the inflammatory response of dog's periapical tissues to 17% trisodium EDTA salt (pH 8.0 and 1% citric acid (pH 2.0. Saline was used as a control. Six adult dogs were used as the biological model of the study. The experimental units comprised 56 roots of mandibular molars (first and second and premolars (first, second and third. After coronal opening, pulpectomy and root canal instrumentation were performed using the above-mentioned irrigating solutions. After 24 and 48 hours, the animals were euthanized and the teeth and their supporting tissues were removed and histologically processed. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histopathologically with a light microscope at x100 magnification. The histological analysis focused on the occurrence of acute inflammatory response. The presence of swelling, vasodilatation and inflammatory cells were evaluated and the degree of inflammation was determined for each case. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test using the SPSS software with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05. 17% EDTA and 1% citric acid caused inflammatory responses in dog's periapical tissues with no significant differences to each other or to saline (control at either the 24-hour (p=0.482 or 48-hour (p=0.377 periods. It may be concluded that the inflammatory response was of mild intensity for the tested substances.

  7. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  8. Effect of spinal sympathetic blockade upon postural changes of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Haxholdt, O; Henriksen, O

    1982-01-01

    local nervous blockade was induced by Lidocaine in 133Xe labelled subcutaneous tissue on one side. During epidural blockade and tilt blood flow increased by 12% whereas blood flow decreased by 30% on the control side. Thus epidural blockade had no influence on the vasoconstrictor response...

  9. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D; Matei, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  10. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Matei, D [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  11. Subcutaneous infection model facilitates treatment assessment of secondary Alveolar echinococcosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Küster

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE in humans is a parasitic disease characterized by severe damage to the liver and occasionally other organs. AE is caused by infection with the metacestode (larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, usually infecting small rodents as natural intermediate hosts. Conventionally, human AE is chemotherapeutically treated with mebendazole or albendazole. There is, however still the need for improved chemotherapeutical options. Primary in vivo studies on drugs of interest are commonly performed in small laboratory animals such as mice and Mongolian jirds, and in most cases, a secondary infection model is used, whereby E. multilocularis metacestodes are directly injected into the peritoneal cavity or into the liver. Disadvantages of this methodological approach include risk of injury to organs during the inoculation and, most notably, a limitation in the macroscopic (visible assessment of treatment efficacy. Thus, in order to monitor the efficacy of chemotherapeutical treatment, animals have to be euthanized and the parasite tissue dissected. In the present study, mice were infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes through the subcutaneous route and were then subjected to chemotherapy employing albendazole. Serological responses to infection were comparatively assessed in mice infected by the conventional intraperitoneal route. We demonstrate that the subcutaneous infection model for secondary AE facilitates the assessment of the progress of infection and drug treatment in the live animal.

  12. Injectable and inherently vascularizing semi-interpenetrating polymer network for delivering cells to the subcutaneous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahou, Redouan; Zhang, David K Y; Vlahos, Alexander E; Sefton, Michael V

    2017-07-01

    Injectable hydrogels are suitable for local cell delivery to the subcutaneous space, but the lack of vasculature remains a limiting factor. Previously we demonstrated that biomaterials containing methacrylic acid promoted vascularization. Here we report the preparation of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN), and its evaluation as an injectable carrier to deliver cells and generate blood vessels in a subcutaneous implantation site. The SIPN was prepared by reacting a blend of vinyl sulfone-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG-VS) and sodium polymethacrylate (PMAA-Na) with dithiothreitol. The swelling of SIPN was sensitive to the PMAA-Na content but only small differences in gelation time, permeability and stiffness were noted. SIPN containing 20 mol% PMAA-Na generated a vascular network in the surrounding tissues, with 2-3 times as many vessels as was obtained with 10 mol% PMAA-Na or PEG alone. Perfusion studies showed that the generated vessels were perfused and connected to the host vasculature as early as seven days after transplantation. Islets embedded in SIPN were viable and responsive to glucose stimulation in vitro. In a proof of concept study in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model, a progressive return to normoglycemia was observed and the presence of insulin positive islets was confirmed when islets were embedded in SIPN prior to delivery. Our approach proposes a biomaterial-mediated strategy to deliver cells while enhancing vascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of endocrine and immunological response in fat tissue to hyperbaric oxygen administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, H; Erbağ, G; Ovali, M A; Öztopuz, R Ö; Uzun, M

    2016-04-30

    Though HBO treatment is becoming more common, the mechanism of action is not fully known. The positive effects of HBO administration on the inflammatory response is thought to be a possible basic mechanism. As a result, we aimed to research whether endocrine and immunological response of fat tissue changes in rats given HBO treatment model. This research was carried out on Wistar albino rats, they were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Their fatty tissue were taken from the abdomen, gene expression of the cytokines and adipokines were analyzed with Real time PCR method. When the gene expression of hormones and cytokines by fat tissue was examined, the leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels in the HBO treatment group were statistically significantly increased compared to the control group (p=0.0313, p=0.0156, p=0.0156, p=0.0156, p=0.0313). In conclusion, in our study we identified that HBO administration affected the endochrinological functions of fat tissue.

  14. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  15. Nocardia abscessus-Associated Subcutaneous Infection in a Patient with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karakas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes primary subcutaneous infection caused by N. abscessus in a 60-year-old male patient with the history of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was presented with pain and swelling in his left thigh for 45 days. Soft tissue ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous and hypoechoic mass consistent with an abscess. Gram-positive and branched filamentous bacilli, along with neutrophils, were identified in gram-stained smears of the pus. Pus culture was positive for Gram-positive bacilli, which identified as N. abscessus. Initially, the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Due to insufficient clinical response, ceftriaxone was added for two weeks. Then, the patient was prescribed a 3-month course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It is important to start appropriate and effective treatment as soon as possible in patients with immunosuppression. [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(3.000: 31-33

  16. Tissue distribution of 3H-corticosterone in response to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolta, M.G.; Soliman, K.F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The level and distribution of 3 H-corticosterone ( 3 H-B) was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in response to diethyl ether stress, epinephrine (EP) and/or dexamethasone administration. Diethyl ether stress caused a significant increase in the 3 H-B counts by some of the body tissues and brain regions studied. Plasma 3 H-B counts in the stressed rats were found to be twice as much as in the control animals. When EP (1.0 mg/kg) was injected, the tissue-plasma ratios of 3 H-B were significantly lower (P 3 H-B count in the plasma in response to diethyl ether stress or EP may indicate a decline in rate of corticosterone metabolism. (author)

  17. Transcriptional response of kidney tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüler, Emil; Rudqvist, Nils; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The kidneys are one of the main dose limiting organs in 177 Lu-octreotate therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore, biomarkers for radiation damage would be of great importance in this type of therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absorbed dose dependency on early transcriptional changes in the kidneys from 177 Lu-octreotate exposure. Methods: Female Balb/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 1.3, 3.6, 14, 45 or 140 MBq 177 Lu-octreotate. The animals were killed 24 h after injection followed by excision of the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys ranged between 0.13 and 13 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from separated renal tissue samples, and applied to Illumina MouseRef-8 Whole-Genome Expression Beadchips to identify regulated transcripts after irradiation. Nexus Expression 2.0 and Gene Ontology terms were used for data processing and to determine affected biological processes. Results: Distinct transcriptional responses were observed following 177 Lu-octreotate administration. A higher number of differentially expressed transcripts were observed in the kidney medulla (480) compared to cortex (281). In addition, 39 transcripts were regulated at all absorbed dose levels in the medulla, compared to 32 in the cortex. Three biological processes in the cortex and five in the medulla were also shared by all absorbed dose levels. Strong association to metabolism was found among the affected processes in both tissues. Furthermore, an association with cellular and developmental processes was prominent in kidney medulla, while transport and immune response were prominent in kidney cortex. Conclusion: Specific biological and dose-dependent responses were observed in both tissues. The number of affected transcripts and biological processes revealed distinct response differences between the absorbed doses delivered to the tissues

  18. Estimation of induced secondary metabolites in chickpea tissues in response to elicitor preparation of seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, F.; Iqbal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Disease response of plants in terms of induced browning and phytoalexin (induced secondary metabolites) production were recorded in the tissues of Cicer arietinum (Chick pea) treated with the High Molecular Crude Elicitor Preparations, HMWCEP 'Polysaccharides' of Hypnea musciformis (red algae), Padina tetrastromatica (brown algae) and Ulva lactulus (green algae). A UV-visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of induced secondary metabolites with time. (author)

  19. Dickkopf-3, a tissue-derived modulator of local T cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMeister

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system protects organisms from harmful environmental insults. In parallel, regulatory mechanisms control immune responses in order to assure preservation of organ integrity. Yet, molecules involved in the control of T cell responses in peripheral tissues are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the function of Dickkopf-3 in the modulation of local T cell reactivity. Dkk3 is a secreted, mainly tissue derived protein with highest expression in organs considered as immune privileged such as the eye, embryo, placenta and brain. While T cell development and activation status in naïve Dkk3 deficient mice was comparable to littermate controls, we found that Dkk3 contributes to the immunosuppressive microenvironment that protects transplanted, class-I mismatched embryoid bodies from T cell mediated rejection. Moreover, genetic deletion or antibody mediated neutralization of Dkk3 led to an exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. This phenotype was accompanied by a change of T cell polarization displayed by an increase of IFNγ producing T cells within in the CNS. In the wild type situation, Dkk3 expression in the brain was up-regulated during the course of EAE in an IFNγ dependent manner. In turn, Dkk3 decreased IFNγ activity and served as part of a negative feedback mechanism. Thus, our findings suggest that Dkk3 functions as a tissue-derived modulator of local CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses.

  20. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed “sleep specific” changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Conclusion Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific

  1. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  2. Cytoskeletal remodeling of connective tissue fibroblasts in response to static stretch is dependent on matrix material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Koptiuch, Cathryn; Iatridis, James C; Howe, Alan K; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2012-01-01

    In areolar “loose” connective tissue, fibroblasts remodel their cytoskeleton within minutes in response to static stretch resulting in increased cell body cross-sectional area that relaxes the tissue to a lower state of resting tension. It remains unknown whether the loosely arranged collagen matrix, characteristic of areolar connective tissue, is required for this cytoskeletal response to occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal remodeling of fibroblasts in and dissociated from areolar and dense connective tissue in response to 2 hours of static stretch in both native tissue and collagen gels of varying crosslinking. Rheometric testing indicated that the areolar connective tissue had a lower dynamic modulus and was more viscous than the dense connective tissue. In response to stretch, cells within the more compliant areolar connective tissue adopted a large “sheet-like” morphology that was in contrast to the smaller dendritic morphology in the dense connective tissue. By adjusting the in vitro collagen crosslinking, and the resulting dynamic modulus, it was demonstrated that cells dissociated from dense connective tissue are capable of responding when seeded into a compliant matrix, while cells dissociated from areolar connective tissue can lose their ability to respond when their matrix becomes stiffer. This set of experiments indicated stretch-induced fibroblast expansion was dependent on the distinct matrix material properties of areolar connective tissues as opposed to the cells’ tissue of origin. These results also suggest that disease and pathological processes with increased crosslinks, such as diabetes and fibrosis, could impair fibroblast responsiveness in connective tissues. PMID:22552950

  3. Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robin J; Litière, Saskia; Lia, Michela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy...... improved tumor response and progression-free survival, but differences in overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant. We analyzed factors prognostic for tumor response and OS, and assessed histological subgroup and tumor grade as predictive factors to identify patients more likely to benefit...... patients had improved tumor response compared to other histological subgroups, whilst patients with metastases other than lung, liver or bone had a poorer response [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.78; p = 0.006]. Patients with bone metastases had reduced OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1...

  4. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation.

  5. Self assembled temperature responsive surfaces for generation of cell patches for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M; ChangWei; Xu Jiahua; Yu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds is the ability of the scaffold to biologically mimic autograft-like tissues. One of the alternate approaches to achieve this is by the application of cell seeded scaffolds with optimal porosity and mechanical properties. However, the current approaches for seeding cells on scaffolds are not optimal in terms of seeding efficiencies, cell penetration into the scaffold and more importantly uniform distribution of cells on the scaffold. Also, recent developments in scaffold geometries to enhance surface areas, pore sizes and porosities tend to further complicate the scenario. Cell sheet-based approaches for cell seeding have demonstrated a successful approach to generate scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. However, the method of generating the temperature responsive surface is quite challenging and requires carcinogenic reagents and gamma rays. Therefore, here, we have developed temperature responsive substrates by layer-by-layer self assembly of smart polymers. Multilayer thin films prepared from tannic acid and poly N-isopropylacrylamide were fabricated based on their electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Cell attachment and proliferation studies on these thin films showed uniform cell attachment on the substrate, matching tissue culture plates. Also, the cells could be harvested as cell patches and sheets from the scaffolds, by reducing the temperature for a short period of time, and seeded onto porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. An enhanced cell seeding efficiency on scaffolds was observed using the cell patch-based technique as compared to seeding cells in suspension. Owing to the already pre-existent cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, the cell patch showed the ability to reattach rapidly onto scaffolds and showed enhanced ability to proliferate and differentiate into a bone-like matrix. (paper)

  6. Subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity following penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, W H C

    2009-02-01

    SUMMARY: Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity, albeit rare, has to be borne in mind when treating patients with subcutaneous emphysema. The misdiagnosis of this condition as its serious infective counterpart often leads to unnecessary aggressive treatment. Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema often accompanies a patient who has no systemic symptoms of illness. Unfortunately, the distinction is not always easy especially when history of injury suggests involvement of an infective or reactive element. Penetrating blackthorn injury is common, especially in rural communities, and often occurs from farming or gardening activities. Blackthorn penetration can cause numerous tissue reactions once embedded under the skin and they are often contaminated with soil. Here we present, for the first time, a case where penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist resulted in noninfective subcutaneous emphysema involving the whole upper limb and neck, and its subsequent management.

  7. Evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Eloísa; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed bone tissue reactions to MTA Fillapex (Ângelus Industria de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda, Londrina, Brazil) compared with an epoxy resin-based material in the femur of Wistar rats. Bone tissue reactions were evaluated in 15 animals after 7, 30, and 90 days (n = 5 per period). Three surgical cavities were prepared on the femur and filled with 0.2 mL MTA Fillapex, AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), or no sealer (negative control). By the end of each experimental period, 5 animals were randomly euthanized. The samples were histologically processed and analyzed using a light microscope. The presence of inflammatory cells, fibers, and hard tissue barrier formation was evaluated. Differences among the groups and between the 3 experimental periods were evaluated by using 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (P ≤ .05). MTA Fillapex scored significantly higher for neutrophils at 7 days than at 90. At 7 days, the same occurred when comparing MTA Fillapex with AH Plus. The presence of lymphocytes/plasmocytes significantly decreased over time in all groups. Macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, and fiber condensation presented no differences among groups and periods. Within 90 days, all groups presented complete hard tissue barrier formation. The presence of mineral trioxide aggregate in MTA Fillapex composition did not improve the bone tissue repair. The presence of sealers provided the re-establishment of the original bone tissue structure and the inflammatory response decreased over time, so they can be considered biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, D.A.; Purandare, N.C.; Jambhekar, N.A.; Agarwal, A.; Agarwal, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers. The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. These lesions were initially regarded as inflammatory or reactive processes, but since the identification of clonal abnormalities in these patients, and in view of their capacity for autonomous growth, they are now widely considered to represent benign neoplasms. (orig.)

  9. A novel radiation responsive cis-acting element regulates gene induction and mediates tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kuchibahtla, Jaya

    1997-01-01

    containing binding domains for the transcription factors AP-1 and Ets. This DNA sequence (TGCCTCAGTTTCCC) is similar to antioxidant responsive element. X-ray- mediated transcriptional activation of the 5' regulatory region of ICAM-1 required the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of nuclear proteins from irradiated endothelial cells incubated with the ARE binding domain (5'-GCTGCTGCCTCAGTTTCCC-3') showed increased protein-DNA complexes at 60 and 120 minutes after irradiation. Conclusions: 1) ICAM induction in irradiated tissue occurs in the microvascular endothelium. 2) ICAM expression contributes to the pathogenesis of radiation-mediated tissue injury and the ICAM knockout serves as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of tissue injury. 3) ICAM expression is regulated by a novel radiation-inducible cis-acting element that has homology to previously identified antioxidant responsive elements

  10. Poliovirus intrahost evolution is required to overcome tissue-specific innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghong; Dolan, Patrick Timothy; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Li, Min; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2017-08-29

    RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, have a great evolutionary capacity, allowing them to quickly adapt and overcome challenges encountered during infection. Here we show that poliovirus infection in immune-competent mice requires adaptation to tissue-specific innate immune microenvironments. The ability of the virus to establish robust infection and virulence correlates with its evolutionary capacity. We further identify a region in the multi-functional poliovirus protein 2B as a hotspot for the accumulation of minor alleles that facilitate a more effective suppression of the interferon response. We propose that population genetic dynamics enables poliovirus spread between tissues through optimization of the genetic composition of low frequency variants, which together cooperate to circumvent tissue-specific challenges. Thus, intrahost virus evolution determines pathogenesis, allowing a dynamic regulation of viral functions required to overcome barriers to infection.RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, have a great evolutionary capacity and can adapt quickly during infection. Here, the authors show that poliovirus infection in mice requires adaptation to innate immune microenvironments encountered in different tissues.

  11. Effect of retinol on the hyperthermal response of normal tissue in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.A.; Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of prior administration of retinol, a membrane labilizer, on the in vivo hyperthermal response of lysosomes was investigated in the mouse spleen using a quantitative histochemical assay for the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase. A dose of retinol which had no effect when given alone enhanced the thermal response of the lysosome, causing an increase in lysosomal membrane permeability. In contrast, the same dose of retinol had no effect on the gross hyperthermal response of mouse intestine; a tissue which is relatively susceptible to hyperthermia. Thermal damage to intestine was assayed directly by crypt loss 1 day after treatment or assessed as thermal enhancement of x-ray damage by counting crypt microcolonies 4 days after a combined heat and x-ray treatment. Thus, although the hyperthermal response of the lysosome could be enhanced by the administration of retinol, thermal damage at a gross tissue level appeared to be unaffected, suggesting that lysosomal membrane injury is unlikely to be a primary event in hyperthermal cell killing

  12. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB , the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB , the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and ...

  13. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB , the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB , the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and ...

  14. Soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a negligible nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschon, M; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Borsari, V; Lenger, H; Bernauer, J; Chiesa, R; Cigada, A; Chiusoli, L; Giardino, R

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluates the soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a low nickel content (P558) in comparison with a conventional stainless steel (SSt)and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous findings showed its in vitro biocompatibility by culturing P558 with healthy and osteoporotic osteoblasts and its in vivo effectiveness as bone implant material. Regarding its use as a material in osteosynthesis,P558 biocompatibility when implanted in soft tissues, as subcutis and muscle, was assessed. Disks and rods of these metals were implanted in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle, respectively. Four and twelve weeks post surgery implants with surrounding tissue were retrieved for histologic and histomorphometric analysis: fibrous capsule thickness and new vessel formation were measured. Around all implanted materials, light microscopy highlighted a reactive and fibrous capsule formation coupled with ongoing neoangiogenesis both in rats and in rabbits. Histomorphometric measurements revealed a stronger inflammatory response,in terms of capsule thickness,surrounding SSt implants (9.8% Ni content) both in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle independently of shape and site of implantation. A progressive decrease in capsule thickness around P558 (implantation. However,in the light of the previous and present studies, P558 is a good material, instead of titanium alloys, in orthopedic research.

  15. Adipose tissue and metabolic and inflammatory responses to stroke are altered in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Haley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an independent risk factor for stroke, although several clinical studies have reported that obesity improves stroke outcome. Obesity is hypothesised to aid recovery by protecting against post-stroke catabolism. We therefore assessed whether obese mice had an altered metabolic and inflammatory response to stroke. Obese ob/ob mice underwent a 20-min middle cerebral artery occlusion and 24-h reperfusion. Lipid metabolism and expression of inflammatory cytokines were assessed in the plasma, liver and adipose tissue. The obese-specific metabolic response to stroke was assessed in plasma using non-targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS metabolomics coupled with univariate and multivariate analysis. Obesity had no effect on the extent of weight loss 24 h after stroke but affected the metabolic and inflammatory responses to stroke, predominantly affecting lipid metabolism. Specifically, obese mice had increases in plasma free fatty acids and expression of adipose lipolytic enzymes. Metabolomics identified several classes of metabolites affected by stroke in obese mice, including fatty acids and membrane lipids (glycerophospholipids, lysophospholipids and sphingolipids. Obesity also featured increases in inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and adipose tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that obesity affected the acute metabolic and inflammatory response to stroke and suggest a potential role for adipose tissue in this effect. These findings could have implications for longer-term recovery and also further highlight the importance of considering comorbidities in preclinical stroke research, especially when identifying biomarkers for stroke. However, further work is required to assess whether these changes translate into long-term effects on recovery.

  16. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  17. A novel continuous subcutaneous lactate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, A; Messeri, D; Moscone, D; Ricci, F; Valgimigli, F

    2005-05-15

    A novel continuous lactate monitoring system has been developed modifying the GlucoDay portable medical device (A. Menarini Diagnostics), already present in the European market, and used to continuously measure glucose levels. Lactate oxidase based biosensors have been developed immobilising the enzyme on nylon net and placing it on a Pt electrode. The biosensor was connected to the portable device provided with a micro-pump and coupled to a microdialysis system. It is capable to record subcutaneous lactate every 3 min. In vitro analytical results confirmed that the sensors respond linearly in the interval of concentration between 0.1 and 10 mmol/L, covering the whole physiological range. During prolonged monitoring periods, the response of the biosensors remained stable, showing a limited drift of 8%, within 60 h. Stability tests are still on route. However, preliminary results have shown a shelf life of about 10 months. In vivo experiments performed on healthy rabbits have demonstrated the good accuracy and reproducibility of the system. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.9547 (N=80) was found, which represents a good correlation between the GlucoDay and the laboratory reference analyser. A 16 h in vivo monitoring on a healthy volunteer has been also performed.

  18. Tissue responses to fractional transient heating with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Magdy A; El-Bary, Alaa A; Al-Sowayan, Noorah S

    2016-10-01

    A fractional model of Bioheat equation for describing quantitatively the thermal responses of skin tissue under sinusoidal heat flux conditions on skin surface is given. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the solution in a closed form. The resulting formulation is applied to one-dimensional application to investigate the temperature distribution in skin with instantaneous surface heating for different cases. According to the numerical results and its graphs, conclusion about the fractional bioheat transfer equation has been constructed. Sensitivity analysis is performed to explore the thermal effects of various control parameters on tissue temperature. The comparisons are made with the results obtained in the case of the absence of time-fractional order. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Characterization of TLR-induced inflammatory responses in COPD and control lung tissue explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerenke A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Pomerenke,1 Simon R Lea,1 Sarah Herrick,2 Mark A Lindsay,3 Dave Singh1 1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, 2Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, 3Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK Purpose: Viruses are a common cause of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. They activate toll-like receptors (TLRs 3, 7, and 8, leading to a pro-inflammatory response. We have characterized the responses of TLR3 and TLR7/8 in lung tissue explants from COPD patients and control smokers.Methods: We prepared lung whole tissue explants (WTEs from patients undergoing surgery for confirmed or suspected lung cancer. In order to mimic the conditions of viral infection, we used poly(I:C for TLR3 stimulation and R848 for TLR7/8 stimulation. These TLR ligands were used alone and in combination. The effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα neutralization and dexamethasone on TLR responses were examined. Inflammatory cytokine release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: WTEs from COPD patients released higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with WTEs from smokers. Activation of multiple TLRs led to a greater than additive release of TNFα and CCL5. TNFα neutralization and dexamethasone treatment decreased cytokine release.Conclusion: This WTE model shows an enhanced response of COPD compared with controls, suggesting an increased response to viral infection. There was amplification of innate immune responses with multiple TLR stimulation. Keywords: COPD, poly(I:C, R848, cytokines, lung explant

  20. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  1. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Z

    2018-03-23

    Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone ( Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae to functional hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Venter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone (Haliotis midae subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  3. Tissue- and environmental response-specific expression of 10 PP2C transcripts in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S; Koga, R; Bohnert, H J; Fukuhara, T

    1999-03-01

    Ten transcripts (Mpc1-10) homologous to protein phosphatases of the 2C family have been isolated from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant). Transcripts range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 kb, and encode proteins whose catalytic domains are between 24% and 62% identical to that of the Arabidopsis PP2C, ABI1. Transcript expression is tissue specific. Two isoforms are present only in roots (Mpc1 and Mpc5), three in young leaves (Mpc6, 8 and 9), two in old leaves (Mpc6 and Mpc8), and two in post-flowering leaves (Mpc8 and Mpc9). Mpc2 is strongly expressed in roots and also in seeds, meristematic tissues and mature flowers. Mpc3 is specific for leaf meristems, and Mpc4 is found in root and leaf meristems. Mpc7 is restricted to meristematic tissues. Mpc10 is only present in mature flowers. Mpc2 (in roots and leaves), Mpc5 (in roots) and Mpc8 (weakly in leaves) are induced by salinity stress and drought conditions with different kinetics in different tissues, but other Mpcs are downregulated by stress. Cold stress (4 degrees C) leads to a decline in Mpc5 and Mp6, but low temperature provoked a long-term (days) increase in Mpc2 levels in leaves and a transient increase (less than 24 h) in roots. Four full-length transcripts have been obtained. In each case, after over-expression in E. coli, the isolated proteins exhibited (Mg2+-dependent, okadeic acid-insensitive) protein phosphatase activity, although activity against 32P-phosphocasein varied among different PP2Cs. Determination of tissue developmental and stress response specificity of PP2C will facilitate functional studies of signal-transducing enzymes in this halophytic organism.

  4. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  5. Multi-scale mechanical response of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offeddu, Giovanni S; Ashworth, Jennifer C; Cameron, Ruth E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-02-01

    Tissue engineering has grown in the past two decades as a promising solution to unresolved clinical problems such as osteoarthritis. The mechanical response of tissue engineering scaffolds is one of the factors determining their use in applications such as cartilage and bone repair. The relationship between the structural and intrinsic mechanical properties of the scaffolds was the object of this study, with the ultimate aim of understanding the stiffness of the substrate that adhered cells experience, and its link to the bulk mechanical properties. Freeze-dried type I collagen porous scaffolds made with varying slurry concentrations and pore sizes were tested in a viscoelastic framework by macroindentation. Membranes made up of stacks of pore walls were indented using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. It was found that the bulk scaffold mechanical response varied with collagen concentration in the slurry consistent with previous studies on these materials. Hydration of the scaffolds resulted in a more compliant response, yet lesser viscoelastic relaxation. Indentation of the membranes suggested that the material making up the pore walls remains unchanged between conditions, so that the stiffness of the scaffolds at the scale of seeded cells is unchanged; rather, it is suggested that thicker pore walls or more of these result in the increased moduli for the greater slurry concentration conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  7. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Johnson, Perry; Jokisch, Derek W.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-11-01

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues—active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM50), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 µm of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM50 targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM50 and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM50 DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of 10 eV to 100 Me

  8. A method to determine insulin responsiveness in synaptosomes isolated from frozen brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Whitney; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Studying the insulin signaling response at the synapse is an important approach to understand molecular mechanisms involved in disease-related neurodegenerative processes. We developed a method for studying the insulin responsiveness at the synaptic level by isolating functional synaptosomes from fresh or frozen tissue and exposing them to insulin in the presence of ATP (a critical step) to detect insulin receptor (IR) activation. We performed an ATP dose-response curve, insulin dose-response curve, and insulin response time course to optimize this method. We also demonstrated that our protocol reflects the degree of insulin responsiveness in vivo by using an animal model of known insulin resistance, AtENPP1-Tg mice. This method is advantageous over other methods detecting IR in total brain homogenates due to the ability to detect IR response without confounding contributions from other cell areas and cell types also expressing IR. Furthermore, ex vivo insulin stimulation can be compared to baseline synaptosomes obtained from the same animal which improves reliability and statistical power while decreasing the number of animals required to perform individual experiments. We have developed a reliable, efficient method to measure insulin-driven ex vivo phosphorylation of the synaptosomal insulin receptor that can reliably reflect the pre-existing insulin responsiveness status in the CNS of the animal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of stimulation of isolated synaptosomes with insulin and a promising new technique to study the synaptic CNS insulin responsiveness under physiological or disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose response of continuous subcutaneous infusion of recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 in combination with metformin and sulphonylurea over 12 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe Sørensen; Holst, J J; Ehlers, M R

    2014-01-01

    (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We compared the efficacy and safety of three doses of recombinant GLP-1, ranging from 1.25 to 5.0 pmol/kg/min (pkm) and placebo, given by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 3...... months in combination with metformin and sulphonylurea (SU), to lower haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose and weight in 95 type 2 diabetes patients with inadequate glycaemic control. RESULTS: The mean decreases in HbA1c at endpoint (week 12) were significantly greater for all three rGLP-1...... dose groups when each was compared with the placebo group, with the greatest decrease occurring in the 5.0 pkm dose group (-1.3%, s.d. ± 0.18, p fasting plasma glucose from baseline to endpoint were significantly greater for all three rGLP-1 dose groups than...

  10. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... the probes were processed for histological examination. RESULTS: Large intra- and inter-group differences in the relative recovery were found between all locations. Absolute values of metabolites showed no significant changes during the study period. The lactate in blood was 25-30% of the intra-tissue values...

  11. Blood flow responses to mild-intensity exercise in ectopic vs. orthotopic prostate tumors; dependence upon host tissue hemodynamics and vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Emmanuel; Becker, Veronika G C; McCullough, Danielle J; Stabley, John N; Gittemeier, Elizabeth M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Sieman, Dietmar W; Behnke, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Given the critical role of tumor O2 delivery in patient prognosis and the rise in preclinical exercise oncology studies, we investigated tumor and host tissue blood flow at rest and during exercise as well as vascular reactivity using a rat prostate cancer model grown in two transplantation sites. In male COP/CrCrl rats, blood flow (via radiolabeled microspheres) to prostate tumors [R3327-MatLyLu cells injected in the left flank (ectopic) or ventral prostate (orthotopic)] and host tissue was measured at rest and during a bout of mild-intensity exercise. α-Adrenergic vasoconstriction to norepinephrine (NE: 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) was determined in arterioles perforating the tumors and host tissue. To determine host tissue exercise hyperemia in healthy tissue, a sham-operated group was included. Blood flow was lower at rest and during exercise in ectopic tumors and host tissue (subcutaneous adipose) vs. the orthotopic tumor and host tissue (prostate). During exercise, blood flow to the ectopic tumor significantly decreased by 25 ± 5% (SE), whereas flow to the orthotopic tumor increased by 181 ± 30%. Maximal vasoconstriction to NE was not different between arterioles from either tumor location. However, there was a significantly higher peak vasoconstriction to NE in subcutaneous adipose arterioles (92 ± 7%) vs. prostate arterioles (55 ± 7%). Establishment of the tumor did not alter host tissue blood flow from either location at rest or during exercise. These data demonstrate that blood flow in tumors is dependent on host tissue hemodynamics and that the location of the tumor may critically affect how exercise impacts the tumor microenvironment and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  13. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagle, Peter W; Hosper, Nynke A; Ploeg, Emily M; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A; Chiu, Roland K; Coppes, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an

  14. Tissue response of defined collagen-elastin scaffolds in young and adult rats with special attention to calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, WF; Nillesen, STM; Hafmans, T; Veerkamp, JH; van Luyn, MJA; van Kuppevelt, TH

    Collagen-elastin scaffolds may be valuable biomaterials for tissue engineering because they combine tensile strength with elasticity. In this study, the tissue response to and the calcification of these scaffolds were evaluated. In particular, the hypothesis was tested that calcification, a common

  15. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress on osteogenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M.N.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Semeins, C.M.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2005-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to perform bone cell-specific functions, such as (re)modeling of bone tissue. In vivo, local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which is thought to provoke a cellular response via loading-induced

  16. Tissue response to intraperitoneal implants of polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N P; Hubbell, J A

    1992-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate films surface modified with polyethylene oxide of mol wt 18,500 g/mol (18.5 k) by a previously described technique, were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice, along with their respective untreated controls, for periods of 1-28 d. The implants were retrieved and examined for tissue reactivity and cellular adherence. The control polyethylene terephthalate surfaces showed an initial inflammatory reaction followed by an extensive fibrotic response with a mean thickness of 60 microns at 28 d. By contrast, polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate showed only a mild inflammatory response and no fibrotic encapsulation throughout the implantation period: at 28 d a cellular monolayer was observed. Apparently either the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was stimulating less inflammation, which was in turn stimulating less fibroblastic overgrowth, or the cellular adhesion to the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was too weak to support cellular multilayers.

  17. Genomic instability: potential contributions to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Induced genomic instability generally refers to a type of damage which is transmissible down cell generations, and which results in a persistently enhanced frequency of de novo mutations, chromosomal abnormalities or lethality in a significant fraction of the descendant cell population. The potential contribution of induced genomic instability to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy, is explored. Results: The phenomenon of spontaneous genomic instability is well known in some rare genetic diseases (e.g. Gorlin's syndrome), and there is evidence in such cases that it can lead to a greater propensity for carcinogenesis (with shortened latency) which is enhanced after irradiation. It is unclear what role induced genomic instability plays in the response of normal individuals, but persistent chromosomal instability has been detected in vivo in lymphocytes and keratinocytes from irradiated normal individuals. Such induced genomic instability might play some role in tumour response in a subset of tumours with specific defects in damage response genes, but again its contribution to radiocurability in the majority of cancer patients is unclear. In normal tissues, genomic instability induced in wild-type cells leading to delayed cell death might contribute to more severe or prolonged early reactions as a consequence of increased cell loss, a longer time required for recovery, and greater residual injury. In tumours, induced genomic instability reflected in delayed reductions in clonogenic capacity might contribute to the radiosensitivity of primary tumours, and also to a lower incidence, longer latency and slower growth rate of recurrences and metastases. Conclusions: The evidence which is reviewed shows that there is little information at present to support these propositions, but what exists is consistent with their expectations. Also, it is not yet clear to what extent mutations associated with genomic instability

  18. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens: an infection spreading throughout the old world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Genchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3 larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1 its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2 its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and

  19. Radiotherapy. Non-standard fractionated regimens improving cancer treatment. Part II. Response of normal tissues to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, A.; Hernandez, M.; Pera, J.; Cambray, M.; Villa, S.; Arnaiz, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomena participating in the response of tissues to fractionated irradiation are analyzed with special emphasis on the most relevant points influencing the design of non-standard fractionated regimens. (Author)

  20. Radiation risk of tissue late effects, a net consequence of probabilities of various cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects from the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are hardly or not at all observed in man mainly due to the low values of risk coefficients that preclude statistical analyses of data from populations that are exposed to doses less than 0.2 Gy. In order to arrive at an assessment of potential risk from radiation exposure in the low dose range, the microdosimetry approach is essential. In the low dose range, ionizing radiation generates particle tracks, mainly electrons, which are distributed rather heterogeneously within the exposed tissue. Taking the individual cell as the elemental unit of life, observations and calculations of cellular responses to being hit by energy depositions events from low LET type are analysed. It emerges that besides the probability of a hit cell to sustain a detrimental effect with the consequense of malignant transformation there are probabilities of various adaptive responses that equipp the hit cell with a benefit. On the one hand, an improvement of cellular radical detoxification was observed in mouse bone marrow cells; another adaptive response pertaining to improved DNA repair, was reported for human lymphocytes. The improved radical detoxification in mouse bone marrow cells lasts for a period of 5-10 hours and improved DNA repair in human lymphocytes was seen for some 60 hours following acute irradiation. It is speculated that improved radical detoxification and improved DNA repair may reduce the probability of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Thus it is proposed to weigh the probability of detriment for a hit cell within a multicellular system against the probability of benefit through adaptive responses in other hit cells in the same system per radiation exposure. In doing this, the net effect of low doses of low LET radiation in tissue with individual cells being hit by energy deposition events could be zero or even beneficial. (orig./MG)

  1. Epidermal Homeostasis and Radiation Responses in a Multiscale Tissue Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of skin is lined with several thin layers of epithelial cells that are maintained throughout life time by a small population of stem cells. High dose radiation exposures could injure and deplete the underlying proliferative cells and induce cutaneous radiation syndrome. In this work we propose a multiscale computational model for skin epidermal dynamics that links phenomena occurring at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels of organization, to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation indexes comparable to observations in unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments. At the sub-cellular level, several recently published Wnt signaling controlled cell-cycle models are applied and the roles of key components and parameters are analyzed. Based on our simulation results, we demonstrate that a moderate increase of proliferation rate for the survival proliferative cells is sufficient to fully repopulate the area denuded by high dose radiation, as long as the integrity of underlying basement membrane is maintained. Our work highlights the importance of considering proliferation kinetics as well as the spatial organization of tissues when conducting in vivo investigations of radiation responses. This integrated model allow us to test the validity of several basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on skin.

  2. Pain and Tissue Damage in Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Are They Correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, Osmar A; Topolski, Francielle; de Faria, Lorraine P; de Mendonça, Marcos R

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the correlation between pain and tissue damage in response to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such as hyalinization and external apical root resorption (EARR). The literature review was used as a methodological strategy, following the knowledge development process - constructivist (ProKnow-C). Study axes were defined and keywords that best represented each axis were selected. The terms were submitted to an adherence test and validation, resulting in 12 keyword combinations. Searches were carried out in the most representative databases for the selected terms, without restriction as for language or publication dates. Retrieved studies were filtered using the EndNote X6 program and classified according to analysis of title, abstract, and keywords. The final portfolio of articles was submitted to bibliometric and systematic analysis. A total of 1,091 studies were retrieved, out of which 719 were repeated and 335 were removed in the classification stage. A total of 37 articles remained in the final portfolio. Only one article was in line with the purpose of this study, indicating absence of correlation between pain and EARR in response to OTM. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether orthodontic pain might serve as a criterion for the use of appropriate mechanical forces, contributing to minimize tissue damage following OTM. This article presents a systematic literature review, in which scientific evidence of the correlation between pain and tissue damage during orthodontic movement was studied, providing a scientific answer for the following question: Is pain reported by patients associated with application of inappropriate orthodontic force? Thus, it aims at aiding the orthodontist in the definition of clinical parameters for the use of optimal orthodontic force.

  3. In vivo tissue response and durability of five novel synthetic polymers in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, E; Cingi, C; Eskiizmir, G; Altintoprak, N; Calli, A; Calli, C; Yilgör, I; Yilgör, E

    2016-04-01

    Alloplastic materials are frequently used in facial plastic surgeries such as rhinoplasty and nasal reconstruction. Unfortunately, the ideal alloplastic material has not been found. This experimental study evaluates the tissue response and durability of five novel polymers developed as an alloplastic material. In this experimental study involving a tertiary university hospital, six subcuticular pockets were formed at the back of 10 rabbits for the implantation of each polymer and sham group. Each pocket was excised with its adjacent tissue after three months, and collected for histopathological examination. Semi-quantitative examination including neovascularisation, inflammation, fibrosis, abscess formation, multinucleated foreign body giant cells was performed, and integrity of polymer was evaluated. A statistical comparison was performed. No statically significant difference was detected in neovascularisation, inflammation, fibrosis, abscess formation and multinucleated foreign body giant cells when a paired comparison between sham and polymer II, III and IV groups was performed individually. Nevertheless, the degree of fibrosis was less than sham group in polymer I (p = .027) and V (p = .018), although the other variables were almost similar. The integrity of polymers III (9 intact, 1 fragmented) and IV (8 intact, 2 absent) was better than the other polymers. These novel synthetic polymers could be considered as good candidates for clinical applicability. All polymers provided satisfactory results in terms of tissue response; however, fibrovascular integration was higher in polymers II, III and IV. In addition, the durability of polymer III and IV was better than the others. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  4. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munira A Kadhim

    2010-03-05

    To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and γ-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim

  5. Radiobiological predictors of tumor and acute normal tissue response in radiotherapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.; Skladowski, K.; Zajusz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of measurements of the potential doubling time (T pot. ) and of the survival fraction at 2.0 Gy (SF 2 ), and a method modifying acute radiation response of normal oral mucosa are discussed. Tumor clonogen repopulation accelerates around day 28 of the treatment, and the rate of repopulation is not constant but continuously increases from about 0.3 Gy/day to 1.0-1.3 Gy/day between day 28 and 65 of the treatment. This may suggest that T pot. values decrease correspondingly. The relevance of prior-to-treatment T pot. measurements to clinical situations is discussed. The SF 2 value reflects the intrinsic radiosensitivity of human tumors. The SF 2 values are expected to be valuable as predictors for tumor response to irradiation. Variations in the SF 2 values depending on tumor characteristics and assay methods are discussed in relation to the dose response and tumor cure probability. The effect of modifying the repopulation rate in the oral mucosa by stimulation with a 2% silver nitrate solution is discussed. Although these prognosticators are different in their nature, they might provide a rational basis for selecting patients into optimal irradiation treatment and might allow to modify the radiation response of dose-limiting normal tissues. (author). 5 figs., 1 tab., 28 refs

  6. IgG Responses to Tissue-Associated Antigens as Biomarkers of Immunological Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that IgG responses to a panel of 126 prostate tissue-associated antigens are common in patients with prostate cancer. In the current report we questioned whether changes in IgG responses to this panel might be used as a measure of immune response, and potentially antigen spread, following prostate cancer-directed immune-active therapies. Sera were obtained from prostate cancer patients prior to and three months following treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (=34, a poxviral vaccine (=31, and a DNA vaccine (=21. Changes in IgG responses to individual antigens were identified by phage immunoblot. Patterns of IgG recognition following three months of treatment were evaluated using a machine-learned Bayesian Belief Network (ML-BBN. We found that different antigens were recognized following androgen deprivation compared with vaccine therapies. While the number of clinical responders was low in the vaccine-treated populations, we demonstrate that ML-BBN can be used to develop potentially predictive models.

  7. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  8. Prediction of treatment response and metastatic disease in soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Hamidreza; Zhou, Mu; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Raghavan, Meera.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors comprised of more than 50 histologic subtypes. Based on spatial variations of the tumor, predictions of the development of necrosis in response to therapy as well as eventual progression to metastatic disease are made. Optimization of treatment, as well as management of therapy-related side effects, may be improved using progression information earlier in the course of therapy. Multimodality pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRI) were taken before and after treatment for 30 patients. Regional variations in the tumor bed were measured quantitatively. The voxel values from the tumor region were used as features and a fuzzy clustering algorithm was used to segment the tumor into three spatial regions. The regions were given labels of high, intermediate and low based on the average signal intensity of pixels from the post-contrast T1 modality. These spatially distinct regions were viewed as essential meta-features to predict the response of the tumor to therapy based on necrosis (dead tissue in tumor bed) and metastatic disease (spread of tumor to sites other than primary). The best feature was the difference in the number of pixels in the highest intensity regions of tumors before and after treatment. This enabled prediction of patients with metastatic disease and lack of positive treatment response (i.e. less necrosis). The best accuracy, 73.33%, was achieved by a Support Vector Machine in a leave-one-out cross validation on 30 cases predicting necrosis treatment and metastasis.

  9. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  10. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  11. Cutaneous and subcutaneous Ewing's sarcoma: an indolent disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Edward; Merchant, Thomas E.; Pappo, Alberto; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Shah, Amit B.; Kun, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The occurrence of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (ES) in deep soft tissues has been well described, but cases in which this tumor occurs in a primary cutaneous or subcutaneous site have rarely been reported. The superficial variant may be less aggressive than are the more common bony and deep soft tissue counterparts with an apparently favorable outcome. A retrospective review of patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous ES was conducted to analyze outcome and patterns of failure. Methods and Materials: Between July 1985 and March 1997, 14 patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous ES were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 7-21 years). Anatomic locations included trunk and pelvis (7), upper or lower extremity (4), and head and neck (3). The median size of the lesion was 3 cm (range, 1-12 cm). Thirteen had definitive surgical resections, and one had biopsy of the mass at the time of referral. They were enrolled on institutional (12) or cooperative group (2) protocols. All patients received chemotherapy, composed of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, etoposide, and dactinomycin. Patients on institutional protocols received radiation (36 Gy) to the operative bed (150-180 cGy/fraction/day). Postoperative radiotherapy was omitted for 2 patients who had complete resection on the cooperative group study. Results: No patients had metastatic disease at presentation. Thirteen patients had wide local excision of the primary tumors prior to enrollment on chemotherapy; surgical margins were negative (10), microscopically positive (2), and indeterminate (1). Eleven patients received radiotherapy to the tumor bed; 2 with clear surgical margins were treated without irradiation. The patient who had biopsy only received induction chemotherapy followed by definitive surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 77 months (range 17-111 months). None of the patients

  12. The development of skin immersion clearing method for increasing of laser exposure efficiency on subcutaneous objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Alexandra M.; Genina, Elina A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Terentyuk, Artem G.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we have studied effect of a hyperosmotic optical clearing agent (OCA), such as polyethylene glycol, on the fluorescence intensity from a target located in subcutaneous area in the model experiments. As a fluorescence agent the nanocomposite including gold nanorods with hematophorphyrin was used. The remitted fluorescent signal traveling to the tissue surface was monitored over time as the tissue was treated with the OCA. The detected fluorescent signal increased as the scattering in tissue samples was substantially reduced. The study has shown how OCA can be used to improve the detected signal at localization of subcutaneous target tissue at the photothermal or photodynamic therapy. Immersion clearing of skin can be also useful for improvement of laser exposure efficiency due to the increasing of light penetration depth.

  13. Fuz regulates craniofacial development through tissue specific responses to signaling factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichao Zhang

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity effector gene Fuz regulates ciliogenesis and Fuz loss of function studies reveal an array of embryonic phenotypes. However, cilia defects can affect many signaling pathways and, in humans, cilia defects underlie several craniofacial anomalies. To address this, we analyzed the craniofacial phenotype and signaling responses of the Fuz(-/- mice. We demonstrate a unique role for Fuz in regulating both Hedgehog (Hh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during craniofacial development. Fuz expression first appears in the dorsal tissues and later in ventral tissues and craniofacial regions during embryonic development coincident with cilia development. The Fuz(-/- mice exhibit severe craniofacial deformities including anophthalmia, agenesis of the tongue and incisors, a hypoplastic mandible, cleft palate, ossification/skeletal defects and hyperplastic malformed Meckel's cartilage. Hh signaling is down-regulated in the Fuz null mice, while canonical Wnt signaling is up-regulated revealing the antagonistic relationship of these two pathways. Meckel's cartilage is expanded in the Fuz(-/- mice due to increased cell proliferation associated with the up-regulation of Wnt canonical target genes and decreased non-canonical pathway genes. Interestingly, cilia development was decreased in the mandible mesenchyme of Fuz null mice, suggesting that cilia may antagonize Wnt signaling in this tissue. Furthermore, expression of Fuz decreased expression of Wnt pathway genes as well as a Wnt-dependent reporter. Finally, chromatin IP experiments demonstrate that β-catenin/TCF-binding directly regulates Fuz expression. These data demonstrate a new model for coordination of Hh and Wnt signaling and reveal a Fuz-dependent negative feedback loop controlling Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  14. Glucose impairs tamoxifen responsiveness modulating connective tissue growth factor in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Costa, Valerio; Liguoro, Domenico; Collina, Francesca; Cantile, Monica; Prevete, Nella; Passaro, Carmela; Mosca, Giusy; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Beguinot, Francesco; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Formisano, Pietro

    2017-12-12

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are negative prognostic factors in patients with breast cancer (BC). We found that sensitivity to tamoxifen was reduced by 2-fold by 25 mM glucose (High Glucose; HG) compared to 5.5 mM glucose (Low Glucose; LG) in MCF7 BC cells. Shifting from HG to LG ameliorated MCF7 cell responsiveness to tamoxifen. RNA-Sequencing of MCF7 BC cells revealed that cell cycle-related genes were mainly affected by glucose. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) was identified as a glucose-induced modulator of cell sensitivity to tamoxifen. Co-culturing MCF7 cells with human adipocytes exposed to HG, enhanced CTGF mRNA levels and reduced tamoxifen responsiveness of BC cells. Inhibition of adipocyte-released IL8 reverted these effects. Interestingly, CTGF immuno-detection in bioptic specimens from women with estrogen receptor positive (ER + ) BC correlated with hormone therapy resistance, distant metastases, reduced overall and disease-free survival. Thus, glucose affects tamoxifen responsiveness directly modulating CTGF in BC cells, and indirectly promoting IL8 release by adipocytes.

  15. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  16. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  17. The effect of dental bleaching on pulpal tissue response in a diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, L T A; Ferreira, L L; Benetti, F; Gastélum, A A; Gomes-Filho, J E; Ervolino, E; Briso, A L F

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate pulpal tissue response after dental bleaching in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight rats were divided into two groups of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats (n = 14). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with alloxan. After DM confirmation, all rats were anaesthetized and dental bleaching was performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the right maxillary molars for 30 min. Left molars were used as controls. Bleaching resulted in four hemimaxillae groups: normoglycaemic (N), N-bleached (NBle), diabetic (D) and D-bleached (DBle). After 2 or 30 days, the animals were euthanized and the hemimaxillae were removed, processed for histopathological analysis and stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson's trichrome (MT) and picrosirius red (PSR). Results obtained within animals (normoglycaemic or diabetic rats) were submitted to Wilcoxon or paired t-tests, and between animal (normoglycaemic and diabetic rats), to Mann-Whitney test or t-tests. At 2 days, the NBle group had a mild inflammatory infiltration in the pulpal tissue, whilst the DBle had severe inflammation or necrosis (P bleaching was greater in diabetic rats. Additionally, the increase in reactionary dentine deposition and mature collagen fibres observed in diabetic rats needs further evaluation to confirm the present results. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measuring the Contractile Response of Isolated Tissue Using an Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz-Martín

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isometric or isotonic transducers have traditionally been used to study the contractile/relaxation effects of drugs on isolated tissues. However, these mechanical sensors are expensive and delicate, and they are associated with certain disadvantages when performing experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, a method that uses an image sensor to measure the contractile effect of drugs on blood vessel rings and other luminal organs is presented. The new method is based on an image-processing algorithm, and it provides a fast, easy and non-expensive way to analyze the effects of such drugs. In our tests, we have obtained dose-response curves from rat aorta rings that are equivalent to those achieved with classical mechanic sensors.

  19. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  20. Surgical Management of Gynecomastia: Subcutaneous Mastectomy and Liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hwa; Byun, Il Hwan; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Ji Ye; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of gynecomastia depends on multiple factors, and the best modality is controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the best management approach by comparing outcomes of two groups of patients with gynecomastia who received subcutaneous mastectomy combined with liposuction and liposuction only. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 64 patients who underwent surgery for gynecomastia. We divided the patients into two groups: group A, patients who underwent liposuction only; and group B, patients who underwent liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy. The serial photographs of all patients were clinically evaluated with respect to size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome by three plastic surgeons, and patient satisfaction was surveyed with regard to palpable lumps, size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome. Of the 64 subjects, 16 received liposuction only, and 48 received the combination procedure. A total of 125 breasts were involved. The doctors' scores for size and overall outcome were significantly better in the combination group, whereas scarring was better in the liposuction-only group. Similarly, patient satisfaction regarding size was significantly higher in the combination group, and satisfaction regarding scarring was significantly higher in the liposuction-only group. The scores for scarring in the combination treatment group were acceptable. Our study shows that combination treatment with liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy results in satisfactory outcomes, including the extent of scarring. We conclude that this combination treatment should be recommended as the standard surgical treatment for gynecomastia and can provide excellent results in cases where glandular tissue needs to be removed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  1. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1α, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF α, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  2. Bilateral pneumothorax with extensive subcutaneous emphysema manifested during third molar surgery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, J; Irie, A; Dotsu, H; Inokuchi, T

    2000-10-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral pneumothorax with extensive subcutaneous emphysema in a 45-year-old man that occurred during surgery to extract the left lower third molar, performed with the use of an air turbine dental handpiece. Computed tomographic scanning showed severe subcutaneous emphysema extending bilaterally from the cervicofacial region and the deep anatomic spaces (including the pterygomandibular, parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, and deep temporal spaces) to the anterior wall of the chest. Furthermore, bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum were present. In our patient, air dissection was probably caused by pressurized air being forced through the operating site into the surrounding connective tissue.

  3. The chemical composition of synthetic bone substitutes influences tissue reactions in vivo: histological and histomorphometrical analysis of the cellular inflammatory response to hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Hilbig, Ulrike; Rausch, Vera; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Detsch, Rainer; Ziegler, Guenter; Deisinger, Ulrike; Sader, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bone substitute material properties such as granule size, macroporosity, microporosity and shape have been shown to influence the cellular inflammatory response to a bone substitute material. Keeping these parameters constant, the present study analyzed the in vivo tissue reaction to three bone substitute materials (granules) with different chemical compositions (hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and a mixture of both with a HA/TCP ratio of 60/40 wt%). Using a subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats for up to 30 days, tissue reactions, including the induction of multinucleated giant cells and the extent of implantation bed vascularization, were assessed using histological and histomorphometrical analyses. The results showed that the chemical composition of the bone substitute material significantly influenced the cellular response. When compared to HA, TCP attracted significantly greater multinucleated giant cell formations within the implantation bed. Furthermore, the vascularization of the implantation bed of TCP was significantly higher than that of HA implantation beds. The biphasic bone substitute group combined the properties of both groups. Within the first 15 days, high giant cell formation and vascularization rates were observed, which were comparable to the TCP-group. However, after 15 days, the tissue reaction, i.e. the extent of multinucleated giant cell formation and vascularization, was comparable to the HA-group. In conclusion, the combination of both compounds HA and TCP may be a useful combination for generating a scaffold for rapid vascularization and integration during the early time points after implantation and for setting up a relatively slow degradation. Both of these factors are necessary for successful bone tissue regeneration.

  4. Ultrasonographic Findings of Subcutaneous and Muscular Sparganosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Sung Moon; Park, Sung Il

    2009-01-01

    This study was deigned to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous and intramuscular sparganosis. Nine cases of histologically proven subcutaneous and intramuscular sparganosis lesions in seven patients (mean patient age, 59 years; M:F = 6:1) were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients had recurrent sparganosis. A color Doppler examination was performed in all cases. A prior history of ingestion of raw snake meat was noted for two patients. Patients presented with a palpable mass and induration (n = 7) and dull pain (n = 4). Lesion locations were in the thigh (n = 4), lower leg (n = 2), chest wall (n = 1), an inguinal location (n = 1) and the neck (n = 1). Five lesions were in the subcutaneous fat layer and four lesions had intramuscular locations. Calcification was noted in two cases. All cases showed heterogeneous hypoechoic serpiginous tubular-and-oval lesions. The lesions were conglomerated or discrete in appearance. All nine cases showed the presence of lesions with a multi-layered wall with variable intraluminal echogenicity, at least in one segment of the lesion. Increased vascularity was noted on color Doppler examinations in two patients with pain. Subcutaneous or intramuscular sparganosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when a serpiginous tubular-and-oval lesion is noted that is seen with a multi-layered wall with variable intraluminal echogenicity

  5. Subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Takada, Yoshiki; Kono, Michio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 233 cases of patients who had undergone whole neck irradiation with 4-MV X-ray or 8-10-MeV electrons, or both, and had been followed with regard to their skin condition for at least 1 year. The prescribed dose to the whole neck ranged from 19.2 to 72.4 Gy (median 50). The skin-absorbed dose was specified as that at a depth of 4.1 mm (d4.1-mm depth ), and a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of d4.1-mm depth was also estimated (BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth ). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that previous neck dissection, concurrent chemotherapy, corticosteroid administration as a part of chemotherapy, fractionation, and BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth were significant prognostic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth and previous neck dissection were the only prognostic variables for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis. Conclusion: A high dose to a 4.1-mm depth of the skin and a history of neck dissection were identified as the predominant risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. A subcutaneous dose should be considered in radiotherapy treatment planning involving the whole neck, especially in cases in which patients have undergone previous neck dissection

  6. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...

  7. Elephantine but not elephantiasis: Subcutaneous zygomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Meenakshi; Arora, Amit; Bhalla, Lucky; Salodkar, Atul

    2011-09-01

    Subcutaneous zygomycosis is an unusual disorder caused by a rare fungus, Basidiobolus ranarum. We report this entity in a 4- yr- old boy. Biopsy showed the Splendore Hoeppli phenomenon and the culture yielded Basidiobolus ranarum. The child responded to saturated solution of potassium iodide within 1 month of starting treatment.

  8. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...

  9. Case Report: Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema as complications of childhood pneumonia is very unusual. They results most often from respiratory manoeuvres that produce high intrathoracic pressure. Although they are largely benign, pneumomediastinum can cause compression of major ...

  10. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  11. Dose-specific transcriptional responses in thyroid tissue in mice after 131I administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudqvist, Nils; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the present investigation, microarray analysis was used to monitor transcriptional activity in thyroids in mice 24 h after 131 I exposure. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the transcriptional patterns associated with 131 I exposure in normal mouse thyroid tissue and 2) propose biomarkers for 131 I exposure of the thyroid. Methods: Adult BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 13, 130 or 260 kBq of 131 I and killed 24 h after injection (absorbed dose to thyroid: 0.85, 8.5, or 17 Gy). Mock-treated mice were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from thyroids and processed using the Illumina platform. Results: In total, 497, 546, and 90 transcripts were regulated (fold change ≥ 1.5) in the thyroid after 0.85, 8.5, and 17 Gy, respectively. These were involved in several biological functions, e.g. oxygen access, inflammation and immune response, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Approximately 50% of the involved transcripts at each absorbed dose level were dose-specific, and 18 transcripts were commonly detected at all absorbed dose levels. The Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 gene expression displayed a monotone decrease in regulation with absorbed dose, and further studies need to be performed to evaluate if they may be useful as dose-related biomarkers for 131I exposure. Conclusion: Distinct and substantial differences in gene expression and affected biological functions were detected at the different absorbed dose levels. The transcriptional profiles were specific for the different absorbed dose levels. We propose that the Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 genes might be novel potential absorbed dose-related biomarkers to 131 I exposure of thyroid. Advances in knowledge: During the recent years, genomic techniques have been developed; however, they have not been fully utilized in nuclear medicine and radiation biology. We have used RNA microarrays to investigate genome-wide transcriptional regulations in thyroid tissue in mice after low

  12. Histopathological observation of immunized rhesus macaques with plague vaccines after subcutaneous infection of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Tian

    Full Text Available In our previous study, complete protection was observed in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques immunized with SV1 (20 µg F1 and 10 µg rV270 and SV2 (200 µg F1 and 100 µg rV270 subunit vaccines and with EV76 live attenuated vaccine against subcutaneous challenge with 6×10(6 CFU of Y. pestis. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs of the immunized animals and control animals were checked by electron microscopy. The results show no signs of histopathological lesions in the lungs, livers, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleens and hearts of the immunized animals at Day 14 after the challenge, whereas pathological alterations were seen in the corresponding tissues of the control animals. Giemsa staining, ultrastructural examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed bacteria in some of the organs of the control animals, whereas no bacterium was observed among the immunized animals. Ultrastructural observation revealed that no glomerular immune deposits on the GBM. These observations suggest that the vaccines can effectively protect animals from any pathologic changes and eliminate Y. pestis from the immunized animals. The control animals died from multi-organ lesions specifically caused by the Y. pestis infection. We also found that subcutaneous infection of animals with Y. pestis results in bubonic plague, followed by pneumonic and septicemic plagues. The histopathologic features of plague in rhesus macaques closely resemble those of rodent and human plagues. Thus, Chinese-origin rhesus macaques serve as useful models in studying Y. pestis pathogenesis, host response and the efficacy of new medical countermeasures against plague.

  13. Differentiation state of skin fibroblast cultures versus risk of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herskind, C.; Bamberg, M.; Rodemann, H.P.; Bentzen, S.M.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is increasing evidence for patient-to-patient variation in the response of normal tissue to radiotherapy. Recently, it has been suggested that accumulation of functional fibrocytes may be a key step in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. Therefore, we have examined a possible relationship between the differentiation state of untreated fibroblasts and the risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis in individual patients. Materials and methods: We used skin fibroblast cultures isolated from eight postmastectomy radiotherapy patients whose individual clinical radiosensitivity was assessed by the mean excess risk of fibrosis. Different types of potentially mitotic progenitor fibroblasts (MF) and postmitotic functional fibrocytes (PMF) in the terminal differentiation lineage (MFI approaches MFII approaches MFIII approaches PMF) were scored morphologically in clonal culture. Progression of differentiation was quantified by the ratio L/E of colony-forming late (MFIII and late MFII) and early (MFI and early MFII) progenitors. Results: We observed a correlation between the ratio L/E and the mean risk of fibrosis (r S =0.743, P=0.03), indicating an approximately 10-fold increase in L/E with an increasing risk of fibrosis. This was paralleled by a decreasing trend in the absolute numbers of early progenitor types. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the plating efficiency and the risk of fibrosis. Conclusions: The data suggest that the risk of fibrosis increases with the progression of the differentiation of untreated progenitor fibroblasts, indicating that the progression of fibroblast differentiation may be a co-factor in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. If this hypothesis is validated, it provides a rationale for a novel predictive test to identify patients with an increased risk of subcutaneous fibrosis. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Dynamic culture induces a cell type-dependent response impacting on the thickness of engineered connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Guillaume Marceau; Gauvin, Robert; Proulx, Maryse; Vallée, Maud; Fradette, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal cells are central to connective tissue homeostasis and are widely used for tissue-engineering applications. Dermal fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) allow successful tissue reconstruction by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. This method leads to the production of multilayered tissues, devoid of exogenous biomaterials, that can be used as stromal compartments for skin or vesical reconstruction. These tissues are formed by combining cell sheets, generated through cell stimulation with ascorbic acid, which favours the cell-derived production/organization of matrix components. Since media motion can impact on cell behaviour, we investigated the effect of dynamic culture on mesenchymal cells during tissue reconstruction, using the self-assembly method. Tissues produced using ASCs in the presence of a wave-like movement were nearly twice thicker than under standard conditions, while no difference was observed for tissues produced from dermal fibroblasts. The increased matrix deposition was not correlated with an increased proliferation of ASCs, or by higher transcript levels of fibronectin or collagens I and III. A 30% increase of type V collagen mRNA was observed. Interestingly, tissues engineered from dermal fibroblasts featured a four-fold higher level of MMP-1 transcripts under dynamic conditions. Mechanical properties were similar for tissues reconstructed using dynamic or static conditions. Finally, cell sheets produced using ASCs under dynamic conditions could readily be manipulated, resulting in a 2 week reduction of the production time (from 5 to 3 weeks). Our results describe a distinctive property of ASCs' response to media motion, indicating that their culture under dynamic conditions leads to optimized tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Expression analysis of five tobacco EIN3 family members in relation to tissue-specific ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene induces different sets of genes in different tissues and at different stages of development. To investigate whether these differential responses are caused by differential expression of members of the EIN3 family transcription factors, five tobacco family members were isolated. They can be divided into three subgroups, which is probably due to the amphidiploid nature of tobacco. In phylogenetic analysis, each of the subgroups clustered with one of the three tomato EIL proteins and all NtEILs proved to be most homologous to Arabidopsis EIN3 and EIL1. Although organ-specific ethylene responses have been observed before, northern blot analysis showed that all NtEILs were expressed in all organs. To study differential NtEIL expression at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was used on the tobacco ovary. It was found that different ovary tissues displayed variable ethylene-induced expression of two ethylene-responsive marker genes. By contrast, no differences were found in expression level or tissue-specificity for any of the NtEILs in the ovary, before or after ethylene treatment. This indicates that the organ and tissue-specific ethylene responses are not caused by differential expression of NtEIL family members. These results support a model in which the developmental signals that regulate the tissue-specific responses are integrated with the ethylene signal downstream of a common primary ethylene-signalling pathway.

  16. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  17. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  18. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates tissue injury in response to AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Navankasattusas, Sutip; Li, Dean Y; Kim, Il-man; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-02-01

    Netrin-1 regulates cell survival and apoptosis by activation of its receptors, including UNC5B. However, the in vivo role of UNC5B in cell survival during cellular stress and tissue injury is unknown. We investigated the role of UNC5B in cell survival in response to stress using mice heterozygously expressing the UNC5B gene (UNC5B(-/flox)) and mice with targeted homozygous deletion of UNC5B in kidney epithelial cells (UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre)). Mice were subjected to two different models of organ injury: ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Both mouse models of UNC5B depletion had normal organ function and histology under basal conditions. After AKI, however, UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre) mice exhibited significantly worse renal function and damage, increased tubular apoptosis, enhanced p53 activation, and exacerbated inflammation compared with UNC5B(-/flox) and wild-type mice. shRNA-mediated suppression of UNC5B expression in cultured tubular epithelial cells exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell death in a p53-dependent manner and blunted Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3 kinase similarly exacerbated cisplatin-induced apoptosis; in contrast, overexpression of UNC5B reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results show that the netrin-1 receptor UNC5B plays a critical role in cell survival and kidney injury through Akt-mediated inactivation of p53 in response to stress.

  19. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies.

  20. Proteinase-activated receptors - mediators of early and delayed normal tissue radiation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer-Jensen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are activated by proteolytic exposure of a receptor-tethered ligand. The discovery of this receptor family represents one of the most intriguing recent developments in signal transduction. PARs are involved in the regulation of many normal and pathophysiological processes, notably inflammatory and fibroproliferative responses to injury. Preclinical studies performed in our laboratory suggest that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a critical role in the mechanism of chronicity of radiation fibrosis, while proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may mediate important fibroproliferative responses in irradiated intestine. Specifically, activation of PAR-1 by thrombin, and PAR-2 by pancreatic trypsin and mast cell proteinases, appears to be involved in acute radiation-induced inflammation, as well as in subsequent extracellular matrix deposition, leading to the development of intestinal wall fibrosis and clinical complications. Pharmacological modulators of PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression or activation would be potentially useful as preventive or therapeutic agents in patients who receive radiation therapy, especially if blockade could be targeted to specific tissues or cellular compartments

  1. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadhim, Munira A

    2012-08-22

    The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program. To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e. less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these "non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation with a focus on the induction of genomic instability (GI) in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition in these models on genomic instability. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to the dose of 10mGy (0.01Gy) X-rays. Using conventional X-ray and we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various conditions at a range of doses down to the very low dose of 0.01Gy. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for such studies. Mechanistic studies of instability in different cell

  2. Soft tissue response in orthognathic surgery patients treated by bimaxillary osteotomy: cephalometry compared with 2-D photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Martin, Alice

    2013-03-01

    Since improvement of facial aesthetics after orthognathic surgery moves increasingly into the focus of patients, prediction of soft tissue response to hard tissue movement becomes essential for planning. The aim of this study was to assess the facial soft tissue response in skeletal class II and III patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and to compare the potentials of cephalometry and two-dimensional (2-D) photogrammetry for predicting soft tissue changes. Twenty-eight patients with class II relationship and 33 with class III underwent bimaxillary surgery. All subjects had available both a traced lateral cephalogram and a traced lateral photogram taken pre- and postsurgery in natural head position (median follow-up, 9.4 ± 0.6 months). Facial convexity and lower lip length were highly correlated with hard tissue movements cephalometrically in class III patients and 2-D photogrammetrically in both classes. In comparison, cephalometric correlations for class II patients were weak. Correlations of hard and soft tissue movements between pre- and postoperative corresponding landmarks in horizontal and vertical planes were significant for cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry. No significant difference was found between cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry with respect to soft to hard tissue movement ratios. This study revealed that cephalometry is still a feasible standard for evaluating and predicting outcomes in routine orthognathic surgery cases. Accuracy could be enhanced with 2-D photogrammetry, especially in class II patients.

  3. Human recombinant RNASET2-induced inflammatory response and connective tissue remodeling in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzini, Nicolò; Pedrini, Edoardo; Girardello, Rossana; Tettamanti, Gianluca; de Eguileor, Magda; Taramelli, Roberto; Acquati, Francesco; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have demonstrated that the RNASET2 gene is involved in the control of tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, a role in establishing a functional cross-talk between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment has been unveiled for this gene, based on its ability to act as an inducer of the innate immune response. Although several studies have reported on the molecular features of RNASET2, the details on the mechanisms by which this evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease regulates the immune system are still poorly defined. In the effort to clarify this aspect, we report here the effect of recombinant human RNASET2 injection and its role in regulating the innate immune response after bacterial challenge in an invertebrate model, the medicinal leech. We found that recombinant RNASET2 injection induces fibroplasias, connective tissue remodeling and the recruitment of numerous infiltrating cells expressing the specific macrophage markers CD68 and HmAIF1. The RNASET2-mediated chemotactic activity for macrophages has been further confirmed by using a consolidated experimental approach based on injection of the Matrigel biomatrice (MG) supplemented with recombinant RNASET2 in the leech body wall. One week after injection, a large number of CD68 + and HmAIF-1 + macrophages massively infiltrated MG sponges. Finally, in leeches challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with the environmental bacteria pathogen Micrococcus nishinomiyaensis, numerous macrophages migrating to the site of inoculation expressed high levels of endogenous RNASET2. Taken together, these results suggest that RNASET2 is likely involved in the initial phase of the inflammatory response in leeches.

  4. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Aluru, N.; Black, R.W.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 ??g/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 ??g/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 ??g/ kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. Effects of subcutaneous, low-dose glucagon on insulin-induced mild hypoglycaemia in patients with insulin pump treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, S; Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dose-response relationship of subcutaneous glucagon administration on plasma glucose and on counterregulatory hormone responses during subcutaneous insulin induced mild hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pumps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight...... hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes....... insulin pump treated patients completed a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hypoglycaemia was induced in the fasting state by a subcutaneous insulin bolus and when plasma glucose reached 3.4 mmol/l (95%CI 3.2-3.5), a subcutaneous bolus of either 100, 200, 300 µg glucagon or saline...

  6. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  7. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation-an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Perry B; Bahadori, Amir A [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Eckerman, Keith F [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lee, Choonsik [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Nuclear and Radiological/Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues-active and total shallow marrow-within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R{sup 2} = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  8. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  9. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ploeg, Emily M. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  10. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A.; Ploeg, Emily M.; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  11. The bereavement process of tissue donors' family members: responses of grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Nancy; Schmidt, Lee; Coolican, Maggie

    2014-09-01

    Donated tissues can save lives of critically burned patients and those needing a heart valve replacement. Tissues enhance the lives of a million recipients annually through transplants of corneas, bones, tendons, and vein grafts. Unfortunately, the need for some tissues exceeds their availability. The goal of the quantitative component of this mixed methods study was to identify the grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment response of tissue donors' family members during a 2-year period. Simultaneous mixed methods design. The sample for this study consisted of 52 tissue donors' family members, mostly widows (83%). Data were collected for 2 years to test changes in grief, posttraumatic stress, panic behavior, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly fewer grief reactions, less posttraumatic stress, and greater personal growth. There was no significant difference in the ongoing attachment to their deceased loved ones. The results of this study may reinforce the positive meaning that tissue donors' family members can find in tissue donation. Findings also demonstrate that the bereavement process corroborates contemporary bereavement and attachment theories. Health professionals are encouraged to seek donations with less worry that tissue donors' family members will experience adverse outcomes during bereavement.

  12. Role of Liposuction Combined with Subcutaneous Mastectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deformity in two other patients. Conclusions: Liposuction combined with subcutaneous mastectomy is a reliable, versatile, less time consuming and valid procedure for the treatment of gynecomastia. This procedure provides satisfactory aesthetic results. KEY WORDS: Gynecomastia, liposuction, subcutaneous mastectomy.

  13. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  14. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  15. Medical image of the week: subcutaneous calcification in dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year old woman was referred to our Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD clinic for evaluation of dyspnea. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed perivascular reticular and ground glass opacities with air trapping, consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with connective tissue associated ILD. On review of previous images extensive subcutaneous calcifications were seen (Figure 2. Calcinosis is an uncommon manifestation of dermatomyositis in adults (1. It is usually seen around areas of frequent trauma like the hands and elbows. In her case, a pelvic inflammatory disease may have been a trigger for this calcinosis. Calcinosis is a difficult complication to treat with some success seen with diltiazem, aluminum hydroxide, and even alendronate in children. Surgical excision may be required in some cases.

  16. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  17. Cervicofacial subcutaneous air emphysema after dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, J B; Ardary, W C

    1990-04-01

    A patient was seen by a general practitioner for surgical removal of his third molar. A standard high-speed handpiece was used to remove the tooth. During the procedure, subcutaneous emphysema developed. Later the same day, the patient's swelling increased and his airway was compromised. The patient's condition, the differential diagnosis, etiological factors, and treatment of this condition are all detailed within this clinical report.

  18. Skin-Resident T Cells Drive Dermal Dendritic Cell Migration in Response to Tissue Self-Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Truong, Hong-An; Maurano, Megan M; Gratz, Iris K; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Migratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets deliver tissue Ags to draining lymph nodes (DLNs) to either initiate or inhibit T cell-mediated immune responses. The signals mediating DC migration in response to tissue self-antigen are largely unknown. Using a mouse model of inducible skin-specific self-antigen expression, we demonstrate that CD103 + dermal DCs (DDCs) rapidly migrate from skin to skin DLN (SDLNs) within the first 48 h after Ag expression. This window of time was characterized by the preferential activation of tissue-resident Ag-specific effector T cells (Teffs), with no concurrent activation of Ag-specific Teffs in SDLNs. Using genetic deletion and adoptive transfer approaches, we show that activation of skin-resident Teffs is required to drive CD103 + DDC migration in response to tissue self-antigen and this Batf3-dependent DC population is necessary to mount a fulminant autoimmune response in skin. Conversely, activation of Ag-specific Teffs in SDLNs played no role in DDC migration. Our studies reveal a crucial role for skin-resident T cell-derived signals, originating at the site of self-antigen expression, to drive DDC migration during the elicitation phase of an autoimmune response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Physiological Aging: Links Among Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, Diabetes, and Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Michael B; Justice, Jamie N; Nicklas, Barbara J; Kirkland, James L

    2017-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These processes synergistically promote chronic sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid redistribution away from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Without intervention, these effects contribute to age-related systemic metabolic dysfunction, physical limitations, and frailty. Thus adipose tissue dysfunction may be a fundamental contributor to the elevated risk of chronic disease, disability, and adverse health outcomes with advancing age. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  20. Atrophy of spared grey matter tissue predicts poorer motor recovery and rehabilitation response in chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynne V.; Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Barghi, Ameen; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the motor deficit following stroke is clearly due to the structural brain damage that has been sustained, this relationship is attenuated from the acute to chronic phases. We investigated the possibility that motor impairment and response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke patients may relate more strongly to the structural integrity of brain structures remote from the lesion than to measures of overt tissue damage. Methods Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on MRI scans from 80 chronic stroke patients to investigate whether variations in grey matter density were correlated with extent of residual motor impairment or with CI therapy-induced motor recovery. Results Decreased grey matter density in non-infarcted motor regions was significantly correlated with magnitude of residual motor deficit. In addition, reduced grey matter density in multiple remote brain regions predicted a lesser extent of motor improvement from CI therapy. Conclusions Atrophy in seemingly healthy parts of the brain that are distant from the infarct accounts for at least a portion of the sustained motor deficit in chronic stroke. PMID:22096036

  1. Tissue factor expression by myeloid cells contributes to protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TF(Δ) ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2-like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Accuracy and reproducibility of bending stiffness measurements by mechanical response tissue analysis in artificial human ulnas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patricia A; Ellerbrock, Emily R; Bowman, Lyn; Loucks, Anne B

    2014-11-07

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone strength, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone strength. Bone strength is strongly associated with bone stiffness, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone stiffness either. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) is a non-significant risk, non-invasive, radiation-free, vibration analysis technique for making immediate, direct functional measurements of the bending stiffness of long bones in humans in vivo. MRTA has been used for research purposes for more than 20 years, but little has been published about its accuracy. To begin to investigate its accuracy, we compared MRTA measurements of bending stiffness in 39 artificial human ulna bones to measurements made by Quasistatic Mechanical Testing (QMT). In the process, we also quantified the reproducibility (i.e., precision and repeatability) of both methods. MRTA precision (1.0±1.0%) and repeatability (3.1 ± 3.1%) were not as high as those of QMT (0.2 ± 0.2% and 1.3+1.7%, respectively; both pstiffness was indistinguishable from the identity line (p=0.44) and paired measurements by the two methods agreed within a 95% confidence interval of ± 5%. If such accuracy can be achieved on real human ulnas in situ, and if the ulna is representative of the appendicular skeleton, MRTA may prove clinically useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  4. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  5. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult. PMID:28123436

  6. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  7. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  8. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  9. The mechanical properties of human adipose tissues and their relationships to the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouli, Nadia; Mansfield, Jessica; Green, Ellen; Bell, James; Knight, Beatrice; Liversedge, Neil; Tham, Ji Chung; Welbourn, Richard; Shore, Angela C; Kos, Katarina; Winlove, C Peter

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion in obesity is characterized by cellular growth and continuous extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling with increased fibrillar collagen deposition. It is hypothesized that the matrix can inhibit cellular expansion and lipid storage. Therefore, it is important to fully characterize the ECM's biomechanical properties and its interactions with cells. In this study, we characterize and compare the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous and omental tissues, which have different physiological functions. AT was obtained from 44 subjects undergoing surgery. Force/extension and stress/relaxation data were obtained. The effects of osmotic challenge were measured to investigate the cellular contribution to tissue mechanics. Tissue structure and its response to tensile strain were determined using nonlinear microscopy. AT showed nonlinear stress/strain characteristics of up to a 30% strain. Comparing paired subcutaneous and omental samples (n = 19), the moduli were lower in subcutaneous: initial 1.6 ± 0.8 (means ± SD) and 2.9 ± 1.5 kPa (P = 0.001), final 11.7 ± 6.4 and 32 ± 15.6 kPa (P matrix fibers. These results suggest that subcutaneous AT has greater capacity for expansion and recovery from mechanical deformation than omental AT.

  10. Subcutaneous versus subcutaneous and intraperitoneal local anaesthetic in the management of post appendicectomy pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.Z.; Gondal, Z.I.; Raza, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of subcutaneous only and combined subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine during appendicectomy for the management of early post operative pain. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Kohat from 13th December 2007 to 20th December 2008. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients of a cute appendicitis, divided into two groups of 30 each, were included in the study. Group A was given 0.5% bupivacaine subcutaneously, whereas group B was given the anaesthetic subcutaneously as well as intraperitoneally during appendectomy. Results: In group A, 24 (80%) were VAS (visual analoguescoring) 3 (uncomfortable) and 6 (20%) were VAS 2 (mild pain) whereas in study group B, 11 (36.6%) were VAS 3, 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 and 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 during 1st 12 hrs postoperatively (p=0.001). In 12-24 hrs post operatively, 15 (50%) patients were VAS 3 in group A and same number was VAS 2 and in group B, only 3 (10%) were in VAS 3 and 27 (90%) were VAS 2 (p=0.001). Conclusion: A combination of subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration with bupivacaine is superior in relieving post appendectomy pain so patients require less dosage of analgesics in early post operative period along with early mobilization. (author)

  11. Roentgenography of the skin and subcutaneous fat in postmastectomy edema of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Moroz, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiography of the forearm and shoulder soft tissues in 47 patients with postmastectomy syndrome before and after conservative treatment and in 6 controls made it possible to determine differences in x-ray imaging of a skin and subcutaneous fat layer in limb edema. These differences were determined by lymph flow disorders and the formation of a connective tissue of a connective tissue component in subsutaneous fat and could be used for objective assessment of a degree of edema, determination of tactics of rehabilitation activities and assessment of their effectiveness

  12. Interleukin-6 induces impairment in human subcutaneous adipogenesis in obesity-associated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuraikhy, Shamma; Kafienah, Wael; Bashah, Moataz; Diboun, Ilhame; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Khelaifi, Fatima; Abdesselem, Houari; Mazloum, Nayef A; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya; Elrayess, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    A subset of obese individuals remains insulin sensitive by mechanisms as yet unclear. The hypothesis that maintenance of normal subcutaneous (SC) adipogenesis accounts, at least partially, for this protective phenotype and whether it can be abrogated by chronic exposure to IL-6 was investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected from insulin-sensitive (IS) and insulin-resistant (IR) individuals undergoing weight-reduction surgery. Adipocyte size, pre-adipocyte proportion of stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-derived cells, adipogenic capacity and gene expression profiles of isolated pre-adipocytes were determined, along with local in vitro IL-6 secretion. Adipogenic capacity was further assessed in response to exogenous IL-6 application. Despite being equally obese, IR individuals had significantly lower plasma leptin and adiponectin levels and higher IL-6 levels compared with age-matched IS counterparts. Elevated systemic IL-6 in IR individuals was associated with hyperplasia of adipose tissue-derived SVF cells, despite higher frequency of hypertrophied adipocytes. SC pre-adipocytes from these tissues exhibited lower adipogenic capacity accompanied by downregulation of PPARγ (also known as PPARG) and CEBPα (also known as CEBPA) and upregulation of GATA3 expression. Impaired adipogenesis in IR individuals was further associated with increased adipose secretion of IL-6. Treatment of IS-derived SC pre-adipocytes with IL-6 reduced their adipogenic capacity to levels of the IR group. Obesity-associated insulin resistance is marked by impaired SC adipogenesis, mediated, at least in a subset of individuals, by elevated local levels of IL-6. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying reduced adipogenic capacity in IR individuals could help target appropriate therapeutic strategies aimed at those at greatest risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal high-fat diet modulates brown adipose tissue response to B-adrenergic agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity increases offspring risk for several metabolic diseases. We previously showed that offspring of obese dams are predisposed to obesity, liver and adipose tissue anomalies. However, the effect of maternal obesity on developmental programing brown adipose tissue (BAT) is poorly underst...

  15. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  16. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D

    2009-07-01

    The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.

  17. Calcium Phosphate as a Key Material for Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk Uskoković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review we demonstrate that such compositional simplifications are meaningful when it comes to the design of a solution for osteomyelitis, a disease that is in its natural, non-postoperative form particularly prevalent in the underdeveloped parts of the world wherein poverty, poor sanitary conditions, and chronically compromised defense lines of the immune system are the norm. We show that calcium phosphate nanoparticles, which are inexpensive to make, could be chemically designed to possess the same functionality as a hypothetic mixture additionally composed of: (a a bone growth factor; (b an antibiotic for prophylactic or anti-infective purposes; (c a bisphosphonate as an antiresorptive compound; (d a viral vector to enable the intracellular delivery of therapeutics; (e a luminescent dye; (f a radiographic component; (g an imaging contrast agent; (h a magnetic domain; and (i polymers as viscous components enabling the injectability of the material and acting as carriers for the sustained release of a drug. In particular, calcium phosphates could: (a produce tunable drug release profiles; (b take the form of viscous and injectable, self-setting pastes; (c be naturally osteo-inductive and inhibitory for osteoclastogenesis

  18. Enhancing the radiation response of tumors but not early or late responding normal tissues using a vascular disrupting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) damage tumor vasculature and enhance tumor radiation response. In this pre-clinical study, we combined radiation with the leading VDA in clinical development, combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P), and compared the effects seen in tumors and relevant...... normal tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiation was applied locally to tissues in CDF1 mice to produce full radiation dose-response curves. CA4P (250 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected within 30 minutes after irradiating. Response of 200 mm3 foot implanted C3H mammary carcinomas was assessed......% increase in ventilation rate measured by plethysmography within 9 months). A Chi-squared test was used for statistical comparisons (significance level of p 4P. The radiation...

  19. Cigarette smoke induces molecular responses in respiratory tissues of ApoE−/− mice that are progressively deactivated upon cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boué, Stéphanie; De León, Héctor; Schlage, Walter K.; Peck, Michael J.; Weiler, Horst; Berges, An; Vuillaume, Grégory; Martin, Florian; Friedrichs, Baerbel; Lebrun, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE −/− mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to 6 months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract

  20. Oral subcutaneous midline leiomyomatous hamartoma presenting as congenital incisive papilla overgrowth in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Loomba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital soft-tissue tumors of oral cavity are mostly hyperplastic and benign in nature. This article presents an unusual case of congenital subcutaneous hamartoma of incisive papilla in a 2-year-old female child causing feeding and breathing difficulty. Total excisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia. Histopathology of tissue in reticulin-stained slide showed the presence of immature muscle fibers whereas Masson's trichrome stain revealed collagen fibers and smooth muscles confirming the diagnosis of oral midline subcutaneous smooth muscle (leiomyomatous hamartoma of incisive papilla. It is important for dental professionals to be aware of this oral lesion present from birth mimicking overgrowth of incisive papilla, by its presentation, differential diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

  1. Bacteria Associated with Subcutaneous Abscesses of Cattle Caused by Hypoderma spp Larvae in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tajik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed from February to April 2006; several visits were made to abattoirs in the north of Iran for Hypoderma spp infestation. Necropsy inspection of slaughtered and skinned animals were carried out by examination of the inner skin surface and subcutaneous tissues. Warbles were isolated by squeezing nodules from subcutaneous tissues. In the case of abscess presence, aseptic sample were taken from abscesses. The parasitological and bacteriological examinations were performed on the samples. The results indicated that 104 out of 958 of slaughtered animals were infested to Hypoderma spp in which 48 (46.15 %, 34 (32.69 % and 22 (21.15 % were infested to Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma lineatum and both species, respectively. Following bacterial analysis, the following bacteria were isolated: Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumonia.

  2. Cloning changes the response to obesity of innate immune factors in blood, liver, and adipose tissues in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls as well as lean clones and controls. Generally, the variation in phenotype between individual pigs was not reduced in cloned siblings as compared to normal siblings. Therefore, we conclude that cloning limits both the number of genes responding to obesity as well as the degree of tissue-differentiated gene expression, concomitantly with an increase in APP serum concentrations only seen in cloned, obese pigs. This may suggest that the APP response seen in obese, cloned pigs is a consequence of the characteristic skewed gene response to obesity in cloned pigs, as described in this work. This should be taken into consideration when using cloned animals as models for innate responses to obesity.

  3. Insulin response in individual tissues of control and gold thioglucose-obese mice in vivo with [1-14C]2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooney, G.J.; Astbury, L.D.; Williams, P.F.; Caterson, I.D.

    1987-01-01

    The dose-response characteristics of several glucose-utilizing tissues (brain, heart, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and quadriceps muscle) to a single injection of insulin have been compared in control mice and mice made obese with a single injection of gold thioglucose (GTG). Tissue content of [1- 14 C]2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate and blood disappearance rate of [1- 14 C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) were measured at nine different insulin doses and used to calculate rates of 2-DG uptake and phosphorylation in tissues from control and obese mice. The insulin sensitivity of tissues reflected in the ED50 of insulin response varied widely, and brown adipose tissue was the most insulin-sensitive tissue studied. In GTG-obese mice, heart, quadriceps, and brown adipose tissue were insulin resistant (demonstrated by increased ED50), whereas in white adipose tissue, 2-DG phosphorylation was more sensitive to insulin. Brain 2-DG phosphorylation was insulin independent in control and obese animals. The largest decrease in insulin sensitivity in GTG-obese mice was observed in brown adipose tissue. The loss of diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue as a result of the hypothalamic lesion in GTG-obese mice could be a major cause of insulin resistance in brown adipose tissue. Because brown adipose tissue can make a major contribution to whole-body glucose utilization, insulin resistance in this tissue may have a significant effect on whole-animal glucose homeostasis in GTG-obese mice

  4. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  5. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  6. Methods of Assessing Human Tendon Metabolism and Tissue Properties in Response to Changes in Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    expression as well as protein synthesis rate. Further the (14)C bomb-pulse method has provided data on long-term tissue turnover in human tendon. Non-invasive techniques allow measurement of tendon metabolism (positron emission tomography (PET)), tendon morphology (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......In recent years a number of methodological developments have improved the opportunities to study human tendon. Microdialysis enables sampling of interstitial fluid in the peritendon tissue, while sampling of human tendon biopsies allows direct analysis of tendon tissue for gene- and protein...

  7. Efficacious Cefazolin Prophylactic Dose for Morbidly Obese Women Undergoing Bariatric Surgery Based on Evidence from Subcutaneous Microdialysis and Populational Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eduardo Celia; Meinhardt, Nelson Guardiola; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Heineck, Isabela; Fischer, Maria Isabel; de Araújo, BibianaVerlindo; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2018-04-11

    To determine the efficacious cefazolin prophylactic dose for bariatric surgery using free subcutaneous concentrations accessed by microdialysis after 2 g or 3 g i.v. bolus dosing to morbidly obese women and POPPK modeling. A POPPK model with variable plasma and subcutaneous tissue protein binding was developed to simultaneously describe plasma and tissue data sets. The outcomes was predicted for common surgical site infection (SSI) bacteria over 3, 4, 5 and 6 h periods postdose, as probability of target attainment (PTA) using Monte Carlo simulation. CFZ 2 g warrant up to 5 h SSI prophylaxis for bacteria with MICs ≤1 mg/L such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. For species such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, which present MIC distribution frequency of 2 mg/L, the maintenance of PTA ≥ 90% occurs with a 3 g dose for surgeries lasting up to 5 h, and 2 g dose provide an adequate response up to 4 h (PTA of 89%). Effectiveness of CFZ 2 g is similar to 3 g against bacteria with a MIC up to 2 mg/L, especially if the surgery does not last for more than 4 h.

  8. Measurement of subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy by dielectric properties of breast skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Tirkkonen, A.; Tenhunen, M.; Nuutinen, J.; Nuortio, L.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Dielectric properties of a biological material determine the interaction of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields and material. Since radiation induces changes in the structure and composition of the tissue, measurement of the altered dielectric properties could yield useful data on the radiation reactions. Dielectric constant of irradiated breast skin of 36 patients was measured 64 to 99 months after postmastectomy radiotherapy with three dose-fractionation schedules. A single dose-fractionation schedule consisted of a photon and electron or a photon and 150 kV x-ray beam. An EM frequency of 300 MHz was guided into the skin via a specially constructed coaxial probe. The attenuation and the phase shift of the reflected wave was measured by the network analyzer. From these data the dielectric constant of the skin could be calculated. Although there was a general tendency that the dielectric constant in the treated side was higher than in the untreated side, the increase was statistically significant only with one photon and electron beam. A significant negative correlation was found between the dielectric constant and the occurrence of clinically assessed mild fibrosis or when all degrees of fibrosis were combined. The study demonstrates that the dielectric measurements are useful in the assessment of the response of radiotherapy dose-fractionation schedules for the development and follow-up of subcutaneous fibrosis. Due to the large variation of the dielectric constants between patients in various dose-fractionation schedules, the dielectric measurements are not capable of differentiating different degrees of fibrosis

  9. Nocturnal variations in lower-leg subcutaneous blood flow in paraplegic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Wroblewski, H; Kastrup, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Lower-leg subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rates were measured over 12-20 h under ambulatory conditions by means of the 133Xe-washout technique in nine paraplegic men, all with complete spinal cord lesions at or below the Th 6 level, and in nine age-matched healthy men. Portable Cd......Te(Cl) detectors and data-storage units were used. 2. The central and local sympathetic vasoconstrictive activity at the lower leg was measured under laboratory conditions by means of the 133Xe-washout technique and a stationary NaI(Tl) detector system. 3. The paraplegic men were found to have intact central...... the paraplegic men suffered from complete lower-leg somaesthetic denervation. 5. A significant correlation was found between the time of going to bed and the nightly hyperaemic response in the right and left lower legs (P less than 0.01). 6. It is concluded that the present data are in accordance...

  10. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  11. Association between cytokine response, the LRINEC score and outcome in patients with necrotising soft tissue infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Svensson, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Early assessment of necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is challenging. Analysis of inflammatory markers could provide important information about disease severity and guide decision making. For this purpose, we investigated the association between cytokine levels and the Laboratory Risk...

  12. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that t