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Sample records for subcutaneous microdialysis cortisol

  1. Pilot investigation on long-term subcutaneous microdialysis: proof of principle in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Franziska; Kirbs, Claudia; Erdogan, Zeynep; Lackner, Edith; Zeitlinger, Markus; Kloft, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Reliable drug concentration measurements at the target site are increasingly demanded and can be achieved by microdialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the proof of principle of long-term subcutaneous microdialysis in humans. For long-term microdialysis, a special setting implementing both concentric and linear catheters has been developed ensuring good clinical practice compliance, tolerability, and convenience for participants and personnel. As a model compound, moderately lipophilic voriconazole was selected as a well-characterized drug in in vitro microdialysis experiments. Multiple in vivo relative recovery (RR) determinations for microdialysis were performed by retrodialysis during the entire study (n = 48 samples). Continuous microdialysis was successfully applied and well tolerated over 87 h in three adults for the first time. RR revealed low intra-individual (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.4-12.5%) and inter-individual variability (CV = 4.3-12.5%) across all samples and catheters. Lower RR values were consistently determined for linear catheters. One catheter leakage was managed without an impact on the reliability of the RR values. Overall, RR values were calculated to be 73.3% (linear: CV = 18.5%, n = 23) and 84.9% (concentric: CV = 5.6%, n = 23). Long-term microdialysis application over almost 4 days was feasible by reliable multiple RR (proof of principle), well tolerated, and reduced the burden in humans avoiding several catheter insertions, thereby allowing to monitor concentration-time courses continuously. Moreover, a moderately lipophilic drug has been proven suitable for in vivo microdialysis, as previously suggested by in vitro microdialysis.

  2. In Vivo Microdialysis To Determine Subcutaneous Interstitial Fluid Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Starr, Therese; Robertson, Thomas; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the subcutaneous interstitial fluid (ISF) pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with sepsis. This prospective observational study was conducted at two tertiary intensive care units in Australia. Serial fluconazole concentrations were measured over 24 h in plasma and subcutaneous ISF using microdialysis. The concentrations in plasma and microdialysate were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography system with electrospray mass spectrometer detector method. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Twelve critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled. The mean in vivo fluconazole recovery rates ± standard deviation (SD) for microdialysis were 51.4% ± 16.1% with a mean (±SD) fluconazole ISF penetration ratio of 0.52 ± 0.30 (coefficient of variation, 58%). The median free plasma area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) was significantly higher than the median ISF AUC0-24 (340.4 versus 141.1 mg · h/liter; P = 0.004). There was no statistical difference in median fluconazole ISF penetration between patients receiving and not receiving vasopressors (median, 0.28 versus 0.78; P = 0.106). Both minimum and the maximum concentrations of drug in serum (Cmax and Cmin) showed a significant correlation with the fluconazole plasma exposure (Cmax, R(2) = 0.86, P fluconazole was distributed variably, but incompletely, from plasma into subcutaneous interstitial fluid in this cohort of critically ill patients with sepsis. Given the variability of fluconazole interstitial fluid exposures and lack of clinically identifiable factors by which to recognize patients with reduced distribution/exposure, we suggest higher than standard doses to ensure that drug exposure is adequate at the site of infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Glucose gradient differences in subcutaneous tissue of healthy volunteers assessed with ultraslow microdialysis and a nanolitre glucose sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, RG; Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Korf, J

    2002-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous interstitium is easily accessible for monitoring glucose for Diabetes Mellitus research and management. The available glucose sensing devices demand frequent blood sampling by finger pricking for calibration. Moreover, there is controversy about the exact relationship

  4. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  5. Early osteoarthritis and microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, Ida Carøe; Mikkelsen, U R; Krogsgaard, M R

    2010-01-01

    The microdialysis technique was evaluated as a possible method to obtain local measurements of biochemical markers from knee joints with degenerative changes. Seven patients scheduled for arthroscopy of the knee due to minor to moderate degenerative changes had microdialysis catheters inserted un...

  6. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2013-01-01

    for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic...... and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...... equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers....

  7. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  8. Cortisol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  9. Glucose metabolism in chronic diabetic foot ulcers measured in vivo using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Holstein, P; Larsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Ten subjects with diabetes mellitus and unilateral chronic foot ulcer were investigated. Local tissue concentrations of glucose and lactate were measured using the microdialysis method at a distance of 0.5-1 cm from the edge of the ulcer and in normal skin in the contralateral foot. Subcutaneous...

  10. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E

    1997-01-01

    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans dur...

  11. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an ora...

  12. Advanced monitoring in traumatic brain injury: microdialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, KLH; Young, AMH; Hutchinson, PJ

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: Here, we review the present state-of-the-art of microdialysis for monitoring patients with severe traumatic brain injury, highlighting the newest developments. Microdialysis has evolved in neurocritical care to become an established bedside monitoring modality that can reveal unique information on brain chemistry. Recent findings: A major advance is recent consensus guidelines for microdialysis use and interpretation. Other advances include insight obtained from microdi...

  13. Enhanced human tissue microdialysis using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin as molecular carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available Microdialysis sampling of lipophilic molecules in human tissues is challenging because protein binding and adhesion to the membrane limit recovery. Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD forms complexes with hydrophobic molecules thereby improving microdialysis recovery of lipophilic molecules in vitro and in rodents. We tested the approach in human subjects. First, we determined HP-ß-CD influences on metabolite stability, delivery, and recovery in vitro. Then, we evaluated HP-ß-CD as microdialysis perfusion fluid supplement in 20 healthy volunteers. We placed 20 kDa microdialysis catheters in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and in the vastus lateralis muscle. We perfused catheters with lactate free Ringer solution with or without 10% HP-ß-CD at flow rates of 0.3-2.0 µl/min. We assessed tissue metabolites, ultrafiltration effects, and blood flow. In both tissues, metabolite concentrations with Ringer+HP-ß-CD perfusate were equal or higher compared to Ringer alone. Addition of HP-ß-CD increased dialysate volume by 10%. Adverse local or systemic reactions to HP-ß-CD did not occur and analytical methods were not disturbed. HP-ß-CD addition allowed to measure interstitial anandamide concentrations, a highly lipophilic endogenous molecule. Our findings suggest that HP-ß-CD is a suitable supplement in clinical microdialysis to enhance recovery of lipophilic molecules from human interstitial fluid.

  14. Microdialysis sampling for investigations of bioavailability and bioequivalence of topically administered drugs: current state and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Nielsen, J B; Benfeldt, E

    2010-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin is a unique technique for in vivo sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling the unbound tissue concentrations in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. MD as a research method has undergone significant develop...

  15. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  16. Advanced monitoring in traumatic brain injury: microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Keri L H; Young, Adam M H; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Here, we review the present state-of-the-art of microdialysis for monitoring patients with severe traumatic brain injury, highlighting the newest developments. Microdialysis has evolved in neurocritical care to become an established bedside monitoring modality that can reveal unique information on brain chemistry. A major advance is recent consensus guidelines for microdialysis use and interpretation. Other advances include insight obtained from microdialysis into the complex, interlinked traumatic brain injury disorders of electrophysiological changes, white matter injury, inflammation and metabolism. Microdialysis has matured into being a standard clinical monitoring modality that takes its place alongside intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen tension measurement in specialist neurocritical care centres, as well as being a research tool able to shed light on brain metabolism, inflammation, therapeutic approaches, blood-brain barrier transit and drug effects on downstream targets. Recent consensus on microdialysis monitoring is paving the way for improved neurocritical care protocols. Furthermore, there is scope for future improvements both in terms of the catheters and microdialysate analyser technology, which may further enhance its applicability.

  17. Reliable glucose monitoring by ex-vivo blood microdialysis and infrared spectrometry for patients in critical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. Michael

    2017-02-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has been realised by biosensors in combination with micro-dialysis, using either subcutaneously or intravascularly implanted catheters. Another alternative is ex-vivo micro-dialysis of continuously sampled heparinized whole blood available from the patient even under critical care conditions. However, most devices suffer from inaccuracies due to variable recovery rates. Infrared spectrometry has been suggested for analyte quantification, since besides glucose other clinically relevant analytes can be simultaneously determined that are, e.g., important for intensive care patients. Perfusates with acetate and mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers (internal standards). In contrast to the previously used acetate, an almost linear dependency between mannitol loss and glucose recovery was observed for micro-dialysis of glucose spiked aqueous albumin solutions or porcine heparinized whole blood when testing flat membranes within a custom-made micro-dialysator. By this, a straightforward compensation of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring is possible. The combination of microdialysis with infrared spectrometry provides a calibration-free assay for accurate continuous glucose monitoring, as reference spectra of dialysate components can be a-priori allocated.

  18. MONITORING MOLECULES IN THE CONSCIOUS BRAIN BY MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC

    Microdialysis is a method to sample the extracellular fluid of living tissue by means of an implanted dialysis tube. When microdialysis is used in combination with sensitive analytical chemical techniques, the dynamics and regulation of neurotransmission can be studied in the brain of the conscious

  19. Evaluation of the microdialysis technique in the dog fat pad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Madsen, J; Galbo, H

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the microdialysis technique was evaluated in an isolated autoperfused dog fat pad. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol were measured in interstitial fluid by microdialysis and simultaneously in arterial and adipose venous plasma. Adipose tissue blood flow...

  20. Histamine in hemorrhagic shock - A new approach with microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raum, M; Nagelschmidt, M; Rixen, D; Keiser, F; Gregor, S; Tiling, T; Bouillon, B; Neugebauer, E; Redl, H

    2005-01-01

    Microdialysis is a new approach for monitoring after hemorrhagic shock. The advantage of microdialysis is the local measurement of microcirculation and local changes of mediators. Until now this was mostly used in neuromonitoring. In this experiment we were focussed on the local changes of histamine

  1. Do neurotransmitters sampled by brain microdialysis reflect functional release?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, BHC; Timmerman, W

    1999-01-01

    Brain microdialysis is an invasive sampling technique and will always cause damage to nervous tissue. For proper interpretation of the results, possible sources of interference need to be identified. The present review discusses the possible artefacts of the microdialysis technique and evaluates

  2. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data.......To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  3. Application of microdialysis technique in the traditional chinese medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...

  4. Cortisol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum cortisol ... early in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be ... drugs Estrogen Human-made (synthetic) glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone Androgens

  5. Proinflammatory tissue response and recovery of adipokines during 4 days of subcutaneous large-pore microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    , IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and adiponectin using Luminex Multiplex technology. RESULTS: Interstitial IL-1beta increased from a sub-detectable level to 69+/-22 pg/ml on day 1 (pfold on day 0 (pfold...... on day 0 (pfold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (palpha increased 7-fold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (p... (121+/-28 pg/ml, p=beta, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha were all returning towards baseline level. Adiponectin was unchanged on day 0 (1,040,422+/-295,510 pg/ml, p=0.36), decreased to 346,300+/-48,002 pg/ml on day 1 (p=0.002) and remained unchanged hereafter. DISCUSSION...

  6. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  7. Characterization of Microdialysis Acidification for Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Microelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liyu (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Lee, Cheng S.(UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND); Hofstadler, Steven A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-01-01

    A microdialysis junction, based on a microdialysis membrane connecting a separate capillary and a short, sharply tapered microelectrospray emitter capillary, is demonstrated for on-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  8. Surfactants enhance recovery of poorly soluble drugs during microdialysis sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplin, Sebastian; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2017-01-01

    celecoxib, i.e. the fraction of drug, which is not associated with taurocholate surfactant micelles. In buffer, the measured concentrations matched the overall CXB concentrations. By the use of SDS-containing perfusates microdialysis sampling enabled reliable quantification of minute amounts of free CXB......Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers......, separated by a barrier that simulates the intestinal barrier. Here, in contrast to conventional D/P-systems, the dissolution of the drug (donor chamber concentration) is followed by microdialysis sampling. This approach appears promising, because it is expected not to disturb the dynamic interplay between...

  9. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later......, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during...... the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  10. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown......, healthy male subjects performed a bout of resistance exercise with one leg, followed 17–21 h later by in vivo skeletal muscle sampling by microdialysis in exercised (EX) and control (CON) legs. Microdialysis reliably predicted [OHP] in vitro (R2=0.90). Analysis with GC–MS was strongly correlated...... to traditional analysis methods (CON: slope=1.03, R2=0.896, and Pskeletal muscle...

  11. Concurrent reflectance imaging and microdialysis in the freely behaving cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; Rector, D M

    1996-01-01

    We present a method to perform simultaneous microdialysis with light reflectance imaging of neural activity in a discrete brain region of the freely behaving animal. We applied this method to the dorsal hippocampus of freely behaving cats to (1) measure extracellular glutamate and reflectance var...

  12. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  13. Consensus statement from the 2014 International Microdialysis Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchinson, Peter J; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Helmy, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Microdialysis enables the chemistry of the extracellular interstitial space to be monitored. Use of this technique in patients with acute brain injury has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of several acute neurological disorders. In 2004, a consensus document on the clinical appl...

  14. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  15. Critical evaluation of colon submucosal microdialysis in awake, mobile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Cibicek

    Full Text Available Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water. To assess local microcirculation and probe function, glucose, lactate, glucose-to-lactate ratio and urea clearance were determined in the dialysates from the three postoperative days with focus on the final 24-h period. In an attempt to mitigate the expected tissue inflammatory response, one group of animals had the catheters perfused with 5-aminosalicylic acid-enriched medium with final concentration 1 μmol/L. For verification of probe position and the assessment of the surrounding foreign body reaction, standard histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed. Microdialysis of rat gut is associated with considerable technical challenges that may lead to the loss of probe function and high drop-out rate. In this setting, limited data did not allow to draw any firm conclusion regarding local anti-inflammatory effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylic acid perfusion. Although intestinal microdialysis may be suitable for larger anesthetized animals, low reproducibility of the presented method compromises its routine experimental use in awake and freely moving small-sized rodents.

  16. Combination of micro-dialysis and infrared spectroscopy: a multianalyte assay for accurate biofluid analysis and patient monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Heise, H. Michael

    2016-03-01

    Micro-dialysis can be used for continuously harvesting body fluids, while a multi-component analysis of the dialysates by infrared spectrometry offers splendid opportunities for monitoring substrates and metabolites such as glucose, lactate and others small enough to penetrate the semi-permeable dialysis membranes. However, a drawback of this process are variable recovery rates, which can be observed especially for subcutaneously implanted catheters in human subjects. Isotonic perfusates were investigated with acetate and mannitol as recovery markers for the dialysis of human serum at 37°C to mimic in vivo patient monitoring. The latter non-ionic substance has been suggested for application when other ionic substances such as bicarbonate or pH are also to be determined. Simultaneously for acetate and mannitol, the depletion of the marker substances from the perfusates using different micro-dialysis devices was investigated under various flow-rates. Relationships between relative dialysate marker concentrations and glucose recovery rates were determined based on multivariate calibrations. For quantification, classical least squares with reference spectra for modelling the serum dialysates was used, rendering a basis for reliable blood glucose and lactate measurements.

  17. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  18. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  19. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  20. Cortisol urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or adrenal glands makes too much ACTH Severe depression Tumor of the adrenal gland that is producing too much cortisol Severe stress Rare genetic disorders A lower than normal level may indicate: ...

  1. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... confounding systemic effects. Microdialysis probes were placed in the submucosa on either side of the antrum, 3 days before the experiments. The concentration of gastrin in the antral submucosal compartment was about 20 times higher than in the microdialysate and estimated to be 5-10 times higher than...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...

  2. Contributions of Microdialysis to New Alternative Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common complication of cirrhosis, of largely reversible impairment of brain function occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure or when the liver is bypassed by portosystemic shunts. The mechanisms causing this brain dysfunction are still largely unclear. The need to avoid complications caused by late diagnosis has attracted interest to understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage in order to find markers that will allow timely diagnosis and to propose new therapeutic alternatives to improve the care of patients. One of the experimental approaches to study HE is microdialysis; this technique allows evaluation of different chemical substances in several organs through the recollection of samples in specific places by semi-permeable membranes. In this review we will discuss the contributions of microdialysis in the understanding of the physiological alterations in human hepatic encephalopathy and experimental models and the studies to find novel alternative therapies for this disease.

  3. Collection of wound fluids from horses using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine

    Aim: To develop a microdialysis method for collection of fluid from horse wounds. Background: Collection of sample material for wound healing research in experimental animals is commonly obtained through biopsies. Though, biopsy collection is an invasive procedure and consequently triggers...... an inflammatory response. Therefore, wounds should only be biopsied once to display the undisturbed, natural healing process. This necessitates the creation of a wound for every required collection time-point. To limit the number of wounds created on each experimental animal, a new method that allows repeated...... collection from wounds was sought. Methods: Microdialysis is a minimally invasive method for sampling of compounds from the extracellular fluid, where a small probe is inserted into the target tissue and flux of solutes into the probe occurs by simple diffusion. The recovered dialysate reflects changes...

  4. A high-accuracy measurement method of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid based on microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachao; Xu, Qingmei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Ridong; Xu, Kexin; Yu, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    A high-accuracy microdialysis method that can provide the reference values of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid for the accurate evaluation of non-invasive and minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring is reported in this study. The parameters of the microdialysis process were firstly optimized by testing and analyzing three main factors that impact microdialysis recovery, including the perfusion rate, temperature, and glucose concentration in the area surrounding the microdialysis probe. The precision of the optimized microdialysis method was then determined in a simulation system that was designed and established in this study to simulate variations in continuous glucose concentration in the human body. Finally, the microdialysis method was tested for in vivo interstitial glucose concentration measurement.

  5. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  6. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  7. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P exchange ratio was 0.80 +/- 0......Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  8. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  9. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  10. Cortisol reactivity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2010-01-01

    In this systematic review on empirical studies of cortisol reactivity to acute stressors in infants, we specifically focus on the role of infant age in the early development of cortisol reactivity to stressors. Our findings indicate that many psychological stressors do not provoke a cortisol

  11. Application of dermal microdialysis for the evaluation of bioequivalence of a ketoprofen topical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tettey-Amlalo, Ralph Nii Okai; Kanfer, Isadore; Skinner, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate dermal microdialysis (DMD) for the assessment of the bioavailability of a ketoprofen topical gel formulation and to evaluate this technique as a tool for the determination of bioequivalence. Four microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the volar aspect...

  12. Early assessment of kidney allotransplantat function by microdialysis in perioperative period (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh Khubutia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical example illustrates the use of microdialysis techniques for assessing function of the kidney allotransplantat in the early postoperative period. Microdialysis allows to evaluate metabolic changes in the interstitial space of the graft in real-time mode.

  13. Microdialysis in the femoral head of the minipig and in a blood cloth of human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten Foged; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    is happening in the dead space around the catheter in the drill canal, and is there an equilibrium period after the insertion of the catheter? Material and methods In an ex-vivo study using 5 syringes with 5 mL human blood, a microdialysis catheter was inserted and microdialysis was performed over 3 h...

  14. Determination of markers for collagen type I turnover in peritendinous human tissue by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J L; Langberg, Henning; Heinemeier, K M

    2006-01-01

    Previous results from our group have shown that loading of human tendon elevates tendinous type I collagen production measured by microdialysis. However, exclusion of the observed elevation as a response to trauma from inserting the microdialysis catheters or a possible influence from the collagen...

  15. A micromachined double lumen microdialysis probe connector with incorporated sensor for on-line sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined double lumen microdialysis probe connector for on-line, in-vivo sampling is presented. The connector forms an integral part of a double lumen type microdialysis probe and guides the flow of sample fluid (‘dialysate’) directly into a flow cell with space for integrated

  16. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine......-1 and increased to 0.586 +/- 0.445 and 0.760 +/- 0.534 mumol.100 g-1 x min-1 (P subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen was equal to the arterial concentration in the basal period but did not increase as much during infusion of epinephrine......, indicating glucose uptake in adipose tissue in this condition. If it is assumed that forearm skeletal muscle is representative for the average skeletal muscle, it can be calculated that on average 40% of the enhanced whole body oxygen uptake induced by infusion of epinephrine is taking place in skeletal...

  17. Microdialysis of Soil P: A means to mimic root uptake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack-Kirschner, Helmer; Demand, Dominic; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Standard procedures to assess P availability in soils are based on batch experiments with various extractants. However, in most soils P nutrition is less limited by bulk stocks but by slow diffusion of phosphate through the soil solution. More comparable to the root's approach is to strip phosphate locally from the solid phase by lowering the soil-solution concentration, which can be achieved by establishing an infinite diffusional sink, such as DGT. An alternative diffusive sampling technique is microdialysis (MD), well established in pharmacokinetics. Briefly, this method uses miniaturized flow-through probes where the perfusate gets in diffusive contact to the external solution by a semipermeable membrane. Important aspects of P supply to roots resemble MD sampling. This is not only the mostly diffusive transport, but also an elongated capillary tube-like geometry of absorption. The diameter of typical commercial MD probes is around 500μm. One additional inherent feature of microdialysis is the possibility to release low-molecular substances from the perfusate by diffusion into the matrix, such as carboxylates. However, microdialysis has yet not been used for P in soils. We tested microdialysis in topsoils of an acid beech forest, of an unfertilized grassland and of a fertilized crop site. Three perfusates have been used: 1 mM KNO3, electrolyte + 0.1 mM citric acid, and electrolyte + 1 mM citric acid. We observed rates of uptake into the probes in a range between 1.5*10-15 and 6.7*10-14 mol s-1cm-1 in case of no citrate addition. Surprisingly, these uptake rates were mostly independent of the bulk stocks. Citrate addition increased P yields only in the higher concentration but not in the forest soil. The order of magnitude of MD uptake rates from the soil samples matched root-length related uptake rates from other studies. The micro-radial citrate release in MD reflects the processes controlling phosphate mobilization in the rhizosphere better than measurements

  18. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  20. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  1. Muscle Microdialysis to Investigate Inflammatory Biomarkers in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Corbi, Maddalena; Granata, Giuseppe; Lucchetti, Donatella; Sgambato, Alessandro; Ricci, Enzo

    2017-04-29

    Recent progresses in the understanding of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) genetics opened the way to the development of targeted therapies. However, knowledge about pathophysiology of muscle damage is still limited and there is increasing need to identify biomarkers of disease activity in the perspective of clinical trial readiness.We analyzed inflammatory mediators in the interstitial fluid of muscles with different MRI signal in FSHD patients, comparing muscles displaying early lesions on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences with normal ones. Patients with one T1-weighted normal and STIR hyperintense (STIR+) and contralateral T1-weighted and STIR normal (STIR-) lower limb muscle were asked to enter the study. Twelve consecutive patients, five controls, and one non-penetrant gene carrier underwent prolonged muscle microdialysis with high cut-off membranes. Microdialysates were analyzed using xMAP technology with a wide panel for cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. A small number of inflammatory mediators were dysregulated in STIR+ versus STIR- and control muscles: CXCL13, upregulated in STIR+ muscles compared with controls (p muscles (p muscles compared with controls (p muscles compared with the contralateral STIR- muscles of the same patient (p muscles. The application of microdialysis could provide insights on novel mechanisms involved in muscle damage in FSHD and in other myopathies. Further studies are needed to validate these investigated molecules as tissue and circulating biomarkers.

  2. Microdialysis as a tool to determine the local tissue concentration of dicloxacillin in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Kraft; Nielsen, Flemming; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Jørgensen, Uffe; Skov, Ole; Rasmussen, Lasse E

    2018-03-01

    The most common pathogen to cause postoperative infections in Denmark is Staphylococcus aureus. Despite using prophylactic antibiotics, infections are still seen. Whether the tissue concentration is above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the pathogen is unknown. Thus, the concentration of dicloxacillin in muscle and adipose tissue was measured after intravenous administration, in healthy men. MIC for dicloxacillin against S. aureus was determined using the broth macrodilution method. A microdialysis (MD) catheter was placed in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and in the lateral vastus muscle of the thigh of six healthy male volunteers. They were given 2 g dicloxacillin intravenously. Samples from blood and MD fluid were collected. The unbound dicloxacillin was isolated from plasma. Samples were analysed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum concentration was reached in muscle tissue after 0.5 h and in adipose tissue after 0.8 h. AUC 0-6h for the dicloxacillin concentration in adipose tissue was significantly lower when compared to the unbound dicloxacillin concentration in plasma. The dicloxacillin concentration was above the MIC for sensitive S. aureus for a minimum of 2.3 h and a median of 4.1 h in muscle tissue and a minimum of 1.8 h and a median of 3.2 h in adipose tissue. The unbound dicloxacillin concentration in adipose and muscle tissue remained above the MIC for sensitive S. aureus, for a period sufficient for many orthopaedic procedures. Whether this is true in patients with compromised circulation remains to be investigated. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Prenatal Cortisol Exposure Predicts Infant Cortisol Response to Acute Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2012-01-01

    Summary Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure. PMID:22315044

  4. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  5. Ex-vivo glucose sensors using micro-dialysis: importance of on-line recovery rate determination by multi-analyte infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Cocchieri, Lars; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. M.

    2015-03-01

    Micro-dialysis has been established in the clinical environment for continuously harvesting body fluids, but a drawback of this process are variable recovery rates, which can be observed especially for subcutaneously implanted catheters. Perfusates with either acetate or mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers. The latter substance is suggested for application with external cavity tuneable quantum cascade lasers, rendering a limited wavenumber interval in contrast to FTIR-spectrometers. Despite the overlap of mannitol and glucose spectra, their simultaneous quantification was successful. By investigating the depletion of the marker substances from the perfusates using different micro-dialysis devices, the theoretical nonlinear relationship between the relative dialysate marker concentration and glucose recovery rate was confirmed for the marker substance-analyte pair of acetate and glucose, rendering a basis for reliable blood glucose measurements. For the pair of mannitol and glucose an almost linear dependency was expected for the microdialysate catheters and experimentally verified, which provides a straightforward correction of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring.

  6. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    in serum regardless of the prandial state. The rats were conscious during microdialysis except when subjected to electrical vagal stimulation. Acid blockade (omeprazole treatment of freely fed rats for 4 days), or bilateral sectioning of the abdominal vagal trunks (fasted, 3 days post-op.), raised...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...... microdialysate gastrin concentration in omeprazole-treated rats by 65%. We conclude that activated gastrin release, unlike basal gastrin release, is highly dependent on a neural input: 1) Vagal excitation has a transient stimulating effect on the G cells. The transient nature of the response suggests...

  7. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... microdialysis probes were inserted into the ileal wall, one in the peritoneal cavity and one in the psoas muscle. Relative recovery was measured for all probes by the no net flux method. Metabolic measurements of glucose, lactate and glycerol were performed over six hours. The ileal wall segments containing....... A severe inflammatory reaction was seen in the ileal wall around all probes. CONCLUSION: Measurement of the relative recovery is essential for valid measurements of metabolites when using microdialysis. The inflammatory reaction around the probe in the intestinal wall is likely to affect metabolism...

  8. Intestinal microdialysis – applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Katrine; Wara, Pål Edvard; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    ACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... microdialysis probes were inserted into the ileal wall, one in the peritoneal cavity and one in the psoas muscle. Relative recovery was measured for all probes by the no net flux method. Metabolic measurements of glucose, lactate and glycerol were performed over six hours. The ileal wall segments containing....... A severe inflammatory reaction was seen in the ileal wall around all probes. CONCLUSION: Measurement of the relative recovery is essential for valid measurements of metabolites when using microdialysis. The inflammatory reaction around the probe in the intestinal wall is likely to affect metabolism...

  9. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... microdialysis probes were inserted into the ileal wall, one in the peritoneal cavity and one in the psoas muscle. Relative recovery was measured for all probes by the no net flux method. Metabolic measurements of glucose, lactate and glycerol were performed over six hours. The ileal wall segments containing....... A severe inflammatory reaction was seen in the ileal wall around all probes.CONCLUSION: Measurement of the relative recovery is essential for valid measurements of metabolites when using microdialysis. The inflammatory reaction around the probe in the intestinal wall is likely to affect metabolism...

  10. Are marketed topical metronidazole creams bioequivalent? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia Elodia; Hansen, S H; Shah, Surendra P.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  11. Transport within the interstitial space, rather than membrane permeability, determines norepinephrine recovery in microdialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, H.A.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Willemsen, J.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Tack, C.J.J.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling method that permits measurement of hormones, drugs, and other lower molecular weight compounds present in interstitial fluid. We developed a straightforward mathematical model that predicts a linear relationship between the reciprocal dialysate concentration of the

  12. Are marketed topical metronidazole creamas bioequivalent ? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P. Garcia; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Shah, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence.......To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  13. Implementation of cerebral microdialysis at a community-based hospital: A 5-year retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeff W.; Rogers, Shana L.; Gombart, Zoe J.; Adler, David E.; Cecil, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerebral microdialysis (MD) provides valuable information about brain metabolism under normal and pathologic conditions. The CMA 600 microdialysis analyzer received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for clinical use in the United States in 2005. Since then, cerebral MD has been increasingly utilized nationally in the multimodal monitoring of traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain tumors. We describe a 5-year, single-institu...

  14. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  15. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  16. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors....... However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress...... depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance...

  17. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  18. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... department with a history of increasing difficulty with breathing and ... ward and commenced on intravenous antibiotics and high flow oxygen. He made remarkable improvement with complete resolution of subcutaneous emphysema on the 4th day ... the left lateral decubitus position.18 Our patient met most.

  19. Pyrexial therapy in subcutaneous phycomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BSN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of subcutaneous phycomycosis occurring in a 2 ½ year old child is reported for its rarity, clinical interest and paucity of literature. The condition failed to resolve with conventional antimycotics but improved with the administration of concomitant pyrexial therapy.

  20. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... to trauma or pathological disease state3, with gastroin- testinal and respiratory diseases most commonly impli- cated.4,5. The respiratory disease commonly associated with pneu- momediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema is bronchial asthma.6 Pneumonia, though a very com- mon childhood ...

  1. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We...

  2. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain...

  3. Quantitative assessments of traumatic axonal injury in human brain: concordance of microdialysis and advanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Sandra; Mac Donald, Christine L; Esparza, Thomas J; Conte, Valeria; Sorrell, James; Macrì, Mario; Bertani, Giulio; Biffi, Riccardo; Costa, Antonella; Sammons, Brian; Snyder, Abraham Z; Shimony, Joshua S; Triulzi, Fabio; Stocchetti, Nino; Brody, David L

    2015-08-01

    Axonal injury is a major contributor to adverse outcomes following brain trauma. However, the extent of axonal injury cannot currently be assessed reliably in living humans. Here, we used two experimental methods with distinct noise sources and limitations in the same cohort of 15 patients with severe traumatic brain injury to assess axonal injury. One hundred kilodalton cut-off microdialysis catheters were implanted at a median time of 17 h (13-29 h) after injury in normal appearing (on computed tomography scan) frontal white matter in all patients, and samples were collected for at least 72 h. Multiple analytes, such as the metabolic markers glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and tau and amyloid-β proteins, were measured every 1-2 h in the microdialysis samples. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 T were performed 2-9 weeks after injury in 11 patients. Stability of diffusion tensor imaging findings was verified by repeat scans 1-3 years later in seven patients. An additional four patients were scanned only at 1-3 years after injury. Imaging abnormalities were assessed based on comparisons with five healthy control subjects for each patient, matched by age and sex (32 controls in total). No safety concerns arose during either microdialysis or scanning. We found that acute microdialysis measurements of the axonal cytoskeletal protein tau in the brain extracellular space correlated well with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based measurements of reduced brain white matter integrity in the 1-cm radius white matter-masked region near the microdialysis catheter insertion sites. Specifically, we found a significant inverse correlation between microdialysis measured levels of tau 13-36 h after injury and anisotropy reductions in comparison with healthy controls (Spearman's r = -0.64, P = 0.006). Anisotropy reductions near microdialysis catheter insertion sites were highly correlated with reductions in multiple additional white matter

  4. IN-VIVO MONITORING OF LACTATE AND GLUCOSE WITH MICRODIALYSIS AND ENZYME REACTORS IN INTENSIVE-CARE MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; KORF, J; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H

    Methods for the monitoring of glucose and lactate in intensive care units (ICU) based on microdialysis and continuous flow enzyme reactions plus some in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the probes used and the detection systems are described. Two microdialysis techniques were developed for

  5. The noradrenaline-dopamine interaction in the rat medial prefrontal cortex studied by multi-probe microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawahara, H; Kawahara, Y; Westerink, BHC

    2001-01-01

    Multi-probe microdialysis was used to investigate the interaction between the release of noradrenaline and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex. Retrograde microdialysis was used to stimulate or inhibit the activity of the locus coeruleus for a restricted period of time, and the response of

  6. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue....... CONCLUSIONS: The microdialysis technique allowed measurements of histamine release from mast cells in intact lung ex vivo. The method may prove useful since a number of experiments can be performed in a few hours in intact lung tissue without any dispersion or enzymatic treatment....

  7. Microdialysis of the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Kristensen, J K; Bülow, J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a microdialysis technique for measurement of substances in the interstitial water space in intact human skin. Glucose was selected to validate the method. The cutaneous glucose concentration was measured by microdialysis and compared...... of the dialysis probes was established by C-mode ultrasound scanning. The implantation trauma lasted 90-135 min as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Each dialysis fiber was calibrated in vivo by perfusing it with four to five different glucose concentrations. The perfusion rate was 3 microliters...... that the microdialysis technique accurately and precisely can reflect biochemical events in the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo....

  8. Exploring Thermoresponsive Affinity Agents to Enhance Microdialysis Sampling Efficiency of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasicek, Thaddeus

    Affinity agents increase microdialysis protein relative recovery, yet they have not seen widespread use within the microdialysis community due to their additional instrumentation requirements and prohibitive cost. This dissertation describes new affinity agents for microdialysis that require no additional instrumentation to use, have nearly 100% particle recovery, are 7 times more cost efficient than alternatives, and have low specificity enabling their use for a wide variety of proteins. Initially gold nanoparticles were chosen as an affinity ligand support due to their high surface area/volume ratio and colloidal stability. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) was immobilized to the gold nanoparticles, which served to sterically stabilize the particles and to act as a generic, reversible protein capture agent. A method was developed to reproducibly vary and quantify poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft density from 0.09 to 0.40 ligands/nm2 on gold nanoparticles. During characterization of the polymer coated gold nanoparticles, irreversible particle agglomeration was observed at low polymer graft density in ionic solutions, which prevented further development as a protein capture agent. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels, which have low nonspecific adsorption, low interparticle attractive forces owing to the low curvature of the particle, and a low Hamaker constant, were synthesized to overcome the agglomeration problem. A generic protein affinity ligand cibacron blue, was immobilized to the nanogels, which enabled rapid determination of particle recovery. The perfusion of the nanogels through a microdialysis probe was optimized yielding 100% particle recovery using a combination of a syringe and peristaltic pump. The microdialysis collection efficiency of CCL2, a physiologically relevant cytokine, was increased 3-fold with addition of the nanogel to the microdialysis perfusion fluid. The reduction in instrumentation requirements, low cost, and low specificity obtained

  9. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.).

  12. Epidural, paraspinal, and subcutaneous lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R. Nuri [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    A unique case of idiopathic diffuse lipomatosis is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with diffuse lipomatosis in the epidural space, paraspinal muscles, and thoracolumbar subcutaneous regions. Epidural lipomatosis involved the entire thoracolumbar spine and was associated with filar thickening and lipoma. In addition, paraspinal muscles, especially the erector spinae group, had diffuse fatty infiltration. The ultimate clinical effect of this fatty tissue was urinary dysfunction, radicular pain and hypoesthesia in both legs and difficulty walking. (orig.)

  13. Oxygen-sensing microdialysis probe for in vivo use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, P G; Li, X; Li, Y; Han, H

    2001-01-15

    Electrochemical conditions were optimized to allow the metal tube used for the shaft of commercial microdialysis (MD) probes to be coated with gold. In in vitro tests with phosphate-buffered Ringer's solution using double differential pulse amperometry (DDPA), the gold-coated shafts were capable of specifically measuring the reduction of oxygen and the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of high concentrations of potentially interfering endogenous substances. By using fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), the gold-plated shaft also measured oxygen with minimal interference from high concentrations of potentially interfering endogenous substances. Concentric design MD probes were constructed that used a metal shaft (O.D = 0.4 mm), fused silica inlet and outlet tubes, and a 1.5 mm dialyzing membrane (O.D = 0.2 mm). A 0.5-0.7 mm gold collar was electroplated onto the metal shaft approximately 0.5 mm above the dialyzing membrane. The nongold outer surface of the MD probe was coated with an insulating polymer. In vivo tests demonstrated that DDPA was not suitable for use with this gold microdialyzing electrode (GMDE). However, brain oxygen levels were satisfactorily measured using FPA. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the reduction current to oxygen in the striatum was increased by brief (1 min) inhalation of O2 or CO2 and decreased by inhalation of N2. Transient application of noxious stimuli (foot pinch) increased cerebral O2, whereas bilateral carotid artery occlusion and death decreased striatal O2. The responses of the GMDE were indistinguishable from the reduction current simultaneously measured from a conventional carbon fiber electrode implanted adjacent to the gold-plated area of the MD shaft. Basal levels of striatal O(2) were 20 +/- 5 microM (n = 4) for the GMDE and 30 +/- 11 microM (n = 3) for the carbon fiber. The GMDE was robust and could be used for at least three animals. This technique can be used to provide information about the oxygen status of the

  14. Cortisol in Hair and the Metabolic Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Alexander, Nina; Bornstein, Stefan R; Gao, Wei; Miller, Robert; Stark, Sabine; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-01

    ...), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis, which for the first time allows the assessment of long-term integrated hormone levels...

  15. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by oral contraceptives so women taking birth control pills can still participate in the study. Summary Salivary cortisol is an effective...in cortisol binding globulin (found in oral contraceptives ). Salivary cortisol is not influenced by saliva flow rate and there are obvious

  16. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  17. Septal and hippocampal glutamate receptors modulate the output of acetylcholine in hippocampus : A microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; Auth, F; DeBoer, P; Westerink, BHC

    In the present study, glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists were administered by retrograde microdialysis into either the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band-(MS/vDB), or hippocampus, and the output of acetylcholine (ACh) was measured in the hippocampus by using intracerebral

  18. Microdialysis reveals dynamics of coupling between noradrenaline release and melatonin secretion in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, W.J; van der Linde, A.G; de Vries, J.B; Grol, Cor; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1996-01-01

    The coupling between noradrenergic innervation of the pineal gland and melatonin production was investigated. Previously, the development of a microdialysis; technique was described which made it possible to study the noradrenaline (NA) input as well as the melatonin output with high time

  19. BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling method that is used to determine the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. The method can be applied to conscious and unrestrained animals and is very suitable for the study of the chemistry of endogenous behaviour. This article reviews the

  20. Functional role of alpha1-adrenoceptors in the locus coeruleus : A microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudovkina, OL; Westerink, BHC

    2005-01-01

    The present study elucidates the role of alpha(1)-adrenoreceptors in the locus coeruleus (LC) using a dual-probe microdialysis in conscious rats. One probe sampled noradrenaline in the LC, whereas the second probe sampled noradrenaline in a main projection area, the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To

  1. Investigation of biomarkers alterations after an acute tissue trauma in human trapezius muscle, using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Bay; Gazerani, Parisa; Wåhlén, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in muscle milieu are suggested as important activity of peripheral drive in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Microdialysis (MD) has been used in monitoring altered metabolic response pattern in muscles. However, the insertion of MD probe causes a local tissue trauma. ...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA-RETICULATA BY MEANS OF BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; ZWAVELING, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    Brain microdialysis was used to characterize extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of freely moving rats. The extracellular GABA in the SNR was characterized using acutely implanted probes (4-8 h after surgery; day 1) and chronically implanted probes

  3. HPLC conditions are critical for the detection of GABA by microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, Kieran; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    In microdialysis studies, neither exocytotic release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), nor the presence of GABA type B (GABA(B)) autoreceptors, have been clearly established. It was investigated whether the chromatographic separation of GABA may have contributed to discrepancies in the literature.

  4. GABAERGIC MODULATION OF STRIATAL CHOLINERGIC INTERNEURONS - AN IN-VIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons have been shown to receive input from striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell elements. GABA is known to act on two different types of receptors, the GABA(A) and the GABA(B) receptor. Using in vivo microdialysis, we have studied the effect of

  5. The interaction between the locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus studied with dual-probe microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudovkina, OL; Cremers, TIFH; Westerink, BHC

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between the locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus was investigated by means of dual-probe microdialysis in conscious rats. The release of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) after inhibition or stimulation of locus cocruleus and dorsal raphe activity was sampled in both

  6. Cerebral Microdialysis Monitoring to Improve Individualized Neurointensive Care Therapy: An Update of Recent Clinical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Carteron; Pierre Bouzat; Mauro Oddo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions—such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic contr...

  7. Ultrafiltrate and microdialysis DL probe in vitro recoveries: electrolytes and metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janle, E. M.; Cregor, M.

    1996-01-01

    UF ultrafiltration and DL microdialysis probes are well-suited for sampling interstitial concentrations of ions and metabolites in peripheral tissue. The first step in utilization of membrane sampling techniques is to determine the recovery characteristics of the probes in vitro.

  8. Nose-to-brain transport of melatonin from polymer gel suspensions: a microdialysis study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R. Jayachandra; Dayal, Pankaj Patrick; Pawar, Kasturi; Singh, Mandip

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Exogenous melatonin (MT) has significant neuroprotective roles in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This study investigates the delivery MT to brain via nasal route as a polymeric gel suspension using central brain microdialysis in anesthetized rats. Methods Micronized MT suspensions using polymers [carbopol, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)] and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) were prepared and characterized for nasal administration. In vitro permeation of the formulations was measured across a three-dimensional tissue culture model EpiAirway™. The central brain delivery into olfactory bulb of nasally administered MT gel suspensions was studied using brain microdialysis in male Wistar rats. The MT content of microdialysis samples was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. The nose-to-brain delivery of MT formulations was compared with intravenously administered MT solution. Results MT suspensions in carbopol and CMC vehicles have shown significantly higher permeability across Epiairway™ as compared to control, PEG400 (P carbopol, CMC and PEG400, respectively, than that of intravenous MT in rats. In conclusion, microdialysis studies demonstrated increased brain levels of MT via nasal administration in rats. PMID:21428693

  9. MICRODIALYSIS OF MELATONIN IN THE RAT PINEAL-GLAND - METHODOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRIJFHOUT, WJ; GROL, CJ; WESTERINK, BHC

    The present study describes the development of a new technique to measure melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats, by means of on-line microdialysis. The transcerebral cannula was modified, and a sensitive assay of melatonin, using HPLC with fluorimetric detection, was set up.

  10. Metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and reperfusion measured by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Grønbaek, Henning

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Portal triad clamping can cause ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to monitor metabolic changes by microdialysis before, during, and after warm ischemia in the pigliver. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight pigs underwent laparotomy followed by ischemia by Pringle's maneuver. One...

  11. Introducing intravascular microdialysis for continuous lactate monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lactate is a marker of hypoperfusion and may be used for risk assessment in critically ill patients. Although evidence suggests that repeated lactate measurements are of clinical interest, how and when lactate should be analyzed is controversial. Intravascular microdialysis provides a

  12. Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the Frenulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mendis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas of the penis are rare, with only 29 reported cases to date. We record the case of a patient who presented with a 2-year history of a seemingly indolent penile skin lesion. On histopathology of the local resection, a diagnosis of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma was made. Specifically, leiomyosarcoma of the penile frenulum has not been clearly reported previously. The patient underwent a further excision to ensure an adequate resection margin and has had no disease recurrence at subsequent follow-up. Our case was of a lesion that, although clinically benign, was malignant and this possibility should be borne in mind when assessing patients.

  13. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  14. [Subcutaneous teicoplanin for children with infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, E; Roméo, B; El Samad, Y; Geslin-Lichtenberger, L; Maingourd, Y; Tourneux, P

    2013-07-01

    Infectious endocarditis in children requires prolonged antibiotic therapy. In adults, antibiotics administrated subcutaneously such as teicoplanin are an alternative to intravenous treatment. We report the use of subcutaneous teicoplanin, after an initial antibiotic treatment administrated intravenously, for 2 children treated for infectious endocarditis following an initial cardiac surgery. Serum concentrations of teicoplanin were within the target range after the adaptation in the teicoplanin subcutaneous dosages. The treatment was effective for both cases. No specific side effects related to the treatment were reported. Subcutaneous administration could be used for prolonged antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infectious endocarditis in children, after an initial intravenous treatment. Variability of the bioavailability of antibiotics administrated subcutaneously requires regular testing. Prospective, randomized trials comparing intravenous and subcutaneous administration of teicoplanin should be conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Salivary cortisol is a useful tool to assess the early response to pasireotide in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trementino, Laura; Cardinaletti, Marina; Concettoni, Carolina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Polenta, Barbara; Spinello, Maurizio; Boscaro, Marco; Arnaldi, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    Late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is useful for diagnosing hypercortisolism and monitoring patients with Cushing's disease (CD) following pituitary surgery. It may also be a better index of cortisol secretion than serum cortisol or urinary free cortisol (UFC). No data regarding the role of LNSC in the early monitoring of patients with CD receiving drug therapy has been published. We investigated the value of LNSC in monitoring the short-term efficacy of pasireotide. Seven patients who were enrolled in a phase II study investigating the efficacy of pasireotide in CD (CSOM230B2208) were included in this analysis. Patients self-administered subcutaneous pasireotide 600 μg bid for 15 days. LNSC and UFC levels were assessed at baseline and day 15. At baseline, all patients had elevated LNSC which was correlated significantly with UFC levels (r = 0.97, P = .0002). At day 15, LNSC was reduced in six patients. LNSC decreases were observed from day 1 (-20%) and persisted until day 15 (overall mean reduction from baseline -51%), with the greatest decrease on day 5 (-58%). At day 15, UFC levels were decreased in all patients and normalized in one that restored also salivary cortisol rhythm. In patients with CD, pasireotide rapidly reduced and normalized both UFC and LNSC levels. LNSC may be a simple, non-invasive biomarker to assess the early response to pasireotide, particularly in determining whether cortisol rhythm is normalized in patients with normalized UFC levels. Further studies are warranted.

  16. Cortisol Measures Across the Weight Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Dichtel, Laura E.; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Context: There are conflicting reports of increased vs decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in obesity; the most consistent finding is an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and morning cortisol. In anorexia nervosa (AN), a low-BMI state, cortisol measures are elevated. Objective: This study aimed to investigate cortisol measures across the weight spectrum. Design and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center. Participants: This study included 60 women, 18–45 years of age: overweight/obese (OB; N = 21); AN (N = 18); and normal-weight controls (HC; N = 21). Measures: HPA dynamics were assessed by urinary free cortisol, mean overnight serum cortisol obtained by pooled frequent sampling every 20 minutes from 2000–0800 h, 0800 h serum cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin, morning and late-night salivary cortisol, and dexamethasone-CRH testing. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Cortisol measures demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with BMI, nadiring in the overweight-class I obese range, and were similarly associated with visceral adipose tissue and total fat mass. Mean cortisol levels were higher in AN than OB. There were weak negative linear relationships between lean mass and some cortisol measures. Most cortisol measures were negatively associated with postero-anterior spine and total hip BMD. Conclusions: Cortisol measures are lowest in overweight-class I obese women—lower than in lean women. With more significant obesity, cortisol levels increase, although not to as high as in AN. Therefore, extreme underweight and overweight states may activate the HPA axis, and hypercortisolemia may contribute to increased adiposity in the setting of caloric excess. Hypercortisolemia may also contribute to decreased BMD and muscle wasting in the setting of both caloric restriction and excess. PMID:26171799

  17. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  18. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitt...

  19. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiological solution. Two weeks after the last received dose of Cortisol orphysiological solution the cordial puncture was applied to take a blood sample inwhich the level of the serum IgA, IgG and IgM was determined. In the experimentalgroup animals the serum IgG value was 11,2 mg/ml at the beginning and 8,7 mg/ml at the end of the experiment (reduction for 22,1%, while the TgA concentration at theend of the experiment was reduced for 5,8%, while the IgM concentration for 12,9%.The serum immunoglobulin concentration in the control group guinea pigs does notreveal any significant differences at the beginning and the end of the experiment.

  20. Dynamic metabolic response to multiple spreading depolarizations in patients with acute brain injury: an online microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Manning, Andrew; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2010-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously with high incidence in patients with acute brain injury. They can be detected by subdural electrocorticographic recordings. We here characterize the dynamic metabolic response to these events. A microdialysis catheter was inserted into perilesio...

  1. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF EXTRACELLULAR LACTATE CONCENTRATION BY MICRODIALYSIS LACTOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF RAT MUSCLE METABOLISM INVIVO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; POSTEMA, F; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H; KORF, J

    A method is described for the measurement and on-line monitoring of muscular extracellular lactate concentration in both anaesthetized and freely moving rats. This method is based on microdialysis sampling and lactic dehydrogenase-catalysed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced

  2. Effect of phenylsuccinate on potassium- and ischemia-induced release of glutamate in rat hippocampus monitored by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, T; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of glutamate in rat hippocampus during physiological conditions, elevated extracellular K+ and global ischemia was followed by microdialysis and subsequent determination of glutamate by HPLC. The effect of phenylsuccinate, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial dicarbox...

  3. Prostaglandin synthesis can be inhibited locally by infusion of NSAIDS through microdialysis catheters in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Helmark, Ida Carøe; Kjaer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, to study the local role of prostaglandins, the formation of prostaglandins within the tissue must be controlled. Microdialysis enables determination of local concentrations of water-soluble substances within the tissue. In the present study......, the microdialysis method was used to infuse NSAIDs locally into human skeletal muscles producing a local block of prostaglandin formation. In addition, the graded blockade at various distances from the infusion site within the muscle during rest, exercise and recovery was determined. Microdialysis was performed...... in thigh muscles (vastus lateralis muscle) in six healthy men. One of the microdialysis catheters was used to block prostaglandin synthesis by infusion of the NSAID indomethacin. Additional catheters were placed 1 and 4 cm away from the infusion and in the contralateral leg (working control). Following 2 h...

  4. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  6. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming...

  7. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human vol...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  8. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M

    2009-01-01

    for age and physical fitness performed 60 min exercise bouts at 50% of their maximal oxygen consumption on two occasions: (1) during i.v. infusion of octreotide, and (2) during placebo infusion. Lipolysis and local blood flow changes in SCAT were evaluated using in situ microdialysis. Infusion......The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...

  9. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  10. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin in hu...... the presence of sufficient concentrations in the adipose tissue to be effective against common bacteria....

  11. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  12. Low Calorie Dieting Increases Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T.; Vinas, D; Hunger, JM; Dejager, J; Taylor, SE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production-two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting-monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake-on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) × 2 (restricting vs. not) fully ...

  13. Influence of sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) on interstitial fluid concentrations of fluconazole in a critically ill patient: Use of microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and hybrid techniques including sustained low-efficiency dialysis/diafiltration (SLED-f) are being increasingly utilised in intensive care units. Most fungal infections occur in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of tissues and successful treatment of a fungal infection relies on the ability of an antifungal agent to achieve adequate concentrations at the site of infection. Tissue distribution of antimicrobials is impaired in critically ill patients owing to a variety of disease-related physiological changes, e.g. sepsis. Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent used to treat Candida spp. infections in critically ill patients. The implications for ISF concentrations of enhanced elimination during renal replacement therapy have not yet been reported for fluconazole. The aim of this single-patient case report was to describe the influence of SLED-f on subcutaneous (SC) ISF concentrations of fluconazole and the implications for achieving pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Serial blood and ISF samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit and subcutaneously inserted microdialysis probe, respectively. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. The SC ISF-to-plasma partition coefficient of fluconazole in this patient was 0.91, indicating rapid equilibrium. SC ISF fluconazole concentrations consistently decreased after initiating SLED-f. The majority of the fluconazole was eliminated from the SC ISF as a result of redistribution. Considering the extensive tissue re-distribution of fluconazole and observed elimination from tissue compartments, higher doses may be required to treat deep-seated fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24680136

  15. Peritoneal microdialysis. Early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Qvist, N; Bisgaard, C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal microdialysis in early detection of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. METHODS: In a series of 116 consecutive patients scheduled for low anterior resection......-252) hours. Samples were collected every 4-hours, and the concentration of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol was measured. RESULTS: Four patients developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage. Two patients developed non-abdominal sepsis. In 38 patients the postoperative course was uncomplicated...... anastomotic leakage it coincided with the development of clinical symptoms. In the two patients with non-abdominal sepsis the values were within normal range. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal microdialysis is a safe and promising tool in early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection...

  16. Droplet-based micro-flow chemiluminescence system for in vivo glucose determination by microdialysis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhujun; Liu, Haisheng

    2005-04-01

    A micro-flow chemiluminescence (CL) system in vivo for glucose determination by the on-line microdialysis sampling is described in this paper. The micro-flow CL system uses discrete sample droplets, which formed at the tip of the capillary with the sampling volume of 4.5 microl. The sol-gel method is introduced to co-immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD) on the inside surface of the micro-flow cell which was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The CL detection involved enzymatic oxidation of glucose to D-gluconic acid and H2O2, then H2O2 oxidizing luminol to produce CL in presence of HRP. The microdialysis probe was utilized for sampling in the rabbit blood; the sample throughput was 20 h(-1). The glucose level in blood of the rabbit was on-line monitored with good results.

  17. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin - dermal microdialysis (DMD) - is a unique technique for sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling of dermatological drug concentrations in the dermis. Debate has concerned the existence of a correlation...... chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial...... be predicted that the differences in sampling at different probe depths will have a more significant impact in the beginning of a study or in studies of short duration. Based on this study it can be recommended that studies of topical drug penetration using DMD sampling should include measurements of probe...

  18. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  19. Intraperitoneal microdialysis in the postoperative surveillance of infants undergoing surgery for congenital abdominal wall defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Jakobsen, Marianne S

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the safety and clinical implication of intraperitoneal microdialysis (MD) in newborns operated on for congenital abdominal wall defect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 13 infants underwent intraperitoneal microdialysis (9 with gastroschisis and 4 with omphalocele). MD...... for high and low levels of intraperitoneal lactate, glycerol, and glucose and lactate/pyruvate ratio respectively. High and low levels were defined as above or below the median value on day one. RESULTS: Results from intraperitoneal MD showed a significantly higher mean lactate concentration in the group...... underwent primary closure. None of the infants with omphalocele received parenteral nutrition whereas all of the infants with gastroschisis did. There was no significant difference in duration of parenteral nutrition or tube feeding, respectively, when comparing the gastroschisis children with high versus...

  20. Microdialysis and the measurement of muscle interstitial K+ during rest and exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Bülow, J; Saltin, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether microdialysis and the internal reference thallium-201 ((201)Tl) could accurately measure muscle interstitial K+ (Ki+) before, during, and after exercise. The relative loss of (201)Tl and simultaneous relative recovery of K+ were measured in vitro...... medialis muscle of four humans during rest and static plantar flexion exercise. At rest, Ki+ was 3.9-4.3 mmol/l when the perfusate flow was 2 or 5 microl/min. During exercise, Ki+ increased from 6.9 +/- 0.4 to 7.5 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at low to high intensity and declined to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l after exercise....... These results suggest that large changes in Ki+ in human skeletal muscle can be accurately measured by using microdialysis and (201)Tl....

  1. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order.

  2. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  3. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  4. Dermal microdialysis of inflammatory markers induced by aliphatic hydrocarbons in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Mallampati, Ramya; Fulzele, Suniket V.; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we made an attempt to understand the skin irritation cascade of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons using microdialysis technique. Microdialysis probes were inserted into dermis in the dorsal skin of hairless rats. After 2 h of probes insertion, occlusive dermal exposure (2 h) was carried out with 230 μl of nonane, dodecane and tetradecane, using Hill top chambers®. Inflammatory biomarkers such as substance P (SP), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed in the dialysis samples by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). SP, α-MSH and IL6 were released in significant amounts following the dermal exposure of nonane and dodecane, whereas tetradecane did not induce any of these markers in significant amounts compared to control. Nonane increased the PGE2 levels in significant amounts within 2 h of chemical exposure compared to dodecane and tetradecane. IL-6 response was found to be slow and 2–3-fold increase in IL-6 levels was observed after 5 h following nonane and dodecane application. The magnitude of skin irritation exerted by all three chemicals was in the order of nonane ≥ dodecane ≥ tetradecane. The results demonstrate that microdialysis can be used to measure the inflammatory biomarkers in the skin irritation studies and irritation response of chemicals was quantifiable by this method. In conclusion, microdialysis was found to be an excellent tool to measure several inflammatory biomarkers as a function of time after dermal exposures with irritant chemicals. PMID:19152832

  5. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using central venous microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been shown to be beneficial. In this prospective study, we evaluated the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Fifty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a 4 Fr intravenous microdialysis catheter (Eirus SLC™, Dipylon Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) percutaneously placed with the tip of the catheter positioned in the superior vena cava. The catheter was connected to the Eirus™ monitoring system, and the patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively in the intensive care unit (ICU). As reference, arterial blood samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Data were available from 48 patients. A total of 994 paired (arterial blood gas microdialysis) samples were obtained. Glucose correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.85. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB, and 99% were in region A. Mean glucose level was 8.3 mmol/liter (149 mg/dl), mean relative difference was 0.2%, and mean absolute relative difference was 5%. A total of 99.2% of the paired samples were correct according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed that bias ± limits of agreement were 0.02 ± 1.1 mmol/liter (0.36 ± 20 mg/dl). Central venous microdialysis using the Eirus monitoring system is a highly accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in ICU patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The system may thus be useful in critically ill ICU patients. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Cost analysis of 109 microsurgical reconstructions and flap monitoring with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Leena; Koskenvuori, Heini; Gudaviciene, Daiva; Berg, Leena; Mustonen, Paula

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of microsurgery, and little is known about the cost-effectiveness of flap monitoring. We studied the costs related to microsurgery during 2004 to 2006 in Kuopio University Hospital. A total of 99 patients were reconstructed with 109 flaps. Primary success was achieved in 64% of cases. Reoperation for anastomosis was conducted in 25% and for other surgical complications in 27%. The intended result was achieved in 94% of cases. The mean total cost of hospital care was 20,000 euro in head and neck cancer surgery, 15,500 euro in defects of the lower extremities, and 9200 euro in breast reconstruction. The costs were greatly influenced by surgical complications (i.e., if the primary reconstruction failed, then the secondary microvascular flap almost doubled the expense involved; mean expenses per case 27,900 euro). Microdialysis was used in flap monitoring with an additional cost of 535 euro per patient. We found that microdialysis provided an early diagnosis of perfusion failure and helped to save the flap. It was estimated that if one or two flaps per year are saved due to more effective monitoring, then the extra costs of using microdialysis are covered. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Use of rapid sampling microdialysis for intraoperative monitoring of bowel ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, S; Corcoles, E P; Hanna, G B; Hanna, B G; Pareskevas, P; Aziz, O; Boutelle, M G; Darzi, A

    2008-09-01

    Intestinal ischemia is a major cause of anastomotic leak and death and remains a clinical challenge as the physician relies on several nonspecific signs, biologic markers, and radiologic studies to make the diagnosis. This study used rapid sampling online microdialysis to evaluate the biochemical changes occurring in a segment of human bowel during and after resection, and assessed for the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique in monitoring intestinal ischemia. A custom made, rapid sampling online microdialysis analyzer was used to monitor the changes in the bowel wall of specimens being resected intraoperatively. Two patients were recruited for the pilot study to optimize the analyzer and seven patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited for the data collection and analysis. The concentration of glucose in the extracellular bowel wall fluid decreased transiently after division of individual feeding arteries followed by a rebound increase in the concentration back to baseline concentrations. After completion of resection, glucose concentrations continued to decrease while lactate concentrations increased constantly. Rapid sampling microdialysis was feasible in the clinical environment. These results suggest that tissue responds to ischemic insult by mobilizing glucose stores which later decrease again, whereas lactate concentrations constantly increased.

  8. Microdialysis Coupled with LC-MS/MS for In Vivo Neurochemical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zestos, Alexander G; Kennedy, Robert T

    2017-09-01

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique used to monitor small molecules in vivo. Despite the many applications of microdialysis sampling, it is limited by the method of analyzing the resulting samples. An emerging technique for analysis of microdialysis samples is liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This technique is highly versatile, allowing multiplexed analysis of neurotransmitters, metabolites, and neuropeptides. Using LC-MS/MS for polar neurotransmitters is hampered by weak retention reverse phase LC columns. Several derivatization reagents have been utilized to enhance separation and resolution of neurochemicals in dialysate samples including benzoyl chloride (BzCl), dansyl chloride, formaldehyde, ethylchloroformate, and propionic anhydride. BzCl reacts with amine and phenol groups so that many neurotransmitters can be labeled. Besides improving separation on reverse phase columns, this reagent also increases sensitivity. It is available in a heavy form so that it can be used to make stable-isotope labeled internal standard for improved quantification. Using BzCl with LC-MS/MS has allowed for measuring as many as 70 neurochemicals in a single assay. With slightly different conditions, LC-MS/MS has also been used for monitoring endocannabinoids. LC-MS/MS is also useful for neuropeptide assay because it allows for highly sensitive, sequence specific measurement of most peptides. These advances have allowed for multiplexed neurotransmitter measurements in behavioral, circuit analysis, and drug effect studies.

  9. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min-1 and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min-1. The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  10. Cortisol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cortisoltest.html Cortisol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cortisol Test? Cortisol is a hormone that affects almost every ...

  11. Fetal motor activity and maternal cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    The contemporaneous association between maternal salivary cortisol and fetal motor activity was examined at 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Higher maternal cortisol was positively associated with the amplitude of fetal motor activity at 32 weeks, r(48) = .39, p activity were more common in fetuses of women with higher cortisol, Mann-Whitney U = 58.5. There were no sex differences in fetal motor activity, but the associations between maternal cortisol and fetal motor amplitude and overall movement were significantly stronger for male than female fetuses. PMID:19630038

  12. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  15. No increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes during 48 h of subcutaneous glucagon-like-peptide-1 administration in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Soendergaard, Liselotte; Rungby, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GLP-1(7-36 amide) or placebo was continuously infused subcutaneously and titrated to a dose of 4.8 pmol/kg per min. RESULTS: Two subjects in the GLP-1 group and one subject in the placebo group were withdrawn due to protocol specified plasma glucose (PG) ... of insulin and C-peptide were higher with GLP-1 infusion. However, PG was similar during GLP-1 vs. placebo infusions. GLP-1 infusion increased norepinephrine and cortisol levels during OGTT. CONCLUSION: The counter-regulatory response during 48 h of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion was preserved despite long...

  16. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  17. Acute dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Lim, Sung-Ryoun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Myung, Dae-Seong; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Yong-Wook

    2008-06-01

    Generalized subcutaneous edema is an uncommon manifestation of inflammatory myopathy. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with severe generalized edema, an erythematous skin rash, dysphagia and proximal muscle weakness. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis from the clinical signs, increased muscle enzymes, electromyographic findings and a muscle biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased signal intensity in the muscular and subcutaneous layers. The conditions causing generalized edema were excluded. It was concluded that the generalized edema was secondary to dermatomyositis. Aggressive treatments with high-dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents were used to control the severe subcutaneous edema.

  18. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not

  19. Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding

  20. Cortisol in hair and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalder, T.; Kirschbaum, C.; Alexander, N.; Bornstein, S.R.; Gao, W.; Miller, R.; Stark, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids is known to contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis,

  1. Massive Subcutaneous Emphysema in Robotic Sacrocolpopexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hatice; Cremins, Angela; Jones, Keisha A.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of robotic surgery has increased the popularity of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy, may rarely cause massive subcutaneous emphysema, which may be coincident with life-threatening situations such as hypercarbia, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Although the literature contains several reports of massive subcutaneous emphysema after a variety of laparoscopic procedures, we were not able to identify any report of this complication associated with laparoscopic or robotic sacrocolpopexy. Massive subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 3 women after robotic sacrocolpopexy in our practice. The patients had remarkable but reversible physical deformities lasting up to 1 week. A valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure system was used in all 3 of our cases. Our objective is to define the risk of massive subcutaneous emphysema during robotic sacrocolpopexy in light of these cases and discuss probable predisposing factors including the use of valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure trocars. PMID:23925018

  2. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  3. Management of adrenocortical insufficiency with continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion: long-term experience in three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, A; Khurana, R; Kyriacou, A; Davies, R; Ray, D W

    2015-01-01

    To assess continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) in patients with adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) and difficulties with oral replacement. Three patients with AI and frequent hospital admissions attributed to adrenal crises were treated with CSHI, which was delivered via a continuous subcutaneous infusion. All three patients preferred CSHI and remained on it long term, which permitted prolonged follow-up analysis. All three patients reported symptomatic improvement, and in two cases, reduced hospital admission rates and inpatient stay lengths were observed. The cost of hospital admissions and overall treatment was reduced in all cases. CSHI offers a practical and acceptable alternative to oral replacement in a subset of patients with AI. The cost of initiating and maintaining the pump is offset in the long term by reduced frequency and duration of emergency admissions. CSHI can therefore be considered in a select group of patients who are resistant to treatment with conventional oral glucocorticoids. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of cortisol is a viable alternative in patients unable to take oral steroids.Patient acceptability was high, with three out of three patients preferring to remain on pump treatment.Hospital admissions were reduced in response to pump therapy, which compensated for the increased treatment cost.The daily dosage of hydrocortisone can be reduced by using pump therapy.

  4. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  5. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  6. Determination of muscle-specific glucose flux using radioactive stereoisomers and microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, D. A.; Ettinger, S. M.; Sinoway, L. I.; Lanoue, K. F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a novel approach for determining skeletal muscle-specific glucose flux using radioactive stereoisomers and the microdialysis technique. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the vastus lateralis muscle of human subjects and perfused (4 microl/min) with a Ringer solution containing small amounts of radioactive D- and L-glucose as the internal reference markers for determining probe recovery as well as varying concentrations of insulin (0-10 microM). The rationale behind this approach was that both stereoisomers would be equally affected by the factors that determine probe recovery, with the exception of L-glucose, which is nonmetabolizable and would not be influenced by tissue uptake. Therefore, any differences in the probe recovery ratios between the D- and L-stereoisomers represent changes in skeletal muscle glucose uptake directly at the tissue level. There were no differences in probe recovery between the D- (42.3 +/- 3.5%) and L- (41.2 +/- 3.5) stereoisomers during the control period (no insulin), which resulted in a D/L ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.03. However, during insulin perfusion (1 microM), The D/L ratio increased to 1.62 +/- 0.08 and 1.58 +/- 0.07 (P glucose probe recovery, as L-glucose probe recovery remained unchanged. In a second set of experiments, the perfusion of 10 microM insulin did not increase the D/L ratio (1.40 +/- 0.11) above that observed during 1.0 microM (1.41 +/- 0.07) insulin perfusion. These data suggest that this method is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake; thus the use of radioactive stereoisomers in conjunction with the microdialysis technique provides a novel and useful technique for determining tissue-specific glucose flux and insulin sensitivity.

  7. Effects of glucose and insulin levels on adipose tissue glucose measurement by microdialysis probes retained for three weeks in Type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, LM; Lutgers, HL; Dullaart, RPF; Sluiter, WJ; Wientjes, KJ; Schoonen, AJM; Hoogenberg, K

    Background: To evaluate the effects of acute hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on adipose tissue glucose measurements by microdialysis probes inserted for a 3-week period. Methods: Microdialysis probes were implanted pairwise in abdominal adipose tissue in seven Type 1 diabetic patients and

  8. Point and trend accuracy of a continuous intravenous microdialysis-based glucose-monitoring device in critically ill patients: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, J. H.; van Hooijdonk, R. T. M.; Boshuizen, M.; Winters, T.; Bos, L. D.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Hoek, A. M. T.; Fischer, J. C.; van Dongen-Lases, E. C.; Schultz, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Microdialysis is a well-established technology that can be used for continuous blood glucose monitoring. We determined point and trend accuracy, and reliability of a microdialysis-based continuous blood glucose-monitoring device (EIRUS(®)) in critically ill patients. Prospective study involving

  9. THE ROLE OF GABA RECEPTORS IN THE CONTROL OF NIGROSTRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS - DUAL-PROBE MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN AWAKE RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANTIAGO, M; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    A microdialysis probe implanted into the substantia nigra was used to infuse gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) compounds onto cell bodies/dendrites of dopaminergic neurons, while a second microdialysis probe was used to record the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and

  10. Dynamic Probing of Nanoparticle Stability In Vivo: A Liposomal Model Assessed Using In Situ Microdialysis and Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and controlled release has been a vigorous research area in contemporary nanomedicine. The in vivo stability of nanoparticle delivered on site is a prerequisite for the design of drug-controlled release by any means. In this study, the first methodology comprised of microdialysis and optical imaging to assess the liposome stability in vivo is reported. Macroscopically, we demonstrated the DPPG liposomes with negative surface charge fast accumulated in the rat liver upon their i.v. administration using optical imaging. Microscopically, the concurrent analysis of fluorescent molecules leaching from the liposomes, in situ sampled using microdialysis probe, provides the dynamic information of stability of DPPG liposomes locus in quo. The current combination of in situ microdialysis and optical imaging possesses a great potential for use as a platform technology to evaluate the nanoparticle stability and the bioavailability of drug payload released on targeted site in vivo.

  11. Exercise-dependent IGF-I, IGFBPs, and type I collagen changes in human peritendinous connective tissue determined by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens L; Heinemeier, Katja M; Gemmer, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    and exercise groups after 48 h (P human peritendinous tissue in response to prolonged mechanical loading with part of the increase due to trauma from the sampling......Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon during exercise elevates type I collagen production in tendon. However, the possibility that the insertion of microdialysis fibers per se may increase the local collagen production due to trauma has not been explored. Insulin......-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen] were measured by microdialysis in peritendinous tissue of the human Achilles tendon in an exercise group (performing a 36-km run, n = 6) and a control group (no intervention, n = 6). An increase in local PICP concentration was seen in both...

  12. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of irritant dermatitis on cutaneous bioavailability of a metronidazole formulation, investigated by microdialysis and dermatopharmacokinetic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P.G.; Hansen, S.H.; Shah, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers. Samples were collected in a study of the penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation (Flagyl (R) 1%) applied to forearm skin in both areas with irritant dermatitis and normal skin. Barrier perturbation and the depth of microdialysis probes were quantified by non-invasive bioengineering......Background: Determination of drug penetration in diseased skin represents a challenge. Objective: To compare dermal microdialysis and tape-strip sampling of drug penetration in normal skin and skin with irritant dermatitis. Methods: The two methodologies were employed simultaneously in 16 healthy...... methods. Results: Microdialysis showed a significant threefold increase in metronidazole penetration in skin with irritant dermatitis compared with unmodified skin. Conversely, the concentration of metronidazole in tape-strip samples was significantly decreased in irritant dermatitis. Conclusion...

  14. Type I collagen synthesis and degradation in peritendinous tissue after exercise determined by microdialysis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Petersen, L J

    1999-01-01

    .e.m. values) for both radioactively labelled substances. 3. PICP concentration decreased in both interstitial peritendinous tissue and arterial blood immediately after exercise, but rose 3-fold from basal 72 h after exercise in the peritendinous tissue (55 +/- 10 microg l-1, mean +/- s.e.m. (rest) to 165...... as determined with microdialysis and using dialysate fibre with a very high molecular mass cut-off. This suggests an adaptation to acute physical loading also in non-bone-related collagen in humans....

  15. Metabolism during anaesthesia and recovery in colic and healthy horses: a microdialysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essén-Gustavsson Birgitta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle metabolism in horses has been studied mainly by analysis of substances in blood or plasma and muscle biopsy specimens. By using microdialysis, real-time monitoring of the metabolic events in local tissue with a minimum of trauma is possible. There is limited information about muscle metabolism in the early recovery period after anaesthesia in horses and especially in the colic horse. The aims were to evaluate the microdialysis technique as a complement to plasma analysis and to study the concentration changes in lactate, pyruvate, glucose, glycerol, and urea during anaesthesia and in the recovery period in colic horses undergoing abdominal surgery and in healthy horses not subjected to surgery. Methods Ten healthy university-owned horses given anaesthesia alone and ten client-owned colic horses subjected to emergency abdominal surgery were anaesthetised for a mean (range of 230 min (193–273 and 208 min (145–300 respectively. Venous blood samples were taken before anaesthesia. Venous blood sampling and microdialysis in the gluteal muscle were performed during anaesthesia and until 24 h after anaesthesia. Temporal changes and differences between groups were analysed with an ANOVA for repeated measures followed by Tukey Post Hoc test or Planned Comparisons. Results Lactate, glucose and urea, in both dialysate and plasma, were higher in the colic horses than in the healthy horses for several hours after recovery to standing. In the colic horses, lactate, glucose, and urea in dialysate, and lactate in plasma increased during the attempts to stand. The lactate-to-pyruvate ratio was initially high in sampled colic horses but decreased over time. In the colic horses, dialysate glycerol concentrations varied considerably whereas in the healthy horses, dialysate glycerol was elevated during anaesthesia but decreased after standing. In both groups, lactate concentration was higher in dialysate than in plasma. The

  16. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  17. Cloxacillin concentrations in serum, subcutaneous fat, and muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T B; Nilsson, T K; Breimer, L H; Schneede, J; Arfvidsson, B; Norgren, L

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) have poor wound healing in the ankle and foot areas. Secondary wound infections are frequent and often treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics. This study set out to investigate to what extent the unbound fraction of 4 g of cloxacillin i.v. reaches its target organ in poorly vascularized tissues, i.e., the calf and foot of patients suffering from CLI. Cloxacillin concentrations were measured by HPLC in serum and in microdialysis samples from skin and muscle of the lower part of the calf and as reference subcutaneously at the pectoral level in eight patients suffering from CLI (four males, four females, mean age 78 years, range 66-85 years) and in three healthy controls (two females, one male, mean age 67, range 66-68 years). In patients suffering from CLI, the tissue penetration of cloxacillin after a single 4 g dose was comparable to that of healthy controls, despite impaired blood circulation. The reduced blood flow in the peripheral vessels of the CLI patients presented here apparently is not the rate-limiting factor for delivery or tissue penetration of cloxacillin.

  18. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  19. Kinetics of intravenously dosed cortisol in four men. Consequences for calculation of the plasma cortisol production rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, GPB; Dullaart, RPF; Pratt, JJ; Wolthers, BG; de Bruin, R

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of cortisol in the serum of 4 healthy men were studied following single i.v. doses of 2 and 0.8 mg of cortisol. The disappearance of cortisol was determined by blood sampling frequently over 2.5 h and analysing the apparently biexponential cortisol decay. The main results, shown as the

  20. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  1. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  2. Changes in cortisol metabolism following rifampicin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, O M; Courtenay-Evans, R J; Galley, J M; Hunter, J; Tait, A D

    1974-09-07

    A patient with Addison's disease required increased corticosteroid dosage whilst receiving rifampicin. The pharmacological half-life of cortisol was reduced, but returned to normal when rifampicin was stopped. Cortisolproduction rates in four patients with pulmonary tuberculosis rose during treatment with rifampicin, as did urinary D-glucaric-acid excretion, an index of liver microsomal-enzyme activity. The alteration of the corticosteroid requirement in the patient with Addison's disease and the elevation of the cortisol-production rates were attributed to increased cortisol catabolism following hepatic macrosomal-enzyme induction by rifampicin.

  3. Early osteoarthritis and microdialysis: a novel in vivo approach for measurements of biochemical markers in the perisynovium and intraarticularly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, Ida Carøe; Mikkelsen, U R; Krogsgaard, M R

    2010-01-01

    The microdialysis technique was evaluated as a possible method to obtain local measurements of biochemical markers from knee joints with degenerative changes. Seven patients scheduled for arthroscopy of the knee due to minor to moderate degenerative changes had microdialysis catheters inserted...... under ultrasonographic guidance, intraarticularly and in the synovium-close tissue. Catheters were perfused at a rate of 2 μl/min for approximately 100 min with a Ringer solution containing radioactively labeled glucose, and the positions of the catheters were later visualized during arthroscopy. All...

  4. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  5. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs nebulized salbutamol in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Madan, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the subcutaneous epinephrine with nebulized salbutamol. Fifty asthmatic children in the age range of 6-14 years were divided into two equal groups. Group I children were given subcutaneous epinephrine and Group II were nebulized with salbutamol. Patients were observed at 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minute intervals. Both the groups had comparable mean increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR %) (Group I 27.7 +/- 0.7; Group II 28.8 +/- 0.06, p >0.05). In Group I there was significant increase in systolic blood pressure, 30 minutes after the start of treatment, however it settled on its own by 60 minutes. Both the groups had satisfactory improvement in clinical parameters which continued upto 4 hours after start of treatment. Subcutaneous epinephrine can be safely used if nebulizers are not available.

  6. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  7. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  8. Hippocampal insulin microinjection and in vivo microdialysis during spatial memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Sandusky, Leslie A; Pearson-Leary, Jiah

    2013-01-11

    Glucose metabolism is a useful marker for local neural activity, forming the basis of methods such as 2-deoxyglucose and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, use of such methods in animal models requires anesthesia and hence both alters the brain state and prevents behavioral measures. An alternative method is the use of in vivo microdialysis to take continuous measurement of brain extracellular fluid concentrations of glucose, lactate, and related metabolites in awake, unrestrained animals. This technique is especially useful when combined with tasks designed to rely on specific brain regions and/or acute pharmacological manipulation; for example, hippocampal measurements during a spatial working memory task (spontaneous alternation) show a dip in extracellular glucose and rise in lactate that are suggestive of enhanced glycolysis, and intrahippocampal insulin administration both improves memory and increases hippocampal glycolysis. Substances such as insulin can be delivered to the hippocampus via the same microdialysis probe used to measure metabolites. The use of spontaneous alternation as a measure of hippocampal function is designed to avoid any confound from stressful motivators (e.g. footshock), restraint, or rewards (e.g. food), all of which can alter both task performance and metabolism; this task also provides a measure of motor activity that permits control for nonspecific effects of treatment. Combined, these methods permit direct measurement of the neurochemical and metabolic variables regulating behavior.

  9. Distribution of blood-muscle for clenbuterol in rat using microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Chih; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Tse; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2009-05-08

    Clenbuterol is clinically used as a bronchodilator, but it is also illegally used to increase lean meat in animal husbandry. To investigate the muscle distribution of protein-unbound clenbuterol, a microdialysis technique coupled to liquid chromatography system was applied to simultaneously monitor clenbuterol in rat blood and muscle. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the jugular vein/right atrium and hind leg muscle of rat for sampling after clenbuterol administration (10 mg/kg) through the femoral vein. Dialysate samples of clenbuterol were separated by a reversed-phase column (250 mm x 4 mm I.D., particle size 5 microm). The results indicate that the maximum concentration of clenbuterol in muscle was found at 30-45 min after clenbuterol administration (10 mg/kg) and the area under concentration curve (AUC) of clenbuterol in blood and in muscle were 942.75+/-101.92 and 174.81+/-13.03 min microg/mL, respectively. The AUC(muscle)/AUC(blood) was 0.20+/-0.03 representing about 20% of the clenbuterol distributing into the muscle. The elimination half-life of clenbuterol in the blood and muscle were about 2 and 6h, respectively. These results suggest that the protein-unbound concentration of clenbuterol sustained a high level and prolonged elimination in the muscle. The accumulation of clenbuterol might result in some clinical effects when clenbuterol-contaminated meat was consumed.

  10. Mass spectrometric measurement of neuropeptide secretion in the crab, Cancer borealis, by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; Schmerberg, Claire M; Li, Lingjun

    2015-06-07

    Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique and highly important class of signaling molecules across the animal kingdom, have been extensively characterized in the neuronal tissues of various crustaceans. Because many NPs are released into circulating fluid (hemolymph) and travel to distant sites in order to exhibit physiological effects, it is important to measure the secretion of these NPs from living animals. In this study, we report on extensive characterization of NPs released in the crab Cancer borealis by utilizing in vivo microdialysis to sample NPs from the hemolymph. We determined the necessary duration for collection of microdialysis samples, enabling more comprehensive identification of NP content while maintaining the temporal resolution of sampling. Analysis of in vivo microdialysates using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Q-Exactive mass spectrometer revealed that more than 50 neuropeptides from 9 peptide families-including the allatostatin, RFamide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide and RYamide families - were released into the circulatory system. The presence of these peptides both in neuronal tissues as well as in hemolymph indicates their putative hormonal roles, a finding that merits further investigation. Preliminary quantitative measurement of these identified NPs suggested several potential candidates that maybe associated with the circadian rhythm in Cancer borealis.

  11. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy

  12. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studi...

  13. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  14. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    Patients with functional amenorrhea have raised central dopaminergic activity and opioid-mediated GnRH inhibition leading to inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. In the present study, basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in normoprolactinemic amenorrheic patients...... with (N = 14) and without (N = 7) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Basal serum cortisol levels was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea compared with normal women. Basal serum cortisol was significantly (P less than 0.02) elevated in amenorrheic...... diabetic patients compared with menstruating diabetic women. In the amenorrheic groups both cortisol and ACTH levels increased significantly (P less than 0.01) after dopamine D-2 receptor blockade, whereas no hormonal changes occurred in the control groups. It is concluded that patients...

  15. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  16. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  17. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  18. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  19. The release of noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex studied with dual-probe microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudovkina, O; Kawahara, Y; de Vries, J.B; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate and compare the properties of noradrenaline release in the locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). For that aim the dual-probe microdialysis technique was applied for simultaneous detection of noradrenaline levels in the LC and PFC in

  20. Influence of a microemulsion vehicle on cutaneous bioequivalence of a lipophilic model drug assessed by microdialysis and pharmacodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Kemme, M J; Burggraaf, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the cutaneous bioequivalence of a lipophilic model drug (lidocaine) applied in a novel topical microemulsion vehicle, compared to a conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, assessed by a pharmacokinetics microdialysis model and a pharmacodynamic method....

  1. Norepinephrine release in the rat pineal gland : The input from the biological clock measured by in vivo microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, W.J; van der Linde, A.G; Kooi, S.E; Grol, Cor; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat pineal gland was investigated, measuring the norepinephrine (NE) release by on-line in vivo microdialysis, NE was assayed using an HPLC method with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. Its high sensitivity and reliability made it very suitable

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL RESPONSIVENESS OF DOPAMINE RELEASE RECORDED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA OF CONSCIOUS RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANTIAGO, M; WESTERINK, BHC

    The extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum was estimated by microdialysis. The dialysate content of DA from the SN was recorded during infusion of a DA uptake blocker (nomifensine; 5-mu-mol/L) dissolved in the

  3. Cortisol and externalizing behavior in children and adolescents: Mixed meta-analytic evidence for the inverse relation of basal cortisol and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Mesman, J.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    An inverse relation between cortisol (re)activily and externalizing behavior has been hypothesized, but research findings seem equivocal. We tested this hypo(re)activity hypothesis in two meta-analyses, one for basal cortisol (k = 72 studies, N = 5,480) and one for cortisol reactivity to a stressor

  4. Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five year old entire mixed breed dog was admitted to the University of Nairobi's small animal clinic with a 5-months history of subcutaneous masses. Physical examination revealed firm and mobile masses in the subcuticular tissues, on the mandible and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Visual inspection ...

  5. Radiological case: subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, J.; Gomes, M.; Moreira, C.; Macedo, F.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the case of a 5 year old asmathic girl admitted to the hospital for acute non traumatic edema and crepitus of the face, neck and upper thorax. Thoracic x-ray (not shown) and thoracic and neck CT were performed, showing extensive subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema. These are rare complications of asthma. The imaging features are described.

  6. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheezing and neck pain. He was diagnosed asthmatic at the age of eleven and had been admitted on a few occasions for acute exacerbations in the prior ten years. He had salbutamol tablets regularly. At this index presentation, he was noted to have subcutaneous swelling and crepitus over the neck and upper anterior ...

  7. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via ...

  8. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  9. Case Report: Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema as complications of childhood pneumonia is very unusual. They results most often from respiratory manoeuvres that produce high intrathoracic pressure. Although they are largely benign, pneumomediastinum can cause compression of major ...

  10. Salivary cortisol in two professions: daily cortisol profiles in school teachers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoliakova, Olga; Smejkalova, Jindra; Bicikova, Marie; Potuznikova, Dana; Hodacova, Lenka; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Fiala, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    It's indicated negative-perceived stress could induce worse health status and change of cortisol secretion. To assess salivary cortisol levels in two occupations with a high psychosocial workload, but different features, teachers and firefighters. The study population consisted of 142 school teachers and 136 firefighters. Four saliva samples were collected from pedagogical participants during their busiest workday. The cortisol measures used were: morning values, evening values, slope of decline, ratio (evening value divided by morning value), and area under the curve (AUC). The salivary cortisol measurements in both genders were almost equal regarding morning values, slope, and AUC increase. Evening values were lower and the relative reactivity was higher (lower ratio) for female teachers, compared to male teachers. There was a tendency of a lower total daytime output of cortisol (AUC ground) among female teachers. Firefighters had lower levels of cortisol, lower total daytime output, and higher relative reactivity (lower ratio), but lower absolute reactivity, regarding both slope and AUC increase. Overall, male teachers might be the group most affected by stress in this study, even if some of their cortisol values were almost equal to the female teachers' values. Male teachers also seemed to be more affected by stress, according to salivary cortisol, compared to male firefighters, even if there were some inconsistencies.

  11. Term neonates with infection and shock display high cortisol precursors despite low levels of normal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Ojaniemi, Marja; Leskinen, Markku; Saarela, Timo; Hallman, Mikko

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal therapy-resistant septic shock is a common problem in middle and low-income countries. We investigated whether newborn infants with infection and therapy-resistant hypotension showed evidence of abnormal levels of cortisol or cortisol precursors. A total of 60 term or near term neonates with evidence of infection were enrolled after informed consent. Of these, 30 had an infection and refractory shock and 30 had an infection without shock. There were no detectable differences between the groups in the length of gestation, birth weight or gender distribution. Serum was obtained during days four and 14 after birth. Cortisol and cortisol precursor concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cortisol concentrations were low considering the expected responses to stress and they did not differ between the groups. The infants with infection and shock had higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels than those without shock (319.0 ± 110.3 μg/dL, versus 22.3 ± 18.3 μg/dL; p cortisol, cortisol or cortisone. Septic newborn infants with therapy-resistant hypotension had very high DHEA levels, suggesting that 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity limited the rate of cortisol synthesis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cortisol metabolism after weight loss- associations with 11 β-HSD type 1 and markers of obesity in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Erling; Simonyte, K; Lönn, L

    2013-01-01

    Objective:  Increased glucocorticoid metabolite excretion and enhanced expression and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue are closely correlated to obesity and its detrimental consequences. Weight loss ameliorates the latter. The aim of this study was to explore...... whether increased glucocorticoid exposure in obesity is improved with substantial weight loss and thus is a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Design and patients:  A prospective cohort study in 31 females. Measurements:  11β-HSD type 1- expression and -activity, urinary glucocorticoid metabolite...... to central obesity, where the intraabdominal fat depot showed the strongest association. Cortisol metabolites correlated with 11β-HSD type 1-activity in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ratio of cortisol to cortisone metabolites [(5α-tetrahydrocortisol (5αTHF) + tetrahydrocortisol (THF)+ α...

  13. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: review of mechanisms and biochemical biomarkers as assessed by the microdialysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdle B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Björn Gerdle,1,2 Bijar Ghafouri,1,3 Malin Ernberg,4 Britt Larsson1,21Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden; 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Dental Medicine, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenAbstract: Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain, which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain

  14. Microdialysis feasibility investigations with the non-hydrophilic antifungal voriconazole for potential applications in nonclinical and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, F; Kloft, C

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the feasibility and validity of the microdialysis technique for the non-hydrophilic antifungal voriconazole, in settings for established concentric and new linear catheters. Optimal conditions for application of microdialysis in in vivo studies including steady-state conditions were to be elaborated. For in vitro microdialysis investigations, a robust and easy-to-handle system was developed permitting standardized physiological-like conditions. Various experiments on the influence of flow-rate (0.4 - 10.0 µl/min), voriconazole concentration (1.0 - 50.0 µg/ml) on relative recovery were performed. Additionally, the mass transfer coefficient r of voriconazole was estimated (WinNonlin™). In vitro microdialysis experiments suggested sufficient voriconazole concentrations in the dialysate for (non-)clinical investigations. The stability of voriconazole was confirmed over 10 h (37 °C). A flow-rate dependency was shown (optimum: 2.0 µl/min) and r was estimated to be 0.09 mm/min and 0.11 mm/min for concentric and linear catheters, respectively. Relative recovery in delivery/recovery experiments was independent of the voriconazole concentration ranging from 96.0% to 97.8%/93.8% to 100.2% (CV 1.7%/ 0.5%) indicating unhampered passage of voriconazole through the catheter. Investigations mimicking steady-state suggested voriconazole concentration of 100 - 200 µg/ml for in vivo catheter calibration solutions. The results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the microdialysis technique in clinically-mimicked settings despite the higher lipophilicity of voriconazole and support the application of the technique in vivo.

  15. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow and metabolism bedside in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage - A Xenon-CT and microdialysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI. Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH.Xenon computerized tomography (Xenon-CT using a bedside CT scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF bedside in the neurointensive care (NIC setting and intracerebral microdialysis is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here we present results on nine SAH patients with both microdialysis monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements.CBF measurements were performed within the first 72h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26 ml/100g/min whereas one had 53 ml/100g/min. The 3 patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27 ml/100g/min. High Lactate/Pyruvate ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had Lactate/Pyruvate ratio ≥ 25 and four of these patients had CBF ≤ 22 ml/100g/min.These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied by metabolic disturbances determined by the microdialysis. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and microdialysis could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and microdialysis was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if delayed cerebral ischemia can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction.

  16. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  17. Cerebral microdialysis and PtiO2 to decide unilateral decompressive craniectomy after brain gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boret Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC following brain injury can induce complications (hemorrhage, infection, and hygroma. It is then considered as a last-tier therapy, and can be deleteriously delayed. Focal neuromonitoring (microdialysis and PtiO2 can help clinicians to decide bedside to perform DC in case of intracranial pressure (ICP around 20 to 25 mmHg despite maximal medical treatment. This was the case of a hunter, brain injured by gunshot. DC was performed at day 6, because of unstable ICP, ischemic trend of PtiO2, and decreased cerebral glucose but normal lactate/pyruvate ratio. His evolution was good despite left hemiplegia due to initial injury.

  18. Type I collagen synthesis and degradation in peritendinous tissue after exercise determined by microdialysis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Petersen, L J

    1999-01-01

    1. Physical activity is known to increase type I collagen synthesis measured as the concentration of biomarkers in plasma. By the use of microdialysis catheters with a very high molecular mass cut-off value (3000 kDa) we aimed to determine local type I collagen synthesis and degradation...... catheters were placed in the peritendinous space ventral to the Achilles' tendon under ultrasound guidance and perfused with a Ringer-acetate solution containing 3H-labelled human type IV collagen and [15-3H(N)]PGE2 for in vivo recovery determination. Relative recovery was 37-59 % (range of the s...... increased in blood during running, and returned to baseline in the recovery period, whereas interstitial PGE2 concentration was elevated in the early recovery phase. 4. The findings of the present study indicate that acute exercise induces increased formation of type I collagen in peritendinous tissue...

  19. Gastrin response to candidate messengers in intact conscious rats monitored by antrum microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Peter; Håkanson, Rolf; Norlén, Per

    2010-08-09

    We monitored gastrin release in response to locally applied candidate messengers in intact conscious rats. Earlier studies have been performed on anaesthetized animals, isolated pieces of antrum, or purified preparations of gastrin cells. In this study we created an experimental situation to resemble physiological conditions, using reverse microdialysis to administer regulatory peptides and amines that might affect gastrin secretion. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the submucosa of the antrum of the rat stomach. Three days later, putative messenger compounds were administered via the probe. Their effects on basal (24 h fast) and omeprazole-stimulated (400 micromol/kg/day, 4 days peroral administration) gastrin release were monitored by continuous measurement (3 h) of gastrin in the perfusate (radioimmunoassay). Fasted rats (low microdialysate gastrin, 2.1+/-0.1 pmol l(-1)) were used to study stimulation of gastrin release. Omeprazole-treated rats (high microdialysate gastrin, 95.8+/-6.7 pmol l(-1)) were used to study suppression of gastrin release. The following agents raised the concentration of microdialysate gastrin (peak response): gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) (11-fold increase at a near-maximal dose), carbachol (5-fold increase), serotonin (2-fold increase) and isoprenaline (20-fold increase). Adrenaline and noradrenaline induced transient but powerful elevation (40- and 20-fold increase). Somatostatin, galanin and bradykinin (at near-maximal doses) suppressed omeprazole-stimulated gastrin release (50% decrease). Calcitonin gene-related peptide, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide, motilin, neurotensin, neuromedin U-25, peptide YY and vasoactive intestinal peptide were without effect on gastrin release, as were aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, glycine, dopamine and histamine. The results support the view that G cells operate under neurocrine/paracrine control. They were stimulated by agents present in enteric neurons (GRP, galanin

  20. Implementation of cerebral microdialysis at a community-based hospital: A 5-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeff W; Rogers, Shana L; Gombart, Zoe J; Adler, David E; Cecil, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis (MD) provides valuable information about brain metabolism under normal and pathologic conditions. The CMA 600 microdialysis analyzer received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for clinical use in the United States in 2005. Since then, cerebral MD has been increasingly utilized nationally in the multimodal monitoring of traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain tumors. We describe a 5-year, single-institutional experience using cerebral MD at a community-based hospital, Legacy Emanuel Medical Center (LEMC). Implications for the adoption and utility of MD in medical centers with limited resources are discussed. This is a retrospective chart review and data analysis of 174 consecutive patients who had cerebral MD as part of multimodal brain monitoring. All cerebral MD catheters were placed by board-certified, attending neurosurgeons at LEMC. Clinical severity in the TBI patients was reported using initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); radiologic severity was graded with the Marshall CT grading scale. Measures of the risks of MD placement included post-placement hemorrhage, cerebral infection, and dislodgement. Between July 2005 and July 2010, 248 cerebral MD catheters were placed in 174 patients undergoing multimodal brain monitoring. One hundred and eighty-five catheters were placed at the time of open craniotomy. None were associated with cranial infection. Patients ranged in age from 5 months to 90 years, with a mean of 49 years. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. The underlying pathologies were: TBI (126), cerebral vascular accident (24), aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (17), and tumor (7). Cerebral MD was readily implemented in a community-based hospital. No cerebral hemorrhages or infections were attributed to cerebral MD. Examples of how MD may be a useful adjunct in the clinical decision making of patients with brain injuries are presented.

  1. Mass spectrometric detection of neuropeptides using affinity-enhanced microdialysis with antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerberg, Claire M; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-15

    Microdialysis (MD) is a useful sampling tool for many applications due to its ability to permit sampling from an animal concurrent with normal activity. MD is of particular importance in the field of neuroscience, in which it is used to sample neurotransmitters (NTs) while the animal is behaving in order to correlate dynamic changes in NTs with behavior. One important class of signaling molecules, the neuropeptides (NPs), however, presented significant challenges when studied with MD, due to the low relative recovery (RR) of NPs by this technique. Affinity-enhanced microdialysis (AE-MD) has previously been used to improve recovery of NPs and similar molecules. For AE-MD, an affinity agent (AA), such as an antibody-coated particle or free antibody, is added to the liquid perfusing the MD probe. This AA provides an additional mass transport driving force for analyte to pass through the dialysis membrane and thus increases the RR. In this work, a variety of AAs have been investigated for AE-MD of NPs in vitro and in vivo, including particles with C18 surface functionality and antibody-coated particles. Antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AbMnP) provided the best RR enhancement in vitro, with statistically significant (p < 0.05) enhancements for 4 out of 6 NP standards tested, and RR increases up to 41-fold. These particles were then used for in vivo MD in the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, during a feeding study, with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. 31 NPs were detected in a 30 min collection sample, compared to 17 when no AA was used. The use of AbMnP also increased the temporal resolution from 4 to 18 h in previous studies to just 30 min in this study. The levels of NPs detected were also sufficient for reliable quantitation with the MS system in use, permitting quantitative analysis of the concentration changes for 7 identified NPs on a 30 min time course during feeding.

  2. Effects of vehicle microdialysis solutions on cutaneous vascular responses to local heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2017-08-31

    Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique often paired with laser Doppler flowmetry to examine cutaneous microvascular function, yet presents with several challenges, including incompatibility with perfusion of highly lipophilic compounds. The present study addresses this methodological concern, with an emphasis on the independent effects of commonly used vehicle dialysis solutions to improve solubility of pharmacological agents with otherwise low aqueous solubility. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the ventral forearm of eight subjects (4 men, 4 women; 25 ± 1 years) with sites randomized to serve as 1) control (lactated Ringer's), 2) Sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer administered at physiological pH (SCB-HCL; pH 7.4, achieved via addition of hydrochloric acid (HCL)), 3) 0.02% Ethanol, and 4) 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Following baseline (34°C), vehicle solutions were administered throughout a standardized local heating protocol to 42°C. Laser Doppler flowmetry provided an index of blood flow. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated and normalized to maximum (%CVCmax, sodium nitroprusside and 43°C local heat). The SCB-HCL solution increased baseline %CVCmax (control: 9.7 ± 0.8, SCB-HCL: 21.5 ± 3.5 %CVCmax; p=0.03) but no effects were observed during heating or maximal vasodilation. There were no differences with perfusion of ethanol or DMSO at any stage of the protocol (p>0.05). These data demonstrate the potential confounding effects of some vehicle dialysis solutions on cutaneous vascular function. Notably, this study provides evidence that 2% DMSO and 0.02% ethanol are acceptable vehicles with no confounding local vascular effects to a standardized local heating protocol at the concentrations presented. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  3. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  4. Subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: State-of-the art 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Akerström, Finn; Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Puchol, Alberto; Jiménez-López, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has recently been approved for commercial use in Europe, New Zealand and the United States. It is comprised of a pulse generator, placed subcutaneously in a left lateral position, and a parasternal subcutaneous lead-electrode with two sensing electrodes separated by a shocking coil. Being an entirely subcutaneous system it avoids important periprocedural and long-term complications associated with transvenous implantable cardiove...

  5. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  6. Subcutaneous filariasis: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valand Arvindbhai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti presented in subcutaneous nodule is a very rare presentation. Wuchereria bancrofti first reported by Bancrofti in Brisbane in 1876 and the name filaria Bancrofti was given in 1877 and the generic name was given in 1878. A 15-year-old male patient′s known case of pulmonary Koch′s with incidentally detected subcutaneous nodule on right arm pit, cytology from the nodule shows many sheathed microfilaria along with segment of an adult female worm. Wet mount peripheral blood smear shows nocturnal motile microfilaria. The Wuchereria bancrofti is known to be associated with pulmonary Koch′s. Nocturnal motility and cytomorphological features differentiate Wuchereria bancrofti from Wuchereria loa loa . After giving diethyl carbamazine (DEC 6 mg/kg for 21 days without disturbing anti Koch′s treatment schedule and microfilaria disappeared from peripheral blood.

  7. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Akinloye O.; Obikoya O.M; Jegede A.I; Oparinde D.P; Arowojolu A.O

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is known to alter the feedback effect of cortisol on ACTH secretion and decrease the effectiveness of cortisol to inhibit an ACTH response to hypertension. Neither the mechanism nor the physiological significance of these changes in maternal plasma cortisol concentration is fully understood. This study is the first attempt to investigate the levels of serum cortisol during three stages of pregnancy and its associated physiological significance in Nigeria women. Aim: Seru...

  9. Primary Sonographic Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Shivu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a small diffuse swelling on the left side of her face. She was diagnosed with intramuscular cysticercosis in the masseter muscle (case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the muscular system and subcutaneous tissues with surrounding phlegmon on high-resolution ultrasound and managed conservatively. To our knowledge, the imaging findings of disseminated muscular cysUcercosis have been reported before only a few numbers of times. In this case, the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of high-resolution sonography of the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. It showed multiple oval to circular, predominantly anechoic lesions, which were around 1 cm in diameter. Most of these cystic lesions showed a hyperechoic focus within suggestive of a scolex. There was no increased vascularity surrounding the lesions. Thus, sonography can primarily make the correct diagnosis of disseminated muscular cysticercosis if such lesions are seen. In endemic areas, cysticercosis should be considered one of the differential diagnosis of the subcutaneous swellings.

  10. Characterization of the effects of reuptake and hydrolysis inhibition on interstitial endocannabinoid levels in the brain: an in vivo microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiskerke, J.; Irimia, C.; Cravatt, B.F.; de Vries, T.J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Pattij, T.; Parsons, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiments employed in vivo microdialysis to characterize the effects of commonly used endocannabinoid clearance inhibitors on basal and depolarization-induced alterations in interstitial endocannabinoid levels in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain. Compounds targeting the putative

  11. Surfactants enhance recovery of poorly soluble drugs during microdialysis sampling: Implications for in vitro dissolution-/permeation-studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Sebastian; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont; Bauer-Brandl, Annette; Brandl, Martin

    2017-10-25

    Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers, separated by a barrier that simulates the intestinal barrier. Here, in contrast to conventional D/P-systems, the dissolution of the drug (donor chamber concentration) is followed by microdialysis sampling. This approach appears promising, because it is expected not to disturb the dynamic interplay between drug-dissolution (-release) and drug permeation. Furthermore, it should allow quantification of the unbound (free) drug concentration. In the first step, it was assessed, if the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to the perfusate of the microdialysis system affects the recovery of the (slightly) water-soluble model drug acyclovir and the poorly water soluble model drug celecoxib (CXB). SDS had no influence on acyclovir-recovery, but substantially enhanced CXB-recovery, partly due to improved extraction efficiency, partly due to inhibition of loss of CXB due to non-specific binding to surfaces and the probe. The fraction of CXB recovered from aqueous CXB-solutions by microdialysis sampling using SDS-containing perfusates correlated well with the celecoxib concentration in the samples, but was found independent of the SDS-concentrations (above critical micelle concentration). In the next step microdialysis sampling with SDS-containing perfusates was assessed for celecoxib solutions in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and compared to that in buffer. In FaSSIF, the measured CXB-concentrations were far below the overall CXB concentration, likely representing the free celecoxib, i.e. the fraction of drug, which is not associated with taurocholate surfactant micelles. In buffer, the measured concentrations matched the overall CXB

  12. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy is known to alter the feedback effect of cortisol on ACTH secretion and decrease the effectiveness of cortisol to inhibit an ACTH response to hypertension. Neither the mechanism nor the physiological significance of these changes in maternal plasma cortisol concentration is fully understood.

  13. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm

  14. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  15. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and

  16. Role of serum cortisol levels in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landstra, AM; Postma, DS; Boezen, HM; Van Aalderen, WMC

    2002-01-01

    Decreased serum cortisol levels have been proposed to contribute to nocturnal airway obstruction. We investigated whether endogenous cortisol levels are lower, and also whether the 24-h cortisol variation is greater, in children with asthma than in control subjects and assessed the relationship

  17. Maximising metal ions flux across a microdialysis membrane by incorporating poly-L-aspartic acid, poly-L-histidine, 8-hydroxyquinoline and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the perfusion liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogopodi, Dikabo [University of Botswana, Department of Chemistry, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Torto, Nelson [University of Botswana, Department of Chemistry, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana)]. E-mail: torton@mopipi.ub.bw

    2005-04-08

    This paper presents a study of quiescent microdialysis sampling of Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} involving the incorporation of poly-L-aspartic acid, poly-L-histidine, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), in the perfusion liquid as an approach to maximise metal analyte flux across the microdialysis membrane. These chelating agents were individually optimised with respect to microdialysis recovery and subsequently combined in the perfusion liquid. A combination of 20% (w/v) poly-L-histidine, 0.032% (w/v) poly-L-aspartic acid and 1 mM 8-HQ achieved microdialysis recovery up to 90%. Since 1 mM EDTA achieved recoveries greater than 80% for all metals understudy, EDTA was not combined with any of the chelating agents. Under the optimal conditions of maximum metal ion flux across the microdialysis membrane, metal ions from natural and wastewater were sampled and analysed with an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a Zeeman background corrector. Results showed higher concentrations of detected metal ions after microdialysis sampling compared to direct detection without sample clean-up. Incorporation of chelating agents in the microdialysis perfusion liquid enhanced metal ions recovery in real samples and achieved enrichment factors of up to 42. The study demonstrated that combining chelating agents is a good approach towards maximising metal flux across the dialysis membrane. Given that recoveries between 80 and 90% were achieved under quiescent microdialysis sampling conditions, these findings are an important development for in vivo diagnostic sampling of metal ions.

  18. Chronic stress in the mother-infant dyad: Maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; St John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-05-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Donsmark, M; Enevoldsen, L H

    1999-01-01

    We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood fl...... flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.......We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow...... rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow...

  20. Intensive insulin therapy reduces microdialysis glucose values without altering glucose utilization or improving the lactate/pyruvate ratio after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Paul; Boonyaputthikul, Robert; McArthur, David L; Miller, Chad; Etchepare, Maria; Bergsneider, Marvin; Glenn, Thomas; Martin, Neil; Hovda, David

    2006-03-01

    To determine that intensive glycemic control does not reduce microdialysis glucose concentration brain metabolism of glucose. Prospective monitoring followed by retrospective data analysis of cerebral microdialysis and global brain metabolism. Single center, academic neurointensive care unit. Forty-seven moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. A nonrandomized, consecutive design was used for glycemic control with loose insulin (n=33) for the initial 2 yrs or intensive insulin therapy (n=14) for the last year. In 14 patients treated with intensive insulin therapy, there was a reduction in microdialysis glucose by 70% of baseline concentration compared with a 15% reduction in 33 patients treated with a loose insulin protocol. Despite this reduction in microdialysis glucose, the global metabolic rate of glucose did not change. However, intensive insulin therapy was associated with increased incidence of microdialysis markers of cellular distress, namely elevated glutamate (38+/-37% vs. 10+/-17%, pglucose (26+/-17% vs. 11+/-15%, pglucose and an increase in microdialysis glutamate and lactate/pyruvate without conveying a functional outcome advantage.

  1. The ratio of cortisol/DHEA in treatment resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulou, Kalypso; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Juruena, Mario F; Poon, Lucia; Pariante, Carmine M; Cleare, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Hypercortisolaemia has been well described in depression and may be a factor associated with treatment resistance. The role of the more abundant adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been recently investigated, with some evidence that it may have an antiglucocorticoid effect. This study measured cortisol, DHEA and their ratio in treatment resistant depression (TRD) and healthy controls and also related these measures to treatment outcome. Plasma cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined at 0900h in 28 patients with TRD and 40 healthy controls. The measures were repeated following inpatient treatment in a subgroup of 21 patients and related to the outcome of such treatment. The stability of cortisol/DHEA ratios was assessed with 2 hourly samples from 0900 to 1700h in a subgroup of 15 controls. Basal levels of cortisol and the cortisol/DHEA ratio were higher in patients compared to controls. Whilst cortisol levels were lower after treatment, there was no relationship between cortisol levels and treatment outcome. In contrast, treatment responders had significantly lower DHEA on admission and a higher cortisol/DHEA ratio both on admission and on discharge. Cortisol/DHEA ratios were stable between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In addition to cortisol, the cortisol/DHEA ratio is raised in TRD; thus, there is no evidence that DHEA levels could negate the increased glucocorticoid activity in TRD. Patients with a more abnormal cortisol/DHEA ratio, possibly indicating greater biological dysfunction, responded preferentially to inpatient therapy, though the raised cortisol/DHEA ratio persisted after response. The cortisol/DHEA ratio is stable throughout the day and may be a more practical biological marker of TRD.

  2. Sonographic Appearance of Dermal and Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Bae, Young A; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Kwon, Kye Won [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that mainly involves lung and skin, but rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. While some studies have reported on CT or MR imaging findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, there is only one report on sonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, recently published in the US. Familiarity with ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis might be helpful for the early diagnosis in patient with palpable nodules and image follow-up for subcutaneous sarcoidosis. Here we report on the sonographic appearance of subcutaneous sarcoidosis involving dermal and subcutaneous tissue over axilla and sole, a case diagnosed as sarcoidosis and improved by steroid treatment, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  3. Penetration of antimicrobials to pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and muscle and impact of drug physicochemical properties determined by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottbøll, Lisa Amanda Holm; Friis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to characterize antimicrobial drug penetration into the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) of muscle in relation to physicochemical properties of the drugs (molecular mass, Log D, polar surface area and charge......), using intrabronchial microdialysis. The series of drugs tested include gentamicin, sulfadiazine, cefquinome, minocycline and colistin. METHODS: Drug concentrations were measured during 2h of steady state plasma drug concentrations at therapeutic levels in anesthetized pigs. Microdialysis probes were.......7) and colistin (0.26, 0.12). The penetration of drugs into PELF (r(2)=0.55-0.77, p=0.0004-0.0089) and ECF of muscle (r(2)=0.39-0.53, p=0.0108-0.0397) was positively correlated to Log D, whereas molecular mass, polar surface area and charge were negatively correlated to drug penetration. Sulfadiazine, gentamicin...

  4. Intrabronchial Microdialysis: Effects of Probe Localization on Tissue Trauma and Drug Penetration into the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottbøll, Lisa Amanda Holm; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    (PELF). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intrabronchial microdialysis on the integrity of the bronchial epithelium. Microdialysis sampling in PELF in proximal (n=4) and distal bronchi (n=4) was performed after intravenous inulin and florfenicol administration in anaesthetized...... pigs. Inulin was used as a marker molecule of permeability of the epithelium, and florfenicol was used as test drug. Bronchial tissue was examined by histopathology (distal and proximal bronchi) and gene expression analysis (RT-qPCR, proximal bronchi) at the termination of the experiment (6.5hr...... probes suggesting initiation of an inflammatory response. The observed up-regulation is considered to have limited impact on drug penetration during short-term studies. Inulin penetrated the respiratory epithelium in both proximal and distal bronchi without any correlation to histopathological lesions...

  5. Implications for burn shock resuscitation of a new in vivo human vascular microdosing technique (microdialysis) for dermal administration of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Anders; Farnebo, Simon; Magnusson, Beatrice; Anderson, Chris; Tesselaar, Erik; Zettersten, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke

    2012-11-01

    Skin has a large dynamic capacity for alterations in blood flow, and is therefore often used for recruitment of blood during states of hypoperfusion such as during burn shock resuscitation. However, little is known about the blood flow and metabolic consequences seen in the dermis secondary to the use vasoactive drugs (i.e. noradrenaline) for circulatory support. The aims of this study were therefore: to develop an in vivo, human microdosing model based on dermal microdialysis; and in this model to investigate effects on blood flow and metabolism by local application of noradrenaline and nitroglycerin by the microdialysis system simulating drug induced circulatory support. Nine healthy volunteers had microdialysis catheters placed intradermally in the volar surface of the lower arm. The catheters were perfused with noradrenaline 3 or 30 mmol/L and after an equilibrium period all catheters were perfused with nitroglycerine (2.2 mmol/L). Dermal blood flow was measured by the urea clearance technique and by laser Doppler imaging. Simultaneously changes in dermal glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations were recorded. Noradrenaline and nitroglycerine delivered to the dermis by the microdialysis probes induced large time- and dose-dependent changes in all variables. We particularly noted that tissue glucose concentrations responded rapidly to hypoperfusion but remained higher than zero. Furthermore, vasoconstriction remained after the noradrenaline administration implicating vasospasm and an attenuated dermal autoregulatory capacity. The changes in glucose and lactate by vasoconstriction (noradrenaline) remained until vasodilatation was actively induced by nitroglycerine. These findings, i.e., compromised dermal blood flow and metabolism are particularly interesting from the burn shock resuscitation perspective where noradrenaline is commonly used for circulatory support. The importance and clinical value of the results obtained in this in vivo dermal model in

  6. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using a central venous catheter with an integrated microdialysis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Öwall, Anders; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been the topic of an interesting debate during the last decade. An accurate continuous glucose monitoring system is essential to better understand this field. This prospective study thus evaluates the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a triple-lumen central venous catheter (Eirus TLC; Eirus Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) with an integrated microdialysis function. The catheter functions as a central venous catheter, enabling blood sampling and administration of infusions and medication while simultaneously providing continuous glucose monitoring. The patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively. As reference, arterial blood gas samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Six hundred seven paired samples were obtained for analysis. Using Clarke Error Grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in Zones A+B, and 97% were in Zone A. Mean difference (bias) was -0.12 mmol/L, and mean absolute relative difference was 5.6%. Of the paired samples, 97.5% were correct according to International Organization for Standardization criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias ± limits of agreement were -0.12 ± 0.7 mmol/L. No hypoglycemic episodes were observed. Central venous microdialysis is an accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. With the microdialysis function integrated in a central venous catheter, no extra device for the continuous glucose monitoring is required. The system may be useful in critically ill patients.

  7. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (r sp = −0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (r sp = −0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  8. Stress, cortisol and reproduction in female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A I; Tilbrook, A J

    2006-01-01

    Two key hypotheses emerge in the literature regarding the impact of stress on reproduction in females of any species. First, prolonged stress impairs reproduction in females. Secondly, acute stress impairs reproduction, if it occurs at a critical time during the precisely timed series of endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. We reviewed studies conducted in female pigs to find support or opposition for these hypotheses in female pigs. We also considered the role of cortisol. We found confirmation that prolonged stress or the prolonged elevation of cortisol can impair reproductive processes in female pigs, but also found that there appear to be some female pigs in which reproduction is resistant to such treatments. Reproduction in female pigs appears to be resistant to acute or repeated acute stress or elevation of cortisol, even if these occur during the series of precisely timed endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. Thus, we propose modified versions of the above hypotheses that are specific to female pigs. Furthermore, while cortisol may mediate the effects of prolonged stress on reproduction in female pigs, there is evidence that, in female pigs, ACTH may require the presence of the adrenal glands to impair reproduction rather than having direct effects.

  9. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    Patients with functional amenorrhea have raised central dopaminergic activity and opioid-mediated GnRH inhibition leading to inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. In the present study, basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in normoprolactinemic amenorrheic patients w...

  10. Cortisol involvement in mechanisms of behavioral inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.

    We studied whether baseline cortisol is associated with post-error slowing, a measure that depends upon brain areas involved in behavioral inhibition. Moreover, we studied whether this association holds after controlling for positive associations with behavioral inhibition scores and error-related

  11. Elevated fingernail cortisol levels in major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herane-Vives, Andres; Fischer, Susanne; de Angel, Valeria; Wise, Toby; Cheung, Eric; Chua, Kia-Chong; Arnone, Danilo; Young, Allan H; Cleare, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue. This methodology has not yet been utilised in MDE. Cortisol levels reflecting a period of 15days were measured using fingernails in a group of 26 subjects experiencing a major depressive episode (MDE) and in an age and gender matched group of 45 healthy controls. Depressed subjects showed significantly higher mean cortisol levels measured in fingernails when compared with control subjects. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with higher depression severity scores, a diagnosis of non-reactive depression, and more prominent melancholic symptoms. Conversely, fatigue was negatively correlated with cortisol levels. There is elevated cortisol in MDE when assessed using an aggregate measure over two weeks.Alterations in fingernail cortisol correlate with key clinical symptoms and subtypes of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cortisol extraction through human skin by reverse iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie A; Heikenfeld, Jason; Brooks, Tiffany; Esfandiari, Leyla; Boyce, Steven; Park, Yoonjee; Kasting, Gerald B

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of cortisol at the surface of the skin would advance the diagnosis and treatment of cortisol-related diseases, or of elevated cortisol levels related to stress in otherwise healthy populations. Reliable and accurate detection of cortisol at the skin surface remains a limiting factor in real-time monitoring of cortisol. To address this limitation, cortisol extraction through excised human skin by reverse iontophoresis was studied in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells using a radiolabeled probe. The skin was subjected to four direct current regimens (0, 28, 56, 113μAcm -2 ) with the anode in the donor chamber and the cumulative cortisol concentrations recorded in the receiver chamber. The 56 and 113μAcm -2 regimens significantly increased transport of 3 H-cortisol through the skin, and current density correlated directly with transcutaneous transport of 3 H-cortisol. The threshold of detection of electroosmotic versus passive diffusion of cortisol through the skin was between 28 and 56μAcm -2 . The results of this study are significant in examining how lipophilic analytes found in the bloodstream respond to reverse iontophoresis across the skin. In addition, a device integration technique is presented which illustrates how continuous cortisol extraction and sensing could potentially be achieved in a conventional wearable format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cocktail-Dosing Microdialysis Study to Simultaneously Assess Delivery of Multiple Organic-Cationic Drugs to the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Okura, Takashi; Higuchi, Kei; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-02-01

    Brain microdialysis is a powerful tool to estimate brain-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio at the steady state (Kp,uu) of compounds by direct measurement of the unbound concentration in brain interstitial fluid. Here, we evaluated a method to estimate Kp,uu values of multiple organic-cationic drugs simultaneously, by means of brain microdialysis combined with cocktail dosing. Five cationic drugs (diphenhydramine, memantine, oxycodone, pyrilamine, and tramadol), substrates of the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system, were selected as model drugs, and compared under single-dosing and cocktail-dosing conditions. We selected doses of the drugs at which no significant drug-drug interaction occurs at the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed by uptake studies in hCMEC/D3 cells, an in vitro BBB model. The Kp,uu values after cocktail administration were in the range of 1.8-5.2, and were in good agreement with those after single administration. These results suggest that the microdialysis method with cocktail dosing is suitable to estimate Kp,uu values of several cationic drugs simultaneously, if there is no drug-drug interaction during BBB transport. The method could be useful for evaluating drug candidates with high Kp,uu values at an early stage in the development of central nervous system-acting drugs. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mediastinal microdialysis in the diagnosis of early anastomotic leakage after resection for cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Qvist, N.; Fristrup, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after gastroesophageal resection for cancer is a serious complication. The aim was to evaluate mediastinal microdialysis in the detection of AL before clinical symptoms. METHODS: Sixty patients were included. Samples were collected every 4 hours in the 1st 8 p...... AL. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of anastomotic-related complications before clinical symptoms seemed possible by mediastinal microdialysis, but the diagnosis should be based on an interpretation of several metabolic events. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after gastroesophageal resection for cancer is a serious complication. The aim was to evaluate mediastinal microdialysis in the detection of AL before clinical symptoms. METHODS: Sixty patients were included. Samples were collected every 4 hours in the 1st 8......). Logistic regression model on several metabolites demonstrated a 100% sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values regarding the diagnosis of anastomotic complications within postoperative day 7. However, as independent markers, none of the measured metabolites were able to predict...

  15. Surgical management of subcutaneous Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, David R; Parvez, Najma; Ranganath, Sangeetha; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient with a history of sarcoidosis and over 10 years of chronic low-dose glucocorticoid use, cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with two painful, enlarging subcutaneous nodules ultimately identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Two attempts at needle aspiration of the larger nodule resulted in rapid reaccumulation. Complete surgical excision of both nodules resulted in complete resolution without the use of any concomitant antifungals. Patient had no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25737220

  16. Subcutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, J; Beović, B; Triller, C; Rakovec, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous myiasis caused by the larvae of the Dermatobia hominis fly is described, involving the ankle region of a 25-y-old man who had returned from Peru. After removal of 4 larvae from the affected sites, the lesions healed in 2 weeks without further treatment. Because of the increasing number of people travelling to tropical America, physicians in Slovenia will have to consider Dermatobia myiasis in the differential diagnosis of furuncular lesions in patients with a relevant travel history.

  17. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (safety signals for trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...... that switching from IV to SC trastuzumab (hand-held syringe or SID) or vice versa did not impact the known safety profile of trastuzumab....

  18. Image-guided intracranial cannula placement for awake in vivo microdialysis in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Antong; Bone, Ashleigh; Hines, Catherine D. G.; Dogdas, Belma; Montgomery, Tamara O.; Michener, Maria; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Ghafurian, Soheil; Lubbers, Laura S.; Renger, John; Bagchi, Ansuman; Uslaner, Jason M.; Johnson, Colena; Zariwala, Hatim A.

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial microdialysis is used for sampling neurochemicals and large peptides along with their metabolites from the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain. The ability to perform this in nonhuman primates (NHP) e.g., rhesus could improve the prediction of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) action of drugs in human. However, microdialysis in rhesus brains is not as routinely performed as in rodents. One challenge is that the precise intracranial probe placement in NHP brains is difficult due to the richness of the anatomical structure and the variability of the size and shape of brains across animals. Also, a repeatable and reproducible ISF sampling from the same animal is highly desirable when combined with cognitive behaviors or other longitudinal study end points. Toward that end, we have developed a semi-automatic flexible neurosurgical method employing MR and CT imaging to (a) derive coordinates for permanent guide cannula placement in mid-brain structures and (b) fabricate a customized recording chamber to implant above the skull for enclosing and safeguarding access to the cannula for repeated experiments. In order to place the intracranial guide cannula in each subject, the entry points in the skull and the depth in the brain were derived using co-registered images acquired from MR and CT scans. The anterior/posterior (A/P) and medial-lateral (M/L) rotation in the pose of the animal was corrected in the 3D image to appropriately represent the pose used in the stereotactic frame. An array of implanted fiducial markers was used to transform stereotactic coordinates to the images. The recording chamber was custom fabricated using computer-aided design (CAD), such that it would fit the contours of the individual skull with minimum error. The chamber also helped in guiding the cannula through the entry points down a trajectory into the depth of the brain. We have validated our method in four animals and our results indicate average placement error

  19. Hair cortisol in the evaluation of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Aaron; Lodish, Maya B; Tirosh, Amit; Meyer, Jerrold; Belyavskaya, Elena; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Rosenberg, Kendra; Demidowich, Andrew; Swan, Jeremy; Jonas, Nichole; Stratakis, Constantine A; Zilbermint, Mihail

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol evaluation has been used to help detect patients with suspected Cushing syndrome. Our goal was to correlate segmental hair cortisol with biochemical testing in patients with Cushing syndrome and controls. This study was a prospective analysis of hair cortisol in confirmed Cushing syndrome cases over 16 months. Thirty-six subjects (26.5 ± 18.9 years, 75% female, and 75% Caucasian) were analyzed by diurnal serum cortisol, 24 h urinary free cortisol corrected for body surface area (UFC/BSA), and 24 h urinary 17-hydroxysteroids corrected for creatinine (17OHS/Cr). Thirty patients were diagnosed with Cushing syndrome, and six were defined as controls. 3-cm hair samples nearest to the scalp, cut into 1-cm segments (proximal, medial, and distal), were analyzed for cortisol by enzyme immunoassay and measured as pmol cortisol/g dry hair. Hair cortisol levels were compared with laboratory testing done within previous 2 months of the evaluation. Proximal hair cortisol was higher in Cushing syndrome patients (266.6 ± 738.4 pmol/g) than control patients (38.9 ± 25.3 pmol/g) (p = 0.003). Proximal hair cortisol was highest of all segments in 25/36 (69%) patients. Among all subjects, proximal hair cortisol was strongly correlated with UFC/BSA (r = 0.5, p = 0.005), midnight serum cortisol (r = 0.4, p = 0.03), and 17OHS/Cr, which trended towards significance (r = 0.3, p = 0.06). Among the three examined hair segments, proximal hair contained the highest cortisol levels and correlated the most with the initial biochemical tests for Cushing syndrome in our study. Further studies are needed to validate proximal hair cortisol in the diagnostic workup for Cushing syndrome.

  20. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6.

  1. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate...... assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (P... distribution (PPolycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol...

  2. Prenatal restraint stress: an in vivo microdialysis study on catecholamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, E; Barros, V G; Ibba, M; Silvagni, A; Mura, C; Antonelli, M C

    2010-06-16

    There is substantial evidence that prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions might lead to the psychiatric disorders that can appear in adolescence or in adulthood; vulnerability to drug addiction may increase as well. It is currently accepted that the alteration of catecholamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. We assessed basal and stimulated dopamine and noradrenaline extracellular concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex by means of microdialysis in awake male adolescent and young adult offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress in the last week of pregnancy. Catecholamine stimulation was obtained by amphetamine or nicotine. We observed that prenatal stress (PNS) did not change dopamine but decreased noradrenaline basal output in both adolescents and adults. Moreover, it decreased amphetamine stimulated dopamine output and increased amphetamine stimulated noradrenaline output. PNS decreased nicotine stimulated noradrenaline (but not dopamine output) in adults, though not in adolescents. These data show that PNS stress modifies prefrontal cortex catecholamine transmission in a complex and age dependent manner. Our results support the view that prenatal stress may be a contributing factor for the development of psychiatric disorders and that its effect may augment drug addiction vulnerability. 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of static pressure on transmembrane fluid exchange in high molecular weight cut off microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiangtao; Hjort, Klas; Larsson, Anders; Dahlin, Andreas P

    2014-04-01

    With the interest of studying larger biomolecules by microdialysis (MD), this sampling technique has reached into the ultrafiltration region of fluid exchange, where fluid recovery (FR) has a strong dependence on pressure. Hence in this study, we focus on the fluid exchange across the high molecular weight cut off MD membrane under the influence of the static pressure in the sampling environment. A theoretical model is presented for MD with such membranes, where FR has a linear dependence upon the static pressure of the sample. Transmembrane (TM) osmotic pressure difference and MD perfusion rate decide how fast FR increases with increased static pressure. A test chamber for in vitro MD under static pressure was constructed and validated. It can hold four MD probes under controlled pressurized conditions. Comparison showed good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, test results showed that the fluid recovery of the test chamber MD can be set accurately via the chamber pressure, which is controlled by sample injection into the chamber at precise rate. This in vitro system is designed for modelling in vivo MD in cerebrospinal fluid and studies with biological samples in this system may be good models for in vivo MD.

  4. Neuroglucopenia and Metabolic Distress in Two Patients with Viral Meningoencephalitis: A Microdialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2016-10-01

    Viral encephalitis is an emerging disease requiring intensive care management in severe cases. Underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood and may be elucidated using invasive multimodal neuromonitoring techniques in humans. Two otherwise healthy patients were admitted to our neurological intensive care unit with altered level of consciousness necessitating mechanical ventilation. Brain imaging and laboratory workup suggested viral encephalitis in both patients. Invasive neuromonitoring was initiated when head computed tomography revealed generalized brain edema, including monitoring of intracranial pressure, brain metabolism (cerebral microdialysis; CMD), brain tissue oxygen tension (in one patient), and cerebral blood flow (in one patient). Brain metabolism revealed episodes of severe neuroglucopenia (brain glucose CMD-glucose levels changed depending on variations in insulin therapy, nutrition, and systemic glucose administration. The metabolic profile, moreover, showed a pattern of non-ischemic metabolic distress suggestive for mitochondrial dysfunction. Both patients had a prolonged but favorable clinical course and improved to a modified Rankin Scale Score of 1 and 0 three months later. Invasive multimodal neuromonitoring is feasible in poor-grade patients with viral meningoencephalitis and may help understand pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with secondary brain injury. The detection of neuroglucopenia and mitochondrial dysfunction may serve as treatment targets in the future.

  5. Cerebral Microdialysis Monitoring to Improve Individualized Neurointensive Care Therapy: An Update of Recent Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteron, Laurent; Bouzat, Pierre; Oddo, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient. Using CMD as clinical research tool has greatly contributed to identify and better understand important post-injury mechanisms-such as energy dysfunction, posttraumatic glycolysis, post-aneurysmal early brain injury, cortical spreading depressions, and subclinical seizures. Main CMD metabolites (namely, lactate/pyruvate ratio, and glucose) can be used to monitor the brain response to specific interventions, to assess the extent of injury, and to inform about prognosis. Recent consensus statements have provided guidelines and recommendations for CMD monitoring in neurocritical care. Here, we summarize recent clinical investigation conducted in ABI patients, specifically focusing on the role of CMD to guide individualized intensive care therapy and to improve our understanding of the complex disease mechanisms occurring in the immediate phase following ABI. Promising brain biomarkers will also be described.

  6. Evaluation of psoralen ethosomes for topical delivery in rats by using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Shen, Li-Na; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve skin permeation and deposition of psoralen by using ethosomes and to investigate real-time drug release in the deep skin in rats. We used a uniform design method to evaluate the effects of different ethosome formulations on entrapment efficiency and drug skin deposition. Using in vitro and in vivo methods, we investigated skin penetration and release from psoralen-loaded ethosomes in comparison with an ethanol tincture. In in vitro studies, the use of ethosomes was associated with a 6.56-fold greater skin deposition of psoralen than that achieved with the use of the tincture. In vivo skin microdialysis showed that the peak concentration and area under the curve of psoralen from ethosomes were approximately 3.37 and 2.34 times higher, respectively, than those of psoralen from the tincture. Moreover, it revealed that the percutaneous permeability of ethosomes was greater when applied to the abdomen than when applied to the chest or scapulas. Enhanced permeation and skin deposition of psoralen delivered by ethosomes may help reduce toxicity and improve the efficacy of long-term psoralen treatment.

  7. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGriebe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027. The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008; p = 0.010 respectively, as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022; p= 0.024 respectively. The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021 and anxiety (p = 0.007, but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  8. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-02-01

    Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.

  9. Predictors of anticipatory cortisol reactivity to subsequent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature, predictors, and consequences of anticipatory biological stress responses are important in understanding long-term effects of repeated stressors. We examined anticipatory cortisol responses after an individual has actually experienced and reacted to a stressor once and is anticipating a second similar stressor. We hypothesized that how an individual reacts to the first stressor may predict that individual's anticipatory responses to further stressors. In Session 1, 77 male participants delivered speeches and performed arithmetic tasks in front of two evaluators. In Session 2 one week later, participants were told that they would do the same tasks again in front of evaluators. Stress cortisol reactivity in Session 1 (increase in cortisol from pre-stressor to post-stressor) predicted anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2 (increase in cortisol from baseline to immediately pre-stressor). In addition, trait measures of low self-esteem and a "Submissive and Disconnected" interpersonal orientation predicted stronger anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2. If the cortisol response to an initial stressor does in fact shape consequent anticipatory cortisol responses, this self-perpetuating nature of the initial cortisol response may contribute to negative long-term effects of repeated stressors on health. One factor that may be able to counteract this effect is a dominant and confident interpersonal orientation, which may lead to lower anticipatory cortisol reactions regardless of the response to the initial stressor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  11. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and a local anesthetic block (LA) on postcastration performance, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavior in dairy calves. Thirty 2- to 3-mo-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were allocated to 5 treatments: castration with LA (2% lidocaine injected into the testes and subcutaneously), castration with FM (1.1mg/kg, i.v.), castration with LA+FM, castration without drugs (CC), and sham castration (SC). Castration was performed using a Newberry knife and Henderson castrating tool. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded for 10d postcastration. Plasma cortisol concentration and behavior frequency and duration were monitored for 8h postcastration. Variables with repeated measures were analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); one-way ANOVA was used for nonrepeated measures. No differences in feed intake or body weight gain were detected among groups. Calves in the CC, LA, and FM groups had transient (<60, <60, and <45 min, respectively) increases in plasma cortisol concentration after castration, with a second increase at 120 min in the LA group, whereas cortisol concentration remained at baseline in the LA+FM and SC groups. Mean cortisol concentrations were lower for calves in the LA+FM and SC groups than in the CC group. The area under the plasma cortisol concentration curve during the first 3h postcastration was greater in CC- and LA-treated calves than in SC controls. Castration without drugs was associated with higher frequencies of crouching and statue standing and less oral activity compared with SC controls. Administering LA alone before castration was associated with higher frequencies of head turning, statue standing, and postural changes, and less feeding behavior compared with SC controls. More leg lifting to groom was seen in LA+FM-treated calves than in SC controls. Calves administered FM alone before castration exhibited less crouching than CC calves, fewer postural shifts

  12. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  13. [ANSYS simulation of subcutaneous pustule electrical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Wang, Xuan; Zhu, Honglian; Wang, Guoyong

    2011-12-01

    With the growing number of clinical surgery, post-operative surgical wound infection has become a very difficult clinical problem. In the treatments of it, non-invasive test of wound infection and healing status has a significance in clinical medicine practice. In this paper, beginning with the electrical properties of skin tissue structure and on the basis of the electromagnetism and the human anatomy, using the finite element analysis software, we applied safe voltage on the 3D skin model, performed the subcutaneous pustule simulation study and gained the relational curve between depth and radius of the pustule model. The simulation results suggested that the method we put forward could be feasible, and it could provide basis for non-invasive detection of wound healing and wound infection status.

  14. Leptin, cortisol and distinct concurrent training sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G; Dantas, E; Biehl, C; de Castro e Silva, H; Montano, M A E; de Mello, D B

    2012-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training sequences on serum leptin and cortisol levels, 10 subjects (27.1±4.8 years, body mass index 25.38±0.09) were submitted to a control session, concurrent training 1 and concurrent training 2. Samples of leptin and cortisol were collected. Concurrent training 1 consisted of indoor cycling followed by strength training and concurrent training 2 of strength training followed by indoor cycling. No exercises were performed at the control session. Blood was collected once again to verify the same variables. Shapiro-Wilk, 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. There was a reduction in leptin levels after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 16.04; p=0.05) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 8.54; p=0.02). Cortisol decreased after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 26.32; p=0.02) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 33.57; p=0.05). There was a high and significant correlation between blood variables only in CS (lep PRE X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.80 and r= - 0.81; lep POST X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.62 and r= - 0.62). Concurrent training promoted a reduction in leptin and cortisol levels irrespective of sequence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  16. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3) in response to a blood draw stressor. A significantly higher serum cortisol response was found in the group of children wit...

  17. An Optimization Formulation for Characterization of Pulsatile Cortisol Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Taj Faghih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an l0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed l1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use 4 examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications.

  18. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Maltreatment and diurnal cortisol regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Frost, Allison; Bennett, Charles B; Lindhiem, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment leads to a host of negative physical and mental health outcomes, with cortisol dysregulation implicated as a possible mechanism. Given inconsistencies across in the literature regarding the direction and magnitude of the association between maltreatment and diurnal cortisol regulation, the current meta-analysis of 27 studies aimed to examine the association between maltreatment and at least one of 3 indicators of diurnal cortisol regulation: wake-up cortisol levels, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and/or the diurnal cortisol slope. Effect sizes were calculated using Hedges' g formula and were pooled using a random effects model. For the association between maltreatment and wake-up cortisol level, the aggregate effect size was g=0.08, p=0.26. Notably, effect sizes between maltreatment and wake-up cortisol were significantly larger (Qbetween=5.18, p=0.02) for studies of agency-referred samples, g=0.24, p=0.006, than studies for which maltreatment status was based on self-report, g=0.00, p=0.97, with maltreatment associated with reduced wake-up cortisol levels. For the association between maltreatment and the CAR and diurnal cortisol slope, the aggregate effect sizes were non-significant and none of the moderator variables were significant. Although results did not indicate a large and robust association between maltreatment and various indicators of diurnal cortisol, studies with more rigorous designs (i.e., agency-referred samples) showed a small, significant association between maltreatment and blunted wake-up cortisol levels, suggesting a pattern of hypocortisolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  1. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iris Schöberl; Manuela Wedl; Andrea Beetz; Kurt Kotrschal

    2017-01-01

    .... We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting...

  2. Tapentadol increases levels of noradrenaline in the rat spinal cord as measured by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschentke, Thomas M; Folgering, Joost H A; Flik, Gunnar; De Vry, Jean

    2012-01-24

    Spinal noradrenaline is thought to play an important role in descending pain inhibitory pathways and the modulation of nociceptive information at the spinal level. Tapentadol is a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI). We showed previously that tapentadol, in contrast to morphine, elevates levels of noradrenaline, but not serotonin, in the ventral hippocampus of rats. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tapentadol, morphine and venlafaxine on spinal monoamine levels. Rats were implanted with spinal microdialysis probes. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally, and samples were collected for 3h in isoflurane-anesthetized animals and analysed for monoamine content using HPLC-MS/MS. In terms of area-under-curve (AUC, 0-180 min), tapentadol (4.64-21.5mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent, significant increase in extracellular spinal noradrenaline levels (9275±4346 min% at the highest dose versus -1047±889 min% for vehicle). A maximum increase of 182±32% of baseline was reached 60 min after administration of 10mg/kg tapentadol. Venlafaxine (10mg/kg) produced an effect of similar magnitude. In contrast, tapentadol decreased extracellular spinal serotonin levels (non-significantly compared to vehicle), while venlafaxine increased spinal serotonin to 267±74% of baseline. In contrast to tapentadol and venlafaxine, morphine slightly decreased levels of noradrenaline and serotonin. This study demonstrates that analgesic doses of tapentadol (and venlafaxine), but not morphine, increase spinal noradrenaline levels and that tapentadol is devoid of a relevant serotonergic effect. It supports the suggestion that the NRI component of tapentadol is functionally relevant and contributes to its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multimodality monitoring and telemonitoring in neurocritical care: from microdialysis to robotic telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    This review will highlight the state-of-the-art in brain monitoring in neurointensive care and define methods of integrating this technology into patient care using telemedicine methods. Several new methods of brain monitoring have been established over the last several years including continuous EEG monitoring, brain tissue oxygenation, jugular venous oxygenation, and cerebral microdialysis. Observational research using these monitors has documented that the brain metabolism, blood flow and function are dynamic after a primary insult. The dynamic nature of the brain can predispose the brain to secondary insults that can occur in the setting of intensive care. Several variables of brain metabolism and function can be monitored and directly impact treatment decisions as well as provide diagnostic and prognostic information. General treatment guidelines for brain injury and brain hemorrhage were developed, in part, prior to implementation of use of these monitors, and there is a trend away from adoption of a one-size-fits-all approach and a trend towards monitor-guided therapy. Dealing with the data provided by multimodality monitoring can be overwhelming. Efficient use of such information requires methods to integrate diverse sets of information, and methods to access the online monitoring information remotely and at any time, day or night. Such remote access integration methods will be reviewed. Multimodality and telemedicine techniques have advanced the state of knowledge about brain function in critically ill patients, and are presently being implemented to direct therapy. Increasing complexity of care will become commonplace, but will be facilitated by computer-enhanced tools that permit the intensivist to integrate this information into an improved treatment regimen.

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Microdialysis Cytokines in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Scoping Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A. Zeiler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo perform two scoping systematic reviews of the literature on cytokine measurement in cerebral microdialysis (CMD and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients, aiming to summarize the evidence relating cytokine levels to pathophysiology, disease progression, and outcome.MethodsTwo separate systematic reviews were conducted: one for CMD cytokines and the second for CSF cytokines.Data sourcesArticles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to October 2016, reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched.Study selectionTwo reviewers independently identified all manuscripts utilizing predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. A two-tier filter of references was conducted.Data extractionPatient demographic and study data were extracted to tables.ResultsThere were 9 studies identified describing the analysis of cytokines via CMD in 246 aneurysmal SAH patients. Similarly, 20 studies were identified describing the analysis of CSF cytokines in 630 patients. The two scoping systematic reviews demonstrated the following: (1 limited literature available on CMD cytokine measurement in aneurysmal SAH with some preliminary data supporting feasibility of measurement and potential association between interleukin (IL-6 and patient outcome. (2 Various CSF measured cytokines may be associated with patient outcome at 3–6 months, including IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (3 There is a small literature body supporting an association between acute/subacute CSF transforming growth factor levels and the development of chronic hydrocephalus at 2–3 months.ConclusionThe evaluation of CMD and CSF cytokines is an emerging area of the literature in aneurysmal SAH. Further large prospective multicenter studies on cytokines in CMD and CSF need to be conducted.

  5. Quantitative determination of unbound levofloxacin by simultaneous microdialysis in rat pancreas after intravenous and oral doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deding; Xu, Shuogui; Xiao, Heping; Wang, Zhuo; Mao, Ningfang; Zhou, Jia; Liu, Rui; Huang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    We compared the pharmacokinetic profile of unbound levofloxacin in rat pancreas after an oral dose with that after an intravenous dose to determine if oral administration of levofloxacin could potentially be used. Levofloxacin was administered either intravenously or orally into male Sprague-Dawley rats at the concentration of 42 mg/kg per day, mimicking the human dose of 400 mg/day. The concentrations of levofloxacin in extracellular fluid (ECF) of rat pancreatic tissues were determined using microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levofloxacin was equally distributed into ECF of rat pancreatic tissues with either intravenous route (AUCpancreas /AUCblood , 0.97 ± 0.02) or oral route (AUCpancreas /AUCblood , 0.96 ± 0.03). The penetration rates (PR) of pancreas-to-blood on the same target site between the two routes were the same. The intravenous antibiotic AUC/MIC ratios of common Gram-positive pancreatic bacteria ranged from 83.43 to 667.44; meanwhile, the ratio of common Gram-negative pancreatic bacteria ranged from 41.71 to 2669.74. The oral antibiotic AUC/MIC ratios for common gram-positive and Gram-negative pancreatic bacteria were from 78.54 to 628.31, and 39.27 to 2513.22, respectively (P > 0.05). Intravenous administration had similar penetration efficacy to oral administration at an equivalent dose. Furthermore, levofloxacin had a good penetration through the blood-pancreas barrier. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. A microdialysis-based analytical system for dynamic monitoring of arsenic transformation under microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Keng-Chang; Hsieh, Jing-Ru; Chen, Ya-Ching; Hsu, Pi-Fu; Hung, Chih-Chang; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2017-11-10

    In this study, a microdialysis (MD) technique was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for continuous monitoring of the dynamic variations of arsenic species in a microbe-inoculated culture broth. After optimizing the analytical system, retrodialysis was applied to assess the probe recovery and analytical performance of the proposed method. The mean probe recoveries of four arsenic species were in the range from 57.0 to 81.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) for arsenic was in the range of 0.6-1.8 ng mL(-1) and 0.032 μM for MDA, respectively. The accuracy was assessed by an addition/recovery test with a satisfactory value of 98.07-109.08% for arsenic species and 93.57-108.15% for MDA, respectively. To evaluate the practical applicability of this method, we monitored, continuously for 72 h, the dynamic variations of the concentrations of the four arsenic species in a standardized bacterial sample (ATCC 25922). After adding the arsenic species into the bacteria-inoculated broth, we found that the concentration of As(3+) decreased over time, whereas As(5+) increased in concentration. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) was also monitored to evaluate the effect of oxidative damage of the arsenic species on the studied microbial system. Our analyses revealed that the dynamic variations of the arsenic species and MDA could be observed continuously during the microbial growth period. This economical and eco-friendly method might also be helpful for monitoring the transformations of other metal species, oxidation processes, and the bioremediation ability of microbial systems.

  7. Cerebral microdialysis for protein biomarker monitoring in the neurointensive care setting - a technical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillered, Lars; Dahlin, Andreas P; Clausen, Fredrik; Chu, Jiangtao; Bergquist, Jonas; Hjort, Klas; Enblad, Per; Lewén, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis (MD) was introduced as a neurochemical monitoring method in the early 1990s and is currently widely used for the sampling of low molecular weight molecules, signaling energy crisis, and cellular distress in the neurointensive care (NIC) setting. There is a growing interest in MD for harvesting of intracerebral protein biomarkers of secondary injury mechanisms in acute traumatic and neurovascular brain injury in the NIC community. The initial enthusiasm over the opportunity to sample protein biomarkers with high molecular weight cut-off MD catheters has dampened somewhat with the emerging realization of inherent methodological problems including protein-protein interaction, protein adhesion, and biofouling, causing an unstable in vivo performance (i.e., fluid recovery and extraction efficiency) of the MD catheter. This review will focus on the results of a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, within the Uppsala Berzelii Centre for Neurodiagnostics during the past several years, to study the features of the complex process of high molecular weight cut-off MD for protein biomarkers. This research has led to new methodology showing robust in vivo performance with optimized fluid recovery and improved extraction efficiency, allowing for more accurate biomarker monitoring. In combination with evolving analytical methodology allowing for multiplex biomarker analysis in ultra-small MD samples, a new opportunity opens up for high-resolution temporal mapping of secondary injury cascades, such as neuroinflammation and other cell injury reactions directly in the injured human brain. Such data may provide an important basis for improved characterization of complex injuries, e.g., traumatic and neurovascular brain injury, and help in defining targets and treatment windows for neuroprotective drug development.

  8. Cerebral microdialysis for protein biomarker monitoring in the neurointensive care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tomas Hillered

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral microdialysis (MD was introduced as a neurochemical monitoring tool in the early 1990s and is currently well established for the sampling of low molecular weight biomarkers of energy metabolic perturbation and cellular distress in the neurointensive care (NIC setting. There is now a growing interest in MD for intracerebral sampling of protein biomarkers of secondary injury mechanisms in acute traumatic and neurovascular brain injury in the NIC community. The initial enthusiasm over the opportunity to sample protein biomarkers with high molecular weight cut-off (MWCO MD catheters has dampened somewhat with the emerging realization of inherent problems with this methodology including protein adhesion, protein-protein interaction and biofouling, leading to unstable MD catheter performance (i.e. fluid recovery and extraction efficiency. This review will focus on the results of a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, within the Uppsala Berzelii Centre for Neurodiagnostics during the past several years, to study the features of the complex process of high MWCO MD for protein biomarkers. This research has led to new methodology showing robust in vivo performance with optimized fluid recovery and improved extraction efficiency, allowing for more accurate biomarker monitoring. In combination with evolving analytical methodology allowing for multiplex biomarker analysis in ultra-small MD samples a new opportunity opens up for high-resolution temporal mapping of secondary injury cascades, such as neuroinflammation and other cell injury reactions directly in the injured human brain. Such data may provide an important basis for improved characterization of complex injuries, e.g. traumatic and neurovascular brain injury, and help in defining targets and treatment windows for neuroprotective drug development

  9. Propentophylline increases striatal dopamine release but dampens methamphetamine-induced dopamine dynamics: A microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, B; Pereira, F C; Fontes Ribeiro, C A; Ali, S F; Binienda, Z K

    2014-10-01

    While there are currently no medications approved for methamphetamine (METH) addiction, it has been shown that propentofylline (PPF), an atypical methylxanthine, can suppress the rewarding effects of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. This experiment studied the interactions of PPF with METH in striatal dopaminergic transmission. Herein, the impact of PPF (10-40mM, intrastriatally perfused (80min) on the effect of METH (5mg/kg, i.p.) on striatal dopamine (DA) release was evaluated using brain microdialysis in Sprague-Dawley adult rats. METH was injected at the 60min time point of the 80min PPF perfusion. The extracellular levels of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). PPF induced a concentration-dependent increase in DA release beginning 30min after the onset of PPF perfusion. DA peak levels evoked by 40mM PPF were similar to those induced by 5mg/kg METH i.p. Only the highest concentration of PPF decreased the METH-induced DA peak (circa 70%). The significant decreases in extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA evoked by METH were partially blocked by 10 and 20mM PPF. Although 40mM of PPF also partially blocked the METH-induced DOPAC decrease, it completely blocked HVA depletion after a transient increase in HVA levels in METH-treated rats. Data indicates for the first time that while PPF increases presynaptic striatal DA dynamics it attenuates METH-induced striatal DA release and metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... Guidelines: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. 15. 2013 Volume 18 No 1. JEMDSA. Introduction. The first external insulin pump device to deliver continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or “insulin pump”) therapy was used more than 30 years ago.

  11. The comparison of the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Insulin has been reported to have positive effects on intestinal adaptation after short bowel syndrome when applicated oral or subcutaneously. The purpose of this study is to compare the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous and oral routes of insulin in rats with short bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  12. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  13. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a four weeks-old girl with subcutaneous fat necrosis and associated hypercalcemia is presented. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the New born (SCFN) is an uncommon disorder which is rarely complicated with life threatening hypercalcemia. Though it is reported from many parts of the world this is the first case ...

  14. Microdialysis of the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo: quantitative measurement of cutaneous glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Kristensen, J K; Bülow, J

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a microdialysis technique for measurement of substances in the interstitial water space in intact human skin. Glucose was selected to validate the method. The cutaneous glucose concentration was measured by microdialysis and compared to that in venous blood. Single dialysis fibers (length 20 mm, 2,000 Da molecular weight cutoff) were glued to nylon tubings and inserted in forearm skin by means of a fine needle. Dialysis fibers were inserted in duplicate. Seven subjects were investigated after an overnight fast. Intradermal position of the dialysis probes was established by C-mode ultrasound scanning. The implantation trauma lasted 90-135 min as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Each dialysis fiber was calibrated in vivo by perfusing it with four to five different glucose concentrations. The perfusion rate was 3 microliters/min. Regression analysis of the calibration curves yielded the relative in vivo recovery of glucose. The skin glucose concentration was calculated as that particular perfusate glucose concentration that resulted in no net glucose transport across the dialysis membrane. Correlation coefficient of the regression lines was 0.93 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SEM). After the injection trauma had vanished, recovery was 20.5 +/- 0.7%. Coefficient of variation (CV) on recovery was 10.9%. The cutaneous glucose concentration was 99.1 +/- 1.8% of the glucose concentration in venous plasma water (CV 4.1%). These findings suggest that the microdialysis technique accurately and precisely can reflect biochemical events in the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo.

  15. Use of simultaneous dual-probe microdialysis for the determination of pesticide residues in a jade plant (Crassula ovata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Simon Ningsun; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2009-04-01

    A microdialysis application for the sampling of plant pesticide residues has been developed utilizing two probes with differing perfusate rates simultaneously inserted into symmetric components of a sampling system. A simple empirical equation is proposed to calculate analyte concentrations in a semi-solid matrix using two different dialysate concentrations. In vitro application yielded excellent correlations between the calculated and spiked concentrations. Subsequent in vivo application of this technique for the determination of pesticide distributions in leaves of a jade plant (Crassula ovata) indicated the utility of this approach in complex living matrices.

  16. Serum free cortisol fraction in healthy and septic neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K A; Barton, M H; Ferguson, D C; Berghaus, R; Slovis, N M; Heusner, G L; Hurley, D J

    2011-01-01

    Relative cortisol insufficiency occurs in septic foals and impacts survival. Serum free (biologically available) cortisol concentration might be a better indicator of physiologic cortisol status than serum total cortisol concentration in foals. In septic foals, (1) low free cortisol concentration correlates with disease severity and survival and (2) predicts disease severity and outcome better than total cortisol concentration. Fifty-one septic foals; 11 healthy foals; 6 healthy horses. In this prospective clinical study, foals meeting criteria for sepsis at admission were enrolled. University-owned animals served as healthy controls. Basal and cosyntropin-stimulated total cortisol concentration and percent free cortisol (% free cortisol) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay and ultrafiltration/ligand-binding methods, respectively. Group data were compared by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and receiver operator characteristic curves. Significance was set at P cortisol was highest in healthy foals at birth (58 ± 8% mean ± SD), and was higher (P ≤ .004) in healthy foals of all ages (33 ± 6 to 58 ± 8%) than in adult horses (7 ± 3%). Cosyntropin-stimulated total and free cortisol concentrations were lower (P ≤ .03) in foals with shock (total = 6.2 ± 8.1 μg/dL; free = 3.5 ± 4.8 μg/dL versus total = 10.8 ± 6.0 μg/dL; free = 6.9 ± 3.3 μg/dL in foals without shock) and in nonsurvivors (total = 3.8 ± 6.9 μg/dL; free = 1.9 ± 3.9 μg/dL versus total = 9.1 ± 7.7 μg/dL; free = 5.5 ± 4.4 μg/dL in survivors). Free cortisol was no better than total cortisol at predicting disease severity or outcome in septic foals. Serum free cortisol is impacted by age and illness in the horse. There is no advantage to measuring free over total cortisol in septic foals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Methodological Considerations for Hair Cortisol Measurements in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Radomir; Rovnaghi, Cynthia R.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hair cortisol levels are used increasingly as a measure for chronic stress in young children. We propose modifications to the current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine reference ranges for hair cortisol across different populations and age groups. Methods The authors compared standard (finely cutting hair) vs. milled methods for hair processing (n=16), developed a 4-step extraction process for hair protein and cortisol (n=16), and compared liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) vs. ELISA assays for measuring hair cortisol (n=28). The extraction process included sequential incubations in methanol and acetone, repeated twice. Hair protein was measured via spectrophotometric ratios at 260/280 nm to indicate the hair dissolution state using a BioTek® plate reader and dedicated software. Hair cortisol was measured using an ELISA assay kit. Individual (n=13), pooled hair samples (n=12) with high, intermediate, and low cortisol values and the ELISA assay internal standards (n=3) were also evaluated by LCMS. Results Milled and standard methods showed highly correlated hair cortisol (rs=0.951, pLCMS and ELISA were correlated (rs=0.737; pLCMS (38.7 [14.4, 136] ng/ml) were lower than by ELISA (172.2 [67.9, 1051] ng/ml). LCMS also detected cortisone, which comprised 13.4% (3.7%, 25.9%) of the steroids detected. Conclusion Methodological studies suggest that finely cutting hair with sequential incubations in methanol and acetone, repeated twice, extracts greater yields of cortisol than does milled hair. Based on these findings, at least three incubations may be required to extract most of the cortisol in human hair samples. In addition, ELISA-based assays showed greater sensitivity for measuring hair cortisol levels than LCMS-based assays. PMID:25811341

  18. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  19. Safety of subcutaneous microinjections (mesotherapy) in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarte, Danik Arana; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume

    2011-06-01

    Determine the safety and tolerance of mesotherapy as a technique for the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. 67 patients (55.2% women) were subjected to a total of 267 mesotherapy sessions. A mesotherapy needle or normal needle was used randomly. The drugs employed were thiocolchicoside and diazepam as muscular relaxants, pentoxifylline or buflomedil as vasodilators, and piroxicam as an anti-inflammatory, as directed. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify the pain produced by the microinjections as well as the degree of immediate and midterm side effects as reported on a standard questionnaire. A mean of 155.5 microinjections were performed per session, of which 45.6% were perceived as painful by the patient with a mean severity of 4.3 out of 10. The pain reduced to 0.5 out of 10 after 24 hours. The most sensitive areas were the levator scapulae and splenius muscles. Systemic symptoms were reported by 5.99% of the musicians after the mesotherapy sessions (muscular weakness 1.5%, rash 1.5%, drowsiness 1.1% and itching 1.1%, being the most frequent). The mean severity of these symptoms was 2.77 out of 10. In all cases the symptoms had completely disappeared after 24 hours. No patient referred to signs of local or systemic infection. The application of drugs by means of subcutaneous injections (mesotherapy) in musicians is a technique that is safe, well tolerated, and without any severe complications.

  20. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: practical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshi D Saboo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus has prompted new way of treating these patients, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or insulin pump therapy is an increasingly form of intensive insulin therapy. An increasing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus individuals of all ages have started using insulin pump therapy. Not everyone is a good candidate for insulin pump therapy, and the clinician needs to be able to determine which patients are able to master the techniques required and to watch for the adverse reactions that may develop. Insulin pump increases quality of life of patient with diabetes mellitus with increasing satisfaction with treatment and decrease impact of diabetes mellitus. Manual errors by insulin pump users may lead to hypo or hyperglycemia, resulting into diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA sometimes. Some of practical aspect is associated with insulin pump therapy such as selection of candidates, handling of pump and selection of site, and pump setting, henceforth this review is prepared to explore and solve the practical problems or issues associated with pump therapy.

  1. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  3. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  4. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  5. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  7. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  8. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  9. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  10. Cortisol intermediates and hydrocortisone responsiveness in critical neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Saarela, Timo; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2017-07-01

    Therapy-resistant hypotension complicates diseases in neonates. Our objective was to investigate whether lack of therapeutic response to plasma expanders and inotropes associates with serum levels of cortisol and its precursors. We investigated 96 infants with hypotension and critical neonatal disease for cortisol metabolism and are divided into responders and non-responders to plasma expanders and inotropes. Serum concentrations of steroids were analysed soon after the onset of volume expansion and inotrope treatment for shock. The 48 non-responders were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) and serum cortisol concentrations were monitored a week later. The mean cortisol concentrations did not differ between the responders and non-responders: 13.6 ± 2.5 and 12.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL, respectively. Dehydroepiandrosterone (37.3 ± 19.5 versus 324.0 ± 106.3; p cortisol and cortisone between the responders and non-responders. Hydrocortisone administration acutely increased blood pressure. Six non-responders who died despite HC administration had low levels of cortisol. The responders had normal serum cortisol after HC treatment. Precursors of cortisol, proximal to the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, accumulated in neonates with hypotension, responding to HC treatment.

  11. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  12. One-step quantitative cortisol dipstick with proportional reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Wingman; Chan, Puiyee; Bosgoed, F.; Lehmann, Karin; Renneberg, Ilka; Lehmann, Matthias; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Rapid quantitative immuno-detection of haptens by the lateral flow assay without “typical” competitive inhibition results is studied. In the present study, we describe an immuno-threshold-based assay for the quantification of cortisol. It gives a signal which is directly proportional to the cortisol

  13. Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a Single Circuit Resistance Exercise for Young Male Athletes. ... CRE had no effect on GH, epinephrine and norepinephrine, yet decreased responses of lactate and cortisol were observed, which might be one of underlying mechanisms of fatigue reduction.

  14. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  15. [Cortisol as a marker of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A I; Kozlova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The role of cortisol (Crt), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) in stress responses were shown. The fluctuations in concentration of Crt, DHEA and DHEA-S depending on age, sex and time of the day in norm and under acute and chronic stress were quoted. The main techniques of assessment of serum, urine and saliva Crt concentrations were discussed. A special attention had been paid to the use of Crt concentration in anthropological and psychological research. Bibliography comprises 181 works.

  16. Clinical significance of cortisone and cortisone/cortisol ratio in evaluating children with adrenal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, S; Fujitaka, M; Jinno, K; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1996-12-09

    Cortisone is derived from the peripheral metabolism of cortisol and lacks biological activity. The rapid interconversion between cortisol and cortisone has been well established. The altered equilibrium between these steroids may regulate glucocorticoid activity in various tissues. We evaluated the serum levels of cortisol and cortisone, and the cortisone/cortisol ratio in ten children with adrenal diseases using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Children with hypoadrenalism exhibited a greater decrease in cortisol as compared with cortisone. Cortisone levels were higher than cortisol levels, and the cortisone/ cortisol ratio exceeded 1.0. Children with adrenal cancer exhibited normal or high values of cortisol, whereas cortisone levels were decreased and the cortisone/cortisol ratio was decreased to nearly zero. The ratio returned to normal after the excision of adrenal tumors. The simultaneous evaluation of cortisol, cortisone, and cortisone/cortisol ratio provides a clinical clue of adrenal diseases.

  17. Effects on sleep and dopamine levels of microdialysis perfusion of cannabidiol into the lateral hypothalamus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Mechoulam, Raphael; Drucker-Colín, René

    2011-03-14

    The major non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), displays a plethora of actions including wakefulness. In the present study, we addressed whether perfusing CBD via microdialysis into lateral hypothalamus (LH) during the lights-on period would modify the sleep-wake cycle of rats as well as the contents of dopamine (DA) collected from nucleus accumbens (AcbC). Additionally, we tested whether perfusion of CBD into LH would block the sleep rebound after a sleep deprivation period. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes were implanted in rats as well as a guide-cannula aimed to LH or AcbC. CBD perfusion was carried out via cannulae placed into LH whereas contents of DA were collected from AcbC and analyzed using HPLC means. We found that microdialysis perfusion of CBD (30, 60, or 90 nM) into LH of rat enhances alertness and suppresses sleep. This effect was accompanied with an increase in DA extracellular levels collected from the AcbC. Furthermore, perfusion of CBD into LH after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. These findings enhance the investigation about the neurobiological properties of CBD on sleep modulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of COMT inhibitors on striatal dopamine metabolism: A microdialysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakkola, S.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    In vivo microdialysis was used to examine the effect of two new catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, Ro 40-7592 and OR-611, on extracellular levels of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat striatum. The interactions of the COMT inhibitors with nomifensine, clorgyline, and deprenyl were also studied. Ro 40-7592 (3-30 mg/kg. i.p.) decreased dose-dependently the efflux of HVA, increased that of DOPAC, and tended to increase that of dopamine. Higher doses of OR-611 (30-100 mg/kg, i.p.) also decreased the dialysate level of HVA, increased that of DOPAC, and tended to increase that of dopamine. Ro 40-7592 was about ten-fold as potent as OR-611. Neither of the COMT inhibitors changed dialysate levels of 6-HIAA. An OR-611 dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. had no significant effect, in contrast to Ro 40-7592, on any of the parameters studied; this dose was thus used to differentiate between the effects of central and peripheral COMT inhibition. Both nomifensine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and clorgyline (4 mg/kg, i.p.) alone elevated extracellular dopamine levels, and lowered those of DOPAC and HVA, though there were quantitative and temporal differences between the drugs. L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, i.p.) alone had no significant effect on any of the compounds measured. Ro 40-7592 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of nomifensine on dopamine efflux, and it tended to increase clorgyline-induced dopamine efflux. DOPAC levels in dialysates were significantly increased by combinations of Ro 40-7592 and nomifensine or clorgyline, whereas HVA remained about as low as they were after Ro 40-7592 alone. Ro 40-7592 had no significant interactions with L-deprenyl. OR-611 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not modify the effects on dopamine metabolism of nomifensine, clorgyline, or L-deprenyl. These data show that Ro 40-7592 is a potent centrally active COMT inhibitor, whereas OR-611 is principally a peripherally active inhibitor

  19. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2014-01-01

    Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Nodular Type of Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu Ho; Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Byoung Suck; Joo, Jong Eun; Jung, Yoon Young; Cho, Young Kwon; An, Jin Kyung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Woo, Jung Joo [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystemic disorder that rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. We describe the MR imaging findings of a subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient that presented with a nontender, palpable soft tissue mass on the left buttock, which was confirmed after surgical excision. The MR images showed the presence of a subcutaneous mass that breached the adjacent fascia with an irregular outline and homogeneous, slightly higher signal intensity than the surrounding muscle as seen on a T2-weighted image and with homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. The lesion could not be differentiated from a sarcoma or a malignancy.

  2. Iatrogenic subcutaneous cervicofacial emphysema with pneumomediastinum after class V restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cha, Min-Sang

    2017-02-01

    Subcutaneous facial emphysema after dental treatment is an uncommon complication caused by the invasion of high-pressure air; in severe cases, it can spread to the neck, mediastinum, and thorax, resulting in cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax. The present case showed subcutaneous cervicofacial emphysema with pneumomediastinum after class V restoration. The patient was fully recovered after eight days of conservative treatment. The cause of this case was the penetration of high-pressure air through the gingival sulcus, which had a weakened gingival attachment. This case indicated that dentists should be careful to prevent subcutaneous emphysema during common dental treatments using a high-speed hand piece and gingival retraction cord.

  3. Metastatic breast cancer 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, M B; Roberts, E; Nixon, J; Probert, J C; Braatvedt, G D

    1997-01-01

    Subcutaneous mastectomy has a possible role as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of developing breast cancer. A case history is presented of a woman who developed metastatic breast carcinoma 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies for non-malignant disease. This case is presented to draw attention to the persistent risk of developing breast cancer even decades after subcutaneous mastectomy and to point out that the role of such surgery in preventing breast cancer has still not been clarified. The appropriateness of prophylactic mastectomy for an individual is better assessed on the absolute risk of breast cancer developing over a defined period rather than the relative risk.

  4. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: Initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pedro; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Costa, Francisco; Carmo, Pedro; Morgado, Francisco; Bernardo, Ricardo; Nunes, Manuela; Abecasis, Miguel; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are important tools in the prevention of sudden death, but implantation requires transvenous access, which is associated with complications. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (S-ICDs) may prevent some of these complications. To evaluate the therapeutics and complications associated with S-ICD systems. S-ICD implantation was planned in 23 patients, for whom the indications were vascular access problems, increased risk of infection or young patients with long predicted follow-up. The population consisted of four patients with ischemic heart disease, three of them on hemodialysis (two with subclavian vein thrombosis), five with left ventricular noncompaction, four with Brugada syndrome, three with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, one with transposition of the great vessels, two with dilated cardiomyopathy and four with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. S-ICDs were implanted in 21 patients, two having failed to fulfil the initial screening criteria. Mean implantation time was 77 minutes, with no complications. Defibrillation tests were performed, and in one patient the generator had to be repositioned to obtain an acceptable threshold. In a mean follow-up of 14 months, 10 patients had S-ICD shocks, which were appropriate in half of them; one developed infection, one needed early replacement due to loss of telemetry and one patient died of noncardiac cause. S-ICD implantation can be performed by cardiologists with a high success rate. Initial experience appears favorable, but further studies are needed with longer follow-up times to assess the safety and efficacy of this strategy compared to conventional devices. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Characteristics and Daytime Cortisol Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha; Waite, Linda; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-05-01

    Older adults frequently report sleep problems and are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disruption. Experimental sleep restriction of younger adults has suggested that cortisol may be on the pathway between sleep restriction and cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether the natural variation in sleep among older adults is associated with daytime cortisol level. Salivary cortisol samples and actigraphy sleep data were collected from a random subsample of participants in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative probability sample of adults aged 62-90 (N = 672). Salivary cortisol was measured with 3 timed samples at the beginning, middle, and end of a 2-hr in-home interview. Sleep characteristics were derived from wrist actigraphy (fragmentation, wake after sleep onset [WASO], and duration) and from survey responses about usual sleep duration and sleep problems. For each individual, a single summary daytime cortisol level was estimated by fitting a marginal longitudinal model for the 3 time-stamped cortisol samples. The resulting estimates were then regressed on each sleep measure, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. From actigraphy, both higher fragmentation score (β = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03) and longer WASO (β = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.51) were significantly associated with higher daytime cortisol; sleep duration was not. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep problems were also not associated with cortisol. Actigraph measures of sleep disturbance are associated with higher daytime cortisol among older adults. However, cross-sectional data cannot distinguish causal direction or whether cortisol and sleep disruption have a common cause.

  6. Diurnal cortisol and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Slavich, George M; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M; Cole, Steven W; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all pcortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r>36, all pcortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multicenter performance evaluation of a second generation cortisol assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Ju Bae, Yoon; Bruegel, Mathias; Ceglarek, Uta; Fiers, Tom; Gaudl, Alexander; Kurka, Hedwig; Milczynski, Christoph; Prat Knoll, Cristina; Suhr, Anna C; Teupser, Daniel; Zahn, Ingrid; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Untreated disorders of the adrenocortical system, such as Cushing's or Addison's disease, can be fatal, and accurate quantification of a patient's cortisol levels is vital for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of a new fully-automated Elecsys® Cortisol II assay (second generation) to measure cortisol levels in serum and saliva. Four European investigational sites assessed the intermediate precision and reproducibility of the Cortisol II assay (Roche Diagnostics) under routine conditions. Method comparisons of the Cortisol II assay vs. liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the gold standard for cortisol measurement, were performed. Cortisol reference ranges from three US sites were determined using samples from self-reported healthy individuals. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility for serum samples were ≤2.6%, ≤5.8%, and ≤9.5%, respectively, and for saliva were ≤4.4% and ≤10.9%, and ≤11.4%, respectively. Agreement between the Cortisol II assay and LC-MS/MS in serum samples was close, with a slope of 1.02 and an intercept of 4.473 nmol/L. Reference range samples were collected from healthy individuals (n=300) and serum morning cortisol concentrations (5-95th percentile) were 166.1-507 nmol/L and afternoon concentrations were 73.8-291 nmol/L. Morning, afternoon, and midnight saliva concentrations (95th percentile) were 20.3, 6.94, and 7.56 nmol/L, respectively. The Cortisol II assay had good precision over the entire measuring range and had excellent agreement with LC-MS/MS. This test was found suitable for routine diagnostic application and will be valuable for the diagnosis of adrenocortical diseases.

  8. Serial changes in plasma total cortisol, plasma free cortisol, and tissue cortisol activity in patients with septic shock: an observational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jeremy; Smith, Melissa Lassig; Deans, Renae V; Pretorius, Carel J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Tan, Terrence; Jones, Mark; Venkatesh, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Published data on adrenocortical function in septic shock have enrolled patients at various stages of critical illness and predominantly used plasma total cortisol, with minimal information on serial changes...

  9. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms...... compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. Two hours after onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms, subcutaneous blood flow was still significantly decreased compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. In normal subjects local nerve blockade had no effect on blood flow changes during hypoglycaemia, whereas local alpha......-receptor blockade abolished the vasoconstrictor response. We suggest that circulating catecholamines stimulating vascular alpha-receptors are probably responsible for flow reduction in the subcutaneous tissue during hypoglycaemia....

  10. Severe subcutaneous generalized edema in a patient with dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinaga; Kawabata, Daisuke; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Usui, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2007-01-01

    Subcutaneous generalized edema associated with dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM) is extremely rare. Herein we report a case of severe subcutaneous generalized edema complicating DM. A 78-year-old woman was hospitalized in our department because of massive edema in the four limbs. Elevated muscle enzymes, heliotrope rash, results of electromyography, and muscle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of DM. The absence of other diseases that could cause the symptoms indicated that massive edema was correlated with the pathophysiology of DM. Although myopathy and edema responded well to oral prednisolone, dysphagia persisted. We conclude that subcutaneous generalized edema can occur during the course of DM/PM, and subcutaneous vasculopathy may be involved in the pathogenesis of DM/PM.

  11. Local release of ATP into the arterial inflow and venous drainage of human skeletal muscle: insight from ATP determination with the intravascular microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Thaning, Pia; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2011-01-01

    is released into plasma, we measured plasma [ATP] with the intravascular microdialysis technique at rest and during dynamic exercise (normoxia and hypoxia), passive exercise, thigh compressions and arterial ATP, tyramine and ACh infusion in a total of 16 healthy young men. Femoral arterial and venous...

  12. Role of alpha adrenoceptors in the nucleus accumbens in the control of accumbal noradrenaline efflux: a microdialysis study with freely moving rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aono, Y.; Saigusa, T.; Watanabe, S.; Iwakami, T.; Mizoguchi, N.; Ikeda, H.; Ishige, K.; Tomiyama, K.; Oi, Y.; Ueda, K.; Rausch, W.D.; Waddington, J.L.; Ito, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Microdialysis technique was used to study the effects of the locally applied alpha adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and antagonist phentolamine on the basal noradrenaline efflux as well as on the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor desipramine-elicited noradrenaline efflux in the nucleus accumbens

  13. DO OPIOIDS EVOKE THE RELEASE OF SEROTONIN IN THE SPINAL-CORD - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY OF THE REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR SEROTONIN IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATOS, FF; ROLLEMA, H; BROWN, JL; BASBAUM, AI

    This study investigated the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal spinal cord of awake, freely moving rats, using microdialysis coupled to HPLC with electrochemical detection and tested the hypothesis that opioids exert their

  14. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats.

  15. Electrical stimulation of the substantia nigra reticulata : Detection of neuronal extracellular GABA in the ventromedial thalamus and its regulatory mechanism using microdialysis in awake rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, B.H.C.

    A combination of electrical stimulation and microdialysis was used to study the nigrothalamic gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system and its regulatory mechanisms in awake rats. Extracellular GABA levels in the ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus were detected in S-min fractions collected

  16. Evidence for increased cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the rat hippocampus during kainic acid seizures. A microdialysis study using the "indicator diffusion' method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration...

  17. Pharmaceutical amyloidosis associated with subcutaneous insulin and enfuvirtide administration

    OpenAIRE

    D’Souza, Anita; Theis, Jason D.; Vrana, Julie A; Dogan, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Protein and peptide drugs administered subcutaneously, such as insulin can be amyloidogenic and result in localized amyloid deposits at the sites of medication injections. These iatrogenic amyloidoses typically present as a localized subcutaneous nodule or skin reaction at the site of administration, and often pose diagnostic challenges. We have analyzed the amyloid proteome in 52 cases of insulin and enfuvirtide associated amyloidosis using laser microdissection/tandem mass spectrometry. We ...

  18. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms

  19. Diurnal variations in subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Aakash A; Grammer, Leslie C; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Rychlik, Karen; Kumar, Rajesh; Zee, Phyllis; Greenberger, Paul A; Fishbein, Anna B

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms underlie many immune responses and allergic diseases. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) can result in adverse reactions; however, it is unclear whether such reactions have a diurnal pattern. To assess whether the timing of SCIT affects the rate of adverse reactions. This study was a retrospective medical record review of adult patients (n = 289) who received SCIT at the Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, during a 10-year period (2004-2014). Injections were given in the outpatient setting. There were a total of 17,457 injections with 574 reactions. Covariates included age, sex, median income, asthma status, vial contents, number of injections, and previous immunotherapy reactions. Logistical regression was used to calculate the odds of having a reaction with time of SCIT administration as the primary determinate. Immunotherapy reactions occurred more frequently after afternoon or evening (pm) injections (328/8721 = 3.8%) vs morning (am) injections (246/8736 = 2.8%), (χ2 = 12.26, P < .01). Systemic reactions, defined as World Allergy Organization grade 1 or higher, did not have diurnal variation (59/8721 = 0.67% for pm vs am 56/8736 = 0.64% for morning; χ2 = 0.08; P = .77). pm injections resulted in higher odds of reaction compared with am injection in a fully adjusted logistic regression model (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.70; P < .01). When considering time as 4 categories, the highest odds of reaction were noted for the period from 15:01 to 17:30 (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.00; P < .01). pm injections of SCIT are associated with increased cutaneous reaction rates when compared with am injections. In patients experiencing bothersome local reactions, it may be beneficial to administer SCIT in the morning. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin G replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Francisco A

    2016-11-01

    Human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for therapeutic use has been available for decades. This drug was developed for treatment of antibody deficiency (replacement therapy), although its use has expanded into many anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory applications in recent years. This review focuses on IgG prescribing for replacement therapy. IgG for replacement is most often administered via the intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) routes. IVIG is usually administered every 34 weeks, and SCIG is usually administered weekly, although variations may be considered in all cases. Recently, a new product became available that uses hyaluronidase to facilitate absorption of large doses of SCIG less frequently (every 34 weeks, as with IVIG). There are important differences between the pharmacokinetics of these three routes of administration. IVIG therapy leads to high peaks and low troughs between infusions. IgG concentration fluctuates much less over time with SCIG. Hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIG is intermediate. SCIG may have lower bioavailability in comparison with IVIG and may require higher doses over time; this is not true for hyaluronidase SCIG. However, there are large variations in IgG half-life among individuals and with different products. Therefore, individualization of therapy is essential. Mild systemic flu-like adverse effects may affect up to 2025% of patients who receive IVIG, smaller fractions may experience more-severe symptoms, whereas anaphylaxis is exceedingly rare. General flu-like systemic adverse effects are minimal with SCIG (intermediate with hyaluronidase SCIG), but transient (24 hours), mild, local inflammatory symptoms at infusion sites are relatively common with both forms. Additional rare but important complications of IgG therapy include thrombotic events and hemolysis that can be seen at high doses with any route of administration. Renal adverse effects may occur with IVIG as well. The variety of IgG products and routes of

  1. Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Vasant Godse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a felt need for trying newer therapeutic modalities in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially in the subset of patients classified as non-responders to antihistamines. Autologous serum therapy is an upcoming modality of treatment, and we decided to study its efficacy by subcutaneous route. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous autologous serum therapy (AST in CSU. Methods: This was a single blind, placebo-controlled parallel group, randomized, controlled study. Twenty-four patients with CSU (11M: 13 F were given subcutaneous AST and seventeen patients (7 M: 10F patients were given subcutaneous injection normal saline (placebo, along with levocetirizine in an on-demand basis in both groups. Results: Urticaria activity score (UAS came down from 35.74 to 7 at the end of 9 weeks and the patients' requirement of antihistamines also reduced remarkably from 5.8 to 1.7 per week in the serum group. Sub-cutaneous saline group did not show statistically significant fall in UAS. Saline group showed UAS 32.8 at zero week to 22.1 at the end of 9 weeks. DLQI showed significant fall in serum group, from 14.26 to 4 at the end of 9 weeks. Conclusion: Subcutaneous autoserum therapy is effective in treatment of CSU.

  2. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  3. Slower cortisol response during ACTH stimulation test in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović-Curin, Jasna; Marinović-Terzić, Ivana; Bujas-Petković, Zorana; Zekan, Ljubinka; Skrabić, Veselin; Dogas, Zoran; Terzić, Janos

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a hereditary, pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that starts early in life. The main characteristics of the autism are impairment in social interactions, difficulties in adapting to novel environmental situations and improper reaction to stress. Since the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a key role in the response to stress and because the previous research found abnormalities in HPA system, we conducted a study to test several elements of the HPA axis. Because autism is a heritable disorder, autistic subjects were studied as well as their parents. Cortisol circadian rhythm, cortisol daily secretion and its suppression response to dexamethasone had been measured from saliva or urine samples of the autistic children and their parents. Cortisol secretion response after ACTH stimulation was done with the autistic children only. The cortisol elevation after ACTH stimulation among the autistic individuals was slower (P = 0.017) than in healthy controls. No differences were found in salivary cortisol circadian rhythm or suppression response, as well as in cortisol daily excretion. These data indicate that, compared to healthy subjects, autistic individuals have fine differences in cortisol response to ACTH stimulation or possibly to other types of stress.

  4. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  6. [Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and apolipoprotein synthesis in rat hepatocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Pitsin, D G; Brener, E D; Khodakova, T D

    1978-11-01

    The influence of cortisol (5 mg/kg body wt administered daily for 5 and 10 days) on biosynthesis of apoproteins of lipoproteins of very low density in the liver and on the synthesis of apolipoproteins of very low, low, and high density (VLDL, LDL, and HDL apoproteins, respectively) in the blood serum of adrenalectomized animals, and after replacement cortisol therapy was studied. Cortisol treatment during these periods resulted in the VLDL apoproteins biosynthesis inhibition in the rat liver. The synthesis of apolipoproteins was increased by adrenalectomy; this effect was eliminated after replacement cortisol treatment. The apoprotein synthesis was stimulated within 5 hours by single injection of cortisol or ACTH. Study of the blood serum apolipoproteins specific radioactivity indicated metabolic change of lipoproteins, such as disturbed conversion from VLDL to LDL. Single and prolonged cortisol administration led to the opposite results. The authors believe that the metabolic disturbances of lipoproteins in the blood play a more important role in the pathogenesis of cortisol-induced hyperlipidemia than lipoprotein syntesis stimulation in the liver.

  7. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  8. Scalp hair cortisol for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Reincke, Martin; Koper, Jan W; van den Akker, Erica L T; Manenschijn, Laura; Berr, Christina M; Fazel, Julia; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Feelders, Richard A; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2017-06-01

    Current first-line screening tests for Cushing's syndrome (CS) only measure time-point or short-term cortisol. Hair cortisol content (HCC) offers a non-invasive way to measure long-term cortisol exposure over several months of time. We aimed to evaluate HCC as a screening tool for CS. Case-control study in two academic referral centers for CS. Between 2009 and 2016, we collected scalp hair from patients suspected of CS and healthy controls. HCC was measured using ELISA. HCC was available in 43 confirmed CS patients, 35 patients in whom the diagnosis CS was rejected during diagnostic work-up and follow-up (patient controls), and 174 healthy controls. Additionally, we created HCC timelines in two patients with ectopic CS. CS patients had higher HCC than patient controls and healthy controls (geometric mean 106.9 vs 12.7 and 8.4 pg/mg respectively, P  cortisol ( r  = 0.691, P  cortisol was increased 3 and 6 months before CS became clinically apparent. Analysis of cortisol in a single scalp hair sample offers diagnostic accuracy for CS similar to currently used first-line tests, and can be used to investigate cortisol exposure in CS patients months to years back in time, enabling the estimation of disease onset. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Nongenomic actions of cortisol in the teleost lactotroph model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borski, Russell J; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Mita, M

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying rapid nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids is poorly understood. We have previously established that cortisol rapidly suppresses tilapia prolactin (PRL) release through a nongenomic, membrane action that involves rapid reductions in intracellular Ca2+. The aim of the pr......The mechanisms underlying rapid nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids is poorly understood. We have previously established that cortisol rapidly suppresses tilapia prolactin (PRL) release through a nongenomic, membrane action that involves rapid reductions in intracellular Ca2+. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC)-IP3 in mediating cortisol's actions. During 30 min and 4-hour incubation, chicken GnRH-II induces a 2-4 fold increase in PRL release from the tilapia pituitary. The stimulatory effect of cGnRH-II was reduced by cortisol, cortisol-21......-hemisuccinate (HEF) and its membrane impermeant analog, HEF-BSA. Since GnRH induces PRL release, in part, via activation of PLC this suggests that cortisol may rapidly inhibit GnRH-induced PRL release by suppressing PLC activity. We also found that cortisol rapidly inhibits IP3 accumulation in tilapia RPD under...

  10. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  11. Declines in stimulated striatal dopamine release over the first 32 h following microdialysis probe insertion: generalization across releasing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holson, R R; Gazzara, R A; Gough, B

    1998-10-19

    In a recent paper [R.R. Holson, J.F. Bowyer, P. Clausing, B. Gough, Methamphetamine-stimulated striatal dopamine release declines rapidly over time following microdialysis probe insertion, Brain Res. 739 (1996) 301-307] we reported that methamphetamine-stimulated striatal dopamine release declined rapidly over the first eight hours following microdialysis probe insertion. This decline was strictly a function of time post-probe implantation, and not due to tolerance or desensitization. To further examine this phenomenon, we subjected rats to three brief pulses of several DA-releasing compounds at 2, 4 and 6 h post-probe insertion, and compared these results to those caused by a single pulse 6 h post-insertion, or in some cases to pulses given more than 24 h post-insertion. We found that when buproprion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, was infused briefly into the striatum via the microdialysis probe, there was a pronounced drop in the amount of dopamine released at 6 h vs. 2 h post-insertion; this drop was not due to repeated exposure, since dopamine release at 6 h post-insertion was the same for a single pulse, or when preceded by two earlier pulses. Twenty-four hours later, buproprion-stimulated dopamine release was still lower, but did not appear to drop further thereafter. Potassium-stimulated dopamine release, on the other hand, dropped rapidly over the first 8 h post-insertion, and this decline continued throughout the 24-32 h interval post-insertion. Similarly, a single i.p. injection of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol released three times as much dopamine when given two compared to six hours post-implantation. Both bupropion- and potassium-stimulated dopamine release were accompanied by declines in extracellular DOPAC concentrations, and these declines were the same 2 or 26 h post-insertion. In contrast, haloperidol exposure increased extracellular DOPAC, and this haloperidol-stimulated DOPAC increase was also greatly attenuated at 6 compared to 2 h post-insertion. We

  12. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P=0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P=0.0019; after heroin administration: P=0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  13. General anesthesia for surgery influences melatonin and cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Edward; Vishne, Tali H; Weinstein, Talia; Beilin, Benzion; Dreznik, Zeev

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of general anesthesia and surgery on melatonin production, and to assess the relationship between melatonin secretion and cortisol levels. Twenty (9 males and 11 females) consecutive otherwise healthy patients aged 27 to 52 years were included in this study. The patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy or laparoscopic hernioplasty. All patients had general anesthesia with the same anesthetic drugs. Serum cortisol levels were measured at several time periods. Urine collections for melatonin were performed from 18:00 to 7:00 the day prior to surgery, on the operation day, and on the first postoperative day. Baseline melatonin metabolites were measured the night prior to surgery, and the level was found to be 1979 +/- 1.76 ng. The value decreased to 1802 +/- 1.82 ng (NS) on the night of surgery, and it became a significantly higher, reaching 2981 +/- 1.55 ng the night after surgery (p = .003). The baseline daytime cortisol level was significantly lower than the baseline night cortisol level (6.87 +/- 1.51 microg/dl, 14.89 +/- 1.66 micrograms/dl, respectively, p cortisol levels. Daytime cortisol levels increased from 6.89 +/- 1.51 microg/dl to 16.90 +/- 1.27microg/dl (p cortisol levels decreased to 10.16 +/- 1.40 microg/dl, lower than the value obtained on the day of surgery (p melatonin, cortisol levels did not reach the pre operative level (p melatonin and cortisol levels show an inverse correlation after surgery.

  14. Cortisol analysis of hair of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke; Hayashi, Misato; Suzuki, Juri

    2013-12-01

    In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3 months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of flucloxacillin and cloxacillin in microdialysis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmené-Beld, Karin H M; Vries-Koenjer, Marie-Therese L M; ter Horst, Peter G J; Hospes, Wobbe

    2014-08-01

    In the present study we developed and validated a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for the determination of flucloxacillin in human plasma and microdialysis samples and cloxacillin in microdialysis samples, using oxacillin as the internal standard for the assay. The samples were separated on a UPLC BEH C18,1.7 μm column (2.1x50mm) and analyzed by a tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electronspray ionization interface. For flucloxacillin the method was demonstrated to be accurate and precise in the linearity range of 1-30 mg/L in plasma and 0.05-5.0 mg/L for microdialysate with a regression coefficient (r) of 0.9986 and 0.9989 in plasma and microdialysate respectively. For cloxacillin it was accurate and precise in the range of 0.1-5.0 mg/L for microdialysate with a regression coefficient of 0.9972. The method presents a high sensitivity for flucloxacillin (lower limit of quantification of 1 mg/L for plasma and 0.05 mg/L for microdialysis samples) combined with a low within- and between-day variation (cloxacillin in microdialysis samples and <6.5% for plasma samples of flucloxacillin). The validation experiments for the microdialysis probes showed a relative recovery of 85.5% for flucloxacillin at a flow rate of 1.0 μL/min. The results justify the use of this assay for clinical studies for measuring free unbound tissue concentrations of flucloxacillin in patients with a Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

  17. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-08-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective

  18. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many ...

  19. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.; Uwe Pühse; Christian Herrmann; Nadeem Kalak; Catherine Elliot; Magnus Lindwall; Serge Brand; Markus Gerber

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that in...

  20. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  1. Measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva - are our assays good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farhan, Nadia; Rees, D Aled; Evans, Carol

    2017-05-01

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and wellbeing and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophilic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (∼10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant inter-assay differences. Liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers improved specificity and sensitivity; however, cortisol cut-offs used in the short Synacthen and Dexamethasone suppression tests are yet to be validated for these assays. Urine free cortisol is used to screen for Cushing's syndrome. Unbound cortisol is excreted unchanged in the urine and 24-h urine free cortisol correlates well with mean serum-free cortisol in conditions of cortisol excess. Urine free cortisol is measured predominantly by immunoassay or LC-MS/MS. Salivary cortisol also reflects changes in unbound serum cortisol and offers a reliable alternative to measuring free cortisol in serum. LC-MS/MS is the method of choice for measuring salivary cortisol; however, its use is limited by the lack of a single, validated reference range and poorly standardized assays. This review examines the methods available for measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva, explores cortisol in disease and considers the difficulties of measuring cortisol in acutely unwell patients and in neonates.

  2. Does cortisol modulate emotion recognition and empathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schulze, Lars; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Roepke, Stefan; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy are important aspects in the interaction and understanding of other people's behaviors and feelings. The Human environment comprises of stressful situations that impact social interactions on a daily basis. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on emotion recognition and empathy. In this placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women (mean age 24.5 years) received either 10mg of hydrocortisone or placebo. We used the Multifaceted Empathy Test to measure emotional and cognitive empathy. Furthermore, we examined emotion recognition from facial expressions, which contained two emotions (anger and sadness) and two emotion intensities (40% and 80%). We did not find a main effect for treatment or sex on either empathy or emotion recognition but a sex × emotion interaction on emotion recognition. The main result was a four-way-interaction on emotion recognition including treatment, sex, emotion and task difficulty. At 40% task difficulty, women recognized angry faces better than men in the placebo condition. Furthermore, in the placebo condition, men recognized sadness better than anger. At 80% task difficulty, men and women performed equally well in recognizing sad faces but men performed worse compared to women with regard to angry faces. Apparently, our results did not support the hypothesis that increases in cortisol concentration alone influence empathy and emotion recognition in healthy young individuals. However, sex and task difficulty appear to be important variables in emotion recognition from facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Burnout and cortisol: evidence for a lower cortisol awakening response in both clinical and non-clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterholt, Bart G; Maes, Joseph H R; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Verbraak, Marc J P M; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2015-05-01

    Although the relationship between burnout and cortisol levels has been examined in previous studies, the results are mixed. By adopting a design in which we attempted to overcome important limitations of earlier research, the purpose of the present study was to improve the understanding of the biological underpinnings of burnout and to further the knowledge about the relationship between burnout and cortisol. A clinical burnout patient group (n =32), a non-clinical burnout group (n =29), and a healthy control group (n =30) were compared on burnout symptoms, physical and psychological complaints, and on cortisol levels. In order to examine a broad range of cortisol indices, including different measures of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and several day-curve measures, salivary cortisol was collected six times a day during two consecutive non-workdays. As expected, the clinical burnout group reported more burnout symptoms, and physical and psychological complaints than the non-clinical burnout group, which in turn reported more burnout symptoms and physical and psychological complaints than the healthy control group. With regard to cortisol levels, we found that until 30 min after awakening, the CAR of both the clinical and the non-clinical burnout group was lower compared with the healthy control group. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the decline of cortisol during the day was smaller in the non-clinical burnout group than in the healthy control group. The results of the present study provide support for lowered cortisol in both clinical and non-clinical burnout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Karamouzis, M

    1999-01-01

    significant for TXB2(P exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well......1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations...... of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Maleic Acid as a Food Adulterant Determined by Microdialysis in Rat Blood and Kidney Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Hou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maleic acid has been shown to be used as a food adulterant in the production of modified starch by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Due to the potential toxicity of maleic acid to the kidneys, this study aimed to develop an analytical method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of maleic acid in rat blood and kidney cortex. Multiple microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein and the kidney cortex for sampling after maleic acid administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that maleic acid produced a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon within the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The area under concentration versus time curve (AUC of the maleic acid in kidney cortex was 5-fold higher than that in the blood after maleic acid administration (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively, indicating that greater accumulation of maleic acid occurred in the rat kidney.

  6. Cocaine challenge enhances release of neuroprotective amino acid taurine in the striatum of chronic cocaine treated rats: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonsky-Alter, Elena; Agovic, Mervan S; Gashi, Eleonora; Lidsky, Theodore I; Friedman, Eitan; Banerjee, Shailesh P

    2009-05-29

    Drug addiction is a serious public health problem. There is increasing evidence on the involvement of augmented glutamatergic transmission in cocaine-induced addiction and neurotoxicity. We investigated effects of acute or chronic cocaine administration and cocaine challenge following chronic cocaine exposure on the release of excitotoxic glutamate and neuroprotective taurine in the rat striatum by microdialysis. Cocaine challenge, following withdrawal after repeated cocaine exposure markedly increased the release of glutamate, which may cause neurotoxicity. Simultaneously, cocaine challenge after withdrawal also significantly increased the release of taurine, which counteracts glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity and possibly cell death. Thus, the mammalian brain has an endogenous self-protective mechanism against cocaine-mediated neurotoxicity and potentially addiction.

  7. Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Karamouzis, M

    1999-01-01

    of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young...... healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same...... significant for TXB2(P static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well...

  8. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  9. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  10. A novel microdialysis-dissolution/permeation system for testing oral dosage forms: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Poulsen, Jessie; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2017-01-01

    A novel microdialysis-dissolution/permeation (M-D/P) system was developed for the biopharmaceutical assessment of oral drug formulations. This system consists of a side-by-side diffusion chamber, a microdialysis unit fixed within the dissolution chamber for continuous sampling, and a biomimetic Permeapad® as the intestinal barrier. In the M-D/P system, the concentration of the molecularly dissolved drug (with MWCO dissolution compartment (representing the gastrointestinal tract) while the concentration of the permeated drug was measured in the acceptor compartment (representing the blood). The kinetics of both the dissolution process and the permeation process were simultaneously quantified under circumstances that mimic physiological conditions. For the current proof-of-concept study, hydrocortisone (HCS) in the form of slowly dissolving solvate crystals and buffer and the biorelevant fasted state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF), were employed as the model drug and dissolution media, respectively. The applicability of the M-D/P system to dissolution and permeation profiling of HCS in buffer and in FaSSIF has been successfully demonstrated. Compared to the conventional direct sampling method (using filter of 0.1-0.45μm), sampling by the M-D/P system exhibited distinct advantages, including (1) showing minimal disturbance of the permeation process, (2) differentiating "molecularly" dissolved drugs from "apparently" dissolved drugs during dissolution of HCS in FaSSIF, and (3) being less laborious and having better sampling temporal resolution. M-D/P system appeared to be a promising, simple and routine tool that allows for the researchers' intensive comprehension of the interplay of dissolution and permeation thus helping for better oral formulation screening and as an ultimate goal, for better dosage forms assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro antifungal activity of iodiconazole, a new triazole, determined by microdialysis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Xie, Ying; Sheng, Chunquan; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Wannian; Chen, Hongzhuan; Fan, Guorong

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the distribution of a new triazole drug, iodiconazole, in rat dermal interstitial fluid and blood was investigated by double-site microdialysis following dermal administration. It was demonstrated that well-calibrated microdialysis sampling in rats could be used to assess the percutaneous penetration kinetics of iodiconazole cream. Iodiconazole penetrated rapidly and cleared slowly from the dermis. The ratio of area under the concentration-time curve in dermis (AUC(dermis)) to that in blood (AUC(blood)) was close to 20, which meant that the free iodiconazole concentration had a higher distribution in the target tissue. Subsequently, the in vitro antifungal activities of iodiconazole were evaluated and were compared with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine. Iodiconazole exhibited broad spectrum and potent activity against 12 kinds of clinically pathogenic fungi. The drug concentration percentage inhibition curves versus time of iodiconazole against the tested fungi elucidated the two-dimensional relationship (concentration-effect) following drug administration, indicating that the percentage inhibition (%) of iodiconazole compared with the drug-free control in dermal dialysate were all >90% in the 900-min sampling time following dermal administration. Moreover, integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) provided iodiconazole AUC/MIC ratios in rat dermis and blood of 347.7h and 18.8h, respectively, with an iodiconazole cream (2%) dosage of 0.033 g/cm² (3 cm×5 cm). These findings show a reservoir effect in the skin following topical application. Iodiconazole topical cream may be a future alternative for treatment of dermatophytosis in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanistic evaluation of tapentadol in reducing the pain perception using in-vivo brain and spinal cord microdialysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Vijay; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Daripelli, Saivishal; Ayyanki, Ganesh; Irappanavar, Shantaveer; Ponnamaneni, Ranjithkumar; Manoharan, Arunkumar

    2017-08-15

    Role of monoamine neurotransmitters in the modulation of emotional and pain processing in spinal cord and brain regions is not well known. Tapentadol, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with µ-opioid receptor agonistic activity has recently been introduced for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of tapentadol on modulation of monoamines in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal horn using brain microdialysis. Tapentadol was administered intraperitoneally at 4.64-21.5mg/kg to male Wistar rats. Based on these results, 10mg/kg i.p. was chosen for spinal microdialysis in freely moving rats. Tapentadol produced significant and dose-dependent increase in cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels with mean maximum increase of 600% and 300%, respectively. Treatment had no effect on cortical serotonin levels. In the dorsal horn, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine levels were significantly increased with mean maximum increases of 220%, 190% and 280%, respectively. Although the density of dopamine transporter is low in cortex, the increase of dopamine and norepinephrine levels in cortex could be mediated through the inhibition of norepinephrine transporter. In the dorsal horn, increase in norepinephrine levels could be due to inhibition of norepinephrine transporter in the spinal cord. Whereas, activation of opioids receptors in non-spinal regions might be responsible for increase in dopamine and serotonin levels. The results from current investigation suggest that clinical efficacy of tapentadol in neuropathic pain is mediated through the enhanced monoaminergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord and regions involved with emotional processing in brain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper; Blangsted, Anne K; Skotte, Jørgen; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Saltin, Bengt; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3) metabolite accumulation, (4) oxygenation, and (5) pain development. Among 812 female employees (age 30-60 years) at 7 companies with high prevalence of neck/shoulder complaints, clinical examination identified 43 MYA and 19 CON. At rest, during PEG, and STR the trapezius muscle was measured using (1) EMG and MMG, (2) microdialysis, and (3) NIRS. Further, subjective pain ratings were scored (VAS). EMGrms in %MVE (Maximal Voluntary EMG-activity), was significantly higher among MYA than CON during PEG (11.74 +/- 9.09 vs. 7.42 +/- 5.56%MVE) and STR (5.47 +/- 5.00 vs. 3.28 +/- 1.94%MVE). MANOVA showed a group and time effect regarding data from the microdialysis: for MYA versus CON group differences demonstrated lower muscle blood flow and higher lactate and pyruvate concentrations. Potassium and glucose only showed time effects. NIRS showed similar initial decreases in oxygenation with PEG in both groups, but only in CON a significant increase back to baseline during PEG. VAS score at rest was highest among MYA and increased during PEG, but not for CON. The results showed significant differences between CON and MYA regarding muscle metabolism at rest and with PEG and STR. Higher relative muscle load during PEG and STR, insufficient muscle blood flow and oxygenation may account for the higher lactate, pyruvate and pain responses among MYA versus CON.

  14. Identification of proteins from interstitium of trapezius muscle in women with chronic myalgia using microdialysis in combination with proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Olausson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microdialysis (MD of the trapezius muscle has been an attractive technique to investigating small molecules and metabolites in chronic musculoskeletal pain in human. Large biomolecules such as proteins also cross the dialysis membrane of the catheters. In this study we have applied in vivo MD in combination with two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the extracellular fluid of the trapezius muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dialysate from women with chronic trapezius myalgia (TM; n = 37, women with chronic wide spread pain (CWP; n = 18 and healthy controls (CON; n = 22 was collected from the trapezius muscle using a catheter with a cut-off point of 100 kDa. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Detected proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Ninety-seven protein spots were identified from the interstitial fluid of the trapezius muscle; 48 proteins in TM and 30 proteins in CWP had concentrations at least two-fold higher or lower than in CON. The identified proteins pertain to several functional classes, e.g., proteins involved in inflammatory responses. Several of the identified proteins are known to be involved in processes of pain such as: creatine kinase, nerve growth factor, carbonic anhydrase, myoglobin, fatty acid binding protein and actin aortic smooth muscle. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, by using in vivo microdialysis in combination with proteomics a large number of proteins in muscle interstitium have been identified. Several of the identified proteins were at least two-fold higher or lower in chronic pain patients. The applied techniques open up for the possibility of investigating protein changes associated with nociceptive processes of chronic myalgia.

  15. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in the absence of light perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Kupers, R; Ptito, M; Jennum, P

    2017-01-15

    As light plays an important role in the synchronisation of the internal biological clock to the environmental day/night schedule, we compared the 24-h profiles of biological circadian markers in blind and normal sighted individuals. Salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were collected every two hours in eleven blind subjects, reporting no conscious light perception, and eleven age- and sex-matched normal sighted controls. Timing of melatonin onset and associated cortisol quiescence period confirm an increased incidence of abnormal circadian patterns in blindness. Additionally, blind subjects showed a greater overall melatonin concentration throughout the 24-h period. Cortisol profiles, including concentration and morning cortisol peaks, on the other hand, did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. These findings support previous reports of an increase in abnormal circadian rhythms and the absence of the entrainment properties of light in blindness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.

  18. The differential impact of two anesthetic techniques on cortisol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based intratracheal general anesthesia (ITGA) and bupivacaine‑based epidural anesthesia (EA), using cortisol as a biochemical marker. Materials and Methods: Following the approval of the Hospital Ethical Board, informed written consent from ...

  19. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  20. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  1. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  2. Cortisol function among early school-aged homeless children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, J J; Wiik, Kristen L; Herbers, Janette E; Gunnar, Megan R; Masten, Ann S

    2010-07-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, a...

  4. The cortisol awakening response in bipolar illness: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshauer, Dorian; Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Grof, Eva; Albuquerque, Joy; Grof, Paul

    2003-08-01

    A growing body of data suggests that a significantly enhanced salivary cortisol response to waking may indicate an enduring tendency to abnormal cortisol regulation. Our objective was to apply the response test to a population already known to have long-term hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation. We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percentage of cases, regardless of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) value. Using the free cortisol response to waking and the short daytime profile, we tested 18 clinically stable, lithium-responsive subjects from our long-term naturalistic follow-up of monthly DSTs. These tests include salivary testing every 15 minutes during the first hour of waking, followed by samples taken at 3:00 PM and 8:00 PM. While clinically stable on lithium prophylaxis, patients with bipolar disorder (BD) showed a significantly enhanced salivary cortisol response to waking, compared with control subjects (P < 0.03). Cortisol levels 30 minutes after waking significantly exceeded those in the large normative data provided in the literature (P < 0.001). Our observations support the hypothesis that the free cortisol response to waking can reflect relatively enduring HPA dysregulation, even when lithium-responsive BD patients are clinically well and their DSTs are normal. Because the test is easy to administer, the free cortisol response to waking may hold promise as a marker in studies of high-risk families predisposed to, or at risk for, mood disorders.

  5. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Mehta; Rohan R Mahale; Uchil Sudhir; Mahendra Javali; Rangasetty Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no pri...

  6. Measuring cortisol and DHEA in fingernails: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Warnock

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fay Warnock1, Kevin McElwee2, Rubo J Seo3, Sean McIsaac3, Danielle Seim3, Tatiana Ramirez-Aponte3, Karine AN Macritchie3, Allan H Young31Developmental Neuroscience and Child Health, BC Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, 3Institute of Mental Health-Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Purpose: Abnormalities in both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA have been reported in psychiatric disorders. Analysis of saliva, urine and blood cortisol and DHEA levels provides an index of hormone levels over a short time period. Unlike such conventional measures, fingernails incorporate endogenous hormones that passively diffuse to the nail matrix from capillaries during keratinization. This study piloted the measurement of cortisol and DHEA levels in fingernails as a potential measure of their accumulated secretion of steroid hormones over a prolonged time period.Method: Thirty-three university students (18–24 years provided fingernail samples on two occasions over a school semester. The visits were scheduled so nail cortisol and DHEA levels were collected from periods when students might be under different levels of stress.Results: During the putatively stressful period, the nail samples showed a significant increase in the cortisol: DHEA ratio (P = 0.0002 due to a significant decrease in the DHEA levels (P = 0.004 and a numerical but not statistically significant increase in the cortisol levels (P = 0.256.Discussion: This pilot study showed that nails can be used to measure cortisol and DHEA, a measure which may reflect environmental stress. More work is required to further validate this technique which may prove useful in studies of both healthy individuals and patient groups.Keywords: stress, nails, cortisol, DHEA

  7. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Sariñana-González; Ángel Romero-Martínez; Luis Moya-Albiol

    2015-01-01

    It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C), but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR) and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle) and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels...

  8. Modified-release hydrocortisone to provide circadian cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Ghobadi, Cyrus; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Huatan, Hiep; Campbell, Michael J; Newell-Price, John; Darzy, Ken; Merke, Deborah P; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2009-05-01

    Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm regulated by the brain's central pacemaker. Loss of this rhythm is associated with metabolic abnormalities, fatigue, and poor quality of life. Conventional glucocorticoid replacement cannot replicate this rhythm. Our objectives were to define key variables of physiological cortisol rhythm, and by pharmacokinetic modeling test whether modified-release hydrocortisone (MR-HC) can provide circadian cortisol profiles. The study was performed at a Clinical Research Facility. Using data from a cross-sectional study in healthy reference subjects (n = 33), we defined parameters for the cortisol rhythm. We then tested MR-HC against immediate-release hydrocortisone in healthy volunteers (n = 28) in an open-label, randomized, single-dose, cross-over study. We compared profiles with physiological cortisol levels, and modeled an optimal treatment regimen. The key variables in the physiological cortisol profile included: peak 15.5 microg/dl (95% reference range 11.7-20.6), acrophase 0832 h (95% confidence interval 0759-0905), nadir less than 2 microg/dl (95% reference range 1.5-2.5), time of nadir 0018 h (95% confidence interval 2339-0058), and quiescent phase (below the mesor) 1943-0531 h. MR-HC 15 mg demonstrated delayed and sustained release with a mean (sem) maximum observed concentration of 16.6 (1.4) microg/dl at 7.41 (0.57) h after drug. Bioavailability of MR-HC 5, 10, and 15 mg was 100, 79, and 86% that of immediate-release hydrocortisone. Modeling suggested that MR-HC 15-20 mg at 2300 h and 10 mg at 0700 h could reproduce physiological cortisol levels. By defining circadian rhythms and using modern formulation technology, it is possible to allow a more physiological circadian replacement of cortisol.

  9. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  10. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely refl...

  11. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH, and cortisol/ACTH ratio to monitor trilostane treatment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W A; Boretti, F S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of trilostane treatment is currently monitored by regular ACTH stimulation tests, which are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a monitoring system without a stimulation protocol and with less client expense would be preferable. The aim of our study was to evaluate if baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH (ACTH) concentration or the baseline cortisol to ACTH ratio (cortisol/ACTH ratio) could replace the ACTH stimulation test. Forty trilostane-treated dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) were included in this prospective study. A total of 148 ACTH stimulation tests and 77 ACTH concentrations and cortisol/ACTH ratios were analyzed. Control of cortisol release was classified according to cortisol concentration after ACTH administration as excessive (5.4 μg/dL; group 3). Baseline cortisol concentrations had considerable overlap between excessively, adequately, and inadequately controlled dogs. Only baseline cortisol >4.4 μg/dL (in 12% of tests) was a reliable diagnosis of inadequate control. Endogenous ACTH concentrations did not differ between groups. The overlap of the cortisol/ACTH ratio between groups was large. Correct classification was only possible if the cortisol/ACTH ratio was >15, which occurred in 4% of tests. To monitor trilostane treatment the ACTH stimulation test cannot be replaced by baseline cortisol, ACTH concentration, or the cortisol/ACTH ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Exposure of Porphyromonas gingivalis to cortisol increases bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcalı, Aliye; Huck, Olivier; Buduneli, Nurcan; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Köse, Timur; Tenenbaum, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is considered as a risk factor for periodontal diseases. The stress-related hormone, cortisol is one of the main molecules released during human stress response and is found in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid. This hormone has been suggested to modify composition of subgingival biofilms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to cortisol on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) growth. P. gingivalis ATCC strain 33277 was cultured under strict anaerobic conditions at 37°C in Brain Heart Infusion medium supplemented with hemin (5μgml(-1)) and menadione (1μgml(-1)). Bacterial cultures were incubated with or without hydrocortisone (0.04-10μgml(-1)) at 37°C for 12, 24 and 48h and bacterial growth was evaluated by spectrophotometric method (OD600nm). Cortisol consumption has been followed by HPLC. Cortisol significantly increased P. gingivalis growth in the first 24h peaking at 12h but this increase was not related to the concentration used. During the time period, no consumption of cortisol was observed. This study provides further support for the idea that stress-induced hormone; cortisol may influence the growth of P. gingivalis. This specific effect may be involved in the relationship between stress and periodontal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Network Characteristics and Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. L. Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in “cultivation” exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  15. Elevated plasma cortisol during induced and spontaneous hypocalcemia in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, R L; Jorgensen, N A

    1982-12-01

    The relationship of cortisol in blood plasma with plasma calcium and phosphorus was studied from 3 days before to 2.5 days after calving in 12 dairy cows (third or more parity). Cows were in three groups: 1) paretic (displayed hypocalcemic and lateral recumbency), 2) nonparetic (plasma calcium at least 8.0 mg/100 ml), and 3) borderline (plasma calcium less than 8.0 mg/100 ml). Cortisol concentrations from 0 to 1.5 days postpartum reflected the state of calcium stress of the groups, paretic more than borderline and borderline more than nonparetic. Phosphorus was lower from 0 to 1 day postpartum in paretic cows. Calcium and phosphorus were negatively correlated (within cow) with cortisol (-.53, -.37). In experiments with goats, cortisol was released in response to hypocalcemia and displayed no activity in initiating an onset of hypocalcemia when given exogenously. Also, the observation that cortisol-treated goats responded less severely with calcium depression and recovered faster from induced hypocalcemia by ethylene glycol-bis (beta-amino-ethyl ester) N,N'-tetraacetic acid infusions suggests cortisol may aid the animal in recovering from hypocalcemia.

  16. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M B; Davis, H N; Williams, M T; Mellott, C; Douglas, C W

    1997-09-01

    Plasmacortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had higher cortisol levels than did a group maintained in the shelter for more than 9 days. Dogs in the shelter for an intermediate period (Day 4-9) had intermediate levels of cortisol. The cortisol concentrations of dogs during their first day in the shelter were greater than either those of the same dogs on Day 4/5 in the shelter or those of a group of pet dogs sampled in their own homes. There was no overall effect of 20 min of social interaction with a human (e.g., petting) on the plasma cortisol levels of dogs in the shelter on Day 1-3. However, the gender of the petter did affect cortisol levels. Those dogs interacting with a female had lower cortisol concentrations at the end of the session than did dogs interacting with a male. The results suggest that confinement in a public animal shelter produces a prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Further, it appears that some subtle aspect of interaction with a human may be capable of moderating this response. Possible implications for the welfare of confined dogs, and for the development of behavior problems in dogs obtained from shelters, are discussed.

  17. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  18. FKBP5 methylation as a possible marker for cortisol state and transient cortisol exposure in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Britta K; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik; Kirchner, Henriette; Harbeck, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    Current glucocorticoid replacement regimens, in adrenal insufficiency, fail to mimic the physiological cortisol secretion, thereby fostering serious side effects. To experimentally evaluate the impact of CpG methylation within the FKBP5 gene as a possible short- and long-term marker for cortisol exposure in humans. An ACTH-stimulation test was carried out and methylation status of the FKBP5 gene in leukocytes was determined. A negative correlation between basal levels of methylation and serum cortisol was observed. Individual changes in FKBP5 methylation after 24 h correlated with cortisol responses. Considering previous studies conducted with murine leucocytes, FKBP5 methylation may be suitable as a long-term biomarker, rather than acute glucocorticoid exposure, also in humans.

  19. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary

  20. Subcutaneous mercury injection by a child: A histopathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sukheeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional subcutaneous injection of mercury by mentally healthy children is rare. Usually, it is seen as a part of suicidal attempt in severely depressed patients or by athletes to enhance their performance. We report a case of a 15-year-old child, inspired by a movie, who deliberately self-injected mercury subcutaneously into his forearm that led to the formation of a non-healing ulcer. Histopathology of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A surgical procedure was thereby performed to treat the ulcer and reduce the blood and urinary levels of mercury. However, the patient did not develop clinical signs of chronic poisoning, proving that subcutaneous mercury injection has a low risk of systemic toxicity, and that histopathology plays an important role in diagnosis.

  1. Subcutaneous steroid injection as treatment for chalazion: prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, J S M

    2002-02-01

    To study the efficacy of subcutaneous steroid injection in the treatment of chalazion. Prospective consecutive case series. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chalazion presenting to the out-patient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Prince of Wales Hospital from January to June 1998. Size of the chalazion after steroid injection treatment. Forty-eight consecutive patients with chalazion were treated with injection of triamcinolone into the subcutaneous tissue around the lesion. In 43 (89.6%) patients, the lesion subsided completely. Twenty-six (54.2%) patients had lesions that subsided with one injection. The size and duration of the chalazion at presentation did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment. Two patients developed depigmentation of the skin at the site of injection. No other major complications were encountered. Subcutaneous injection of the steroid triamcinolone acetonide appears to be a simple and effective treatment for chalazion. Further comparative clinical trials are indicated.

  2. Munchausen syndrome revealed by subcutaneous limb emphysema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufagued, Kaldadak; Chafry, Bouchaib; Benyass, Youssef; Abissegue, Yves; Benchebba, Driss; Bouabid, Salim; Belkacem, Chagar

    2015-08-18

    Limb subcutaneous emphysema secondary to a Munchausen syndrome represents a rare and severe entity because it involves the functional prognosis of the limb and vital prognosis of the patient. We report the case of an 18-year-old Moroccan woman patient who presented to our hospital with a subcutaneous emphysema of the shoulder girdle and the right arm, caused by our patient. Treatment was aggressive, with a wide surgical debridement, parenteral antibiotic therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The results have been favorable. The correlation of anamnestic data and clinical and para-clinical exams were essential for the diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome in this case. In this regard, we report a rare case of subcutaneous limb emphysema secondary to Munchausen syndrome.

  3. Dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema and Evans syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu Dong; Kim, Pyoung Su; Park, Hae Young; Kim, Cho Rok; Byun, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Youn; Lee, Joo Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Eil-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Although periorbital edema is a common manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM), generalized subcutaneous edema associated with DM is extremely rare. Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's antibodies attack one's own red blood cells and platelets. Evans syndrome is rarely a presenting feature of DM. DM has been rarely reported to be associated with either generalized edema or Evans syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old Korean woman who presented with generalized subcutaneous edema, an erythematous rash, dysphagia, and proximal muscle weakness, and subsequently developed features of Evans syndrome. Treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and an immunosuppressive agent controlled the DM, the generalized subcutaneous edema, and the Evans syndrome. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supramicrosurgical lymphatic-venous anastomosis for postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentileschi, Stefano; Servillo, Maria; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-10-01

    Postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele is caused by accidental lesion of a lymphatic vessel that keeps on flowing lymph under the scar. Traditional treatments include aspiration and compression, with probable recurrence, and sclerotherapy which destroys both lymphatic cyst and vessel, creating risk of lymphedema. We describe the case of a postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele of the left leg that was treated by supramicrosurgical lympatic-venous anastomosis. A single anastomosis was performed end-to-end, between one lymphatic vessel, individuated through indocyanine green lymphography, and one subcutaneous vein, distally to the lymphocele, under sedation and local anesthesia. Postoperative course was uneventful; the lymphocele completely resolved and never recurred during the nine months followup. This technique may heal the lymphocele with no impairing of lymph drainage function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Skin temperature and subcutaneous adipose blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured bilaterally by the 133Xe washout method. At one side of the skin (epicutaneous) temperature was varied with a temperature blanket, the other side served as control. There was a significant (P less than 0.001) positive...... correlation between skin temperature and ATBF. In the range from 25 to 37 degrees CATBF increased 9% of the control flow on average per centigrade increase in skin temperature. ATBF at the control side was uninfluenced by the contralateral variations in skin temperature. Although no better correlation could...... be demonstrated between ATBF and subcutaneous temperature than between ATBF and skin temperature, arguments are presented in favour of the hypothesis that ATBF is influenced by the subcutaneous temperature rather than via reflexes from the skin. Infiltration of the 133Xe depots with 20 microgram histamine...

  6. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  7. Subcutaneous Implants of Buprenorphine-Cholesterol-Triglyceride Powder in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    L. DeTolla; R. Sanchez; E. Khan; B. Tyler; M. Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous drug implants are convenient systems for the long-term delivery of drugs in animals. Lipid carriers are logical tools because they generally allow for higher doses and low toxicity. The present study used an US Food and Drug Administration Target Animal Safety test system to evaluate the safety of a subcutaneous implant of a cholesterol-triglyceride-buprenorphine powder in 120 BALB/c mice. Mice were evaluated in 4- and 12-day trials with 1- and 5-fold doses of the intended 3 mg/k...

  8. Correlation between maternal and infant cortisol varies by breastfeeding status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Stroo, Marissa; Mayhew, Meghan; Maselko, Joanna; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of mother and infant salivary cortisol, measured three times over the course of a day, and assess whether these varied by breastfeeding status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 mothers and their infants aged 4-11 months. Mothers collected their own saliva and that of their infants upon awakening, 30min after waking and at bedtime. Breastfeeding status was reported by mothers and cortisol level was measured in saliva in μg/dl using standard techniques. We used generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between maternal and infant cortisol levels, and assessed whether the relationship differed by breastfeeding status: formula only compared to partial and full breastfeeding, adjusting for infant sex, race, age, maternal education, and family income. Thirty-four infants received formula only and 20 were either partially or fully breastfed. Breastfeeding was associated with higher household income, higher maternal education, and white race. Cortisol levels were higher among breastfed infants at all three time points. After adjustment, maternal cortisol levels were related with infant cortisol at bedtime only (regression estimate 0.06; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.1; p=0.02). The adjusted association between bedtime maternal and infant cortisol was stronger among breastfeeding dyads than among formula-feeding dyads (regression estimate 1.0; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.0; p=0.04 vs. 0.6; CI: -0.1, 1.3; p=0.10). In addition, we assessed the influence of maternal education and household income in our adjusted model; income strengthened the observed association, whereas maternal education did not change the estimate. Breastfeeding mothers and infants had significant correlations for cortisol at bedtime, while formula-feeding dyads did not. These data suggest that several factors may contribute to cortisol synchrony observed in mother/infant dyads, including the transfer of cortisol in human milk, physical interaction such as

  9. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy. We used data from 3039 women from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study cohort. Serum cortisol was measured in blood, collected at the first prenatal visit, at different gestational ages (median=91days, range=40-256days), and at various time points during the day (median=11:45h, range=08:00-18:30h). We assessed associations between maternal serum cortisol in pregnancy and biological factors, lifestyle factors and stress factors, including depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, work stress, parenting stress and fatigue. In multivariable analysis, variables that were associated with higher cortisol levels in pregnancy were lower maternal age [1.5nmol/l, 95%CI (0.6-2.4)], being nulliparous [21.5 nmol/l (15.9-27.1)], lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) [1.3nmol/l (0.3-2.4)], higher C-reactive protein (CRP) [1.0nmol/l (0.4-1.5)], carrying a female fetus [9.2nmol/l (1.8-16.5)], non-smoking [14.2nmol/l (0.6-27.7)], sufficient sleep [8.5nmol/l (0.9-16.1)], and being unemployed [12.7nmol/l (2.2-23.2)]. None of the psychosocial stressors was significantly associated with serum cortisol levels in pregnancy. A total of 32% of all variance in cortisol was explained by gestational age, maternal age, time of day, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, CRP, fetal sex, smoking behavior, self

  10. Dorsal shaving affects concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites in lactating golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A.; Brinkmann, Katharina; Palme, Rupert; Valencak, Teresa G.

    2018-02-01

    Breeding of golden hamsters is classically performed at thermal conditions ranging from 20 to 24 °C. However, growing evidence suggests that lactating females suffer from heat stress. We hypothesised that shaving females dorsally to maximise heat dissipation may reduce stress during reproduction. We thus compared faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) from shaved golden hamster mothers with those from unshaved controls. We observed significantly lower FCM levels in the shaved mothers ( F 1,22 = 8.69, p = 0.0075) pointing to lower stress due to ameliorated heat dissipation over the body surface. In addition, we observed 0.4 °C lower mean subcutaneous body temperatures in the shaved females, although this effect did not reach significance ( F 1,22 = 1.86, p = 0.18). Our results suggest that golden hamsters having body masses being more than four times that of laboratory mice provide a very interesting model to study aspects of lactation and heat production at the same time.

  11. Stress, depression, cortisol, and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosania, Amy E; Low, Kathryn G; McCormick, Cheryl M; Rosania, David A

    2009-02-01

    Stress and depression may affect the onset and progression of periodontal disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, no published study has established whether the mechanisms by which stress and depression influence periodontal disease are physiologic, behavioral, or both. This cross-sectional pilot study explored the associations between psychologic factors, markers of periodontal disease, psychoneuroimmunologic variables, and behavior. This study included 45 periodontal patients referred by three dentists. Participants completed composite health, chronic stress, depression, and demographic questions, and salivary cortisol (CORT) was measured. A hygienist assessed the magnitude of periodontal disease. Stress, depression, and CORT were correlated with measures of periodontal disease. In addition, oral care neglect during periods of stress and depression was associated with attachment loss and missing teeth. After controlling for age, family history, and brushing frequency, depression and CORT were significant predictors of the number of missing teeth. A similar model also predicted the number of teeth with clinical attachment loss >5 mm. Stress and depression may be associated with periodontal destruction through behavioral and physiologic mechanisms. Addressing psychologic factors, such as depression, may be an important part of periodontal preventive maintenance.

  12. Salivary cortisol levels in students challenged with a testing stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Kathleen; Liddell, Patty W; Bloom, Leonard; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; Nolen, Ann H; Faulkner, Lawrence W; Batorski, Rosemary E

    2011-01-01

    The objective was twofold. The focus of the study was primarily to determine if the stress of a particularly difficult exam could cause students to lose the normal diurnal variation seen in human cortisol levels and secondarily, to validate the use of a competitive enzyme immunoassay for salivary cortisol. Physical therapy students enrolled in Research Design were asked to participate in the study by collecting baseline evening and morning salivary cortisols during what was regarded as a relatively stress free time in the Fall of 2009. The following spring, the same students were asked for samples the evening before and morning of their first Kinesiology test, traditionally a stressful time. Method validation was accomplished using instrumentation owned by the Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) Program and analysis was performed by MLS faculty and a second year MLS student. Participants were enrolled in the College of Health Sciences at the University of Tennessee in Memphis. Sample collection and testing was performed in the student laboratory of the Medical Laboratory Science Program. Physical therapy students in their first year of a three-year entry level doctorate program, DPT. This group of students did not lose their diurnal variation of cortisol. However, an unexpected finding was noted: the students' salivary cortisol specimen collected in the morning of the fall semester was significantly higher than the salivary cortisol specimen collected the morning of the test in the spring semester (p = .019). Method validation was successful demonstrating a strong correlation ( r = 0.915) when compared to the reference laboratory. Cortisol diurnal variation was not lost in the study participants, but further studies should be performed due to the low percentage of students completing the study and the lack of demographic diversity. Even though the method validation in the student laboratory setting demonstrates that it is indeed possible to obtain the same excellent

  13. Subjective social status moderates cortisol responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Kemeny, Margaret E; Aziz, Najib

    2006-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between social status, physiology and health in humans and animals. However, perceptions of social status within a specific social group have rarely been studied in this area and may provide additional relevant information. The current investigation examines subjective perceptions of social status as a moderator of cognitive, emotional and cortisol responses to stressor tasks characterized by social-evaluative threat or its absence. As part of a larger study, 81 college students living in a residential dormitory completed a measure of their subjective perceptions of their social status within their dormitory floor. They were randomly assigned to undergo a standard performance stressor task either with or without social evaluation. It was hypothesized that individuals who perceived that they were of low status within their dorm group would show greater increases in negative self-evaluative emotions (i.e., shame) and cognitions (low social self-esteem) and greater cortisol responses to the stressor under conditions of social-evaluative threat. Subjective social status moderated cortisol responses to the social-evaluative stressor, but in a direction opposite that hypothesized. Individuals who perceived themselves to be of high status showed sizable and significant cortisol increases (both peak and recovery), while those who perceived themselves to be of low status did not mount a significant cortisol response to the stressor. Both groups showed increased negative self-evaluative responses to the tasks. A discussion of the possible health implications of the robust cortisol responses of high status individuals and the hyporesponsive cortisol reactions of low status individuals is provided.

  14. Neural Underpinnings of Cortisol Effects on Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja Christina; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Hermann, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear embodies a crucial mechanism incorporated in exposure therapy. Clinical studies demonstrated that application of the stress hormone cortisol before exposure sessions facilitates exposure success, but the underlying neural correlates remain unknown. Context- and stimulus-dependent cortisol effects on extinction learning will be characterized in this study and tested in the extinction and in a new context. Forty healthy men participated in a 3-day fear conditioning experiment with fear acquisition in context A (day 1), extinction training in context B (day 2), and recall in context B and a new context C one week later (day 3). Hydrocortisone (30 mg) or placebo was given before extinction training. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses and skin conductance responses (SCRs) served as dependent measures. At the beginning of extinction training, cortisol reduced conditioned SCRs, diminished activation of the amygdala-hippocampal complex, and enhanced functional connectivity of the anterior parahippocampal gyrus with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). After one week, the cortisol group showed increased hippocampal activation and connectivity to the vmPFC toward an extinguished stimulus and reduced insula activation toward a nonextinguished stimulus in the extinction context. However, this inhibitory cortisol effect did not extend to the new context. Taken together, cortisol reduced fear recall at the beginning of extinction and facilitated the consolidation of the extinction memory as evidenced by an inhibitory activation pattern one week later. The stress hormone exerted a critical impact on the amygdala-hippocampus-vmPFC network underlying fear and extinction memories. However, cortisol did not attenuate the context dependency of extinction.

  15. Loneliness in older adults is associated with diminished cortisol output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, N; Holwerda, T J; Stek, M L; Dekker, J J M; Rhebergen, D; Comijs, H C

    2017-04-01

    Loneliness in older adults has been associated with increased mortality and health problems. One of the assumed underlying mechanisms is dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether loneliness in older adults is associated with HPA-axis dysregulation and whether this association differs between depressed and non-depressed persons. Cross-sectional data of 426 lonely and non-lonely older adults in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. Linear regression analyses and multinominal logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between loneliness and morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response, diurnal slope and dexamethasone suppression ratio. In all analyses, confounders were introduced. In order to examine whether the association between loneliness and cortisol measures is different in depressed versus non-depressed persons, an interaction term for loneliness x depression diagnosis was tested. Cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and dexamethasone suppression ratio was lower in lonely participants. There were no significant interactions between loneliness and depression diagnosis in the association with the cortisol measures. This study is the first to investigate the association between the HPA-axis and loneliness in a large group of older adults aged 60-93years. We found lower cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and lower dexamethasone suppression ratio in lonely older depressed and non-depressed adults. Whether diminished cortisol output is the underlying mechanism that leads to health problems in lonely older adults is an interesting object for further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GABA Uptake Inhibition Reduces In Vivo Extraction Fraction in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Long Evans Rats Measured by Quantitative Microdialysis Under Transient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2018-02-01

    Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in GABA uptake are reflected by in vivo extraction fraction within the VTA. Using quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis adapted for transient conditions, we examined the effects of local perfusion with the GABA uptake inhibitor, nipecotic acid, in the VTA of Long Evans rats. Basal extracellular GABA concentration and in vivo extraction fraction were 44.4 ± 1.9 nM (x-intercepts from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (slopes from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats), respectively. Nipecotic acid (50 μM) significantly increased extracellular GABA concentration to 170 ± 4 nM and reduced in vivo extraction fraction to 0.112 ± 0.003. Extraction fraction returned to baseline following removal of nipecotic acid from the perfusate. Conventional microdialysis substantially underestimated the increase of extracellular GABA concentration due to nipecotic acid perfusion compared with that obtained from the quantitative analysis. Together, these results show that inhibiting GABA uptake mechanisms within the VTA alters in vivo extraction fraction measured using microdialysis and that in vivo extraction fraction may be an indirect measure of GABA clearance.

  17. CONCERNS REGARDING HAIR CORTISOL AS A BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC STRESS IN EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg H. Jonsdottir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels

  18. Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-12-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels.

  19. Role of Liposuction Combined with Subcutaneous Mastectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gynecomastia is one of the common benign male breast diseases, surgical treatment of which remains a controversial issue. Here, we describe successful combined use of liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy in the treatment of gynecomastia. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the liposuction ...

  20. combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data) found that an ave rage of ,10 mg rcmainccl aftcr the sponge had been insertcd for 15 davs. Thc possibilitv the refore arises of efficicnt synchronization of estrus and reproduction in Karakul ewes using lowcr doscs of pro- gestogen and Pregnant Mare Serum Gonackttrophin. (PMSG). Either intravenous or subcutaneous ...

  1. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat remains an important quality determinant of meat. Although ... Nutritional influences on the fatty acid composition and the associated effect on flavour have been found in beef (Westerling &. Hedrick, 1979; Brown, Melton, .... Effect of maize meal in diet on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF)and kidney fat (KF).

  2. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Wallemia sebi in an Immunocompetent Host▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Josep; Gugnani, Harish C.; Sood, Neelam; Batra, Rashmi; Mayayo, Emilio; Gené, Josepa; Kakkar, Shalini

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Wallemia sebi in a 43-year-old-female, the first case reported since 1950. The lesion presented as a nonhealing ulcer on the dorsum of the left foot. Diagnosis was based on histological demonstration of the fungus and its recovery in culture. PMID:18174296

  3. Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) output from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue was studied in nine healthy subjects before, during and for 3 h after 1 h two-legged bicycle exercise at 60 % maximal oxygen consumption. Seven subjects were studied in control experiments without exercise. The adipose...

  4. Late hematogenous infection of subcutaneous implants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottenbos, B; Klatter, F; Van Der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Nieuwenhuis, P

    Late biomaterial-centered infection is a major complication associated with the use of biomaterial implants. In this study biomaterials that had been implanted subcutaneously in rats were hematogenously challenged with bacteria 4 weeks after implantation. Bacteria were spread either by intravenous

  5. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD: Incidence, predictors and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A. M. J.; Boersma, Lucas V. A.; Johansen, Jens B.; Neuzil, Petr; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Carter, Nathan; Husby, Michael; Lambiase, Pier D.; Knops, Reinoud E.

    2015-01-01

    The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) eliminates the need for transvenous leads, and therefore has the potential to improve lead-longevity and reduce lead-related complications. The S-ICD has a morphology-based sensing algorithm of which inappropriate shocks have

  6. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave...

  7. Early clinical experience with subcutaneous GR43175 in acute migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P; Brand, J; Dano, P

    1989-01-01

    In six European clinics 111 migraine patients were treated in a series of open dose-ranging studies with subcutaneous injections of 1 to 4 mg GR43175, a novel 5-HT 1-like receptor agonist. Response rates after 20-30 min were dose related and rose from 33% with 1 mg to 96% with 4 mg GR43175. Side ...

  8. Reversible Crystallization of Argatroban after Subcutaneous Application in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Argatroban is a thrombin inhibitor used as anticoagulant in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. It is usually administered as an intravenous bolus followed by infusion. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of two different formulations of argatroban in pigs after subcutaneous administration. Antithrombotic activity in plasma was determined by ecarin chromogenic assay. To visualize the formation of crystals, argatroban was administered to rats into the subcutaneous tissue exposed after removing the skin, and the injection site was photographed at different times. After subcutaneous administration of a sorbitol/ethanol formulation of argatroban in pigs was observed a slow absorption phase was followed by long-lasting levels of this inhibitor. Cmax and AUC(0-24 showed dose-dependent increases, while elimination half-life and tmax value did not change significantly with dose. In contrast, saline-dissolved argatroban showed a faster absorption phase followed by a shorter elimination half-life. Argatroban dissolved in sorbitol/ethanol leads to long-lasting plasma levels due to the formation and permanent dissolution of a crystalline depot at the injection place. This represents a simple way to deliver argatroban continuously over an extended period which can be beneficial for prophylaxis or treatment of chronic coagulations disorders.

  9. Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis in a Nigerian female | Yakubu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has not been any report of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis from our center. We present a patient who was reviewed with an isolated ganglion-like subcutaneous swelling on the ankle region. Excision biopsy revealed a non caseating granulomatous lesion. Systemic evaluation was not remarkable and the lesion was ...

  10. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambiase, Pier D; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large international...

  11. Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  12. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

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    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  13. Day-to-day differences in cortisol levels and molar cortisol-to-DHEA ratios among working individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Young-Jin; Ahn, Ryun-Sup

    2010-03-01

    The present study was carried out to determine day-to-day differences in cortisol levels and the molar cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio (molar C/D ratio) in working subjects. The cortisol and DHEA levels were measured from saliva samples collected 30 minutes after awakening for 7 consecutive days in full-time working subjects that worked Monday through Saturday. To determine the day-to-day differences within subjects, the collected data was analyzed using variance (ANOVA) for a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The cortisol levels from samples collected 30 minutes after awakening on workdays were similar to each other, but were significantly different from the cortisol levels on Sunday. The DHEA levels were not significantly different between the days of week. The DHEA levels on Monday and Tuesday were relatively lower than the levels on the other weekdays. The DHEA levels on Thursday and Friday were relatively higher than the other days. The molar C/D ratios on Sunday were significantly lower than those on workdays. The molar C/D ratios on Monday and Tuesday were significantly higher than those on Wednesday or other workdays. The cortisol levels and the molar C/D ratios demonstrate differences in adrenocortical activities between workdays and non-workdays, but the molar C/D ratio additionally represents differences in adrenocortical status between the first two workdays and other workdays. Thus, it is possible that the day-to-day differences in the cortisol levels and the molar C/D ratio represent the adrenal response to upcoming work-related stress.

  14. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluski, Jodi; Jego, Patrick; Henry, Séverine; Bruchet, Anaelle; Palme, Rupert; Coste, Caroline; Hausberger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions…) on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares), from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia) also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks), early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  15. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  16. Subcutaneous fascial bands--a qualitative and morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part.

  17. Subcutaneous fascial bands--a qualitative and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. METHODS: In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. RESULTS: Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm. CONCLUSION: Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part.

  18. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

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    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  19. Maternal Lifetime Trauma Exposure, Prenatal Cortisol, and Infant Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Devick, Katrina L; Brunst, Kelly J; Lipton, Lianna R; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. In analyses that controlled for infant sex and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and stress during pregnancy, greater maternal trauma exposure was associated with increased infant distress to limitations and sadness. Higher and lower prenatal cortisol exposure modified the magnitude and direction of association between maternal trauma history and infant rate of recovery from arousal. The association between maternal trauma history and infant distress to limitations was somewhat stronger among infants exposed to higher levels of prenatal cortisol. The analyses suggested that maternal lifetime trauma exposure is associated with several domains of infant negative affectivity independently of maternal stress exposures during pregnancy and that some of these associations may be modified by prenatal cortisol exposure. The findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational impact of trauma exposure on child developmental outcomes.

  20. Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2002-12-15

    The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate.

  1. Melatonin and cortisol rhythm in patients with extensive nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Vural; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Kalkandelen, Sadettin; Cingi, Cemal

    2013-01-01

    Extensive nasal polyposis is an inflammatory disease which effects 1%-4% of normal population. The mechanism of its formation and the circadian rhythm of cortisol and melatonin in ENP have not investigated. Salivary levels of melatonin and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay in 31 patients with extensive nasal polyposis and in 27 control subjects matched for age and gender. In both groups none of the subjects did not have obstructive sleep apnea. The baseline and the peak levels of salivary melatonin in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin between the study and control groups (p>0.05). The highest values of melatonin were recorded at 04:00 h in both the study and control groups. The amplitude and the 24 h mean levels of salivary cortisol in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin and cortisol were found to be disrupted in patients with extensive nasal polyposis. These results may be applicable as therapeutic tools in the future and melatonin drugs might be useful in the therapy of nasal polyposis like cortisol drugs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on daily cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellew, Karin; Evans, Phil; Fornes-Vives, Joana; Pérez, Gerardo; Garcia-Banda, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation (APMR) is a much used stress-management technique. Its efficacy relevant to placebo control is already established in the literature and the primary aim of the present study was to ascertain whether its proven impact on psychological stress measures is matched by a decrease in prevailing levels of the stress-associated hormone cortisol, using accurate and robust measurement based on multiple sampling of full diurnal cortisol secretion profiles. First-year university students can face significant stress in adjustment to academic demands and immersion in a novel social network and provided a convenient study population. One hundred and one first-year students completed APMR with prevailing stress levels assessed a week before and after intervention. Both cortisol and self-report measures were significantly reduced post-intervention by 8% and 10%, respectively. The efficacy of the intervention was independent of, and not modulated by neuroticism, gender, age and smoking status. We also demonstrated that cortisol reduction was unlikely to have been a consequence of adaptation to any initial cortisol elevation prompted by the challenge of the demanding saliva collection protocol. We conclude that the efficacy of APMR in this population extends to reduction in biologically expressed stress levels as well as levels based solely on self-report.

  3. Comparison of plasma cortisol sampling sites for rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, T; Fryer, S; Draper, N; Winter, D; Ellis, G; Hamlin, M

    2012-12-01

    Blood samples for the determination of plasma cortisol concentration are generally obtained via venipuncture or capillary sampling at the fingertip. During rock climbing the upper body, forearms and fingertips are subject to continual loading and gripping making sampling at these sites problematic. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in plasma cortisol concentrations from capillary samples taken at the fingertip and first (big) toe in a rock climbing context. Nine (8 males, 1 female) climbers completed a succession of climbing bouts at three different angles (91°,100° and 110°). Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously from the fingertip and first toe pre and post climb at each angle. Plasma samples were collected via centrifugation and subsequently analysed for cortisol using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. All standards and samples were analysed in duplicate. Intra assay coeffiecients of variation (CV%) were 5.91% and 7.94% for finger and toe respectively. A limits of agreement plot revealed all data points to be well within upper and lower bounds of the 95% population confidence interval. Paired samples t-tests (for finger and toe) indicated there were no significant differences between sample sites. Subsequent regression analysis revealed a strong relationship (R2=0.78, y=1.031x - 2.079) between fingertip and first toe capillary plasma cortisol concentrations. Findings suggest that the first toe offers a valid alternative sampling site for plasma cortisol concentration in a rock climbing context.

  4. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P meningitis (P meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  5. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  6. Daily and trait rumination: diurnal cortisol patterns in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Lori M; Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D; Stroud, Catherine B

    2017-12-01

    Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation associated with psychopathology. Research with adults suggests that rumination covaries with diurnal cortisol rhythms, yet this has not been examined among adolescents. Here, we examine the day-to-day covariation between rumination and cortisol, and explore whether trait rumination is associated with alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms among adolescent girls. Participants (N = 122) provided saliva samples 3 times per day over 3 days, along with daily reports of stress and rumination, questionnaires assessing trait rumination related to peer stress, and diagnostic interviews assessing depression and anxiety. Greater rumination than usual during the day was associated with lower cortisol awakening responses the following morning, but this effect was not significant after accounting for wake time and an objective measure of adherence to the saliva sampling protocol. Trait rumination was associated with lower average cortisol levels at waking and flatter diurnal slopes, accounting for wake time, protocol compliance, and other factors. These patterns may help to explain why rumination is related to the development of psychopathology.

  7. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, psuicide attempts; r=-.129, psuicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The roles of testosterone and cortisol in friendship formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Welker, Keith M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure. Dyadic multilevel models indicated that lower basal testosterone and decreases in testosterone were associated with increased closeness between recently acquainted strangers. Our results suggest that people high in testosterone felt less close to others and desired less closeness. Further, lower basal cortisol and dynamic cortisol decreases were associated with greater closeness and desired closeness in the high closeness condition. Finally, we found that the partners of those who had lower cortisol desired more closeness. These findings suggest that lower testosterone and cortisol are linked to the facilitation of initial social bonds and that these social bonds may, in turn, be associated with changes in these hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nenadovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and

  10. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  11. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: Effects on memory activation in healthy males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.B.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Nicolson, N.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were

  12. Childhood Adversity Modifies the Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Cortisol Secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, EJ.M. van der; Ende, J. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Internalizing psychiatric disorders and early childhood adversity have both been associated with altered basal cortisol secretion. The aim of the present study is to investigate if early childhood adversity modifies the relationship between anxiety and mood disorders and cortisol

  13. Childhood adversity modifies the relationship between anxiety disorders and cortisol secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, E.J.; van der Ende, J.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Internalizing psychiatric disorders and early childhood adversity have both been associated with altered basal cortisol secretion. The aim of the present study is to investigate if early childhood adversity modifies the relationship between anxiety and mood disorders and cortisol

  14. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  15. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  16. A novel method for assessing chronic cortisol concentrations in dogs using the nail as a source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Z; Fokidis, H B

    2017-04-01

    Cortisol, a glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress, is used to assess adrenal function and mental health in clinical settings. Current methods assess cortisol sources that reflect short-term secretion that can vary with current stress state. Here, we present a novel method for the extraction and quantification of cortisol from the dog nail using solid phase extraction coupled to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Validation experiments demonstrated accuracy (r = 0.836, P cortisol concentrations were positively correlated to an established hair cortisol method (r = 0.736, P cortisol concentrations did not differ with dog sex, breed, age, or weights; however, sample size limitations may preclude statistical significance. Nail cortisol may provide information on cortisol secretion integrated over the time corresponding to nail growth and may be useful as a tool for diagnosing stress and adrenal disorders in dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of cortisol and other stress-related hormones in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijsen, N; Dullaart, RPF; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cortisol and catecholamine levels in patients with Meniere's disease. Study Design: Prospective, controlled study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Thirty patients with Meniere's disease and 18 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measures: Serum and saliva cortisol,

  18. Comparison of cortisol samples in the first two weeks of life in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tiffany A; Schmid, Kendra K; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    Growing literature on negative childhood stress emphasizes the need to understand cortisol values from varying biomarker samples. This work aimed to examine cortisol samples for usability, associations, and individual stability in neonates. The sample consisted of preterm infants (n=31). Analyses on cortisol collected from cord blood and from saliva and urine samples on days 1, 7, and 14 included Spearman correlations and paired t-tests. Usability rates were 80.6% (cord blood), 85.9% (saliva), and 93.5% (urine). Salivary and urinary cortisol levels had significant correlation on day 1 only (p=0.004). Significant differences in individual stability of cortisol concentrations existed except in urine on days 1 and 7 and in saliva on days 7 and 14. Usability was highest for urine samples. We found little correlation between cortisol sample levels at each time; individual stability of cortisol concentrations was minimal. Interpretation of cortisol findings in all studies should be performed cautiously.

  19. The associations between basal salivary cortisol and illness symptomatology in chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Sorenson, Matthew; Jason, Leonard; Maher, Kevin; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Nadia; Brown, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Hypocortisolism has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with the significance of this finding to disease etiology unclear. This study examined cortisol levels and their relationships with symptoms in a group of 108 individuals with CFS. CFS symptoms examined included fatigue, pain, sleep difficulties, neurocognitive functioning, and psychiatric status. Alterations in cortisol levels were examined by calculation of mean daily cortisol, while temporal variation in cortisol function...

  20. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  1. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Topical Tacrolimus and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on In Vivo Release of Eicosanoids in Atopic Dermatitis During Dermal Microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Sven R; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Doering, Ines; Quist, Jennifer; Gollnick, Harald P

    2016-11-02

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with release of distinct inflammatory signals. This study investigated the presence of eicosanoids in AD skin and the effect of topical agents with potential to suppress inflammation. Twelve patients with moderate AD received topical treatment on either arm with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment or a lotion containing 12% ω-6 fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFA) twice daily for 5 consecutive days. Interstitial fluid was collected in vivo via dermal microdialysis from 4 defined skin areas: lesional, non-lesional and topically treated skin (tacrolimus or PUFA). Markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes; 5- and 8-prostaglandin F2α) and inflammation (9α,11α-prostaglandin F2α; and prostaglandin E2) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All eicosanoid levels were reduced in non-lesional and tacrolimus-treated skin. A significant reduction was observed in total F2-isoprostanes; 9α,11α-prostaglandin F2α; and prostaglandin E2 in non-lesional skin and in 9α,11α-prostaglandin F2α in tacrolimus-treated compared with untreated AD skin. In conclusion, treatment with tacrolimus compared with PUFA appears to suppress eicosanoids more efficiently in AD skin.

  3. Microdialysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nimodipine in the guinea pig hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Xiaojing; Li, Liqin; Zhang, Ruihua; shi, Tong; Li, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker that has been recently shown to be effective on the function of central nervous system. It has been reported that treatment against deficits of learning and memory in animals and human by maintain the calcium homeostasis in hippocampus with nimodipine may be promising therapeutic strategies. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to determination the nimodipine in hippocampus using microdialysis technique. The separation was accomplished on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (100mm×2.1mm ID, 3.5μm) with the mobile phase composed of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) containing 0.2% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.2ml/min. Multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-product ion transitions 419→343 for nimodipine and 361→315 nitrendipine (IS) was used for quantitation. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.2ng/ml for nimodipine, with good linearity in the range of 0.2-20ng/ml. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra- and inter-day repeatability and stability were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to p harmacokinetic study of the nimodipine in the guinea pig hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of Hydroxyl-Radical Formation in the Rat Striatum by In Vivo Microdialysis and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V; Bonds, D V; Prokai, L

    2008-10-01

    A GC-MS method was developed for measuring hydroxyl-radical capture products of salicylic acid, a common trapping agent for this reactive oxygen species, in samples obtained by in vivo cerebral microdialysis experiments. The assay employed liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid added as an internal standard. Due to their simple electron ionization mass spectra featuring [M - 57](+) ions through the loss of tertiary alkyl group from the corresponding molecular ions, tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives afforded straightforward method development based on selected-ion monitoring. In addition, tandem mass spectrometry probing collision-induced dissociation of [M - 57](+) ions obtained from the isomeric tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives revealed characteristic differences in the resultant product-ion spectra. Our work has demonstrated the applicability of GC-MS for the assay of microdialysates for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid by confirming that local administration of the excitotoxic glutamate into the rat striatum significantly increased in vivo hydroxyl-radical production in this brain region and that subsequent systemic administration of α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone reversed glutamate-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Novel method of monitoring electroencephalography at the site of microdialysis during chemically evoked seizures in a freely moving animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, J A; Fosbraey, P

    2000-06-30

    This paper covers the design, development and operation of a novel piece of equipment, based around the CMA/12 guide probe (Carnegie Medicin, Sweden), which offers a low cost alternative for monitoring EEG at the site of microdialysis in a freely moving animal. This equipment is entirely based on commercially available parts, and thus can be easily replicated. Moreover, it is less intrusive than earlier models, offering advantages for experiments in which behavioural testing or chronic monitoring is required. We illustrate its use in a study of changes in electrical seizure activity, in both cortex and basal nuclei, evoked by the administration of the chemoconvulsant soman. The inference from the many experimental paradigms looking at the mechanisms of chemoconvulsants is that paroxysmal discharges are a better correlate of seizure activity than behavioural signs. The correlation of the EEG with extracellular neurotransmitter data, over a period of hours post-injection of chemoconvulsant, allows the determination of whether extracellular neurotransmitter changes are a cause or consequence of the evoked electrical activity.

  6. Decline of lactate in tumor tissue after ketogenic diet: in vivo microdialysis study in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, U; Himpe, B; Pries, R; Vonthein, R; Nitsch, S; Wollenberg, B

    2013-01-01

    In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) aerobic glycolysis is the key feature for energy supply of the tumor. Quantitative microdialysis (μD) offers an online method to measure parameters of the carbohydrate metabolism in vivo. The aim was to standardize a quantitative μD-study in patients with HNSCC and to prove if a ketogenic diet would differently influence the carbohydrate metabolism of the tumor tissue. Commercially available 100 kDa-CMA71-μD- catheters were implanted in tumor-free and in tumor tissue in patients with HNSCC for simultaneous measurements up to 5 days. The metabolic pattern and circadian rhythm of urea, glucose, lactate, and pyruvate was monitored during 24 h of western diet and subsequent up to 4 days of ketogenic diet. After 3 days of ketogenic diet the mean lactate concentration declines to a greater extent in the tumor tissue than in the tumor-free mucosa, whereas the mean glucose and pyruvate concentrations rise. The in vivo glucose metabolism of the tumor tissue is clearly influenced by nutrition. The decline of mean lactate concentration in the tumor tissue after ketogenic diet supports the hypothesis that HNSCC tumor cells might use lactate as fuel for oxidative glucose metabolism.

  7. Topical bioequivalence of acyclovir creams using dermal microdialysis in pigs: a new model to evaluate bioequivalence for topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huilin; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Feng; Xu, Lanfang; Zheng, Jiarun; Chen, Yun

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the bioequivalence of topically applied Acyclovir (ACV) creams using dermal microdialysis (DMD) in a pig model. Three ACV creams (3%), ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3, were topically administrated on the dorsum of pigs, and the DMD sampling technique was used to continuously collect microdialysate. The concentration of ACV in microdialysate was measured by HPLC and the concentration-time profiles were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that 90% confidence interval (CI) of the ratio of AUC(0-4 h) of ACV2 and ACV3 was between 88.2 and 105.7%, which was within the acceptance range (80-125%). Ninety percent CI of the ratio of C(max) of ACV2 and ACV3 was between 87.4 and 124.4%, which was within the acceptance range (80-125%). These data indicate that ACV2 and ACV3 used in this study were bioequivalent. This study demonstrates that the pig model coupled with DMD sampling can potentially provide a cost-effective strategy to evaluate topical drug delivery and its associated pharmacokinetic studies.

  8. Paramecium caudatum as a source of nitric oxide: Chemiluminescent detection based on Bluestar(®) Forensic reagent connected with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2017-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) chemistry inside the body is the most interesting part of its behavior. NO is involved in controlling blood pressure, and in transmitting nerve signals and a variety of other signaling processes. To explain the behavior of NO, it is necessary to determine its immediate concentration or observe time-dependent changes in its concentration. In Paramecium caudatum, NO is formed by calcium-dependent nNOS (NOS1)-like protein, which is distributed in the cytoplasm. NO synthesis affects the ciliary beat and consequent motility of cells and blocked NO synthesis reduces the ability of cells to move. The possibility of online coupling of microdialysis (of P. caudatum solution) with NO detection is demonstrated. Direct measurement of NO is carried out using dilute Bluestar(®) Forensic reagent (luminol-H2 O2 system; one of the NO detections is based upon the chemiluminescent reaction between NO and the luminol-H2 O2 system, which is specifically reactive to NO). The effect of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was observed. NO production was inhibited and the movement of P. caudatum was restricted. These effects were time dependent and after a specific time were reversed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias M Pulopulos

    Full Text Available In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS. The cortisol awakening response (CAR is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93, we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase, but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people.

  10. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  11. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pDogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling.

  12. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  13. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  14. Children's Elevated Cortisol Levels at Daycare: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home…

  15. The impact of cortisol in steatotic and non-steatotic liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Bujaldon, Esther; Mendes-Braz, Mariana; Avalos de León, Cindy G; Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Álvarez-Mercado, Ana I; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Rodés, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the effects of regulating cortisol levels on damage and regeneration in livers with and without steatosis subjected to partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion. Ultimately, we found that lean animals undergoing liver resection displayed no changes in cortisol, whereas cortisol levels in plasma, liver and adipose tissue were elevated in obese animals undergoing such surgery. Such elevations were attributed to enzymatic upregulation, ensuring cortisol production, and downregulation of enzymes controlling cortisol clearance. In the absence of steatosis, exogenous cortisol administration boosted circulating cortisol, while inducing clearance of hepatic cortisol, thus maintaining low cortisol levels and preventing related hepatocellular harm. In the presence of steatosis, cortisol administration was marked by a substantial rise in intrahepatic availability, thereby exacerbating tissue damage and regenerative failure. The injurious effects of cortisol were linked to high hepatic acethylcholine levels. Upon administering an α7 nicotinic acethylcholine receptor antagonist, no changes in terms of tissue damage or regenerative lapse were apparent in steatotic livers. However, exposure to an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist protected livers against damage, enhancing parenchymal regeneration and survival rate. These outcomes for the first time provide new mechanistic insight into surgically altered steatotic livers, underscoring the compelling therapeutic potential of cortisol-acetylcholine-M3 muscarinic receptors. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Multiplexed Ultrasensitive Determination of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Hormones at a Dual Electrochemical Immunosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Guzmán, María; González Cortés, Araceli; Yañez Sedeño, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    A novel dual electrochemical immunosensor for the multiplexed determination of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol is reported. Aminophenylboronic acid-modified dual screen-printed carbon electrodes were prepared on which the corresponding ACTH and cortisol antibodies were immobilized. Competitive immunoassays involved biotinylated ACTH and alkaline phosphatase labelled streptavidin, or alkaline phosphatase labelled cortisol. Differential pulse voltammetry upon 1-naphtyl phosphate additio...

  17. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level | Odeniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity.

  18. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab H H; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  19. Correspondence of plasma and salivary cortisol patterns in women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Nouriani, Bita; Neri, Eric; Spiegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ‘diurnal slope’ of salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of stress and circadian function in a variety of reports with several detailing its association with cancer progression. The relationship of this slope, typically a negative value from high morning concentrations to low evening concentrations, to the underlying daily variation in total plasma cortisol throughout the 24-hour cycle, however, has never been reported. Methods To examine the relationship between diurnal salivary cortisol slope and the underlying pattern of plasma cortisol in individuals with cancer, we examined a cohort of women with advanced breast cancer (n=97) who had saliva and plasma collected during a modified 24-hour, constant posture protocol. Results We found that steepness of the diurnal slope of salivary cortisol was correlated with the amplitude of plasma cortisol rhythm when the slope was calculated from samples taken at wake+30 minutes and 9PM (r=−0.29, p>0.05). Other variants of salivary slope calculations were not significantly correlated with the amplitude of the plasma cortisol rhythm. Diurnal salivary cortisol slope steepness was not correlated with the time between habitual waking and the computed circadian peak of cortisol, but there was a correlation between diurnal slope steepness and the time between habitual waking and the time of the awakening spike of morning cortisol (r’scortisol slope primarily represents aspects of the cortisol awakening response in relation to evening levels more than the circadian rhythm of total plasma cortisol. PMID:25228297

  20. The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Booij, Sanne H.; van der Zwan, J Esi; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol

  1. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  2. Saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid does not affect salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Camilla; Dahlqvist, Per; Nilsson, Leif; Naredi, Silvana

    2014-08-01

    In critically ill patients with hypotension, who respond poorly to fluids and vasoactive drugs, cortisol insufficiency may be suspected. In serum over 90% of cortisol is protein-bound, thus routine measures of total serum cortisol may yield 'false lows' due to hypoproteinaemia. Thus, the occurrence of cortisol insufficiency could be overestimated in critically ill patients. Salivary cortisol can be used as a surrogate for free serum cortisol, but in critically ill patients saliva production is decreased, and insufficient volume of saliva for analysis is a common problem. The aim of this study was to investigate if a cotton-tipped applicator with glycerine and citric acid could be used for saliva stimulation without affecting salivary cortisol levels. Prospective, observational study. Thirty-six volunteers (six males, 30 females), age 49 ± 9 years, without known oral mucus membrane rupture in the mouth. Forty-two pairs of saliva samples (22 paired morning samples, 20 paired evening samples) were obtained before and after saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid. Salivary cortisol was analysed using Spectria Cortisol RIA (Orion Diagnostica, Finland). The paired samples correlated significantly (P citric acid did not significantly influence salivary cortisol levels in healthy volunteers. This indicates that salivary cortisol measurement after saliva stimulation may be a useful complement when evaluating cortisol status in critically ill patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Baseline cortisol measures and developmental pathways of anxiety in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, K.; Huizink, A. C.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ferdinand, R. F.

    Objective: This study investigated whether baseline cortisol measures predicted future anxiety, and compared cortisol values of groups with different developmental pathways of anxiety. Method: Cortisol levels were assessed in 1768 individuals (10-12 years). Anxiety levels were assessed at the same

  4. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  5. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  6. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K.; Deng, Huihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was

  7. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

  8. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  9. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system. (a) Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device...

  10. Endogenous Cortisol: Acute Modulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Bovine PBMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  11. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  12. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, V.A. van; Cornelisse, S.; Marin, M.F.; Ackermann, S.; Garfinkel, S.N.; Abercrombie, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory

  14. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  15. Daily salivary cortisol patterns in midlife women with hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S D; Newton, K M; Larson, J C; Booth-LaForce, C; Woods, N F; Landis, C A; Tolentino, E; Carpenter, J S; Freeman, E W; Joffe, H; Anawalt, B D; Guthrie, K A

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal salivary cortisol patterns in healthy adults are well established but have not been studied in midlife women with hot flashes. We hypothesized that frequent hot flashes are associated with aberrant cortisol patterns similar to sleep-deficient individuals. Cross-sectional. A total of 306 women, ages 40-62, randomized to a behavioural intervention for hot flashes. Baseline comparisons of cortisol geometric means (nmol/l) from four daily time points averaged over two consecutive days plus other calculated cortisol measures were made between groups defined by baseline: (i) mean daily hot flash frequency tertile (≤5·5, N = 103; >5·5-8·8, N = 103; >8·8, N = 100) and (ii) selected characteristics. Repeated-measures linear regression models of log-transformed cortisol evaluated group differences, adjusting for covariates. Women were 67% White and 24% African American, with 7·6 (SD 3·9) hot flashes per day. Salivary cortisol geometric means (nmol/l) among all women were as follows: 75·0 (SD 44·8) total, 8·6 (SD 5·6) wake, 10·0 (SD 7·5) wake +30 min, 3·7 (SD 3·3) early afternoon and 1·6 (SD 1·8) bedtime. Wake + 30-minute values showed an 18% median rise from wake values (interquartile range -24 to 96%), and means varied by hot flash frequency tertile, from lowest to highest: 11·4(SD 7·3), 10·3 (SD 6·5) and 8·6 (SD 7·8), respectively, P = 0·003. Beside the early afternoon value (P = 0·02), cortisol values did not vary by hot flash frequency. Taken together, these findings suggest that high frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes may be associated with subtle abnormalities in cortisol concentrations - a pattern consistent with chronic sleep disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross-sectional h......Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross...

  17. Salivary cortisol and depression in public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels have been suggested to play a role in the development of depression. An association has been shown in some studies but not consistently. The timing of an association is uncertain, and long-term follow-up studies may miss associations in narrower time windows. In the pres....... In the present study, we examined the association of several cortisol measures and depression in a repeated cross-sectional and short-term follow-up design. Depression was assessed by both self-reported symptoms of depression and clinical interviews....

  18. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  19. Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, T; Andersen, Henning; Hess, A

    2009-01-01

    strength of affected muscles and (ii) the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: The two treatments were equally effective, the mean change in muscle strength after SCIG being 3.6% (95% CI -3.6% to 10.9%) vs. 4.3% (-1.3% to 10.0%) after IVIG (P = 0.86). One patient had sustained erythema and oedema......Background and purpose: For treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we hypothesized that (i) infusion of equivalent dosages of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is as effective as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and that (ii) subcutaneous infusion at home is associated with a better...... quality of life. Methods: In a randomized single-blinded cross-over study, nine IVIG responsive patients were allocated to receive either SCIG or IVIG for a period equivalent to three IVIG treatment intervals and, subsequently, crossed over to the other treatment. Primary end-points were (i) dynamometric...

  20. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.