WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcutaneous fat loss

  1. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlotti, C; Ceriani, V; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2017-05-01

    Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analyzed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and expressed as thickness, weight, area and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was formally assessed. The result was that subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; decrease of subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; percent decrease of visceral fat was always greater than percent decrease of subcutaneous fat, with no differences between different strategies. No intervention preferentially targets visceral fat. Basal visceral fat depots are smaller than basal subcutaneous fat depots. Visceral fat loss is linked to subcutaneous fat loss. With all strategies, percent decrease of visceral fat prevails on subcutaneous fat loss.

  2. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  4. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. Subcutaneous and segmental fat loss with and without supportive supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie high protein diet in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; Vogel, Roxanne M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Griffin, J Daniel; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone.

  6. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  7. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  8. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a four weeks-old girl with subcutaneous fat necrosis and associated hypercalcemia is presented. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the New born (SCFN) is an uncommon disorder which is rarely complicated with life threatening hypercalcemia. Though it is reported from many parts of the world this is the first case ...

  9. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat remains an important quality determinant of meat. Although ... Nutritional influences on the fatty acid composition and the associated effect on flavour have been found in beef (Westerling &. Hedrick, 1979; Brown, Melton, .... Effect of maize meal in diet on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF)and kidney fat (KF).

  10. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α are induced by solar radiation in vitro and may be involved in facial subcutaneous fat loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Pappas, Apostolos; Zhang, Li; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Cavender, Druie

    2013-07-01

    The loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat is associated with aging. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), interleukin-11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are known to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes. This study investigated the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in solar-radiation-induced facial fat loss. Cultured fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and skin equivalents were exposed to various doses of radiation from a solar simulator. Inflammatory cytokines' mRNA production and protein secretion were examined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. In some experiments, epidermal-dermal equivalents were pretreated topically with a broad-spectrum sunscreen prior to solar simulated radiation (SSR). Human facial preadipocytes treated with recombinant IL-11 or with conditioned media from solar-irradiated equivalents were evaluated for the level of adipocyte differentiation by image analyses, Oil red O staining, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α protein secretion were induced from epidermal-dermal equivalents by exposure to SSR. A sunscreen prevented SSR-induced inflammatory cytokines production from such equivalents. Exposure of facial preadipocytes to conditioned medium from solar-irradiated epidermal-dermal equivalents inhibited their differentiation into mature adipocytes. Consequently, conditioned medium from sunscreen-pretreated, solar-irradiated equivalents did not inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes. A cocktail of neutralizing antibodies to IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α significantly reduced the SSR-induced inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation. These results support the hypothesis that SSR-induced inflammatory cytokine may be involved in the photoaging-induced loss of facial subcutaneous fat. Inhibition of this process, e.g. by sunscreens, might slow or prevent photoaging-induced changes in facial contouring. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative

  11. Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S. Constantine, BA

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Investigation into fat graft injection location indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in angiogenesis signals between the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in the athymic rat model. Further research should aim to continue to close the gap between clinical practice and basic scientific understanding of fat grafting.

  12. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  13. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  14. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  15. Peripheral fat loss and decline in adipogenesis in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Giuseppe; McNurlan, Margaret A; Mileva, Izolda; Zemlyak, Alla; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C

    2013-03-01

    Aging is associated with a redistribution of body fat including a relative loss of subcutaneous peripheral fat. These changes in body fat can have important clinical consequences since they are linked to increased risk of metabolic complications. The causes and mechanisms of loss of peripheral fat associated with aging are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether defects in adipogenesis contribute to fat loss in aging humans, as suggested from animal studies, and to evaluate the role of inflammation on pathogenesis of fat loss. Preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous peripheral fat of healthy young and elderly subjects were compared in their ability to replicate and differentiate. The results show that both the rate of replication and differentiation of preadipocytes are reduced in older subjects. The reduction in adipogenesis is accompanied by a higher plasma level of the inflammatory marker, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, and greater release of tumor necrosis factor α from fat tissue. Thus, the gradual relative loss of peripheral fat in aging humans may in part result from a defect in adipogenesis, which may be linked to inflammation and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from fat tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  17. [Value of aspiration biopsy of subcutaneous fat in amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, P; Carvalho, F; Coelho, A

    1986-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fat (FNAF) was performed in 24 patients, 12 with previously diagnosed amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, and 12 presenting a nephrotic syndrome without amyloidosis on renal biopsy. FNAF was positive in 10 of 12 patients with amyloidosis (sensitivity: 83%) and negative in 12 of 12 patients with non-amyloid nephrotic syndrome (specificity: 100%). Considering a 2.5 to 10% prevalence of amyloidosis in adult patients with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, a positive FNAF is diagnostic of amyloidosis, and a negative FNAF rules out the diagnosis with a probability of 98 to 99%. FNAF is a simple and safe method which can be useful in patients who cannot undergo a renal biopsy.

  18. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  19. Case report: Subcutaneous fat necrosis: report of a case and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) occurs in term newborn with history of difficult delivery. Apart from the soft tissue lesions, the infants may suffer from life threatening hypercalcemia as a complication of disease requiring various medications. A case of subcutaneous fat necrosis with history of birth asphyxia is presented ...

  20. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishwar Vikas; Rupani Asha; Amarapurkar Anjali; Anchinmane Vyankatesh

    2008-01-01

    Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually e...

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  4. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  5. INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with increased subcutaneous fat in women and poor response to resistance training in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoeller Robert F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605 (g.-10,1025G>C, Chr2:118,552,255, NT_022135.15, was reported to be associated with obesity (Body Mass Index, [BMI] in a genome-wide association scan using the Framingham Heart Study but has not been reproduced in other cohorts. As BMI is a relatively insensitive measure of adiposity that is subject to many confounding variables, we sought to determine the relationship between the INSIG2 SNP and subcutaneous fat volumes measured by MRI in a young adult population. Methods We genotyped the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 in college-aged population enrolled in a controlled resistance-training program, (the Functional Polymorphism Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength, FAMuSS cohort, n = 752 volunteers 18–40 yrs. In this longitudinal study, we examined the effect of the INSIG2 polymorphism on subcutaneous fat and muscle volumes of the upper arm measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after 12 wks of resistance training. Gene/phenotype associations were tested using an analysis of covariance model with age and weight as covariates. Further, the % variation in each phenotype attributable to genotype was determined using hierarchical models and tested with a likelihood ratio test. Results Women with a copy of the C allele had higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat (GG: n = 139; 243473 ± 5713 mm3 vs. GC/CC: n = 181; 268521 ± 5003 mm3; p = 0.0011; but men did not show any such association. Men homozygous for the G ancestral allele showed a loss of subcutaneous fat, while those with one or two copies of the C allele gained a greater percentage of subcutaneous fat with resistance training (GG: n = 103; 1.02% ± 1.74% vs. GC/CC: n = 93; 6.39% ± 1.82%; p = 0.035. Conclusion Our results show that the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism underlies variation in subcutaneous adiposity in young adult women and suppresses the positive effects of resistance training on men. This

  6. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  8. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P fat removal methodology that on average leads to 39.6 cc of fat loss of the treated flank at 2 months after a single treatment cycle. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  10. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavishwar Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually enlarged, nonnucleate, single adipocytes showing laminations, along with calcification and paucity of inflammation. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of fat necrosis within the lipoma. Such lesions can be mistaken on radiology for malignancy.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); L. Ay (Lamise); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMaternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Not much is known about the associations with other measures of body composition. We assessed the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with the development of subcutaneous fat mass measured as

  12. Correlation between subcutaneous knee fat thickness and chondromalacia patellae on magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-08-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a common cause of anterior knee pain in young patients and can be detected noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between subcutaneous fat thickness around the knee joint on axial MRIs as a surrogate marker of obesity, with the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae.

  13. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cohen

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment.We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA and the Netherlands (NL, and in healthy controls (SA. Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time.In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013. In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001, with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003.Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally.

  14. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J den Hartigh

    Full Text Available Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance.We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%, an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism.Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured.By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation.These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter promoting a healthier form of weight loss.

  15. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  16. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Yonkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in healthy New Zealand White rabbits. Twelve clinically healthy rabbits with an average weight of 3.00±0.03 kg were used. The fatty acid composition of interscapular, inguinal, pericardial, perirenal and omental fat depots was determined by gas chromatography. The palmitic (C16:0 and linoleic (C18:2 acids, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 prevailed in all fat depots. The highest percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0 was detected in subcutaneous depots: inguinal (41.05±1.80% and interscapular (38.30±0.73%, whereas the highest percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 was found in the visceral depots: perirenal (44.26±0.96% and pericardial (42.77±1.19%. Among the saturated fatty acids, myristic (C14:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were established in higher content in subcutaneous depots than in visceral ones. Palmitoleic acid (C16:1 content in the pericardial fat depot was 10.63±2.60%, while in the interscapular, perirenal, omental and inguinal FD it was almost twice lower (Р<0.001. In the omental depot, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 content was significantly higher only vs the interscapular depot (P<0.05. The high content of saturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous depots determined their higher atherogenic and saturation index, unlike visceral ones, where a significantly higher content of unsaturated fatty acids was reported. Differences in fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots proved the specific metabolism in each of them. On the other hand, this led to differences in the nutritional value of various parts of rabbit carcass.

  17. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  18. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  19. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  20. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  1. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem and progenitor cells from which it arises. Whereas increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are six visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric, and it is a subject of much debate whether these have a common developmental origin and whether this differs from that for subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all six visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue arises from Wt1-expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1-expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show that all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated, and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1-expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT, and pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT. They also support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous, and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes.

  2. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  3. Multifocal scalp abscess with subcutaneous fat necrosis and scarring alopecia as a complication of scalp mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadry, Razan; Hamadah, Issam; Al-Issa, Abdullah; Field, Lawrence; Alrabiah, Fahad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the treatment method termed mesotherapy. Marketed for nonsurgical fat melting, skin rejuvenation, and hair regrowth, this technique has become increasingly popular and, in the public's view, it is considered to be a relatively benign intervention method. Mesotherapy was introduced over 50 years ago by M. Pistor, a French physician who utilized this technique initially as a novel analgesic therapeutic method for a variety of rheumatologic disorders. Since its introduction, the basic principal of locally injecting subcutaneous doses of varying chemicals has been expanded and is now utilized for the aforementioned cosmetic concerns. With its increased popularity, there has been an increase in the number of reported side effects resulting from mesotherapeutic intervention. We report multifocal scalp abscesses with subcutaneous fat necrosis as a direct result of mesotherapy; therefore, requiring extensive surgical repair.

  4. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  5. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m2) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between subcutaneous knee fat thickness and chondromalacia patellae on magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hong Kuan; Donnellan, John; Ryan, Davinia; Torreggiani, William C

    2013-08-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a common cause of anterior knee pain in young patients and can be detected noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between subcutaneous fat thickness around the knee joint on axial MRIs as a surrogate marker of obesity, with the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae. A retrospective review was conducted of knee MRIs in 170 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Imaging was performed over a 12-month period on a 1.5T MRI system with a dedicated extremity coil. Two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal imaging assessed each examination in consensus for the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae and graded positive studies from 0 (absent) to 3 (full cartilage thickness defect). Measurement of subcutaneous knee fat thickness was obtained on the medial aspect of the knee. MRI findings of chondromalacia patellae were present in 33 patients (19.4%), of which, there were 11 grade 1 lesions (33.3%), 9 grade 2 lesions (27.3%), and 13 grade 3 lesions (39.4%). The mean subcutaneous knee fat thickness was significantly higher in the chondromalacia patellae group for all grades compared with the normal group (P chondromalacia patellae (R = 0.48 [95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.68]; P chondromalacia patellae. Subcutaneous knee fat thickness as a surrogate marker of obesity was positively associated with the presence and severity of chondromalacia patellae on MRI. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Büşra; Ay, Lamise; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-04-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Not much is known about the associations with other measures of body composition. We assessed the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with the development of subcutaneous fat mass measured as peripheral and central skinfold thickness measurements in early childhood, in a population-based prospective cohort study from early fetal life onward in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The study was performed in 907 mothers and their children at the ages of 1.5, 6 and 24 months. As compared to non-smoking mothers, mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy were more likely to have a younger age and a lower educational level. Their children had a lower birth weight, higher risk of small size for gestational age and were breastfed for a shorter duration (P-values smoking mothers, mothers who smoked in first trimester only and mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy (P > 0.05). Also, the reported number of cigarettes smoked by mothers in both first and third trimester of pregnancy were not associated with peripheral, central and total subcutaneous fat mass in the offspring at the ages of 1.5, 6 and 24 months. Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy does not influence subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. Follow-up studies are needed in children at older ages and to identify associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with other measures of body composition.

  8. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM, as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2 of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434. Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM.

  9. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbridge, B.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Academic Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: brent.burbridge@usask.ca

    2007-04-15

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  10. Consumer sensory evaluation, fatty acid composition, and shelf-life of ground beef with subcutaneous fat trimmings from different carcass locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Harbison, Amanda L; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-06-01

    Brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round subcutaneous fat trim were used to produce ground beef patties then evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, volatile chemical compounds and consumer sensory evaluation. Color, TBARS, consumer sensory evaluation, and cook/freezer loss did not differ (P>0.05) among carcass fat locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P=0.044) in the ground beef using brisket fat than using the chuck and flank fat. Patties made with brisket fat were higher in cis-vaccenic acid (P=0.016) and the saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P=0.018) than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P=0.013) in patties using flank and plate fat. Ground beef with brisket fat was higher (P=0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Altering the profile of non-polar, triglyceride fatty acids has no effect on sensory flavor or major volatile chemical compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A history of cranial radiotherapy is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in men with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.J.F.; Alkemade, A.; Venema, H.W.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endocrine deficiencies, like GH and estrogen deficiencies, are likely candidates to explain increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in patients with pituitary insufficiency. However, recent reports pointed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) as an additional determinant of an unfavorable

  12. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  13. Effect of melatonin on expression of leptin in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin (MLT on protein and mRNA expression of leptin (Lep in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin resistance (IR rats. Methods Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=27 and control group (CN group, n=10. Rats in model group were fed with high glucose diet for 6 weeks. Twenty rats having developed IR in the model group were further randomly divided into two groups: IR group (n=10 and melatonin group (MLT group, n=10. Rats in CN group and MLT group were fed with 10mg/(kg.d of standard chow or MLT, respectively, for 6 weeks from the beginning of the 7th week. At the end of the 12th week, the subcutaneous fat tissue was harvested from bilateral inguinal areas of the rats for the evaluation of the protein and mRNA expression of Lep by immunohistochemistry and RTPCR. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting serum leptin (Lep, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, malondialdehyde (MDA and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly lower (P0.05. The protein and mRNA expressions of Lep in subcutaneous adipose tissue were significantly higher in IR group than in CN group (P<0.01, while they were significantly lower in MLT group than in IR group (P<0.01. Conclusion MLT may improve IR and the status of oxidation stress, and inhibit the over expression of Lep protein and mRNA in subcutaneous fat tissue in the high-glucose diet-induced IR rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.04

  14. A history of cranial radiotherapy is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in men with pituitary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, Anke J; Alkemade, Anneke; Venema, Henk W; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2012-04-01

    Endocrine deficiencies, like GH and estrogen deficiencies, are likely candidates to explain increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in patients with pituitary insufficiency. However, recent reports pointed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) as an additional determinant of an unfavorable fat distribution. Therefore, we determined the effect of CRT on abdominal fat distribution in men with treated pituitary insufficiency. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-five consecutive male subjects (16 men with and 19 men without CRT aged 62±12 and 56±14 years respectively, P=0.175) visiting our Endocrine Outpatient Clinic for pituitary insufficiency were invited to participate in this study. A standardized single-slice abdominal CT scan at the level of fourth lumbar vertebra was performed to determine visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio. In addition, we assessed body mass index, total fat percentage with bioelectrical impedance analysis, resting energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry, calorie intake using a diary, and serum hormone concentrations. Subjects with CRT had a smaller subcutaneous fat area (225.1 (71.1-480.7) vs 269.0 (133.2-59.9) cm(2), P=0.022) and a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (0.79 (0.39-1.55) vs 0.63 (0.23-0.88), P=0.001) than subjects without CRT. Both the groups were comparable for body mass index, waist-hip ratio, resting energy expenditure, and calorie intake. Importantly, serum hormone concentrations were similar. In men treated for pituitary insufficiency, previous CRT is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio.

  15. Impact of skin-subcutaneous fat layer thickness on electrical impedance myography measurements: an initial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, A W; Chin, A B; Lee, K S; Rutkove, S B

    2007-11-01

    To determine the impact of skin-subcutaneous fat layer thickness on electrical impedance myography (EIM) measurements. Linear 50 kHz EIM was performed on quadriceps of 62 healthy subjects (mean age 52.2+/-20.6 years) with a wide variety of skin-subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thicknesses, as measured by ultrasound. Correlations were sought between the main EIM outcome parameter phase (theta) and SFL thickness. A multiple regression analysis was also performed for theta with SFL thickness and age as independent variables. Mean skin-fat thickness was significantly different (p<0.01) between men (0.76+/-0.23 cm) and women (1.43+/-0.51 cm). Neither linear nor quadratic fits produced significant correlations between theta and SFL thickness. A significant but weak positive correlation (r(2)=0.14, p<0.05) was seen between age and SFL thickness in women, but not in men. A strong negative correlation between age and theta was observed for both men (r(2)=0.48, p<0.01) and women (r(2)=0.68, p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, age but not SFL thickness was found to have a significant association with theta. SFL thickness does not contribute substantially to the phase measured by linear-EIM. EIM data can be interpreted confidently in individuals with varying SFL thickness.

  16. Glucocorticoid receptor ChIP-sequencing of subcutaneous fat reveals modulation of inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Brock, Clifton O; Volden, Paul A; Hernandez, Kyle; Skor, Maxwell; Kocherginsky, Masha; Park, Julie E; Brady, Matthew J; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2015-11-01

    To identify glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated chromatin sequences and target genes in primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat. GR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing (seq) methodology in subcutaneous human adipocytes treated ex vivo with dexamethasone (dex) was optimized to identify genome-wide dex-dependent GR-binding regions (GBRs). Gene expression analyses were performed in parallel ± dex treatment. Fat was obtained from four female surgical patients without obesity with a median age of 50.5 years. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 219 dex-associated GBRs. Of these, 136 GBRs were located within 100 kb of the transcriptional start site and associated with 123 genes. Combining these data with dex-induced gene expression, 70 of the 123 putative direct target genes were significantly up- or downregulated following 4 hours of dex treatment. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the top 10 pathways reflected regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was identified as a potential direct GR target gene. This is the first report of genome-wide GR ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis in human fat. The results implicate regulation of key GR target genes that are involved in dampening inflammation and promoting cellular metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Allometry in carcasses of lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group, with approximately 100 days of age, average body of 16.24 ± 1.78 kg, were slaughtered with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mmof subcutaneous fat thickness, measured by ultrasound in the Longissimus, to evaluate the allometric growth. Lambs fed a complete pelleted diet calculated to ensure a daily weight gain of0.30 kg. Slaughtering was performed as the female lambs reached the pre-established fat thickness. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4ºC, chilled carcasses were cut in half and weighed. The right side was separated into five sections to determine the allometry of carcasses and cuts. Neck and rib showed isogonic growth in all treatments. Loin has remained late growth to 2.0 and3.0 mm. Shoulder and leg were isogonic growth in the treatments 3.0 and4.0 mm. The leg in relation to half carcass showed the greatest correlation. The cuts exhibited differentiated development in the growth rates of tissues. It is recommended to slaughter female lambs when they reach3.0 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness, since the carcass has already reached physiological maturity. Shoulder and leg cuts are best suited for dissection for presenting the highest correlation with the carcass in females of the Pantaneiro group.

  18. Sub-cutaneous fat thickness measured by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and calipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P A; Sowood, P J; Belyavin, A; Cohen, J B; Smith, F W

    1988-06-01

    Sub-cutaneous fat thickness was measured at 12 sites on the body surface of 24 males and 26 females using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skinfold calipers, and A-mode ultrasound. The mean of the 12 fat thickness measurements and individual site thicknesses were compared between individuals using analysis of variance. In males, the mean thicknesses for ultrasound and calipers were similar (P greater than 0.05) but both were less than the MRI (P less than 0.001). MRI and ultrasound were similar in females but less than calipers (P less than 0.001). A good between-subject correlation was found between all three methods in the males but only the calipers and MRI were well correlated in females. Within-subject correlations are poor for all measures and in both sexes. Factor loadings for a varimax rotation of two principal components indicate that the fat is distributed in 1 of 2 patterns: either principally on the trunk or on the limbs. The principal component analysis and the result of canonical correlations obtained from the factor loadings confirm the findings of the analysis of variance, in that a general level of fatness is measurable by all three methods over a range of subjects. However, the pattern of fat thicknesses measured over a number of specific sites by one method of measurement is unlikely to be duplicated by either of the other two methods on the same individual.

  19. Effects of bariatric surgery on cardiac ectopic fat: lesser decrease in epicardial fat compared to visceral fat loss and no change in myocardial triglyceride content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Jacquier, Alexis; Kober, Frank; Abdesselam, Ines; Cuisset, Thomas; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Emungania, Olivier; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-10-09

    This study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss on cardiac ectopic fat using 3T magnetic resonance imaging in morbid obesity. Heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in obese patients. Deposition of cardiac ectopic fat has been related to increased heart risk. Whether sustained weight loss can modulate epicardial fat or myocardial fat is unknown. Twenty-three morbidly obese patients underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), magnetic resonance imaging to assess epicardial fat volume (EFV), cardiac function, and computed tomography visceral abdominal fat (VAF) measurements at baseline and 6 months after BS. The BS reduced body mass index significantly, from 43.1±4.5 kg/m2 to 32.3±4.0 kg/m2, subcutaneous fat from 649±162 cm2 to 442±127 cm2, VAF from 190±83 cm2 to 107±44 cm2, and EFV from 137±37 ml to 98±25 ml (all ploss (ploss in EFV was limited (-27±11%) compared to VAF diminution (-40±19%). The EFV variation was not correlated with percentage of body mass index or VAF loss (p=0.007). The ratio of %EFV to %VAF loss decreased with sleep apnea syndrome (1.34±0.3 vs. 0.52±0.08, pfat deposition, with a significant decrease in epicardial fat and no change in myocardial fat. Epicardial fat volume loss was limited in patients with sleep apnea. (Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Epicardial Adipose Tissue and on Myocardial Function; NCT01284816). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo assessment of subcutaneous fat in dogs by real-time ultrasonography and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan-Carreira, Rita; Martins, Luis; Miranda, Sónia; Olivério, Pedro; Silva, Severiano R

    2016-10-20

    Systems for estimating body condition score (BCS) are currently used in canine practice to monitor fatness levels. These tools are cheap and easy to use but lack the necessary precision to monitor small changes in body fat, particularly during weight control treatments or in research. The present work aims to study the application of real-time ultrasonography (RTU) together with image analysis in the assessment of subcutaneous fat depots in dogs. Ultrasound images were collected from five anatomical locations (chest, flank, abdomen, thigh and lumbar) from 28 healthy dogs of different breeds and with a body weight (BW) ranging from 5.2 to 33.0 kg. BCS was collected by visual appraisal using a 5-point scale. Subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) was estimated from RTU images, using the average of three measurements taken in fat deposits located above the muscles represented in each image. Correlations were established between SFT and BW or BCS as well as a classification of BCS-based fatness [overweight (BCS = 4), ideal (BCS = 3) and lean (BCS = 2)]. SFT was found to differ between the five regions considered (P dogs included in the study and also those correlating most with BW, in contrast to the chest, which showed the least variation. Overall, a strong correlation was found between BCS and SFT. The highest correlations were established for the flank, abdomen and lumbar areas. In every anatomical area, a decrease in SFT was observed across all three BCS classes, ranging from 48 to 65 % among overweight and ideal dogs, and from 46 to 83 % among ideal and lean dogs. Preliminary data showed that within this population there was a strong correlation between BCS and SFT estimated from RTU images. It was also observed that RTU measurements for fat thickness differed among the anatomical points surveyed suggesting differences in their sensitivity to a change in BCS. The images displaying the best prediction value for fatness variations were those collected at the

  1. miRNA-32 Drives Brown Fat Thermogenesis and Trans-activates Subcutaneous White Fat Browning in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Raymond; Hussain, Nurul Attiqah; Zhang, Qiongyi; Chang, Chengwei; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Yanyun; Cao, Lei; Han, Weiping; Stunkel, Walter; Xu, Feng

    2017-05-09

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and subcutaneous white fat browning are essential components of the thermogenic response to cold stimulus in mammals. microRNAs have been shown to regulate both processes in cis. Here, we identify miR-32 as a BAT-specific super-enhancer-associated miRNA in mice that is selectively expressed in BAT and further upregulated during cold exposure. Inhibiting miR-32 in vivo led to impaired cold tolerance, decreased BAT thermogenesis, and compromised white fat browning as a result of reduced serum FGF21 levels. Further examination showed that miR-32 directly represses its target gene Tob1, thereby activating p38 MAP kinase signaling to drive FGF21 expression and secretion from BAT. BAT-specific miR-32 overexpression led to increased BAT thermogenesis and serum FGF21 levels, which further promotes white fat browning in trans. Our results suggested miR-32 and Tob1 as modulators of FGF21 signaling that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipid composition and sensory traits of meat from Pantaneiro lambs slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid composition and sensory traits of the meat from female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT were evaluated by ultrasound. Twenty-four lambs weighing 16.24 ± 1.78 kg were confined in feedlots. These animals were fed with pelleted diet formulated to provide a daily weight gain of 0.30 kg. As the lambs reached the pre-set SFT in the weekly evaluation by ultrasound, they were slaughtered on the day following the measurement, regardless of their weight. The SFT did not alter the fatty acid profile of meat from Pantaneiro lambs. For the sensory analysis, the meat from the animals slaughtered with 4.00 mm SFT received the best score for variables overall acceptance and characteristic flavor as compared with the females slaughtered with 2.00 mm SFT. The treatment with 3.00 mm SFT, however, did not differ from the others. For sensory traits odor and juiciness, no effect of SFT was found. It is recommended to slaughter lambs with 3.00 mm thickness of subcutaneous fat on the loin, because covered better number of favorable attributes in sensory analysis.

  3. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... was quantified. Results: In the subjects given vitamin D-3, the median concentrations of serum 25(OH)D-3, fat vitamin D-3, and fat 25(OH)D-3 were 99 nmol/l, 209 ng/g, and 3.8 ng/g, respectively; and correspondingly in the placebo group 62 nmol/l, 32 ng/g, and 2.5 ng/g. If assuming an equal amount of vitamin D-3...

  4. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gollisch, Katja S. C.; Brandauer, Josef; Jessen, Niels; Toyoda, Taro; Nayer, Ali; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity improves glucose tolerance and decreases adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the effects of exercise training on subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (parametrial) adipose tissue in rats that were fed a chow diet (13% fat) or made insulin resistant by a high-fat diet (60% fat). Sprague-Dawley rats performed 4 wk of voluntary wheel running or were kept as sedentary controls. The training groups fed chow and the high-fat diet achieved similar running distances (8.8 ±...

  5. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  6. Instrumental colour of Iberian ham subcutaneous fat and lean (biceps femoris): Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapiso, Ana I; García, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    The influence of crossbreeding (Iberian vs Iberian×Duroc 50% pigs) and rearing system (Montanera vs Pienso) on the instrumental colour of Iberian ham (subcutaneous fat and biceps femoris muscle) and the relationships to sensory appearance and chemical composition were researched by using a factorial design. In subcutaneous fat, a significant effect (pPienso hams than in Montanera hams. CIEL*a*b* variables of subcutaneous fat were closely related to subcutaneous fatty acid composition, the largest correlationships involving L* (L* and 18:0, 0.652, p<0.001; L* and 18:1, -0.616, p<0.001). Instrumental colour variables and sensory appearance were also correlated (L* and fat pinkness, -0.539, p<0.001). In lean (biceps femoris), instrumental colour data was not affected by crossbreeding and rearing system. CIEL*a*b* variables were not related to chemical composition (moisture, NaCl, intramuscular fat and pigment content), although they were correlated to sensory appearance (L* and marbling, 0.419, p=0.014).

  7. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hypocalcemia Associated with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFNN is a rare benign inflammatory disorder of the adipose tissue but may be complicated by hypercalcemia or less frequently, hypocalcemia, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Here we report the case of a neonate with subcutaneous fat necrosis who surprisingly developed hypocalcemia instead of hypercalcemia. A full-term female neonate was delivered by emergency cesarean section for fetal distress and was subsequently admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit. The mother’s pregnancy was uncomplicated up to delivery. Her anthropometric measurements were birth weight 4.1 kg (95th percentile, length 50 cm (50th percentile, and head circumference 34.5 cm (50th percentile. The Apgar scores were 2, 3, and 8 at 1, 5, 10 minutes, respectively. There was no abnormal facies and she was fed with breast milk only. On the seventh day of life, the infant was found to have multiple nodules located in the neck, upper back, and right arm. The nodules were firm, well circumscribed with no evidence of tenderness. Her total serum calcium level was 1.55 mmol/L (normal range 2.2 to 2.7 mmol/L and this was associated with hypotonia and poor sucking reflex. The packed cell volume was 40%. The serum albumin and blood glucose levels were normal. Her blood culture was sterile. A clinical diagnosis of hypocalcemia associated with SCFNN was made. The infant was treated for hypocalcemia (using calcium gluconate and was carefully followed-up. The skin lesions resolved completely three months after their eruption. Repeat serum calcium measurements at three, six, and nine months of age were all within normal limits. Although SCFNN is a rare benign clinical condition, it may be complicated by hypocalcemia. Therefore, periodic measurements of the serum calcium levels is warranted in such a patient, beginning from the neonatal period up to the age of six months.

  9. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  10. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  11. Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, N.; Kanaya, A.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, Frances A; Seidell, J C

    AIMS: We investigated whether low subcutaneous thigh fat is an independent risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, and whether these associations differ between sexes, and between white and black adults. Our secondary aim was to investigate which body composition characteristics (lean

  12. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    ...) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets...

  13. Productive performance and economic analysis of Santa Inês sheep slaughtered at different subcutaneous fat levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Queiroz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and economic performance of feedlot-finished Santa Inês lambs slaughtered at three subcutaneous fat levels. Twenty-four uncastrated male lambs with 100 ± 10 days of age and an initial body weight of 22.6 ± 3.9 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments and slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm. A completely randomized design consisting of three treatments and eight repetitions per treatment was adopted. Productivity parameters included final body weight, dry matter intake, daily and total weight gains, and feed conversion. For the determination of economically viable fat thickness for slaughter, only direct production costs such as lamb purchase costs, feed costs and cost of labor were considered, and revenue, expenses and profit were analyzed. The final body weight and total weight gain differed significantly (P<0.05 between treatments. Lambs slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.0 and 4.0 mm had a higher final body weight (33.84 ± 1.71 and 34.65 ± 1.79 kg, respectively and total weight gain (9.06 ± 1.04 and 11.82 ± 1.02 kg. However, lambs with 3.0 mm fat thickness exhibited better economic results (profit of US$ 3.10 per kg cold carcass. The slaughter of Santa Inês lambs at 3.0 mm subcutaneous fat thickness is recommended since it provides better productive performance, higher profit per kilogram carcass, and greater profitability.

  14. Ontogenesis changes and sex dimorphism of subcutaneous fat distribution: 12-year longitudinal study of children and adolescents from Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowska, Maria; Suder, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the direction and tempo of subcutaneous fat redistribution during ontogenesis, appearing sex differences and relations to puberty on the basis of 12-year longitudinal data of 270 boys and 154 girls from Cracow, Poland. They all had complete data (from 7 to 18-years old) of three trunk (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac) and three extremity (triceps, knee, medial calf) skinfold thicknesses. The type of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution was determined based on trunk to extremity ratio to analyze the process of fat redistribution. The analysis included medians of extremity and trunk skinfolds and medians of their sums and age altered frequency of central and peripheral type of fat distribution. To present empirical values, the median variability of the sums of three trunk and extremity skinfolds was calculated using a third degree polynomial as an age function. Polynomial regression of extremity skinfolds median explained 88% of its variability (F = 71.2, P < 0.001) and for trunk skinfolds as far as 96% (F = 111.65, P < 0.001). The median variability curves of both types of distribution crossed at the age of 11.88 in girls and 13.45 in boys directly preceding puberty stage, which indicated clear dependencies between fat redistribution and puberty. The results showed a tight connection between the process of subcutaneous fat redistribution and puberty, and also sex dimorphism of the process. More dynamic fat redistribution in boys contrasted trunk and extremity fatness, while in girls less dynamic changes resulted in more even fatness. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Influence of subcutaneous fat on mechanomyographic signals at three levels of voluntary effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study aims to assess the influence of different skinfold thicknesses (ST and their relation to the attenuation of the mechanomyographic (MMG signal at different force levels (maximal voluntary contraction – MVC, 40% of MVC and 70% of MVC of the rectus femoris muscle. Methods Fifteen volunteers were divided in two groups: ST lower than 10mm (G35 (7 participants. Student t tests were employed to investigate differences between G35 regarding MMG analysis parameters (acceleration root mean square – aRMS, zero crossing – ZC, and median frequency – MDF, for the X, Y and Z axes, as well as for the modulus of these three axes. Results We found that thicker layers of body fat act as attenuator filters for the MMG signal [MDFMVC: X (p = 0.005, Z (p = 0.003; MDF70%MVC: X (p = 0.034; ZCMVC: Z (p = 0.037, modulus (p = 0.005; ZC70%MVC: Z (p = 0.047]. We found significant correlation between ST values and aRMS in three levels, in the Yaxis (p = 0.591, for the group G35 in 40%MVC (R2 = 0.610, and 70%MVC (R2 = 0.592. The MDF parameter showed correlation with ST values only in the Yaxis in 70%MVC (R2 = 0.700 for G>35. Conclusions We observed MMG signal attenuation in at least one of the parameters analyzed for each level of the rectus femoris muscle force, indicating that MMG signals are significantly attenuated with increasing thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer.

  17. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50 and free-ranging (n = 57 female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01, indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5 was lower (P<0.001 than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5. In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  18. Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT, and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1 anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, (2 DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF, percent trunk fat (PTF, trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR, (3 MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5, soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001 than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007, and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006 than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06. In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both. WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008, but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry, and PTF and TEFR (DXA are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

  19. Subcutaneous fat pads on body MRI - an early sign of congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG (CDG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher A.; Schulze, Andreas [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Yoon, Grace [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Neurology, Toronto (Canada); Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Paediatric Neuroradiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Infants with phosphomannomutase 2 - congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG), formerly known as CDG1a, present with failure to thrive, visceral dysfunction, thromboembolic events and developmental delays noted before 6 months of age. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the considerable variability in phenotype. Characteristic, but not universal, features include inverted nipples and abnormal subcutaneous fat pads. Neuroimaging performed in the first 4 months of life may be normal, although cerebellar and brainstem atrophy is usual after 3 months of age. Cerebellar and brainstem atrophy have been noted as early as 11 days of life. We present an infant whose typical subcutaneous and retroperitoneal fat deposits were clinically occult, but identified on body MRI. (orig.)

  20. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  1. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally greater than that in high-fat diets.

  2. Interrelations between fat distribution, muscle lipid content, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance: effect of moderate weight loss in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, Gloria; Di Francesco, Vincenzo; Zoico, Elena; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Benati, Claudia; Bambara, Valentina; Negri, Mauro; Bosello, Ottavio; Zamboni, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    Interrelations between fat distribution, muscle lipid infiltration, adipocytokines, insulin resistance, and moderate weight loss have not been investigated in obese older subjects. The objective was to evaluate relations between fat distribution, muscle lipid content, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance in older women and the effects of moderate weight loss. In 35 healthy women aged 58-83 y, body mass index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were evaluated. A midthigh single computed tomography scan was performed to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT), intermuscular AT (IAT), muscular tissue, and muscle lipid infiltration, evaluated as low-density lean tissue. Metabolic variables, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment, adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in all subjects and after weight loss in a subgroup of 15 obese women. Waist circumference and SAD were positively correlated with leptin and insulin resistance and negatively correlated with adiponectin. Adiponectin was associated negatively with insulin resistance and positively with HDL cholesterol, whereas leptin was positively associated with insulin resistance and triacylglycerols. Midthigh subcutaneous AT was associated with insulin resistance and leptin, whereas IAT was associated with triacylglycerols. Stepwise regression with insulin resistance as the dependent variable and body mass index, SAD, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and midthigh subcutaneous AT as independent variables showed that SAD entered the regression first (R(2) = 0.492) followed by adiponectin (R(2) = 0.63). After moderate weight loss, midthigh subcutaneous AT, IAT, low-density lean tissue, leptin, and insulin resistance decreased significantly; no significant changes in adiponectin were observed. Fat distribution

  3. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xianghua; Cheng, Shuiqin; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Guisheng; Chen, Wencui; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens. Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group. Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in almost all

  4. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  5. Regional composition of carcass and tissue composition of cuts from lambs slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Santana Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT on the regional composition of the carcass, the tissue composition of cuts, and the leg muscularity index of Santa Inês lambs. This experiment involved 24 uncastrated male lambs at approximately 100 days of age and at an average live weight of 22.70 ± 3.75 kg that were kept in the feedlot, where they received a complete pelleted diet formulated to provide a daily gain of 0.30 kg. The animals were slaughtered as they reached the pre-defined SFT of 2.00, 3.00, and 4.00 mm, evaluated by ultrasonography. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 mm SFT had a heavier shoulder (1.80 kg and leg (2.99 kg, differing from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm. No significant differences were observed (P > 0.05 between the treatments for the percentages of muscle in the cuts, which averaged 48.38% for the neck, 58.71% for the shoulder, 43.87% for the ribs, 53.56% for the loin, and 64.52% for the leg. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 and 3.00 mm SFT differed from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm SFT for the percentage of total fat in the shoulder, which averaged 20.10, 19.02, and 15.79%, respectively. The animals slaughtered with 2.00 mm of fat exhibited the highest percentage of bone in the loin (20.23%. Leg muscularity was lower (0.34 in those slaughtered with 2.00 mm of subcutaneous fat. Slaughtering Santa Inês lambs with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses yields different regional compositions of the carcass, tissue compositions of cuts, and leg muscularity indices. It is recommended to slaughter Santa Inês lambs when they reach a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.00 mm.

  6. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1......; BMI 39.0 (sem 1.2) kg/m(2)) in a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Compared with the placebo, rGLP-1 administered as PSI and by CSI generated a 15 % reduction in mean food intake per meal (P=0.02) after 5 d treatment. A weight loss of 0.55 (sem 0.2) kg (P... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....

  7. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Stephens, N A; Gao, D; Bao, Y; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-02-01

    Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss 5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG concentrations were quantified. In the second cohort, ZAG release by SAT was determined in 18 weight-stable and 15 cachectic cancer patients. The effect of ZAG on lipolysis was evaluated in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue remodelling in cancer cachexia was evident through shrunken adipocytes with increased fibrosis. In cachectic cancer patients, ZAG mRNA was upregulated (2.7-fold, P=0.028) while leptin mRNA decreased (2.2-fold, P=0.018); serum ZAG levels were found to be unaffected. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA correlated positively with weight loss (r=0.51, P=0.01) and serum glycerol levels (r=0.57, P=0.003). Zinc-α2-glycoprotein release by SAT was also elevated in cachectic patients (1.5-fold, P=0.024) and correlated with weight loss (r=0.50, P=0.003). Recombinant ZAG stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression and secretion by adipose tissue is enhanced in cachectic cancer patients. Given its lipid-mobilising effect, ZAG may contribute to adipose atrophy associated with cancer cachexia in human beings.

  8. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose...... tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio......-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI...

  9. c-Abl inhibition mitigates diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Sun, Jian-Guang; Wang, Ji-Qiu; Li, Binhua; Liu, Qingsong; Ning, Guang; Jin, Wanzhu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. The expression of c-Abl in different fat tissues from obese humans or mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were first analysed by western blotting and quantitative PCR. We employed conditional deletion of the c-Abl gene (also known as Abl1) in adipose tissue using Fabp4-Cre and 6-week-old mice were fed with either a chow diet (CD) or an HFD. Age-matched wild-type mice were treated with the c-Abl inhibitor nilotinib or with vehicle and exposed to either CD or HFD, followed by analysis of body mass, fat mass, glucose and insulin tolerance. Histological staining, ELISA and biochemical analysis were used to clarify details of changes in physiology and molecular signalling. c-Abl was highly expressed in subcutaneous fat from obese humans and HFD-induced obese mice. Conditional knockout of c-Abl in adipose tissue improved insulin sensitivity and mitigated HFD-induced body mass gain, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Consistently, treatment with nilotinib significantly reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Further biochemical analyses suggested that c-Abl inhibition improved whole-body insulin sensitivity by reducing HFD-triggered insulin resistance and increasing adiponectin in subcutaneous fat. Our findings define a new biological role for c-Abl in the regulation of diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat. This suggests it may become a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  10. Effect of genotype on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 Celta breed pigs were used to investigate the effect of genotype (Barcina, Carballiña and Santiaguesa lines on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular (IMF and subcutaneous fat (SF. The total IMF content was influenced by genotype (P Un total de 45 cerdos de raza Celta fueron usados para estudiar el efecto del genotipo (líneas Barcina, Carballiña y Santiaguesa sobre la composición de ácidos grasos de la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. El contenido en grasa intramuscular estuvo influenciado por el genotipo (P < 0.05; la Barcina presentó los mayores valores (5.21% vs 1.99 y 3.59 para las líneas Santiaguesa y Carballiña respectivamente. Los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular de la línea Santiaguesa mostraron mayores contenidos de PUFA que las otras dos líneas. Los índices nutricionales también se vieron influenciados por el genotipo; la línea Santiguesa presentó los menores valores de los índices aterogénico y trombogénico y los mayores de la relación entre ácidos grasos hipo e hipercolesterolémicos. En los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular se obtuvieron mayores valores de MUFA y menores de PUFA (P < 0.05 que en la grasa subcutánea. En los lípidos polares, las muestras de grasa intramuscular presentaron los mayores valores de PUFA (entre 37–44%. Finalmente, la grasa subcutánea mostró valores superiores de MUFA y SFA que la intramuscular (P < 0.05. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa intramuscular y de espesor de grasa subcutánea implica que su deposición puede estar regulada por diferentes mecanismos.

  11. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  12. Pivotal Role for the Visceral Fat Compartment in the Release of Persistent Organic Pollutants During Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirinck, E; Dirtu, A C; Jorens, P G; Malarvannan, G; Covaci, A; Van Gaal, L F

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are implicated as potential endocrine disruptors and obesogens. These lipophilic substances are preferentially stored in the fat compartment and released into the circulation during weight loss. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of abdominal adiposity, and visceral adiposity in particular, to the increase of serum PCB levels during weight loss. Fourty-five obese women were prospectively recruited. Twenty individuals received dietary counseling and 25 underwent bariatric surgery. Anthropometric data were collected and intra-abdominal adiposity was assessed by measurement computed tomography scanning of the abdominal fat compartment, delineating the visceral and subcutaneous compartment. Serum levels of 27 PCBs were determined and the sum of all PCBs (ΣPCBs) calculated. Follow-up measurements of anthropometric data, computed tomography scanning, and PCB levels were performed after 6 months in all patients. In patients who lost weight, serum ΣPCB levels displayed an increase after 6 months of approximately 50%. Both correlation and regression analysis, focusing on the relative contribution of the visceral vs the subcutaneous fat compartment, suggested that the increase in ΣPCB serum levels after 6 months of weight loss was more pronounced in patients losing relatively more visceral adipose tissue. This trend could be established in the diet-treated, but not the surgery-treated subgroup. Our study suggests that the contribution of PCBs released from the visceral fat compartment might be more pronounced compared with the subcutaneous fat compartment during weight loss. These findings are present in the entire study group whereas subanalysis of the diet vs surgery groups suggested the same effect in the diet group but failed to reach statistical significance in the surgery group. This suggests a possible weight-loss method-specific effect.

  13. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor ChIP-sequencing of primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat reveals modulation of inflammatory pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Brock, Clifton O.; Volden, Paul A.; Hernandez, Kyle; Skor, Maxwell; Kocherginsky, Masha; Park, Julie E.; Brady, Matthew J.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated chromatin sequences and target genes in primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Methods GR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing methodology in subcutaneous human adipocytes treated ex-vivo with dexamethasone (dex) was optimized to identify genome-wide dex-dependent GR binding regions (GBRs). Gene expression analyses were performed in parallel ± dex treatment. Results Fat was obtained from four non-obese female surgical patients with a median age of 50.5 years. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 219 dex-associated GBRs. Of these, 136 GBRs were located within 100 kb of the transcriptional start site and associated with 123 genes. Combining these data with dex-induced gene expression, 70 of the 123 putative direct target genes were significantly up- or downregulated following four hours of dex treatment. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the top 10 pathways reflected regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was identified as a potential direct GR target gene. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genome-wide GR ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis in human fat. The results implicate regulation of key GR target genes that are involved in dampening inflammation and promoting cellular metabolism. PMID:26408078

  15. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  16. Suture Closure versus Non-Closure of Subcutaneous Fat and Cosmetic Outcome after Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Husslein

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of subcutaneous fat suture closure versus non-closure at cesarean section (CS on long-term cosmetic outcome.Women undergoing planned or unplanned CS were randomized to either subcutaneous fat suture closure or non-closure using a 1∶1 allocation algorithm. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Scar evaluation was performed after two and six months. Primary outcome measures were Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS summary scores six months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS summary scores, retraction of the scar below the level of the surrounding skin, duration of surgery, and development of hematoma, seroma, surgical site infection (SSI or wound disruption. Data were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.A total of 116 women were randomized and 91 participants, 47 in the closure and 44 in the non-closure group, completed the trial and were analyzed. There were no differences in patient morphometrics or surgery indications between groups. At two and six months no significant differences were found with respect to POSAS or VSS scores between groups. After two months significantly more women in the non-closure group described their scar as being retracted below the level of the skin (36% vs. 15%, p = 0.02 whereas no difference was observed at six months. There were significantly more hematomas in the non-closure (25% compared to the closure group (4% (p = 0.005. There was no difference in duration of surgery, SSI, seroma formation or wound disruption between groups.Suture closure of the subcutaneous fat at CS does not affect long-term cosmetic outcome. (Level I evidence.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01542346.

  17. Applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to segment and quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat areas from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with a number of diseases and accurately assessment of subtypes of adipose tissue volume plays a significant role in predicting disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning models to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral (VFA) fat areas depicting on CT images. A dataset involving CT images from 40 patients were retrospectively collected and equally divided into two independent groups (i.e. training and testing group). The new CAD scheme consisted of two sequential convolutional neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. Selection-CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to automatically select CT slices belonging to abdomen areas and SegmentationCNN was trained using 84,000 fat-pixel patches to classify fat-pixels as belonging to SFA or VFA. Then, data from the testing group was used to evaluate the performance of the optimized CAD scheme. Comparing to manually labelled results, the classification accuracy of CT slices selection generated by Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using Segmentation-CNN yielded 96.8%. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep learning based CAD scheme to recognize human abdominal section from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from CT slices with high agreement compared with subjective segmentation results.

  18. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1-year following weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R.; Brock, David W.; Byrne, Nuala M; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Coral, Pedro Del; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect aerobic and resistance exercise training has on gain of visceral fat during the year following weight loss. After being randomly assigned to aerobic training, resistance training, or no exercise training, 45 European-American and 52 African-American women lost 12.3±2.5 kg on a 800 kcal/day diet. Computed tomography was used to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue while total fat and regional fat (leg, arm, and trunk) were measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry after weight loss and one year following the weight loss. Since not all the subjects adhered to the 2 time/week 40 minutes/day exercise training during the one year follow-up, subjects were divided into five groups for analysis; aerobic adherers, aerobic non-adherers, resistance adherers, resistance non-adherers and no exercise. No significant differences were observed between the aerobic training and resistance training adherers for any variable. However, the aerobic (3.1 kg) and resistance (3.9 kg) exercise adherers gained less weight than any of the other 3 groups (all more than 6.2 kg). In addition, the two exercise adherence groups did not significantly increase visceral fat (exercise groups and the 25% for the non-exercise group. In conclusion, as little as 80 minutes/week aerobic or resistance training had modest positive effects on preventing weight regain following a diet induced weight loss. More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat. PMID:19816413

  19. Browning of subcutaneous fat and higher surface temperature in response to phenotype selection for advanced endurance exercise performance in male DUhTP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Albrecht, E; Walz, C; Tuchscherer, A; Hoeflich, A

    2017-02-01

    For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice. Analysis of peripheral fat pads revealed increased brite (brown-in-white) subcutaneous adipose tissues and in subcutaneous fat from DUhTP mice higher levels of irisin and different markers of fat cell browning like T-box transcription factor (Tbx1), PPARα, and uncoupling protein (UCP1) (P surface temperature of DUhTP mice was increased when compared to controls indicating a physiological effect of increased UCP1 expression. The present study suggests that DUhTP mice exhibit different markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and fat browning without external stimuli. At an age of 43 days, sedentary DUhTP mice have improved metabolic health as judged from lower levels of blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. Consequently, the non-inbred mouse model DUhTP represents a novel model for the identification of fat cell browning mechanisms in white adipose tissues.

  20. Determination of neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat of Iberian pigs from different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to determine the relationship between the content of a branched hydrocarbon (neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat and the feeding system of Iberian pigs during the fattening period previous to slaughter. Thirty-six batches of Iberian pigs, belonging to the four categories of feeding systems described in the Spanish legislation (Bellota, Recebo, Campo and Cebo were studied. These categories differ in their degree of utilization of the natural resources (acorn and pasture of the extensive rearing system or in their level of replacement by concentrated feed. SPE combined with GC-MS techniques were carried out to isolate and to identify hydrocarbons. Recebo and Bellota batches showed the highest levels of neophytadiene content, followed by Campo batches, and finally, batches of the Cebo category. The results showed a great variability between batches from the same feeding category, mainly from Bellota, Recebo and Campo categories, which makes the classification of the animals in these three categories difficult. However, the animals from the Cebo category were correctly classified when reared in intensive conditions.El objetivo del trabajo se centró en determinar el contenido de un hidrocarburo ramificado (neofitadieno en la grasa subcutánea del cerdo ibérico, y su relación con el tipo de alimentación recibida durante la etapa de cebo previa al sacrificio (en la fase final de cebo. Para ello, se estudiaron treinta y seis lotes de cerdos Ibéricos, pertenecientes a las cuatro categorías de calidad en base a la alimentación de los animales establecidas en la Norma de Calidad (Bellota, Recebo, Campo y Cebo. Estas categorías se diferencian en el grado de aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales de la dehesa (bellotas y hierba y en el nivel de sustitución de los mismos por piensos concentrados. Para el aislamiento e identificación de los hidrocarburos se utilizaron técnicas de SPE combinadas con GC-MS. Los

  1. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Carla M. Prado; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and ...

  2. Effects of weight loss using supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on body fat and medium-chain acylcarnitines in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Kang, Miso; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-25

    Our previous study showed that supplementation with a combination of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 reduced the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area in overweight subjects. We aimed to evaluate whether the changes in adiposity after supplementation with Lactobacillus strains were associated with metabolic intermediates. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 66 non-diabetic and overweight individuals. Over a 12-week period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g of probiotic powder, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without the probiotics. To investigate metabolic alterations, we performed plasma metabolomics using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS). Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the levels of octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10) and dodecenoylcarnitine (C12:1) compared with the levels from placebo supplementation. In the probiotic group, the changes in the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area were negatively associated with changes in the levels of C8:1, C14:1, C10 and C12:1 acylcarnitines. In overweight individuals, probiotic-induced weight loss and adiposity reduction from the probiotic supplementation were associated with an increase in medium-chain acylcarnitines.

  3. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  4. Ghrelin Suppression and Fat Loss after Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bawudun, Dilmurat [Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital (China); Xing Yan; Liu Wenya, E-mail: wenyaliu2002@hotmail.com; Huang Yujie [Xinjiang Medical University, Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital (China); Ren Weixin [Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital (China); Ma Mei [Xinjiang Medical University, Animal Research Center, First Affiliated Hospital (China); Xu Xiaodong [Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital (China); Teng Gaojun [Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhong-da Hospital (China)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on plasma ghrelin levels, abdominal fat, and body weight in beagles. Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Fifteen healthy adult beagles (12 male and three female animals) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: LGAE was proceeded with mixed emulsion of bleomycin A{sub 5} hydrochloride and lipiodol (group A), and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group B). Transcatheter saline injections in the left gastric artery were performed as a control. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained at baseline and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after the procedure in all animals. All animals were scanned and measured by multidetector computed tomography at baseline and at week 8 for evaluation of abdominal fat. Results: In LGAE-treated animals, plasma ghrelin and body weight significantly decreased compared to control animals (group A: P = 0.007 and P = 0.000; group B: P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Subcutaneous fat size was also significantly reduced (P = 0.011 and P = 0.027 for groups A and B, respectively). The decreasing percentage in ghrelin levels at week 6 (peak of recovery) of LGAE-treated animals were negatively correlated with the size of area supplied by left gastric artery (r = -0.693, P = 0.026). Conclusion: LGAE could suppress the plasma concentration of ghrelin, which results in subcutaneous fat size reduction and weight loss. Compensatory ghrelin production might occur in the remnant gastric fundus after LGAE.

  5. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  6. Different transcriptional control of metabolism and extracellular matrix in visceral and subcutaneous fat of obese and rimonabant treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Poussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SCAT adipose tissues play different roles in physiology and obesity. The molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion in obesity and following body weight reduction are poorly defined. METHODOLOGY: C57Bl/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 6 months developed low, medium, or high body weight as compared to normal chow fed mice. Mice from each groups were then treated with the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant or vehicle for 24 days to normalize their body weight. Transcriptomic data for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from each group of mice were obtained and analyzed to identify: i genes regulated by HFD irrespective of body weight, ii genes whose expression correlated with body weight, iii the biological processes activated in each tissue using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, iv the transcriptional programs affected by rimonabant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In VAT, "metabolic" genes encoding enzymes for lipid and steroid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism were down-regulated irrespective of body weight whereas "structure" genes controlling cell architecture and tissue remodeling had expression levels correlated with body weight. In SCAT, the identified "metabolic" and "structure" genes were mostly different from those identified in VAT and were regulated irrespective of body weight. GSEA indicated active adipogenesis in both tissues but a more prominent involvement of tissue stroma in VAT than in SCAT. Rimonabant treatment normalized most gene expression but further reduced oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in SCAT but not in VAT. CONCLUSION: VAT and SCAT show strikingly different gene expression programs in response to high fat diet and rimonabant treatment. Our results may lead to identification of therapeutic targets acting on specific fat depots to control obesity.

  7. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh; Halabchi; Mazaheri; Abolhasani; Tabesh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other ...

  8. An ER? agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-fei Miao; Wen Su; Yu-bing Dai; Wan-fu Wu; Bo Huang; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Hao Nguyen; Laure Maneix; You-fei Guan; Margaret Warner; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ER? influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with ...

  9. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  10. The FAT Score, a Fibrosis Score of Adipose Tissue: Predicting Weight-Loss Outcome After Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel Lassen, Pierre; Charlotte, Frederic; Liu, Yuejun; Bedossa, Pierre; Le Naour, Gilles; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Genser, Laurent; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Clément, Karine

    2017-07-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) induces major and sustainable weight loss in many patients. Factors predicting poor weight-loss response (PR) need to be identified to improve patient care. Quantification of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) fibrosis is negatively associated with post-BS weight loss, but whether it could constitute a predictor applicable in clinical routine remains to be demonstrated. To create a semiquantitative score evaluating scAT fibrosis and test its predictive value on weight-loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We created a fibrosis score of adipose tissue (FAT score) integrating perilobular and pericellular fibrosis. Using this score, we characterized 183 perioperative scAT biopsy specimens from severely obese patients who underwent RYGB (n = 85 from a training cohort; n = 98 from a confirmation cohort). PR to RYGB was defined as loss at 1 year (lowest tertile). The link between FAT score and PR was tested in univariate and multivariate models. FAT score was directly associated with increasing scAT fibrosis measured by a standard quantification method (P for trend FAT score interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.76). FAT score ≥2 was significantly associated with PR. The association remained significant after adjustment for age, diabetes status, hypertension, percent fat mass, and interleukin-6 level (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.2; P = 0.003). The FAT score is a new, simple, semiquantitative evaluation of human scAT fibrosis that may help identify patients with a potential limited weight-loss response to RYGB.

  11. Morphology alterations of skin and subcutaneous fat at NIR laser irradiation combined with delivery of encapsulated indocyanine green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of the in vivo photochemical treatment of rats with obesity using indocyanine green (ICG) dissolved in saline or dispersed in an encapsulated form at NIR laser irradiation, which was monitored by tissue sampling and histochemistry. The subcutaneous injection of the ICG solution or ICG encapsulated into polyelectrolyte microcapsules, followed by diode laser irradiation (808 nm, 8 W/cm2, 1 min), resulted in substantial differences in lipolysis of subcutaneous fat. Most of the morphology alterations occurred in response to the laser irradiation if a free-ICG solution had been injected. In such conditions, membrane disruption, stretching, and even delamination in some cases were observed for a number of cells. The encapsulated ICG aroused similar morphology changes but with weakly expressed adipocyte destruction under the laser irradiation. The Cochran Q test rendered the difference between the treatment alternatives statistically significant. By this means, laser treatment using the encapsulated form of ICG seems more promising and could be used for safe layerwise laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  12. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  13. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  14. Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kae-Woei; Tsai, I-Chen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Lee, I-Te; Fu, Chia-Po; Wang, Jun-Sing; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We prospectively enrolled 32 non-diabetic men with MetS for a 3-month weight reduction program mainly by diet control and exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were used to measure EAT, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal visceral fat. Anthropometric parameters, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and serum adipokines were assessed before and after the weight loss program. After a 3-month weight loss program, 27 obese MetS men had significant weight loss >5% (97 ± 14 to 87 ± 14 kg, with a 10.7 % decrease, p fat area (r = -0.673, p = 0.006) were significantly correlated with improvement of OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity index. The decrement ratio of SIVG EAT correlated with improvement of both HOMA-IR and OGTT-derived Matsuda insulin-sensitivity indexes after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with MetS. (Multi-faceted Evaluations Following Weight Reduction in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome NCT 01065753 on Feb 8, 2010).

  15. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between subcutaneous and intramuscular fat content in porcine ham and loin depending on age, breed and FABP3 and LEPR genes transcript abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, M; Ropka-Molik, K; Terman, A; Piórkowska, K; Oczkowicz, M; Bereta, A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the level of intramuscular fat (IMF) in loin (musculus longissimus dorsi) and ham (musculus semimembranosus) and the level of subcutaneous fat in these cuts depending on breed, age and the expression level of FABP3 and LEPR genes. The results obtained showed that only the breed influenced on the level of both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat to the same extent (P ≤ 0.001). The age of animals had an effect on fat content of the cuts (P ≤ 0.001) and to a lower extent on the level of IMF in both muscles (P ≤ 0.05). We confirmed highly significant effect of breed and age on the LEPR mRNA abundance--the expression of the this gene increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) with age and the highest expression was found for the Puławska breed in m. longissimus dorsi and for the Polish Landrace breed in m. semimembranosus. We observed the high correlations between the transcript level of the LEPR gene and the fat content of individual cuts (P ≤ 0.01). The expression level of FABP3 gene influenced the level of IMF (P ≤ 0.01), but not the level of subcutaneous fat in loin and ham.

  17. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (pfat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including cradle disturbance, animal positioning, and MR sequence on the fat quantification. There were no large variations between FSE and Dixon-based estimation of SAT and VAT.

  18. Study of subcutaneous fat, BMI in diabetic and non-diabetic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnoi, Jagdish; Bomb, B S; Ranjith Babu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a Metabolic Disorder which has got prime focus in the present days. An increase in body fat is generally associated with an increase in risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is further adding the severity. Therefore, any measures that could prevent or delay the development of diabetes are urgently needed. The present study is focused on early detection of the occurre...

  19. Clinical and morphological characteristics of skin and subcutaneous fat damage after surgical treatment and radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Topuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on late radiation injury (RI of skin and subcutaneous fat after surgical treatment and radiation therapy (RT in patients with breast cancer (BC. In Russia, the rate of radiation injuries in patients after RT exceeds 10–15 %. Combination treatment of BC (surgery and radiation carries a risk of RI of skin and subcutaneous fat which might lead to dystrophic changes in the form of prominent radiation-induced fibrosis of the irradiated area, lower the quality of life, cause suffering and even death. Most of BC patients are of working age, so the problem of local RI is of social importance, and it requires effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation allowing for favorable conditions for patients’ social adaptation. Currently, there’s no consensus on the mechanisms of development of skin and subcutaneous fat late RI, and it’s being considered from several angles. Therefore, problems of determination of individual sensitivity to ionizing radiation and further study of local RI of skin and subcutaneous fat after surgical treatment and RT in BC patients are of utmost importance.

  20. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Red blood cell trans-18:1 isomeric profile correlates with subcutaneous fat and muscle profiles in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldai, Noelia; Dugan, Michael E R; Rolland, David C; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Due to significant variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in beef it would be useful to determine if levels of trans-18:1 isomers in samples collected ante-mortem are correlated with those collected post-mortem. Beef blood (RBC), subcutaneous fat (SC) and muscle (intramuscular fat; IM) samples were collected from an experiment with dietary vitamin E with/without flaxseed (n=80) and fatty acids analyzed. Across treatments, correlation analysis of total and individual trans-18:1 isomers were performed between tissues. Correlations between SC and IM were highly significant for all individual and total trans-18:1. RBC trans-18:1 were also well correlated with other tissues except for vaccenic acid. Levels of 10t-, 12t- and 13t/14t- were amongst the best correlated between RBC and SC and IM profiles. Levels of 6t/7t/8t-, 9t-, and 15t-18:1 showed significant but lower correlation factors particularly between RBC and SC. These results confirm the possibility of utilizing blood as a non-destructive sample to predict the total and isomeric profile of trans-18:1 in beef. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chondrogenic Potency Analyses of Donor-Matched Chondrocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Infrapatellar Fat Pad, and Subcutaneous Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI is a cell-based therapy that has been used clinically for over 20 years to treat cartilage injuries more efficiently in order to negate or delay the need for joint replacement surgery. In this time, very little has changed in the ACI procedure, but now many centres are considering or using alternative cell sources for cartilage repair, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this study, we have tested the chondrogenic potential of donor-matched MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM, infrapatellar fat pad (FP, and subcutaneous fat (SCF, compared to chondrocytes. We have confirmed that there is a chondrogenic potency hierarchy ranging across these cell types, with the most potent being chondrocytes, followed by FP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and lastly SCF-MSCs. We have also examined gene expression and surface marker profiles in a predictive model to identify cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential. In doing so, we have shown that Sox-9, Alk-1, and Coll X expressions, as well as immunopositivity for CD49c and CD39, have predictive value for all of the cell types tested in indicating chondrogenic potency. The findings from this study have significant clinical implications for the refinement and development of novel cell-based cartilage repair strategies.

  3. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: standard chow (SC; 10% energy from fat, 16 weeks); HF (50% energy from fat, 16 weeks); SC-HF (SC for 8 weeks followed by HF for 8 weeks); and HF-SC (HF for 8 weeks followed by SC for 8 weeks). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated messenger RNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the liver; caused liver steatosis; affected liver function markers; increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue; and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared with controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  5. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  6. Cloxacillin concentrations in serum, subcutaneous fat, and muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T B; Nilsson, T K; Breimer, L H; Schneede, J; Arfvidsson, B; Norgren, L

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) have poor wound healing in the ankle and foot areas. Secondary wound infections are frequent and often treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics. This study set out to investigate to what extent the unbound fraction of 4 g of cloxacillin i.v. reaches its target organ in poorly vascularized tissues, i.e., the calf and foot of patients suffering from CLI. Cloxacillin concentrations were measured by HPLC in serum and in microdialysis samples from skin and muscle of the lower part of the calf and as reference subcutaneously at the pectoral level in eight patients suffering from CLI (four males, four females, mean age 78 years, range 66-85 years) and in three healthy controls (two females, one male, mean age 67, range 66-68 years). In patients suffering from CLI, the tissue penetration of cloxacillin after a single 4 g dose was comparable to that of healthy controls, despite impaired blood circulation. The reduced blood flow in the peripheral vessels of the CLI patients presented here apparently is not the rate-limiting factor for delivery or tissue penetration of cloxacillin.

  7. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  8. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  9. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; Pwomen. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  10. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ebadi; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may no...

  11. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  12. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers.

  13. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ebadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers.

  14. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash Kn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort. Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. RESULTS: Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01 were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables

  15. Fatty acid analysis of subcutaneous fat from animals with a reliable and safe feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Indias, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Iberian pig fat characteristics depend on the type of feeding at the end of its finish-fattening period. The routine analysis to differentiate among the qualities of the feeding types given to the pigs in the fattening stage has been the use of fatty acid profiles by gas chromatography. Due to de doubts about the effectiveness of this analysis in the montanera period, the aim of this global study was to test the validity of various analytical methods to determine the feeding type of Iberian pigs, focusing on the fatty acid profile. Three montanera periods with a total of 749 samples from 38 batches have been studied; using a total of 144 dry-cured shoulder shanks, 99 of which are of known pig origin. Results showed that the determination of the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography is not a consistent method to classify the animals according to diet in the recebo category, although it provided good percentages of success for classifying the bellota and cebo categories.Las características de la grasa de cerdo Ibérico dependen del tipo de alimentación recibida en el último estadío de engorde. El análisis que se ha utilizado hasta ahora para diferenciar las diferentes calidades de alimentación de los cerdos en este período ha sido el análisis de los perfiles de ácidos grasos de la grasa por técnicas de cromatografía de gases. Debido a las dudas sobre la efectividad de esta técnica en la montanera, el objetivo del proyecto global (RTA2008-0026 fue probar la validez de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación del cerdo ibérico, centrándonos en este trabajo en el estudio de los perfiles de ácidos grasos. Para el desarrollo de este estudio se utilizaron tres campañas de montanera con un total de 749 muestras de 38 partidas, y con 144 paletas de las cuales 99 tenían una trazabilidad completa. Los resultados mostraron que la determinación de la alimentación de los cerdos ibéricos usando el an

  16. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  17. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism....

  18. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-Calvo, Laura; Dervishi, Elda; Joy, Margalida; Sarto, Pilar; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Serrano, Magdalena; Ordov?s, Jose M.; Calvo, Jorge H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitamin E that might also be involved in meat quality. In the first treatment, seven lambs were fed a basal concentrate from weaning to slaughter (CON). In the second treatment, seven lambs received basa...

  19. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  20. Association between skeletal muscle fat content and very-low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B-100 transport in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D C; Gan, S K; Wong, A T Y; Barrett, P H R; Watts, G F

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic deposition of fat in skeletal muscle is a feature of metabolic syndrome, but its specific association with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 metabolism remains unclear. We examined the association between skeletal muscle fat content and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics in 25 obese subjects, and the responses of these variables to weight loss. The fat contents of liver, abdomen and skeletal muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics were assessed using stable isotope tracers. In obese subjects who were insulin sensitive (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA, score ≤ 2.6, n = 12), skeletal muscle fat content was significantly associated with hepatic fat content (r = 0.636), energy intake (r = 0.694), plasma triglyceride (r = 0.644), apoB-100 (r = 0.529), glucose (r = 0.622), VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations (r = 0.860), VLDL-apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR; r = -0.581) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate (r = 0.607). These associations were not found in obese subjects who were insulin resistant (HOMA score >2.6, n = 13). Of these 25 subjects, 10 obese subjects underwent a 16-week weight loss program. The low-fat diet achieved significant reduction (p weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, liver and skeletal muscle fat, energy intake, triglyceride, insulin, HOMA score, VLDL-apoB100 concentrations and VLDL-apoB100 secretion rate. The percentage reduction of skeletal muscle fat with weight loss was significantly associated with the corresponding changes in VLDL-apoB100 concentration (r = 0.770, p = 0.009) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion (r = 0.682, p = 0.030). Skeletal muscle fat content is associated with VLDL-apoB-100 transport. Weight loss lowers skeletal muscle fat and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  2. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  3. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Neuronal genes for subcutaneous fat thickness in human and pig are identified by local genomic sequencing and combined SNP association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Tai Lee

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major global public health problem that increases the risk for cardiovascular or metabolic disease. The pigs represent an exceptional biomedical model related to energy metabolism and obesity in humans. To pinpoint causal genetic factors for a common form of obesity, we conducted local genomic de novo sequencing, 18.2 Mb, of a porcine QTL region affecting fatness traits, and carried out SNP association studies for backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in pigs. In order to relate the association studies in pigs to human obesity, we performed a targeted genome wide association study for subcutaneous fat thickness in a cohort population of 8,842 Korean individuals. These combined association studies in human and pig revealed a significant SNP located in a gene family with sequence similarity 73, member A (FAM73A associated with subscapular skin-fold thickness in humans (rs4121165, GC-corrected p-value  = 0.0000175 and with backfat thickness in pigs (ASGA0029495, p-value  = 0.000031. Our combined association studies also suggest that eight neuronal genes are responsible for subcutaneous fat thickness: NEGR1, SLC44A5, PDE4B, LPHN2, ELTD1, ST6GALNAC3, ST6GALNAC5, and TTLL7. These results provide strong support for a major involvement of the CNS in the genetic predisposition to a common form of obesity.

  5. Loss of autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue in juvenile diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Kastrup, J; Parving, H H

    1984-01-01

    The autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue was investigated at the level of the lateral malleolus by the local 133Xenon washout technique. We have investigated eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetics and seven healthy controls. All diabetics had moderate diabetic nephropathy...... and retinopathy. The blood flow remained constant in all normal subjects, when the arterial perfusion pressure was varied between 70 and 150 mm Hg. All diabetics had impaired or reduced autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow. The blood flow increased and decreased almost linearly with the changes...... in arterial perfusion pressure. The mechanism underlying the defect autoregulation of blood flow in diabetics is uncertain; possibilities include structural changes of the arterioles and/or alterations of local metabolic factors....

  6. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  7. Identification and functional analysis of a potential key lncRNA involved in fat loss of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Li, Lu; Ye, Dawei; Yu, Shiying

    2018-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial, and irreversible syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle reduction with or without fat loss. Although much attention has been focused on muscle wasting, fat loss may occur earlier and accelerate muscle wasting in cachexia. The cause of 20% of cancer related death makes it urgent to discover molecular mechanisms behind cancer cachexia. Here we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify cachexia related gene modules using differentially expressed 3289 genes and 59 long non-coding RNAs based on microarray data of cachectic and non-cachectic subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subsequently, 16 independent modules were acquired and GSAASeqSP Toolset confirmed that black module was significantly associated with fat loss in cancer cachexia. Top 50 hub-genes in black module contained only one lncRNA, VLDLR antisense RNA 1 (VLDLR-AS1). We then explored the function of black module from the view of VLDLR-AS1-connected genes in the network. GO enrichment and KEGG pathways analysis revealed LDLR-AS1-connected genes were involved in Wnt signaling pathway, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and so on. Through construction of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulation network, we showed that VLDLR-AS1 may function with hsa-miR-600 to regulate gene GOLGA3, DUSP14, and UCHL1, or interact with hsa-miR-1224-3p to modulate the expression of gene GOLGA3, ZNF219, RNF141, and CALU. After literature validation, we predicted that VLDLR-AS1 most likely interacted with miR-600 to regulate UCH-L1 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, further experiments are still required to validate mechanisms of VLDLR-AS1 in fat reduction of cancer cachexia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w./day. Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α, compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  9. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  10. Weight loss and its relation to fat aspiration yields in liposuction: a survey in 48 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeni, R

    2012-01-01

    Liposuction surgeons often observe individually fluctuating amounts of aspirated fat. In patients with sagging skin due to previous weight loss there is a tendency of decreased fat aspiration volumes. To study the influence of weight loss on fat aspiration volumes in a series of 48 patients. We matched individuals of the same gender, but with a different weight history from a vast number of patients who had undergone liposuction surgery. The aspirated fat to wetting solution ratio (FWR) of the circumferential abdominal region was evaluated in three groups: A - patients with no weight loss (n = 16; 8 males/ 8 females), B - patients with a history of moderate weight loss (weight loss 5-10% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females), and C - patients who had a massive weight loss prior to surgery (weight loss exceeding 15% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females). The aspirated FWR was 3.4 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p loss in regard to fat aspiration volumes compared to patients without prior weight loss. These findings point to the importance of a weight loss history prior to surgery. Regardless of lower fat aspiration yields in patients with massive weight loss, good results are still achievable. This is not only due to volume reduction but to skin tightening. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Biometric ranging of the corpses destroyed at the site of a catastrophe in terms of gender, longitudinal and circumferencial dimensions, and the degree of subcutaneous fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Negasheva, M A

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative criteria for biometric ranging of destroyed corpses in terms of anatomical localization, gender, longitudinal length, trunk circumference, and the folds of subcutaneous fat are proposed. The wealth of anthropometric materials obtained in the studies of various Caucasoid populations was used to calculate the normative tables for biometric ranging of the decomposed corpses. The proposed technology excludes the subjective assessments for the purpose of such classification at the sites of catastrophes. Moreover, it promotes the accumulation of the variety of valuable information, such as the size of the collar, headwear, and footwear, clothing size and height, and portrait features, that can be used for victim identification.

  12. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-11-01

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  14. Different fattening systems of Iberian pigs according to the 1-alkene hydrocarbon content in the subcutaneous fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera-Alcaide, I.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-Alkene content in samples of subcutaneous fat corresponding to 755 castrated male Iberian pigs has been determined by an off-line combination of HPLC and GC method. The samples corresponded to three groups based on the type of feeding during the finish fattening period (“Montanera”, fed on acorns and pasture; “Recebo”, fed on acorns, feed and pasture; and “Cebo”, fed on feed and pasture. By using the n-alkenes as chemical descriptors, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to differentiate between the three fattening diet types for Iberian pigs. The most differentiating variables were n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 and n-C24:1. However, a clear classification of the samples was not achieved. The level of classification was improved when the data corresponding to the animals fed with the “Recebo” fattening diet was removed from the analysis. A relationship between n-C14:1, n-C16:1 and n-C18:1 levels and the slaughter period was found to be very low for the animals fed with the “Cebo” fattening diet when the animals had not been closely managed and pasture had not been included in their fattening diet.El contenido de n-alquenos de la grasa subcutánea de 755 muestras procedentes de cerdos ibéricos machos, se ha determinado mediante combinación off-line de los métodos HPLC y GC. Las muestras correspondían a tres grupos según el tipo de alimentación en el período final de engorde (“Montanera”, alimentados con bellota y pasto; “Recebo”, alimentados con bellota, pasto y pienso; y “Cebo”, alimentados con pienso y pasto. Usando los n-alquenos como descriptores químicos, se aplicaron técnicas de análisis multivariante para diferenciar entre los tres tipos de alimentación de cerdo ibérico. Se encontró que las variables más diferenciadores fueron n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 y n-C24:1. Sin embargo, el total de las muestras no están clasificadas, mejorando el nivel de clasificación cuando se eliminan

  15. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ...Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  16. Associations of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and Secretion Differ Between Men and Women: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin; Widya, Ralph; de Koning, Eelco; Jazet, Ingrid; Lamb, Hildo; le Cessie, Saskia; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Jan; Rosendaal, Frits; den Heijer, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women). With linear regression analysis, we examined associations of abdominal SAT and VAT with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women, while adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, menopausal state and hormone use in women, and models with VAT additionally for total body fat. Participants had a mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 56 (6) years, body mass index: 25.9 (3.9) kg/m2, VAT: 89 (55) cm2, and SAT: 235 (95) cm2. In the multivariate models in men, per SD of VAT the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 20% (95% CI: 14-26) higher, and per SD SAT 21% (15-27) higher. In women, per SD of VAT the HOMA-IR was 40% (29-52) higher, and per SD SAT 12% (6-19) higher. Associations with measures of insulin secretion were weaker than with insulin resistance. In men, abdominal SAT and VAT were associated with insulin resistance to a similar extent, whereas in women particularly VAT was associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Future studies need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the metabolic effects of visceral fat in women. Simple and less expensive measures that can distinct abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat are needed for an improved metabolic risk stratification.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Cell Fates of Induced Schwann Cells from Subcutaneous Fat Tissue and Naïve Schwann Cells in the Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. Methods. Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat’s subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat. Results. At 12 weeks after transplantation, nSCs were detected only in the restricted area of cell transplantation site but iSCs were widely distributed all over the sciatic nerve. Based on double fluorescence observations, both iSCs and naïve ones were colocalized with P0-expressing myelin sheath, outbound by laminin-expressing basal membrane, and terminated at contactin-associated protein-expressing doublets. However, some of iSCs were also differentiated to the fibrocyte/fibroblast-like cells. In the histological analysis of repaired sciatic nerves, axon density was higher in iSC-received group than in the nSCs group and normal sciatic nerve. Conclusion. iSCs induced from subcutaneous fat tissues have higher engraftment and migration capacity than nSCs.

  18. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Miljkovic, I.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Launer, L.; Garcia, M.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Posthuma, D.; Carr, J.J.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Cupples, L.A.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants

  19. Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C; Hunter, Gary R; Oster, Robert A; Desmond, Renee A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-04-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African-American (AA) and white (W) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and W women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27-30 kg/m(2). They were placed on a weight-loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor-I (sTNFR-I), sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among W, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in W compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in W.

  20. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  1. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  2. A prototype portable breath acetone analyzer for monitoring fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Tsuguyoshi; Hiyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuki

    2013-09-01

    Acetone contained in our exhaled breath is a metabolic product of the breakdown of body fat and is expected to be a good indicator of fat-burning. Typically, gas chromatography or mass spectrometry are used to measure low-concentration compounds in breath but such large instruments are not suitable for daily use by diet-conscious people. Here, we prototype a portable breath acetone analyzer that has two types of semiconductor-based gas sensors with different sensitivity characteristics, enabling the acetone concentration to be calculated while taking into account the presence of ethanol, hydrogen, and humidity. To investigate the accuracy of our prototype and its application in diet support, experiments were conducted on healthy adult volunteers. Breath acetone concentrations obtained from our prototype and from gas chromatography showed a strong correlation throughout the experiments. Moreover, body fat in subjects with a controlled caloric intake and taking exercise decreased significantly, whereas breath acetone concentrations in those subjects increased significantly. These results prove that our prototype is practical and useful for self-monitoring of fat-burning at home or outside. Our prototype will help to prevent and alleviate obesity and diabetes.

  3. Glycine supplementation during calorie restriction accelerates fat loss and protects against further muscle loss in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldow, Marissa K; Ham, Daniel J; Godeassi, Daniel P; Chee, Annabel; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces co-morbidities associated with obesity, but also reduces lean mass thereby predisposing people to weight regain. Since we demonstrated that glycine supplementation can reduce inflammation and muscle wasting, we hypothesized that glycine supplementation during CR would preserve muscle mass in mice. High-fat fed male C57BL/6 mice underwent 20 days CR (40% reduced calories) supplemented with glycine (1 g/kg/day; n = 15, GLY) or l-alanine (n = 15, ALA). Body composition and glucose tolerance were assessed and hindlimb skeletal muscles and epididymal fat were collected. Eight weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and glucose intolerance. CR caused rapid weight loss (ALA: 20%, GLY: 21%, P fat mass (ALA: 41%, GLY: 49% P fat mass (14%, p fat mass (26%, P muscle mass (4%, P fat mass (pre CR) and the mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation (r = 0.51 to 0.68, P muscle mass and stimulating loss of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. The increase in abdominal subcutaneous fat depot is an independent factor to determine the glycemic control after rosiglitazone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Hur, Kyu-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Jin; Shim, Wan-Sub; Ahn, Chul-Woo; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook; Lim, Sung-Kil; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2007-08-01

    The goal was to investigate the interrelationships between the hypoglycemic effects of rosiglitazone and the changes in the regional adiposity of type 2 diabetic patients. We added rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) to 173 diabetic patients (111 males and 62 females) already taking a stable dose of conventional antidiabetic medications except for thiazolidinediones. The abdominal fat distribution was assessed by ultrasonography at baseline and 12 weeks later. Using ultrasonographic images, the s.c. and visceral fat thickness (SFT and VFT respectively) were measured. Rosiglitazone treatment for 3 months improved the glycemic control. However, the response to rosiglitazone was no more than 36.4%; the deterioration of the glycemic control was found in 16.8% of subjects. In addition, rosiglitazone treatment significantly increased the body fat mass, especially the s.c. fat. However that did not alter the visceral fat content. The percentage changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations after treatment were inversely correlated with the increase in SFT (r=-0.327 and -0.353, Pfat depot after rosiglitazone treatment may be an independent factor that determines the hypoglycemic efficacy.

  5. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  6. Toward reconstruction of the subcutaneous fat layer with the use of adipose-derived stromal cell-seeded collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Katharina; Jakubietz, Michael G; Jakubietz, Rafael G; Schmidt, Karsten; Muhr, Christian; Bauer-Kreisel, Petra; Blunk, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Complex injuries of the upper and lower extremities often result in scarring and subsequent adhesion formation, which may cause severe pain and distinctly reduce range of motion. In revision surgery, replacement of the missing subcutaneous tissue is desirable to prevent new adhesions, to cushion scarred tendons and nerves and to regain tissue elasticity. Therefore, the objective of this study was the in vitro evaluation of cell-seeded collagen matrices to serve as the basis for the reconstruction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer. Five commercially available acellular dermal collagen matrices were seeded with human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASC). Size and shape stability of cell-matrix constructs were assessed and cell adhesion onto the matrix surface was evaluated histologically. Adipogenic differentiation of hASC on matrices was evaluated by means of histological staining, triglyceride quantification, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis. The collagen matrix Permacol was the only cell-seeded material that exhibited excellent size and shape stability. For Permacol and Strattice, successful seeding with continuous cell layers on top of the matrices was observed. For both matrices, histological staining, triglyceride quantification and messenger RNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors indicated substantial adipogenic differentiation of hASC after long-term induction as well as after short-term induction of only 4 days. Of all matrices investigated, only Permacol exhibited adequate handling stability and the development of a thin adipose tissue layer on top of the matrix. Thus, this matrix appears promising to be used in the development of a subcutaneous cushioning layer after complex injuries involving large scar formation. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P muscle protein content of CD36 (in AU, respectively: 1.1 [1.0-1.2]; 0.9 [0.8-1.0]; 0.9 [0.8-0.9]; P = 0.008) and FABPpm (in AU, respectively, 1.0 [0.8-1.2]; 0.7 [0.5-0.8]; 0.7 [0.5-0.9]; P = 0.008), body fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. Noteworthy, maximal fat oxidation was equally high after clinical weight loss maintenance and weight regain compared with moderate weight loss. A high maximal fat oxidation after clinical weight loss maintenance was related to higher maximal oxygen updake, content of key proteins involved in transport of lipids across the plasma membrane and β-oxidation. In contrast, a high maximal fat oxidation after weight regain was related to higher availability of lipids, i.e., general adiposity and plasma concentration of triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you're not physically active. Loss of muscle mass decreases the rate at which your body uses ... they do in their 30s due to this muscle loss. Your genes also can ... weight gain, despite your age and genetics. Drinking excess alcohol ...

  9. Obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to survival of postmenopausal breast cancer patients participating in the DOM-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; de Waard van de Spek, FB; Seidell, J C; Fracheboud, J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of obesity and fat distribution on survival of breast cancer patients was studied prospectively in 241 women with a natural menopause who participated in a breast cancer screening project, the DOM-project in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Mean follow-up time was 9.1 years and endpoint of

  10. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the subcutaneous fat from iberian pigs fattened on the traditional feed: “Montanera”. effect of anatomical location and length of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of 200 samples of subcutaneous fat from two different anatomical locations (rump and adipose tissue covering the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian purebred pigs reared on “Montanera” were determined. Significant differences were found for the majority fatty acids and for some triacylglycerol species (PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL among the two anatomical locations, being the rump location less saturated. The activity level of the key enzyme involved in lipogenesis differed (p Biceps femoris, increases faster than that of the subcutaneous fat covering a muscle with low oxidative metabolism, as Longissimus dorsi.Se ha determinado la composición de ácidos grasos y de triglicéridos en 200 muestras de grasa subcutánea procedentes de dos localizaciones anatómicas (rabadilla y tejido adiposo que recubre el músculo Biceps femoris de cerdos ibéricos puros alimentados en “Montanera”. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para la mayoría de ácidos grasos y para algunos triglicéridos PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL entre las dos localizaciones anatómicas, siendo la rabadilla la menos saturada. El nivel de actividad de la enzima involucrada en la lipogénesis defirió significativamente (p B. femoris, aumenta más rápidamente que la de la grasa subcutánea que recubre un músculo con bajo metabolismo oxidativo, como el Longissimus dorsi.

  11. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calvo, Laura; Dervishi, Elda; Joy, Margalida; Sarto, Pilar; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Serrano, Magdalena; Ordovás, Jose M; Calvo, Jorge H

    2017-01-17

    The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitamin E that might also be involved in meat quality. In the first treatment, seven lambs were fed a basal concentrate from weaning to slaughter (CON). In the second treatment, seven lambs received basal concentrate from weaning to 4.71 ± 2.62 days and thereafter concentrate supplemented with 500 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg (VE) during the last 33.28 ± 1.07 days before slaughter. The addition of vitamin E to the diet increased the α-tocopherol muscle content and drastically diminished the lipid oxidation of meat. Gene expression profiles for treatments VE and CON were clearly separated from each other in the LT and SF. Vitamin E supplementation had a dramatic effect on subcutaneous fat gene expression, showing general up-regulation of significant genes, compared to CON treatment. In LT, vitamin E supplementation caused down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling cascade. Functional analysis of SF showed that vitamin E supplementation caused up-regulation of the lipid biosynthesis process, cholesterol, and sterol and steroid biosynthesis, and it down-regulated genes related to the stress response. Different gene expression patterns were found between the SF and LT, suggesting tissue specific responses to vitamin E supplementation. Our study enabled us to identify novel genes and metabolic pathways related to vitamin E metabolism that might be implicated in meat quality. Further exploration of these genes and vitamin E could lead to a better understanding of how vitamin E affects the oxidative process that occurs in manufactured meat products.

  12. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  13. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  14. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Y. Doyon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF and visceral fat (VF measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA. The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1 the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2 the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training. AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r=0.87, after; r=0.87; P<.01 and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r=0.61, after; r=0.69; P<.01 are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r=0.72; P<.01 or delta VF (r=0.51; P<.01 were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF.

  15. Development and tracking of central patterns of subcutaneous fat of rural South African youth: Ellisras longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han Cg; Makgae, Phuti J

    2009-12-09

    Individuals grow and accumulate central patterns of body fat into the diseases they will suffer from as older adults. The need to elicit the development and tracking of central patterns of body fat from younger age into adolescent remains to be explored. Skinfolds measurements were done according to the standard procedures in the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986) were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. The development of triceps, biceps, suprailiac and suscapular skinfolds of Ellisras girls were significantly higher (p < 0.001 to 0.05) compared to boys over time. The tracking coefficient between the initial measurements and the subsequent measurements was higher for skinfolds (r about 0.63) than for skinfold ratios (r about 0.43). Longitudinal tracking coefficient measuring the association between the initial measurements and all the follow up measurements simultaneously was about 0.57. The accumulation of central patterns of body fat of Ellisras children starts in childhood and adolescence spurt with Ellisras girls acquiring more than boys over time. High significant tracking of skinfold thickness while the skinfold ratios show low and insignificant tracking over time. The magnitude of central patterns of body fat accumulation over time requires further investigation to clarify their association with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  17. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  18. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  19. Vastus medialis fat infiltration - a modifiable determinant of knee cartilage loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichtahl, A J; Wluka, A E; Wang, Y; Wijethilake, P N; Strauss, B J; Proietto, J; Dixon, J B; Jones, G; Forbes, A; Cicuttini, F M

    2015-12-01

    There is growing interest in the role of intramuscular fat and how it may influence clinical outcomes. Vastus medialis (VM) is a functionally important quadriceps muscle that helps to stabilise the knee joint. This longitudinal study examined the determinants of VM fat infiltration and whether VM fat infiltration influenced knee cartilage volume. 250 participants without any diagnosed arthropathy were assessed at baseline between 2005 and 2008, and 197 participants at follow-up between 2008 and 2010. Ambulatory and sporting activity were assessed and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine knee cartilage volume and VM fat infiltration. Age, female gender, BMI and weight were positively associated with baseline VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.03), while ambulatory and sporting activity were negatively associated with VM fat infiltration (P ≤ 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, a reduction in VM fat infiltration was associated with a reduced annual loss of medial tibial (β = -10 mm(3); 95% CI -19 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) and patella (β = -18 mm(3); 95% CI -36 to 0 mm(3); P = 0.04) cartilage volume. This community-based study of healthy adults has shown that VM fat infiltration can be modified by lifestyle factors including weight loss and exercise, and reducing fat infiltration in VM has beneficial effect on knee cartilage preservation. The findings suggest that modifying VM fat infiltration via lifestyle interventions may have the potential to reduce the risk of knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  1. Supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol maintain the oxidative stability of n-3 long-chain fatty acid enriched subcutaneous fat and frozen loin, but not of dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Claeys, Erik; Raes, Katleen; van Mullem, Danny; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-10-01

    Meat products enriched with n-3 fatty acids are more prone to oxidation. The aim was to investigate whether supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol can enhance the colour and lipid oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acids enriched dry fermented sausages, frozen loins and subcutaneous fat. Pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 18 g kg(-1) fish oil and 50, 150 or 300 mg kg(-1) α-tocopheryl acetate. The control group received 12 g kg(-1) soy oil and 150 mg kg(-1) α-tocopheryl acetate. α-Tocopherol levels of the frozen loin, dry fermented sausage and subcutaneous fat were elevated as a result of the dietary α-tocopherol supplementation. Lipid oxidation occurred to the same extend in the n-3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins when compared to the control group. In the subcutaneous fat enriched with n-3 fatty acids reduced lipid oxidation was found when comparing 50 mg kg(-1) versus 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) . However, in the dry fermented sausages no such effect was observed and higher TBARS values were found in the n-3 fatty acid enriched sausages compared to the control group. Colour parameters of the loin and subcutaneous fat were not affected, whereas some significant differences in the dry fermented sausages were found. The colour stability of the frozen loins was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol maintain the oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins and subcutaneous fat, but not of dry fermented sausages. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  4. Type of homogenization and fat loss during continuous infusion of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Alonso Díaz, Clara; Vázquez Román, Sara; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Substantial fat loss may occur during continuous feeding of human milk (HM). A decrease of fat loss has been described following homogenization. Well-established methods of homogenization of HM for routine use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would be desirable. We compared the loss of fat based on the use of 3 different methods for homogenizing thawed HM during continuous feeding. Sixteen frozen donor HM samples were thawed, homogenized with ultrasound and separated into 3 aliquots ("baseline agitation," "hourly agitation," and "ultrasound"), and then frozen for 48 hours. Aliquots were thawed again and a baseline agitation was applied. Subsequently, aliquots baseline agitation and hourly agitation were drawn into a syringe, while ultrasound was applied to aliquot ultrasound before it was drawn into a syringe. The syringes were loaded into a pump (2 mL/h; 4 hours). At hourly intervals the hourly agitation infusion was stopped, the syringe was disconnected and gently shaken. During infusion, samples from the 3 groups were collected hourly for analysis of fat and caloric content. The 3 groups of homogenization showed similar fat content at the beginning of the infusion. For fat, mean (SD) hourly changes of -0.03 (0.01), -0.09 (0.01), and -0.09 (0.01) g/dL were observed for the hourly agitation, baseline agitation, and ultrasound groups, respectively. The decrease was smaller for the hourly agitation group (P fat loss is observed when syringes are agitated hourly versus when ultrasound or a baseline homogenization is used. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  6. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  7. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  8. Adipose Stromal Cells from Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Facilitate Migration of Ovarian Cancer Cells via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyun; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Soochi; Haegeman, Guy; Tsang, Benjamin K; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-04-01

    Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) play an important regulatory role in cancer progression and metastasis by regulating systemic inflammation and tissue metabolism. This study examined whether visceral and subcutaneous ASCs (V- and S-ASCs) facilitate the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. CD45(-) and CD31(-) double-negative ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous and visceral fat using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Ovarian cancer cells were cultured in conditioned media (CM) obtained from ASCs to determine the cancer-promoting effects of ASCs. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Boyden chamber assay, and western blotting were performed to determine the proliferative activity, migration ability, and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, respectively. CM from ASCs enhanced the migration of the ovarian cancer line, SKOV3, via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Interestingly, in response to ASC-CM, the ascites cells derived from an ovarian cancer patient showed an increase in growth and migration. The migration of ovarian cancer cells was suppressed by blocking the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 using a neutralizing antibody against interleukin 6, small molecular inhibitors (e.g., WP1066 and TG101348), and silencing of STAT3 using siRNA. Anatomical differences between S- and V-ASCs did not affect the growth and migration of the ovarian cancer cell line and ascites cells from the ovarian cancer patients. ASCs may regulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and possibly provide a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  9. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  10. Assessment of fat-mass loss during weight reduction in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, G M; Sievänen, H T; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Westerterp, K R

    1997-08-01

    Methods for assessing body fat mass (FM) loss were compared in 32 obese (body mass index [BMI], 29 to 41 kg/m2) premenopausal women before and after a weight loss of 13.0 +/- 3.4 kg (mean +/- SD). A four-component (4C) model was used as the criterion. The other methods were as follows: three-component models (body density with total body water [3W] or bone minerals [3M]), underwater weighing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ([DXA] XR-26, software 2.5.2; Norland, Ft Atkinson, WI), bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) with an obese-specific equation [Segal et al), skinfolds (Durnin and Womersley), and an equation with BMI (Deurenberg et al). The 3W model (bias +/- SD, 0.5 +/- 0.4 kg), XR-26 (0.6 +/- 2.1 kg), and BMI equation (-0.3 +/- 2.1 kg) gave practically unbiased mean estimations of fat loss. All other methods underestimated fat loss by at least 1.6 kg (range of bias, -2.7 to -1.6 kg). The small bias (0.7 +/- 1.0 kg) between underwater weighing and model 4C before weight reduction indicates that the two-component assumptions were valid in premenopausal, weight-stable obese women. However, particularly the water fraction of the fat-free body component (4C model) was increased after weight reduction (before, 72.9% +/- 1.4%; after, 75.7% +/- 2.2%), making both underwater weighing and the 3M model uncertain for assessment of body composition changes. A general tendency for overestimating FM was seen before and more clearly after weight reduction. However, most methods underestimated fat loss, apparently because of unexpected changes in hydration of the fat-free body component.

  11. Relative effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipid levels in the dietary treatment of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Meyboom, S; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Weststrate, J A

    1993-01-01

    The independent effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipids were investigated in two groups of healthy moderately obese men and women. In one group (sequential group, n = 19), a weight-stable low-fat, low-saturated-fat diet (Low-Sat) was given for 7 weeks (= dietary

  12. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  13. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    OpenAIRE

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabone...

  14. "Thinspiration" vs. "fear of fat". Using prototypes to predict frequent weight-loss dieting in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    This study examined whether frequent weight-loss dieting in females is predominantly a manifestation of being inspired to approach the cultural aesthetic thinness standard, or predominantly of a fear to avoid becoming over-fat. Female volunteers completed questionnaires concerning their perceptions

  15. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  16. The effects of fat loss after bariatric surgery on inflammation, serum hepcidin, and iron absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.; Allende-Labastida, Javier; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Moretti, Diego; Rodriguez-Lastra, Ramiro; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is common in obese subjects. This may be due to an increase in serum hepcidin and a decrease in iron absorption from adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: We evaluated whether weight and fat loss in obese subjects would decrease inflammation and serum hepcidin and

  17. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  18. Selection for higher body weight in Nelore cattle is effective in achieving an increase of longissimus muscle area without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roque Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.

  19. The Appropriateness of the Length of Insulin Needles Based on Determination of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness in the Abdomen and Upper Arm in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Sim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLonger needle and complicated insulin injection technique such as injecting at a 45-degree angle and making skinfolds may decrease patient compliance to insulin injection therapy. In this light, shorter insulin needles have been recently developed. However, it is necessary to ascertain that such shorter needles are appropriate for Korean patients with diabetes as well.MethodsFirst, the diverse demographic and diabetic features of 156 Korean adults with diabetes were collected by a questionnaire and a device unit of body fat measurement. The skin and subcutaneous fat thicknesses of each subject were measured by Ultrasound device with a 7- to 12-MHz probe. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression.ResultsThe mean skin thickness was 2.29±0.37 mm in the abdomen and 2.00±0.34 mm in the upper arms, and the mean subcutaneous fat thickness was to 10.15±6.54 mm in the abdomen and 5.50±2.68 mm in the upper arms. Our analysis showed that the factors affecting the skin thickness of the abdomen and upper arms were gender and body mass index (BMI, whereas the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the abdomen were gender and BMI, and the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the upper arms were gender, BMI, and age. Insulin fluids may not appear to be intradermally injected into the abdomen and upper arms at any needle lengths. The risk of intramuscular injection is likely to increase with longer insulin needles and lower BMI.ConclusionIt is recommended to fully inform the patients about the lengths of needles for insulin injections. As for the recommended needle length, the findings of this study indicate that needles as short as 4 mm are sufficient to deliver insulin for Korean patients with diabetes.

  20. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  1. Influence of genetic type, live weight at slaughter and carcass fatness on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham in the heavy pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiego, D P Lo; Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; De Leonibus, E

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to assess some quality traits of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham for Parma production, obtained from 56 "traditional" Landrace×Large White (L×LW) and 56 Cotswold commercial hybrid (CH) pigs reared in the same conditions and slaughtered at an average live weight (l.w.) of about 165 kg. Further, the relationships between lipid composition, l.w. and carcass fatness were studied. Compared to the CH, the fatty tissue of L×LW pigs showed a lower water (6.33% vs. 7.35%, P<0.01) and a higher lipid (91.18% vs. 90.18%, P<0.01) content. CH lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.53% vs. 13.75%, P<0.01), and smaller saturated fatty acids (38.20% vs. 40.26%, P<0.01) content and a higher iodine value (69.69 vs. 65.22, P<0.01). An increased slaughter weight was associated with a lower degree of lipid unsaturation, but only the lowest weight class (<160 kg) showed a significant difference compared to the other two classes (⩾160<170 and ⩾170 kg). Regardless of genetic type or l.w. class, an increase in backfat thickness is associated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a remarkable reduction in polyunsaturated content.

  2. SMAS Fusion Zones Determine the Subfascial and Subcutaneous Anatomy of the Human Face: Fascial Spaces, Fat Compartments, and Models of Facial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessa, Joel E

    2016-05-01

    Fusion zones between superficial fascia and deep fascia have been recognized by surgical anatomists since 1938. Anatomical dissection performed by the author suggested that additional superficial fascia fusion zones exist. A study was performed to evaluate and define fusion zones between the superficial and the deep fascia. Dissection of fresh and minimally preserved cadavers was performed using the accepted technique for defining anatomic spaces: dye injection combined with cross-sectional anatomical dissection. This study identified bilaminar membranes traveling from deep to superficial fascia at consistent locations in all specimens. These membranes exist as fusion zones between superficial and deep fascia, and are referred to as SMAS fusion zones. Nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics transition between the deep and superficial fascia of the face by traveling along and within these membranes, a construct that provides stability and minimizes shear. Bilaminar subfascial membranes continue into the subcutaneous tissues as unilaminar septa on their way to skin. This three-dimensional lattice of interlocking horizontal, vertical, and oblique membranes defines the anatomic boundaries of the fascial spaces as well as the deep and superficial fat compartments of the face. This information facilitates accurate volume augmentation; helps to avoid facial nerve injury; and provides the conceptual basis for understanding jowls as a manifestation of enlargement of the buccal space that occurs with age. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Abdominal diameters as indicators of visceral fat : comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Visser, M

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of abdominal diameters to indicate visceral fat, their relationship with serum lipids and their capability of detecting changes in visceral fat. Before and after weight loss, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and the sagittal and transverse

  4. Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A; Nelson, Robert H; Miles, John M

    2013-06-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [(3)H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-(13)C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P fat (r = -0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = -0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes.

  5. [PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT LOSS AND FAT IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT: SEX, AGE, BMI AND CONSULTING ASSISTANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    WL%: percentage of weight loss; % FL: percentage fat loss; PNLWF: patients who lose weight or fat; PLWF: patients who lose weight and fat. assess whether the% WL and FL% in the dietary treatment was affected by gender, age, BMI and assistance to the query. 4,700 consultations, 670 patients (BMI ≥25), in the south-east of Spain (2006-12). Balanced and hypo-caloric diet was used. Two types of patients: PNLWF and PLWF (91.9%). in PLWF, men and those attending a greater number of occasions to the consultation have shown a greater loss against women (%FL: 23.0 vs 14.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.7 vs 6.6%, p = 0.020), and those who attend less frequently (%FL: 19.1 vs 7.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.8 vs 2.9%, p = 0.000). Multinomial regression analysis (PNLWF / PLWF) indicates that only attend more than one and a half to the consultation is a factor in the loss, OR 8.3 (IC 95% 4.5-15.1; p = 0.000). the body fat measurement provides additional information lost weight; Most patients attend more than six weeks, obtained a high %FL; attendance is a predictor of loss; the %FL indicates that the dietary management plays a major role in the resolution of this pathology; It is recommended to design practical schemes of action process nutritionists according to the IMCI and variable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. The struggle against fat: weight loss experiences of overweight adolescent girls in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Jou, Hei-Jen; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2014-03-01

    Weight loss is an important health issue for overweight girls. Understanding their subjective feelings and experiences regarding weight loss may help healthcare professionals and hospitals develop an appropriate intervention for this population. However, there have been few studies done on the subjective weight loss experiences of overweight adolescent girls. This study developed a descriptive theory framework to elicit the weight loss experiences of overweight adolescent girls in Taiwan. This qualitative study used grounded theory to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 overweight adolescent girls aged 16-20 years. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. "Struggle against fat" was the core theme that described and guided the process of weight loss for participants. During this process, "obesity as a stigma" was identified as the antecedent condition with the subcategories: being teased, being blamed, being bullied, and lack of personal attractiveness. Participants struggled to practice a new lifestyle while continuing their previous lifestyle during the weight loss process. This process was categorized as "trying dieting shortcuts," "self-sabotage," "confronting weakness," and "adhere to a new life." During this process, some participants adhered to a new life by perceiving peer/family support, using incentive slogans, and sharing experiences. Finally, participants either continued to maintain their new lifestyle and gradually lost weight or resumed their previous lifestyle and regained weight by entering into a vicious cycle of combating fat through dieting shortcuts while practicing self-sabotage. Weight loss is a difficult issue for most overweight and obese adolescent girls. Health providers should better understand adolescent psychology to provide this population with effective incentives to modify their lifestyles for health purposes. It is crucial that healthcare providers be good coaches to guide and positively support these girls in their

  7. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  8. Influence on chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in co-culture with donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Sansone, V; Preis, F W Baruffaldi; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) has been proposed for autologous cartilage cell-based therapies, to overcome the issues associated to limited availability of articular chondrocytes (ACs). To evaluate the potentiality of a co-culture approach in aged osteoarthritic patients, MSCs from infrapatellar fat pad (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs) were co-cultured with donor-matched osteoarthritic, expanded and cryopreserved, ACs in a 75%/25% ratio. Co-cultures were prepared also from nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to evaluate their possible use as an alternative to ACs. Pellets were differentiated for 14 days, using mono-cultures of each cell type as reference. Chondrogenic genes SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN were less expressed in co-cultures compared to ACs and NCs. Total GAGs content in co-cultures did not differ significantly from values predicted as the sum of each cell type contribution corrected for the co-culture ratio, as confirmed by histology. No significant differences were observed for GAGs/DNA in mono-cultures, demonstrating a reduced chondrogenic potential of ACs and NCs. In conclusion, a small percentage of expanded and cryopreserved ACs and NCs did not lead to IFP-MSCs and ASCs chondro-induction. Our results suggest that chondrogenic potential and origin of chondrocytes may play a relevant role in the outcome of co-cultures, indicating a need for further investigations to demonstrate their clinical relevance in the treatment of aged osteoarthritic patients.

  9. The Ratio Between Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat Assessed by Computed Tomography Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Cardiac Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Bettencourt, Nuno; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Nuno; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Gama, Vasco

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients consisted of those without known heart disease referred to cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We included all patients with available information on VAT and SAT areas and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We assessed the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure at least 1 month after cardiac CT. The final population consisted of 713 participants (61% male; mean age, 57.7±10.2 years) followed up for a median of 1.3 years. The combined endpoint occurred in 66 patients; these patients showed a higher VAT/SAT ratio (1.06±0.74 vs 0.80±0.52, P=.0001). The VAT/SAT ratio was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (HR = 1.43; 95%CI, 1.03-1.99), irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. The ratio between abdominal VAT/SAT was an independent predictor of death and coronary events, irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. This ratio is a CT-derived metric that may help to better identify patients with increased risk of death or cardiac events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...... endurance training. In conclusion, endurance training per se increases PFO in moderately overweight men....

  11. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss.

  12. Circulating SIRT1 Increases After Intragastric Balloon Fat Loss in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Fiore, Daniela; Persichetti, Agnese; Basciani, Sabrina; Lubrano, Carla; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Genco, Alfredo; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Gnessi, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs), ubiquitous deacetylases, are main regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. SIRT1 has a positive impact on obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, and other metabolic disorders. Lean subjects have higher expression of SIRT1 in the adipose tissue compared to obese. However, it is not known whether weight loss associates with changes in blood SIRT1. We evaluated the effect of weight loss on circulating SIRT1, metabolic parameters, and body composition. Thirty-two obese subjects were studied before and 6 months after BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) [22 patients, BMI 41.82 ± 6.28 kg/m(2)] or hypocaloric diet [10 patients, BMI 38.95 ± 6.90 kg/m(2)]. Plasma SIRT1, body composition, measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides), and inflammation markers (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen) were recorded. SIRT1 levels showed a significant increase, together with a significant reduction of BMI, excess body weight, and total fat mass either after BIB or diet intervention. The percent excess body weight loss was 33.73 ± 19.06 and 22.08 ± 11.62 % after BIB and diet, respectively, a trend toward a metabolic and inflammatory amelioration was observed with both treatments. Negative correlation between SIRT1 and % fat mass (BIB, ρ = -0.537, p = 0.017; diet, ρ = -0.638, p = 0.047) was also seen. The reduction of fat mass associates with increased plasma SIRT1 indicating that, besides tissue levels, circulating SIRT1 is stimulated by a negative caloric balance. The rise of plasma SIRT1 may represent a parameter associating with fat loss rather than weight lowering regardless of the weight reduction system method used.

  13. Relationships Among Factors Relevant to Abdominal Fat and Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Park, Mina

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is related with abdominal fat and with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). In this study, we evaluated the association between a variety of factors relevant to abdominal fat (FRAs) and hearing thresholds. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 2,602 subjects aged over 40 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who underwent abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to demonstrate the association between each FRA and hearing thresholds at low and high frequencies. Four of 5 FRAs were associated with hearing thresholds at high frequencies in males. All FRAs examined showed a relationship with hearing thresholds at low frequencies in females. Diabetes mellitus (DM) among clinical factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among the 5 FRAs were the most reflective of hearing thresholds in both males and females. We found that FRAs were associated with hearing loss with frequency specific characteristics according to sex and reinforced that DM and VAT is particularly an important role for hearing.

  14. Metabolic remodeling in adipocytes promotes ciliary neurotrophic factor-mediated fat loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Seamus; Turpin, Sarah M; Ke, Francine; Kemp, Bruce E; Watt, Matthew J

    2008-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an expanded adipose tissue mass, and reversing obesity reduces the risk of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reverses obesity by promoting the preferential loss of white adipose tissue. We evaluated the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CNTF regulates adiposity. Obese mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with saline or recombinant CNTF for 10 d, and adipose tissue was removed for analysis. Another group fed a high-fat diet was pair fed to CNTF mice. In separate experiments, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CNTF to examine metabolic responses and signaling. CNTF reduced adipose mass that resulted from reductions in adipocyte area and triglyceride content. CNTF treatment did not affect lipolysis but resulted in decreases in fat esterification and lipogenesis and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. The enhanced fat oxidation was associated with the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 and increases in oxidative phosphorylation subunits and mitochondrial biogenesis as determined by electron microscopy. Studies in cultured adipocytes revealed that CNTF activates p38 MAPK and AMP-activated protein kinase. Inhibiting p38 activation prevented the CNTF-induced increase in PGC1alpha but not AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Diminished food intake with pair feeding induced similar decreases in fat mass, but this was related to increased expression of uncoupling protein 1. We conclude that CNTF reprograms adipose tissue to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing oxidative capacity and reducing lipogenic capacity, thereby resulting in triglyceride loss.

  15. ANP system activity predicts variability of fat mass reduction and insulin sensitivity during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachs, Maria; Wiegand, Susanna; Leupelt, Verena; Ernert, Andrea; Kintscher, Ulrich; Jumpertz von Schwarzenberg, Reiner; Decker, Anne-Marie; Bobbert, Thomas; Hübner, Norbert; Chen, Wei; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim; Mai, Knut

    2016-06-01

    In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of systemic, adipose and myocellular ANP system on metabolic and anthropometric improvements during weight loss. We comprehensively investigated 143 subjects (31 male, 112 female) before and after a 3 month-standardized weight loss program. The time course of BMI, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, circulating mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) levels as well as adipose and myocellular natriuretic receptor A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) mRNA expression were investigated. BMI decreased by -12.6±3.7%. This was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of adipose NPR-C expression (1005.0±488.4 vs. 556.7±465.6; pANP receptor expression predicted the degree of weight loss induced fat mass reduction. Our comprehensive human data support that peripheral ANP signalling is involved in control of adipose tissue plasticity and function during weight loss. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO281/2), the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK/BMBF); ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00850629). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  17. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  18. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  19. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  20. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of doxycycline on germinal epithelial loss caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; García-Rivera, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, M Violeta M; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Lugo-Radillo, Agustin; Galvan-Salazar, Hector R; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D; Gómez-Tapia, Fernando; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Melnikov, Valery; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2014-05-01

    A high-fat diet and male obesity are aspects associated with germinal epithelial alterations and male infertility. Some reports have shown that certain tetracyclines can protect the germinal epithelium from toxic drugs. The aim of the present study design was to evaluate the possible effect of doxycycline on testicular germ cells in individuals fed a Western diet (atherogenic), using a murine model. Two groups of male mice (BALB/c) were fed a high-fat Western diet (HFD). One of these two groups was given doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (HFD+Dox). A third group was fed a standard rodent diet (SD group). After 6 months, the mice were euthanized and morphologic and histopathologic analyses were performed. Germinal epithelial height was similar between the SD group (54 μm) and the HFD+Dox group (53 μm) (p = 0.26), and it was significantly reduced in the HFD group (47 μm) (p = 0.0001). The degree of germinal epithelial loss (DGEL) was significantly lower in the SD (10) and HFD+Dox (12.5) groups than in the HFD group (30) (p = 0.0001 and =0.007, respectively). There were no differences in the DGEL between the SD and HFD+Dox groups (p = 0.42). Doxycycline administration was shown to prevent germinal epithelial loss in the testes of mice fed a high-fat diet. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical usefulness of doxycycline or its analogs in persons with a habitual high-fat diet.

  2. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasakabe T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Sasakabe1, Hajime Haimoto2, Hiroyuki Umegaki3, Kenji Wakai41Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanBackground: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM.Patients and methods: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age ± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride levels.Results: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812 ± 375 kcal/day, % carbo-hydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women. Significant decreases (P = 0.05 in BMI and HbA1c levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021 in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001 in women. VAT (–21.6 cm², P < 0.001 in men; –19.6 cm², P < 0.001 in women and SAT (–13.5 cm², P = 0.004 in men; –19.1 cm², P = 0.003 in women significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT in women (P = 0.022. A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss

  4. Carotid artery remodelling in relation to body fat distribution, inflammation and sustained weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardassis, D; Schönander, M; Sjöström, L; Karason, K

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with carotid artery remodelling, but less is known about how body fat distribution, inflammation and weight loss may affect this relation. Ultrasonography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography were performed to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), body composition and fat distribution, respectively. Participants were divided into three matched study groups (n = 44 per group): obese patients with sustained weight loss 10 years after bariatric surgery [surgery group, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 kg m(-2)]; obese patients who maintained stable weight during the same time period (obese group, BMI 42.5 kg m(-2)); and normal weight subjects (lean group, BMI 24.4 kg m(-2)). Patients in the surgery group, compared with those in the obese group, had slightly lower common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.75 ± 0.18 vs. 0.78 ± 0.17 mm) and common carotid bulb (CCB) IMT (0.92 ± 0.32 vs. 0.97 ± 0.32 mm); however, these differences were not statistically significant. Lean individuals, compared with those in the surgery group, had significantly lower CCA and CCB IMT values (P Obese patients with long-term sustained weight loss did not have thinner carotid artery walls compared with their weight-stable obese counterparts. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment. Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  6. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Sakamuri, Siva Sankara Vara; Sukapaka, Mahesh; Prathipati, Vijay Kumar; Nemani, Harishankar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Pothana, Shailaja; Koppala, Swarupa Rani; Ponday, Lakshmi Raj Kumar; Acharya, Vani; Veetill, Giridharan Nappan; Ayyalasomayajula, Vajreswari

    2012-01-01

    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX) on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight) or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment). Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  7. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A; Hansen, T H; Grarup, N; Hansen, T; Vestergaard, H

    2017-11-16

    The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet compliance did not affect the result. The GRSs had no effect on weight loss in men. The VEGFA rs1358980-T strongly attenuated weight loss in both men and women [β 15.95 g/risk allele/ day, (3.16;26.74), P=0.013] and [β 15.95 g/risk allele/ day, (2.58;13.53), P=0.004], respectively). Our findings suggest that genetic variants influencing body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women independently on the effect on WHR. The stronger effect of the GRSwomen implies heterogenic effects of the WHRadjBMI variants on weight loss. A strong effect of rs1358980-T in the VEGFA locus suggests that angiogenesis plays a role, but this needs confirmation from functional studies.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.279.

  8. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  9. Sudden unilateral visual loss after autologous fat injection into the nasolabial fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyouk Park

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Hyouk Park, Hae Jung Sun, Kyung Seek ChoiDepartment of ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: A 27-year-old female presented with sudden visual loss of her right eye after receiving an autologous fat injection into the right nasolabial fold. Fundus examination of the right eye showed multiple whitish patchy lesions with macular edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal filling and arm-to-retina circulation time and retinal arteriovenous passage time were delayed to 30 seconds and 20 seconds, respectively. There was no response in flash visual evoked potential (VEP. High dose steroid therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day/i.v. was done and about 2 weeks later, the disc edema subsided and retinal arteriovenous passage time of fluorescein angiogram was normalized but there was no improvement in visual acuity. Absence of a cherry red spot, deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal fillings seen in fluorescein angiogram, and no response in flash VEP suggests multiple choroidal infarction due to perfusion defect of the short posterior ciliary artery. The autologous fat injected is thought to have entered the dorsal nasal artery and the retrograde migration of the emboli to the ophthalmic artery might have caused the multiple occlusions of the short posterior ciliary artery.Keywords: autologous fat injection, ciliary artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy

  10. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  11. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  12. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Konjac Glucomannan Dietary Supplementation Causes Significant Fat Loss in Compliant Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Harry G

    2015-10-22

    Changes in body composition and blood chemistries between overweight adult subjects receiving a supplement containing either 3 g of konjac glucomannan/300 mg calcium carbonate or a placebo containing only 300 mg of calcium carbonate were compared as the primary objective. A secondary objective was to compare outcome differences between compliant and partially compliant subjects. A total of 83 overweight adults (66 women and 17 men) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol in which they received either a glucomannan or placebo supplement for 60 days. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans and a 42-measurement blood test were completed at baseline and 60 days later. Compliance was assessed by rating self-reports of (1) how many tablets were taken, (2) adherence to taking the tablets 30 minutes before eating, and (3) a sum of the ratings for (1) and (2). An anonymous poststudy questionnaire and telephone calls were also completed by 80 (96%) of the participants who were used as the study cohort. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups on changes from baseline on the DEXA and blood tests. However, when subjects were classified as either compliant or partially compliant using the compliance measures, statistically significant reductions in scale weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were found in the glucomannan group compared to the placebo group. This study supports the efficacy glucomannan supplementation to reduce body weight, body fat, and circulating cholesterol levels without the concomitant loss of lean mass and bone density often associated with weight loss. However, these positive outcomes were not observable until corrections for compliance were applied.

  14. The impact of spin coupling signal loss on fat content characterization in multi-echo acquisitions with different echo spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforaki, K; Manikis, G C; Boursianis, T; Marias, K; Karantanas, A; Maris, T G

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of echo spacing in transverse magnetization (T2) signal decay of gel and fat (oil) samples. Additionally, we assess the feasibility of using spin coupling as a determinant of fat content. Phantoms of known T2 values, as well as vegetable oil phantoms, were scanned at 1.5T scanner with a multi echo FSE sequence of variable echo spacing above and below the empirical threshold of 20ms for echo train signal modulation (6.7, 13.6, 26.8, and 40ms). T2 values were calculated from monoexponential fitting of the data. Relative signal loss between the four acquisitions of different echo spacing was calculated. Agreement in the T2 values of water gel phantom was observed in all acquisitions as opposed to fat phantom (oil) samples. Relative differences in signal intensity between two successive sequences of different echo spacing on composite fat/water regions of interest was found to be linearly correlated to fat fraction of the ROI. The sample specific degree of signal loss that was observed between different fat samples (vegetable oils) can be attributed to the composition of each sample in J coupled fat components. Hence, spin coupling may be used as a determinant of fat content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  16. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and pathways regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells: the effects of subcutaneous and visceral fat, and long-chain saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y Y; Hatzinikolas, G; Weir, J M; Janovská, A; McAinch, A J; Game, P; Meikle, P J; Wittert, G A

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine the effect of long-chain saturated and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, specifically palmitic acid (PA; 16:0), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and their interactions with factors from adipose tissue, on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. L6 myotubes were cultured with PA, DHA or LA (0.4mmol/l), with or without conditioned media from human subcutaneous (SC) and visceral (IAB) fat. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipid content, mRNA expression of key genes involved in nutrient utilization and protein expression of inhibitor protein inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were measured. PA and IAB fat reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and their combined effect was similar to that of PA alone. PA-induced insulin resistance was ameliorated by inhibiting the de novo synthesis of ceramide, IκBα degradation or mTOR activation. The PA effect was also partially reversed by DHA and completely by LA in the presence of SC fat. PA increased diacylglycerol content, which was reduced by LA and to a greater extent when either IAB or SC fat was also present. PA increased SCD1 whereas DHA and LA increased AMPKα2 mRNA. In the presence of SC or IAB fat, the combination of PA with either DHA or LA decreased SCD1 and increased AMPKα2 mRNA. PA-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle involves inflammatory (nuclear factor kappa B/mTOR) and nutrient (ceramide) pathways. PUFAs promote pathways, at a transcriptional level, that increase fat oxidation and synergize with factors from SC fat to abrogate PA-induced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J C; Collette, H J; de Waard van de Spek, FB

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up

  18. Obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in postmenopausal women participating in the Diagnostic Investigation of Mammary Cancer Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J C; Collette, H J; de Waard van de Spek, FB

    1992-01-01

    Associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer were studied in 16,355 postmenopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49 to 68 years, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the Diagnostic Investigation of Mammary Cancer [DOM] project in Utrecht, The

  19. The effect of leptin, caffeine/ephedrine, and their combination upon visceral fat mass and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann G; Smith, Steven R; Fujioka, Ken; Greenway, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat mass and weight loss over 24 weeks. In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial, 90 obese subjects received one of the three treatments for 24 weeks: 200 mg caffeine/20 mg ephedrine t.i.d. (CE), leptin A-200 (recombinant methionyl human Fc-leptin, 20 mg q.d.) (L), or combination leptin A-200 and caffeine/ephedrine (LCE). Outcomes included change in weight, visceral fat mass by computed tomography, lean mass and fat mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Groups treated with CE and LCE lost significant amounts of weight (-5.9 ± 1.2% and -6.5 ± 1.1%, P fat mass (-9.6 ± 2.4% and -12.4 ± 2.3%, P fat mass (-11.0 ± 3.3%, P loss agent and produces significant reductions in fat mass. Leptin A-200 was not effective in producing weight loss and did not have any significant additive or synergistic actions when combined with CE. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Varady, Krista A

    2013-01-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet. The goal of this study was to determine if these beneficial changes in body weight and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be reproduced if an HF background diet is used in place of an LF diet during ADF. Thirty-two obese subjects were randomized to an ADF-HF (45% fat) or ADF-LF diet (25% fat), which consisted of two phases: 1) a 2-week baseline weight maintenance period, and 2) an 8-week ADF weight loss period. All food was provided during the study. Body weight was reduced (PADF-HF (4.8%±1.1%) and by ADF-LF (4.2%±0.8%). Fat mass decreased (PADF-HF (5.4±1.5 kg) and ADF-LF (4.2±0.6 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (PADF-HF (7.2±1.5 cm) and ADF-LF (7.3±0.9 cm). LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced (PADF-HF: 18.3%±4.6%, 13.7%±4.8%; and ADF-LF: 24.8%±2.6%, 14.3%±4.4%). HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart rate remained unchanged. There were no between-group differences for any parameter. These findings suggest that an ADF-HF diet is equally as effective as an ADF-LF diet in helping obese subjects lose weight and improve CHD risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  2. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  3. A comparative assessment of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat as a potential cell source for knee osteoarthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Pan, Zhang-Yi; Zou, Ying; He, Yi; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Yin, Feng

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is a novel potential therapy for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the efficacy of ASCs from different regions of the body remains unknown. This study investigated whether ASCs from subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue provide the same improvement of OA. Mouse and human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were excised for ASC isolation. Morphology, proliferation, surface markers and adipocyte differentiation of subcutaneous ASCs (S-ASCs) and visceral ASCs (V-ASCs) were analysed. A surgically induced rat model of OA was established, and 4 weeks after the operation, S-ASCs, V-ASCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, control) were injected into the articular cavity. Histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses were performed 6 weeks after ASC injection. The ability of ASCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed by in vitro chondrogenesis, and the immunosuppressive activity of ASCs was evaluated by co-culturing with macrophages. The proliferation of V-ASCs was significantly greater than that of S-ASCs, but S-ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V-ASCs. In addition, the infracted cartilage treated with S-ASCs showed significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V-ASCs. Moreover, S-ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an effective cell source for cell therapy of OA as it promotes stem cell differentiation into chondrocytes and inhibits immunological reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    .... Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects...

  5. Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, L M; Yang, C; Ephrem, J; Garren, E; Hirsh, J; Deppmann, C D

    2017-04-10

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates energy homeostasis in part by governing fatty acid liberation from adipose tissue. We first examined whether SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots changes in response to a weight loss diet in mice. We found that SNS activity toward each adipose depot is unique in timing, pattern of activation, and habituation with the most dramatic contrast between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots. Sympathetic drive toward visceral epididymal adipose is more than doubled early in weight loss and then suppressed later in the diet when weight loss plateaued. Coincident with the decline in SNS activity toward visceral adipose is an increase in activity toward subcutaneous depots indicating a switch in lipolytic sources. In response to calorie restriction, SNS activity toward retroperitoneal and brown adipose depots is unaffected. Finally, pharmacological blockage of sympathetic activity on adipose tissue using the β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist, SR59230a, suppressed loss of visceral adipose mass in response to diet. These findings indicate that SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots is dynamic and potentially hierarchical. This pattern of sympathetic activation is required for energy liberation and loss of adipose tissue in response to calorie-restricted diet.

  6. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J. C.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up period of 15 years (mean follow-up time 12.5 years) 260 women developed breast cancer. Fat distribution, assessed by contrasting groups of subcapsular and triceps skinfold thickness, was found to be unrelated to breast cancer incidence. No significant relationship between body fat, measured either by weight, Quetelet's index, triceps skinfold or subscapular skinfold, and breast cancer risk was found when analysed in quartiles. However, women in the upper decile compared with the lower decile of the distribution of Quetelet's index were found to have a 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1-3.3) higher risk for breast cancer. These results seemed to be in contrast with the significant positive association between fatness, analysed in quartiles, and breast cancer observed in a cross-sectional study, based on mammographic screening, carried out previously in the same population. Although the differences between the present, prospective, study and our cross-sectional study may be due to chance it may be that there are differences between characteristics of breast cancer detected at screening and subsequently, which influence the associations between measures of fatness and risk of breast cancer. PMID:8297734

  7. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  8. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calorie diet. The patients were divided into four groups according to their %WL and %FL. most of the sample consisted of: women; participants between 25-45 years of age; attended consultations for over a month and a half; obese. 80% of the patients obtained a %FL ≥ 5% (15.5 } 12.8). The groups with a higher %FL obtained significant differences in weight loss (22.6 vs 11.2%, p = 0.000). The multinomial analysis shows significant differences between the groups with the highest %FL and the lowest %WL and %FL: sex (p = 0.006 vs p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.010 vs p = 0.003) and attendance (p = 0.000 vs p = 0.000). the patients who lost treatment results in a high fat loss; fat is an indicator of the quality loss obtained. use the measurement of fat as a complementary unit of measurement to weight loss; establish a limit of 5% to evaluate such loss; and increase this type of research in any method of weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. Signaling molecules, including diacylgycero1 acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), peroxisome proliferation receptor alpha-1 (PPARα1), PPARγ1, PPARγ2 mRNA levels and the protein expression of SGLT2 were evaluated. Canagliflozin reduced body weight, especially the high-dose canagliflozin, and resulted in increased body weight loss compared with orlistat. Moreover, canagliflozin reduced the liver weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight, lowered the serum levels of TC and TG, and ameliorated liver steatosis. During the canagliflozin treatment, SGLT2, DGAT2, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 were inhibited, and PPARα1 was elevated in the liver tissues. This finding may explain why body weight was reduced and secondary liver injury was ameliorated in response to canagliflozin. Together, the results suggest that canagliflozin may be a potential anti-obesity strategy.

  10. Effect of weight loss on magnetic resonance imaging estimation of liver fat and volume in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj S; Doycheva, Iliana; Peterson, Michael R; Hooker, Jonathan; Kisselva, Tatiana; Schnabl, Bernd; Seki, Ekihiro; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how weight loss affects magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver fat and volume or liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We measured changes in liver fat and liver volume associated with weight loss by using an advanced MRI method. We analyzed data collected from a previous randomized controlled trial in which 43 adult patients with biopsy-proven NASH underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical tests, and MRI and liver biopsy analyses at the start of the study and after 24 weeks. We compared data between patients who did and did not have at least 5% decrease in body mass index (BMI) during the study period. Ten of 43 patients had at least a 5% decrease in BMI during the study period. These patients had a significant decrease in liver fat, which was based on MRI proton density fat fraction estimates (18.3% ± 7.6% to 13.6% ± 13.6%, P = .03), a relative 25.5% reduction. They also had a significant decrease in liver volume (5.3%). However, no significant changes in levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase were observed with weight loss. Thirty-three patients without at least 5% decrease in BMI had insignificant increases in estimated liver fat fraction and liver volume. A reduction in BMI of at least 5% is associated with significant decrease in liver fat and volume in patients with biopsy-proven NASH. These data should be considered in assessing effect size in studies of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or obesity that use MRI-estimated liver fat and volume as end points. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynorphin knockout reduces fat mass and increases weight loss during fasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Amanda; Lin, Shu; McNamara, Keely; Slack, Katy; Enriquez, Ronaldo; Lee, Nicola J; Boey, Dana; Smythe, George A; Schwarzer, Christoph; Baldock, Paul; Karl, Tim; Lin, En-Ju D; Couzens, Michelle; Herzog, Herbert

    2007-07-01

    Endogenous opioids, particularly dynorphins, have been implicated in regulation of energy balance, but it is not known how they mediate this in vivo. We investigated energy homeostasis in dynorphin knockout mice (Dyn(-/-) mice) and probed the interactions between dynorphins and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system. Dyn(-/-) mice were no different from wild types with regards to body weight and basal and fasting-induced food intake, but fecal output was increased, suggesting decreased nutrient absorption, and they had significantly less white fat and lost more weight during a 24-h fast. The neuroendocrine and thermal responses to fasting were at least as pronounced in Dyn(-/-) as in wild types, and there was no stimulatory effect of dynorphin knockout on 24-h energy expenditure (kilocalories of heat produced) or physical activity. However, Dyn(-/-) mice showed increased circulating concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenlacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, suggesting increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The respiratory exchange ratio of male but not female Dyn(-/-) mice was reduced, demonstrating increased fat oxidation. Interestingly, expression of the orexigenic acting NPY in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was reduced in Dyn(-/-) mice. However, fasting-induced increases in pre-prodynorphin expression in the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the ventromedial hypothalamus but not the lateral hypothalamus were abolished by deletion of Y(1) but not Y(2) receptors. Therefore, ablation of dynorphins results in increases in fatty acid oxidation in male mice, reductions in adiposity, and increased weight loss during fasting, possibly via increases in sympathetic activity, decreases in intestinal nutrient absorption, and interactions with the NPYergic system.

  12. Effect of fat loss on arterial elasticity in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance: RESIST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mandy; Gow, Megan; Baur, Louise A; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z; Tam, Charmaine S; Donaghue, Kim C; Craig, Maria E; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2014-10-01

    Reduced arterial elasticity contributes to an obesity-related increase in cardiovascular risk in adults. To evaluate the effect of fat loss on arterial elasticity in obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes. A secondary data analysis of the RESIST study was performed in two hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The study included 56 subjects (ages, 10 to 17 y; 25 males) with prediabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. A 12-month lifestyle plus metformin intervention. Arterial elasticity and systemic vascular resistance were measured using radial tonometry pulse contour analysis, percentage body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity index was derived from an oral glucose tolerance test and lipids. Adolescents (n = 31) with decreased %BF (mean change [range], -4.4% [-18.3 to -0.01%]) after the intervention had significant increases in the mean large arterial elasticity index (mean change [95%CI], 5.1 [1.9 to 8.2] mL/mm Hg * 10; P = .003) and insulin sensitivity index (0.5 [0.1 to 0.9]; P = .010) and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (-82 [-129 to -35] dyne * s * cm(-5); P = .001). There were no significant changes in these parameters in adolescents who increased their %BF. Nor was there any significant change in the mean small arterial elasticity index in either group. Long-term follow-up of these adolescents is warranted to assess whether the observed changes in vascular elasticity will lead to a clinical benefit including reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  14. Reduced sCD36 following weight loss corresponds to improved insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and liver fat in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knøsgaard, L; Kazankov, K; Birkebæk, N H; Holland-Fischer, P; Lange, A; Solvig, J; Hørlyck, A; Kristensen, K; Rittig, S; Vilstrup, H; Grønbæk, H; Handberg, A

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health problem with serious long-term metabolic consequences. CD36 is important for the development of obesity-related complications among adults. We aimed to investigate circulating sCD36 during weight loss in childhood obesity and its associations with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. The impact of a 10-week weight loss camp for obese children (N=113) on plasma sCD36 and further after a 12-month follow-up (N=68) was investigated. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay. Liver fat was estimated by ultrasonography and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Along with marked weight loss, sCD36 was reduced by 21% (P=0.0013) following lifestyle intervention, and individual sCD36 reductions were significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in HOMA-IR, triglycerides and total cholesterol. The largest sCD36 decrease occurred among children who reduced HOMA-IR and liver fat. After 12 months of follow-up, sCD36 was increased (P=0.014) and the metabolic improvements were largely lost. Weight-loss-induced sCD36 reduction, coincident with improved insulin resistance, circulating lipids and hepatic fat accumulation, proposes that sCD36 may be an early marker of long-term health risk associated with obesity-related complications.

  15. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Leenen, R.; Seidell, J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in healthy, obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, 25 men and 25 premenopausal women, aged between 26 and 49 years, with an

  16. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  17. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  18. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Sun

    Full Text Available Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  19. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Pprotein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  20. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, ploss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (ploss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  2. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    McIver Cassandra M; Wycherley Thomas P; Clifton Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high prote...

  3. Effect of weight loss on inflammatory and endothelial markers and FMD using two low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B; Foster, P R; Noakes, M

    2005-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is strongly associated with obesity and there is evidence that weight loss has positive effects on cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to compare meal replacements (MR) with a conventional low-fat diet as weight loss strategies and to examine the effect of weight loss on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and other markers of endothelial function in overweight Australians with raised triglycerides (TG) (> 2 mmol/l). Subjects matched for age, gender, fasting plasma TG and body mass index were randomized to two low- fat high- carbohydrate weight loss strategies (both FMD, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline and at 3 months, as were fasting blood samples for lipids, glucose, insulin, C reactive protein (CRP) and endothelium-derived factors. Mean weight loss was 6.3 +/- 3.7 kg (6.0 +/- 4.2 vs 6.63 +/- 3.35 kg, MR vs C) with no difference between diet groups. TG, insulin, CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1) fell after weight loss, but FMD did not change. Systolic BP fell by 8 mmHg and pulse wave velocity improved. In subjects with elevated TG, weight loss resulted in significant improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, particularly endothelium-derived factors (PAI-1 and sICAM1). However, FMD did not improve with weight loss.

  4. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is needed to determine if congruency between food preferences and dietary approach is associated with weight loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemel, Michael B; Thompson, Warren; Milstead, Anita; Morris, Kristin; Campbell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    ...+ influx and, as a consequence, stimulates lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases lipid accumulation, whereas increasing dietary calcium inhibits these effects and markedly accelerates fat...

  7. Reduction in energy expenditure during weight loss is higher than predicted based on fat free mass and fat mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Twan; Verreijen, Amely M; Memelink, Robert G; Tieland, Michael; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to describe a decrease in resting energy expenditure during weight loss that is larger than expected based on changes in body composition, called adaptive thermogenesis (AT), in overweight and obese older adults. Multiple studies were combined to assess AT in younger and older subjects. Body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured before and after weight loss. Baseline values were used to predict fat free mass and fat mass adjusted REE after weight loss. AT was defined as the difference between predicted and measured REE after weight loss. The median age of 55 y was used as a cutoff to compare older with younger subjects. The relation between AT and age was investigated using linear regression analysis. In this study 254 (M = 88, F = 166) overweight and obese subjects were included (BMI: 31.7 ± 4.4 kg/m2, age: 51 ± 14 y). The AT was only significant for older subjects (64 ± 185 kcal/d, 95% CI [32, 96]), but not for younger subjects (19 ± 152 kcal/d, 95% CI [-9, 46]). The size of the AT was significantly higher for older compared to younger adults (β = 47, p = 0.048), independent of gender and type and duration of the weight loss program. We conclude that adaptive thermogenesis is present only in older subjects, which might have implications for weight management in older adults. A reduced energy intake is advised to counteract the adaptive thermogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-11-01

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p weight in obese participants, but men lose the highest percentage of mass from the trunk. There were differences between men and women for the areas of left trunk mass (750g), right trunk mass (700g), total mass of the trunk (1400g), android mass (350g), and finally in the total mass in overweight participants (1300g), with higher values for men than for women. The region that loses more weight and fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  9. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  10. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M

    2001-01-01

    the relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...... expression of GHR and GHRtr in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined and expressed relative to the expression of beta-actin. Gene expression of GHR in abdominal sc adipose tissue was not altered, whereas the expression of GHRtr increased significantly. In skeletal muscle inverse changes were seen...

  11. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, S; Lang, W; Jordan, D; Wing, R R

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies, and use of fat- and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always-normal weight group (NW). WLM (N=172) had maintained > or = 10% weight loss for 11.5 years, and had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.0 kg m(-2). NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3 kg m(-2) and no history of being overweight. Three, 24-h recalls on random, non-consecutive days were used to assess dietary intake. WLM reported consuming a diet that was lower in fat (28.7 vs 32.6%, Pfat-modification strategies than NW. WLM also consumed a significantly greater percentage of modified dairy (60 vs 49%; P=0.002) and modified dressings and sauces (55 vs 44%; P=0.006) than NW. WLM reported consuming three times more daily servings of artificially sweetened soft drinks (0.91 vs 0.37; P=0.003), significantly fewer daily servings of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (0.07 vs 0.16; P=0.03) and more daily servings of water (4.72 vs 3.48; P=0.002) than NW. These findings suggest that WLM use more dietary strategies to accomplish their weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction on fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Ways to promote the use of fat-modified foods and artificial sweeteners merits further research in both prevention- and treatment-controlled trials.

  12. High-fat Diet Enhances and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Bone Loss in Mice with Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (Pai1(-/-)) on the bone structure in male C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Significant reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) in femurs and vertebrae were found in LLC-bearing mice compared to non-tumor-bearing mice. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G control diet significantly reduced BV/TV, Tb.N and BMD in femurs and BV/TV in vertebrae. The high-fat diet significantly reduced BMD in vertebrae in wild-type mice but not in Pai1(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type mice, PAI1 deficiency significantly increased BV/TV and Tb.N in femurs. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin was significantly lower and that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was significantly higher in LLC-bearing mice. The high-fat diet significantly reduced plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b. Deficiency in PAI1 prevented the high-fat diet-induced increases in plasma TRAP5b. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet enhances, whereas PAI1 deficiency, attenuates metastasis-associated bone loss, indicating that a high-fat diet and PAI1 contribute to metastasis-associated bone deterioration. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  14. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions

  15. Deposição diária e sazonal de gordura subcutânea em Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Daily and seasonal deposition of subcutaneous fat in Phacellodomus rufifrons, a Neotropical ovenbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Goulart

    2007-01-01

    feeding is possible. Allied to this fact, there is a seasonal increase of the lipid stores as the winter gets closer, which enable the bird to survive through this season. Data on tropical birds are however rare. This study concerns the knowledge of the fat dynamics of the Rufous-fronted Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821, an ovenbird (Passeriformes, Furnariidae endemic of the Neotropical region, on a seasonal tropical environment, the Southeastern Brazilian Cerrado, a savannah-like ecosystem. The fieldwork was carried out between August 2001 and July 2002 at Serra do Cipó National Park, municipality of Jaboticatubas in the state of Minas Gerais. The data on subcutaneous fat was visually scored on the captured individuals. As the furcular subcutaneous amount of lipid varied, it was established four categories for this parameter. We found out that there was a significant increase of the fat levels along the day, as in the temperate region species, but there was not a significant seasonal variation. Also the mean body weight did not change throughout the year or throughout the day. Our results show that the daily variation in the Cerrado region can act as a stressing situation that could lead to overnight physiological adaptation. On the other hand, seasonal variation could be balanced by the habit of sleeping all year long inside the nest, a behavior relatively rare for passerine birds.

  16. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  17. The comparison of effects of high protein-low fat diet, and standard diet on weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Falahi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is one of the most important problems in the world. Suitable low calorie diets are among the best ways for weight loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and comparison of two kinds of low-calorie diets on weight loss. Materials and Methods: Seventy- six health women (20-55 yrs old were randomly divided into two groups for 3 months: 39 subjects in standard diet group (SD (carbohydrate 55%, fat 30%, protein 15%, and 37 persons in high protein-low fat diet group (HPD (carbohydrate 55%, fat 20%, protein 25%. Energy intake was 1000 kcal less than the daily needs in the two groups. In the beginning and at the end of each month the subjects were visited and food diet energy was adjusted. In the beginning and finally BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio were measured. Results: BMI decreased 4. 43±0.96 v. s 4. 15±0.76 in SD and HPD groups, respectively. The amount of weight loss was 10. 89 2.04 in SD and 10. 48 1.73 in HPD. Waist to hip ratio decreased 0. 02±0.014 v. s 0. 018±0. 014 in SD and HPD, respectively. For all variables there was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Both low calorie diets (SD and HPD decreased weight and other obesity indices. Therefore, HPD may be a suitable substitution for standard diet.

  18. Ultrastructural and morphometric study on fat cells of the so called subcutaneous "fascia areolaris" and "fascia lamelaris" in the human inguinal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C A; de Souza, R R; Fujimura, I; de Araujo, M V; Takakura, C F

    1984-01-01

    The fat cells of the so called fascia areolaris and fascia lamelaris (Velpeau 1834; Sterzi 1910) of men and women (aged from 20 to 35 years) were ultrastructural and morphometrically (cell volume) studied. No noteworthy submicroscopic difference was observed between fascias. The cell volumes obtained from planimetric measures showed the following values: 3.770 X 10(5) microns and 2.497 X 10(5) microns in the fascia aerolaris and lamelaris of men, respectively. For the women the values were: 7.222 X 10(5) microns and 5.025 X 10(5) microns (Fig. 3). The analysis of variance shows significant differences between the sexes and between fascia areolaris and lamelaris. The difference between the fascias supports the Sterzi's (1910) description on the tela subcutanea as being formed by those two distinct layers.

  19. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  20. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the abili...... that angiogenesis plays a role, but this needs confirmation from functional studies.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.279....

  1. High fat diet attenuates hyperglycemia, body composition changes, and bone loss in male streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Adriana Lelis; DeMambro, Victoria E; Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Motyl, Katherine J

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk, and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin-deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures, and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin-deficient mice. We evaluated the impact of a 6-week high-fat (HFD) rich in medium chain fatty acids or low-fat diet (LFD) on bone mass and MAT in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model using male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age. Dietary intervention was initiated after diabetes confirmation. At the endpoint, lower non-fasting glucose levels were observed in diabetic mice fed with high fat diet compared to diabetic mice fed the low fat diet (STZ-LFD). Compared to euglycemic controls, the STZ-LFD had marked polydipsia and polyphagia, as well as reduced lean mass, fat mass, and bone parameters. Interestingly, STZ-HFD mice had higher bone mass, namely less cortical bone loss and more trabecular bone than STZ-LFD. Thus, we found that a HFD, rich in medium chain fatty acids, protects against bone loss in a T1DM mouse model. Whether this may also translate to T1DM patients who are overweight or obese in respect to maintenance of bone mass remains to be determined through longitudinal studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Attenuated improvements in adiponectin and fat loss characterize type 2 diabetes non-remission status following bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Bena, James; Abood, Beth; Pothier, Claire E.; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nissen, Steven; Brethauer, Stacy A.; Schauer, Philip R.; Kirwan, John P.; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Bariatric surgery improves glycemic control, but not all patients achieve type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission. Thus, we aimed to identify metabolic determinants of T2D non-remission status following bariatric surgery at 12 and 24 months (m). Methods Forty adults (BMI: 36±3kg/m2, Age: 48±9y, HbA1c: 9.7±2%) undergoing bariatric surgery (i.e. RYGB or SG) were enrolled in STAMPEDE. T2D remission was defined as HbA1c Bariatric surgery-induced 40% and 27% T2D remission rates at 12 and 24m, respectively. Total fat/abdominal fat loss, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function (C-peptide0–120/Glucose0–120 × Matsuda index) improved more in remitters at 12 and 24m than non-remitters. Incretin levels were unrelated to T2D remission, but, compared to non-remitters, hs-CRP decreased and adiponectin increased more in remitters. Only baseline adiponectin predicted lower HbA1c at 12 and 24m, and elevated adiponectin correlated with enhanced β-cell function, lower triglycerides and fat loss. Conclusions Smaller rises in adiponectin, a mediator of insulin action and adipose mass, depict T2D non-remission up to 2 years after bariatric surgery. Adjunctive strategies promoting greater fat loss and/or raising adiponectin may be key for higher T2D remission rates after bariatric surgery. PMID:25132119

  3. Effect of uncertainty in composition and weight measures in control of cheese yield and fat loss in large cheese factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Brenda; Adams, Michael C; Pranata, Joice; Gondoutomo, Kathleen; Barbano, David M

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to develop a computer-based cheese yield, fat recovery, and composition control performance measurement system to provide quantitative performance records for a Cheddar and mozzarella cheese factory. The system can be used to track trends in performance of starter cultures and vats, as well as systematically calculate theoretical yield. Yield equations were built into the spreadsheet to evaluate cheese yield performance and fat losses in a cheese factory. Based on observations in commercial cheese factories, sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the sensitivity of cheese factory performance to analytical uncertainty of data used in the evaluation. Analytical uncertainty in the accuracy of milk weight and milk and cheese composition were identified as important factors that influence the ability to manage consistency of cheese quality and profitability. It was demonstrated that an uncertainty of ±0.1% milk fat or milk protein in the vat causes a range of theoretical Cheddar cheese yield from 10.05 to 10.37% and an uncertainty of yield efficiency of ±1.5%. This equates to ±1,451 kg (3,199 lb) of cheese per day in a factory processing 907,185 kg (2 million pounds) of milk per day. The same is true for uncertainty in cheese composition, where the effect of being 0.5% low on moisture or fat is about 484 kg (1,067 lb) of missed revenue opportunity from cheese for the day. Missing the moisture target causes other targets such as fat on a dry basis and salt in moisture to be missed. Similar impacts were demonstrated for mozzarella cheese. In analytical performance evaluations of commercial cheese quality assurance laboratories, we found that analytical uncertainty was typically a bias that was as large as 0.5% on fat and moisture. The effect of having a high bias of 0.5% moisture or fat will produce a missed opportunity of 484 kg of cheese per day for each component. More accurate rapid methods for determination of moisture, fat, and salt

  4. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) protects ovariectomized rats fed with high-saturated fat-sucrose diet from bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X L; Yu, W X; Li, C M; He, S; Zhou, L P; Poon, C W; Wong, M S

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property. However, dietary patterns may interfere with the effects of herbal intervention. We hypothesized that dietary fat and sucrose levels could influence the effects of SM supplementation on bone in estrogen-deficient animals. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley sham or OVX rats were fed either a low-saturated fat-sucrose (LFS, a diet that was similar in composition to normal rat chow) or a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet and OVX rats were treated (8 rats/group) with SM aqueous extract (SMA, 600 mg/kg/day), 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 12 weeks. SMA significantly improved bone properties as revealed by the increase in trabecular bone mineral density and decrease in trabecular separation at proximal metaphysis of the tibia (PT) in HFS-fed OVX rats, but not in LFS-fed OVX rats. SMA greatly reduced lipid deposition and malondialdehyde levels, improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the livers of HFS-fed OVX rats. SMA could directly improve the proliferation and differentiation in vitro in an H2O2-induced preosteoblast cell model by attenuating cellular reactive oxygen species levels. The protective effects of SMA on bone metabolism were influenced by dietary fat and sucrose levels in OVX rats. The ability of SMA to reduce bone loss in HFS-fed OVX rats was associated with the attenuation of lipid deposition and oxidative stress levels.

  5. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  6. Proteomic analysis of duck fatty liver during post-mortem storage related to the variability of fat loss during cooking of "foie gras".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Laetitia; Fernandez, Xavier; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Chambon, Christophe; Viala, Didier; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Astruc, Thierry; Molette, Caroline

    2013-01-30

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main problem for both manufacturers and consumers. Despite the efforts of the processing industry to control fat loss, the variability of fatty liver cooking yields remains high and uncontrolled. To understand the biochemical effects of postslaughter processing on fat loss during cooking, this study characterizes for the first time the protein expression of fatty liver during chilling using a proteomic approach. For this purpose the proteins were separated according to their solubility: the protein fraction soluble in a buffer of low ionic strength (S) and the protein fraction insoluble in the same buffer (IS). Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the S fraction and mass spectrometry for the identification of spots of interest. This analysis revealed 36 (21 identified proteins) and 34 (26 identified proteins) spots of interests in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. The expression of proteins was lower after chilling, which revealed a suppressive effect of chilling on biological processes. The shot-gun strategy was used to analyze the IS fraction, with the identification of all the proteins by mass spectrometry. This allowed identification of 554 and 562 proteins in the low-fat-loss and high-fat-loss groups, respectively. Among these proteins, only the proteins that were up-regulated in the high-fat-loss group were significant (p value = 3.17 × 10(-3)) and corresponded to protein from the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the variability of technological yield observed in processing plants could be explained by different aging states of fatty livers during chilling, most likely associated with different proteolytic patterns.

  7. Weight Loss Programs May Have Beneficial or Adverse Effects on Fat Mass and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Benjamin; Miller, Bernard V; Zalos, Gloria; Courville, Amber B; Sumner, Anne E; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Walter, Mary F; Waclawiw, Myron A; Cannon, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss interventions have produced little change in insulin sensitivity in black women, but mean data may obscure metabolic benefit to some and adverse effects for others. Accordingly, we analyzed insulin sensitivity relative to fat mass change following a weight loss program. Fifty-four black women (BMI range 25.9 to 54.7 kg/m2) completed the 6-month program that included nutrition information and worksite exercise facilities. Fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from an insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test using the minimal model. Baseline SI (range 0.74 to 7.58 l/mU-1•min-1) was inversely associated with fat mass (r = -0.516, p fat mass (baseline 40.8 ± 12.4 to 39.4 ± 12.6 kg [mean ± SD], P fat mass. SI for the group was unchanged (baseline 3.3 ± 1.7 to 3.2 ± 1.6, P = 0.67). However, the tertile with greatest fat mass loss (-3.6 kg, range -10.7 to -1.7 kg) improved insulin sensitivity (SI +0.3 ± 1.2), whereas the tertile with net fat mass gain (+0.9 kg, range -0.1 to +3.8 kg) had reduced insulin sensitivity (SI -0.7 ± 1.3) from baseline values (P loss program who lose fat mass may have improved insulin sensitivity, but fat mass gain with diminished sensitivity is common. Additional support for participants who fail to achieve fat mass loss early in an intervention may be required for success.

  8. The love hormone Oxytocin regulates the loss and gain of the Fat-Bone relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana eColaianni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of Oxytocin (OT in bone metabolism is an interesting area of research that recently achieved remarkable results. Moreover, several lines of evidence have largely demonstrated that OT also participates in the regulation of energy metabolism. Hence, it has recently been determined that the posterior pituitary hormone OT directly regulates bone mass: mice lacking OT or OT receptor (OTR display severe osteopenia, caused by impaired bone formation. OT administration normalizes ovariectomy-induced osteopenia, bone marrow adiposity, body weight and intra-abdominal fat depots in mice. This effect is mediated through inhibition of adipocyte precursor differentiation and reduction of adipocyte size. The exquisite role of OT in regulating the bone-fat connection adds another milestone to the biological evidence supporting the existence of a tight relationship between the adipose tissue and the skeleton.

  9. Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaban, Gal; Wolak, Arik; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka-Meir, Anat; Komy, Oded; Bilitzky, Avital; Chassidim, Yoash; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Dicker, Dror; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes.Results: The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (-6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (-2.3 ± 6.5 cm; P = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [-37 ± 26.2 mL (-22% ± 15%) compared with -15.5 ± 26.2 mL (-8% ± 15%), respectively; P 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (β = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; P = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (β = 2.689; 95% CI: 0.373, 5.003; P = 0.024), and the EPF relative reduction was associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol (β = -0.452; 95% CI: -0.880, -0.023; P = 0.039) and a decrease in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (

  10. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil; Westh, Karina; Feigh, Michael; Nielsen, Ninna B; Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente

    2015-04-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test and calculated by polynomial regression. As intended by study design, a similar weight loss was observed in T (-5.9 ± 0.7 kg) and D (-5.2 ± 0.8 kg), whereas T-iD (-1.0 ± 0.5 kg) and C (0.1 ± 0.6 kg) remained weight stable. PFO increased to a similar extent with 42% in T [0.16 g/min; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.02; 0.30, P = 0.02] and 41% in T-iD (0.16 g/min; 95% CI: 0.01; 0.30, P = 0.04) compared with C, but did not increase in D (P = 0.96). In addition, the analysis of covariance showed that changes in both PFO (0.10 g/min; 95% CI: 0.03; 0.17, P = 0.03) and FatMax (6.3% V̇o2max; 95% CI: 1.4; 11.3, P < 0.01) were independently explained by endurance training. In conclusion, endurance training per se increases PFO in moderately overweight men. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  12. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2, and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  13. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  14. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  15. Effects of total and regional fat loss on plasma CRP and IL-6 in overweight and obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, K M; Beavers, D P; Newman, J J; Anderson, A M; Loeser, R F; Nicklas, B J; Lyles, M F; Miller, G D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2015-02-01

    To describe associations between total and regional body fat mass loss and reduction of systemic levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in obese, older adults with osteoarthritis (OA), undergoing intentional weight loss. Data come from a single-blind, 18-month, randomized controlled trial in adults (age: 65.6 ± 6.2; Body mass index (BMI): 33.6 ± 3.7) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D + E; n = 150), diet-induced weight loss-only (D; n = 149), or exercise-only (E; n = 151). Total body and region-specific (abdomen and thigh) fat mass were measured at baseline and 18 months. High-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 were measured at baseline, six and 18 months. Intervention effects were assessed using mixed models and associations between inflammation and adiposity were compared using logistic and mixed linear regression models. Intentional total body fat mass reduction was associated with significant reductions in log-adjusted CRP (β = 0.06 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.08) mg/L) and IL-6 (β = 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) pg/mL). Loss of abdominal fat volume was also associated with reduced inflammation, independent of total body fat mass; although models containing measures of total adiposity yielded the best fit. The odds of achieving clinically desirable levels of CRP (fat mass loss. Achievement of clinically desirable levels of CRP and IL-6 more than double with intentional 5% loss of total body weight and fat mass. Global, rather than regional, measures of adiposity are better predictors of change in inflammatory burden. NCT00381290. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oedema in the Lumbar Subcutaneous Fat, on Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging, of Patients with No History of Cardiac, Renal or Hepatic Disease, Is Significantly Associated with Obesity and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM West

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between oedema in the subcutaneous fat of the lumbar region during routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and patients’ age, gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive examinations of 95 females and 54 males, 18 years and older, scanned at 1.5T between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed. Presence and extent of oedema were determined. Oedema was sized on the anatomical segments. Data were analysed using tests for means, odd’s ratio (OR, Chi-squared test, McNemar’s test, linear and backward stepwise multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Patients with oedema had significantly higher BMI (30.3 kg/m2 vs 24.9 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and were older (49.9 years vs 43.9 years, p = 0.01 than those without oedema. The OR for oedema in obese vs non-obese patients was 8.6. The Chi-squared and McNemar tests were significant, p = 0 and p < 0.001, respectively. Body mass index and age predicted oedema on backward stepwise regression and, on ANOVA, at 23.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Males were marginally less likely to have oedema (p = 0.056 and had marginally less oedema (p = 0.056 than females. Conclusion: Body mass index and age, but not gender, predict oedema. Body mass index predicts oedema five times as much as age.

  17. Impact of weight loss on physical function with changes in strength, muscle mass, and muscle fat infiltration in overweight to moderately obese older adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanasto, Adam J; Glynn, Nancy W; Newman, Mark A; Taylor, Christopher A; Brooks, Maria Mori; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL) or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA) program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB). Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  18. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  19. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  20. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years. Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2. Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

  1. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). SUBJECTS: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean +/- s.e.m.: age 33.2 +/- 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 +/- 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 +/- 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 +/- 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. RESULTS: Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the

  2. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  3. Agreement of bioelectrical impedance with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and MRI to estimate changes in body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat during a 12-month weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaye, Sanna; Karmi, Anna; Suojanen, Laura; Rissanen, Aila; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2013-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the agreement of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and MRI in estimating body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat during a 12-month weight loss intervention. A total of nineteen obese adults (twelve females, seven males) aged 20·2-48·6 years, mean BMI 34·6 (SE 0·6) kg/m², participated in the study. Body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat index were measured by BIA (Omron BF-500; Omron Medizintechnik) and compared with DXA (body fat and skeletal muscle) at baseline, 5 and 12 months, and with MRI (visceral fat) at baseline and 5 months. The subjects lost 8·9 (SE 1·8) kg (9·0 (SE 1·7) %) of body weight during the 12-month intervention. BIA, as compared to DXA, accurately assessed loss of fat (7·0 (SE 1·5) v. 7·0 (SE 1·4) kg, P= 0·94) and muscle (1·0 (SE 0·2) v. 1·4 (SE 0·3) kg, P= 0·18). While body fat was similar by the two methods, skeletal muscle was underestimated by 1-2 kg using BIA at each time point. Compared to MRI, BIA overestimated visceral fat, especially in males. BIA and DXA showed high correlations for kg fat, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally (r 0·91-0·99). BIA, compared with DXA and MRI, detected kg muscle and visceral fat more accurately cross-sectionally (r 0·77-0·87 and r 0·40-0·78, respectively) than their changes longitudinally (r 0·24-0·61 and r 0·46, respectively). BIA is at its best when assessing the amount or changes in fat mass. It is a useful method for measuring skeletal muscle, but limited in its ability to measure visceral fat.

  4. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  5. Zidovudine/lamivudine for HIV-1 infection contributes to limb fat loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G A van Vonderen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipoatrophy is known to be associated with stavudine as part of the treatment for HIV infection, but it is less clear if this serious side effect is also related to other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like zidovudine. We aimed to determine whether zidovudine-sparing first-line antiretroviral therapy would lead to less lipoatrophy and other metabolic changes than zidovudine-containing therapy.Fifty antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected men with an indication to start antiretroviral therapy were included in a randomized single blinded clinical trial. Randomisation was between zidovudine-containing therapy (zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine-sparing therapy (nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir. Main outcome measures were body composition assessed by computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and lipid profile before and after 3, 12, 24 months of antiretroviral therapy. In the zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, from 3 months onward limb fat decreased progressively by 684+/-293 grams (estimated mean+/-standard error of the mean(p = 0.02 up to 24 months whereas abdominal fat increased, but exclusively in the visceral compartment (+21.9+/-8.1 cm(2, p = 0.008. In contrast, in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, a generalized increase in fat mass was observed. After 24 months no significant differences in high density lipoprotein and total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were found between both treatment groups, but total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group (6.1+/-0.2 versus 5.3+/-0.2 and 3.6+/-0.1 versus 2.8+/-0.1 mmol/l respectively, p<0.05. Virologic response and safety were comparable in both groups.Zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir, but not nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, is associated with lipoatrophy and greater relative intraabdominal

  6. Weight loss reduces liver fat and improves hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, Bernadette E; Deivanayagam, Sheela; Stein, Richard I; Mohammed, Balsamanirina S; Magkos, Faidon; Kirk, Erik P; Klein, Samuel

    2009-09-01

    Obesity in adolescents is associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly insulin resistance and excessive accumulation of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moderate weight loss on IHTG content and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents who had normal oral glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion, and IHTG content, assessed by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were evaluated in eight obese adolescents (BMI >or=95th percentile for age and sex; age 15.3 +/- 0.6 years) before and after moderate diet-induced weight loss (8.2 +/- 2.0% of initial body weight). Weight loss caused a 61.6 +/- 8.5% decrease in IHTG content (P = 0.01), and improved both hepatic (56 +/- 18% increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity index, P = 0.01) and skeletal muscle (97 +/- 45% increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal, P = 0.01) insulin sensitivity. Moderate diet-induced weight loss decreases IHTG content and improves insulin sensitivity in the liver and skeletal muscle in obese adolescents who have normal glucose tolerance. These results support the benefits of weight loss therapy in obese adolescents who do not have evidence of obesity-related metabolic complications during a standard medical evaluation.

  7. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-to-normal intervals for each 5-min period (SDNNindex). Baseline body fat mass (FM%) and changes in body composition was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Before and after the weight-loss period, total abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat (IAAT), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SCAT) were measured by single...

  8. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  9. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  10. Leptin levels are associated with fat oxidation and dietary-induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C; Toubro, S; Buemann, B

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between fasting plasma leptin and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction compared with normal weight controls. To test fasting plasma leptin, substrate...... oxidations, and SPA as predictive markers of success during a standardized weight loss intervention....

  11. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  12. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Cristina Gonzalez, M. C.; Shen, Wei; Redman, Leanne; Thomas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e., ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ~0.25) with the remaining three-fourths fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relations between FFM, fat mass, and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the “Quarter FFM Rule” used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight, and what is often cited as “Forbes’ Rule”. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as aging, inactivity, and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power, and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  13. Left ventricular remodelling changes without concomitant loss of myocardial fat after long-term dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jonas; Mellberg, Caroline; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats; Rinnström, Daniel; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Hauksson, Jon; Johansson, Bengt; Olsson, Tommy

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of myocardial triglycerides (MTG) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) remodelling and function in obese and diabetic subjects. The role of MTG accumulation in development of heart failure in this group of patients is unknown. Short-term studies suggest that diets that lead to weight loss could mobilize MTG, with a favourable effect on cardiac remodelling. In a 24-month, randomized, investigator-blinded study, we assessed the effect of two different diets and subsequent weight loss on cardiac function and MTG in postmenopausal women. Sixty-eight healthy postmenopausal women with body mass index [BMI] ≥27kg/m(2) were randomized to an ad libitum Palaeolithic diet (PD) or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendation (NNR) diet for 24months. Morphology, cardiac function, and MTG levels were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, including proton spectroscopy at baseline and 6 and 24months. Despite mean weight losses of 4.9 (1.0) kg (NNR) and 7.8 (1.1) kg (PD), the MTG content did not change over time (p=0.98 in the NNR and p=0.11 in the PD group at 24months). Reduced left ventricular mass was observed in both diet groups over 24months. Blood pressure was reduced at 6months, but returned to baseline levels at 24months. End diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output decreased over time. No differences between diet groups were observed. Diet intervention and moderate weight loss over 24months improved LV remodelling but did not alter MTG levels in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of protein supplementation on fat-free mass in response to different weight loss programs in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andiara Schwingel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether protein supplementation helps prevent the loss of fat-free mass during weight loss. The sample was composed of seventy-eight obese adult Japanese women, assigned into four different programs: diet-alone (D, n=24, diet-alone with protein supplementation (DP, n=16, diet-plusexercise (DE, n=17, and diet-plus-exercise with protein supplementation (DEP, n=21. All participants restricted their energy intakes to 1200 kcal/day, and participants in DE and DEP had the exercise session including aerobic exercise of approximately 90 min/day, 3 day/week. Participants enrolled in protein supplementation groups received an additional 14 g/day of protein. Measures on body composition were conducted before and after the program by DXA. All programs yielded significant weight (6.9 to 9.5 kg and fat (4.1 to 7.6% reduction. Total fat-free mass significantly decreased in D, DP and DE groups, whereas for DEP group the decrease was not significant. Regionalfat-free mass lowered for D and DP groups in leg, arms and trunk. For those in DE group, fat-free mass in trunk was not significantly decreased, and for those in DEP group, fat-free mass in leg and trunk did not differ significantly after the program. However, no significant differences of changes in fat-free mass were observed in comparisons among all groups. Our results confirmed the efficiency of weight loss intervention on fat-mass reduction through diet and exercise. However, fat-free mass does not appear to be preserved by protein supplementation, suggesting that its influence on a short-term weight reduction program is not apparent. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da suplementação protéica na preservação da massa magra durante programas de emagrecimento. Setenta e oito mulheres adultas japonesas e obesas foram submetidas a quatro programas diferentes: dieta (D, n=24, dieta com suplementação proteica (DP, n=16, dieta com exerc

  15. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  16. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Westman, Eric C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Grambow, Steven C; Jeffreys, Amy S; Bolton, Jamiyla; Chalecki, Allison; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2010-01-25

    Two potent weight loss therapies, a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) and orlistat therapy combined with a low-fat diet (O + LFD), are available to the public but, to our knowledge, have never been compared. Overweight or obese outpatients (n = 146) from the Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics in Durham, North Carolina, were randomized to either LCKD instruction (initially, diet instruction (weight, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, and glycemic parameters. The mean age was 52 years and mean body mass index was 39.3 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); 72% were men, 55% were black, and 32% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the study participants, 57 of the LCKD group (79%) and 65 of the O + LFD group (88%) completed measurements at 48 weeks. Weight loss was similar for the LCKD (expected mean change, -9.5%) and the O + LFD (-8.5%) (P = .60 for comparison) groups. The LCKD had a more beneficial impact than O + LFD on systolic (-5.9 vs 1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-4.5 vs 0.4 mm Hg) blood pressures (P weight, serum lipid, and glycemic parameters and was more effective for lowering blood pressure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00108524.

  17. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p fat mass was lost in the trunk region with lorcaserin compared with placebo (without diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  19. Initial investigation of a novel noninvasive weight loss therapy using MRI-Guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) of visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patrick M; Lanier, Matthew; Partanen, Ari; Dumoulin, Charles

    2016-07-01

    MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) allows noninvasive heating of deep tissues. Specifically targeting visceral fat deposits with MR-HIFU could offer an effective therapy for reversing the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Overweight rats received either MR-HIFU of visceral fat, sham treatment, no treatment, or ex vivo temperature calibration. Conventional MR thermometry methods are not effective in fat tissue. Therefore, the T2 of fat was used to estimate heating in adipose tissue. HIFU treated rats lost 7.5% of their body weight 10 days after HIFU, compared with 1.9% weight loss in sham animals (P = 0.008) and 1.3% weight increase in untreated animals (P = 0.004). Additionally, the abdominal fat volume in treated animals decreased by 8.2 mL 7 days after treatment (P = 0.002). The T2 of fat at 1.5 Tesla increased by 3.3 ms per °C. The fat T2 was 103.3 ms before HIFU, but increased to 128.7 ms (P = 0.0005) after HIFU at 70 watts for 16 s and to 131.9 ms (P = 0.0005) after HIFU at 100 watts for 16 s. These experiments demonstrate that MR-HIFU of visceral fat could provide a safe, effective, and noninvasive weight loss therapy for combating obesity and the subsequent medical complications. Magn Reson Med 76:282-289, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. ROLE OF RS9939609 FTO GENE VARIANT IN WEIGHT LOSS, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS AFTER A HIGH MONOUNSATURATED VS A HIGH POLYUNSATURATED FAT HYPOCALORIC DIETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    common polymorphisms (rs9939609) of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity. our aim was to investigate the role of this polymorphism on insulin resistance, metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. a sample of 233 obese subjects was enrolled in a prospective way. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to; Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). after treatment with two diets and in both genotypes, weight, fat mass and waist circumference decreased. Lower levels of body mass index (BMI), weight and fat mass were detected after Diet P in A allele carriers than TT genotype subjects. With the diet type P and in both genotypes (TT and AT + AA), total cholesterol levels (-15.3 + 35.1 mg/dl vs -11.6 + 32.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol levels (-11.5 + 34.1 mg/dl vs -8.5 + 30.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) decreased. In A allele carriers a significant decreased was detected in insulin levels (-2.8 + 2.1 UI/L vs -1.3 + 8.0 UI/L: p 0.05), too. With the diet M and in both genotype groups, leptin levels (-8.0 + 17.1 ng/ ml vs -4.9 + 18.7 ng/ml: p > 0.05) decreased. Conclusiones: metabolic improvement secondary to weight loss was better in A carriers with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  2. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Santanasto, Adam J.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Mark A. Newman; Taylor, Christopher A.; Maria Mori Brooks; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Newman, Anne B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL) or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA) program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor stren...

  3. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  4. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  5. Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies have examined the effects of diet on the dynamics of injury progression or on alcohol-induced bone loss. In the current study, 300 g male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10/group) were treated with alcohol containing liquid diets via a stomach tube. Dietary fat content was either 5% (high carbo...

  6. Does the amount of fat mass predict age-related loss of lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Ding, J.; Stenholm, S.; Caserotti, P.; Houston, D.K.; Nicklas, B.J.; You, T.; Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Newman, A.B.; Schwartz, A.V.; Cauley, J.A.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle

  7. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total...

  8. Weight loss-induced cellular stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the risk for weight regain in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, N.J.T.; Vink, R.G.; Bouwman, F.G.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Baak, van M.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose

  9. Allelic Variants of Melanocortin 3 Receptor Gene (MC3R) and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José L.; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine; Naranjo, Carolina; Maiz, Alberto; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; MacDonald, Ian; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. Subjects and Methods This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat) diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Results No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04) and dominant models (p = 0.03). These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103–rs1543873 (p = 0.06), rs6014646–rs6024730 (p = 0.05) and rs3746619–rs3827103 (p = 0.10) displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Conclusion The study provided

  10. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  11. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P dietary fiber (-1.26 ± 0.28 kg/5 g fiber, P dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00004992. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  13. Severe Sarcopenia and Increased Fat Stores in Pediatric Patients With Liver, Kidney, or Intestine Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Bush, Weston J; Miller, Christina; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A

    2017-11-01

    Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. Children younger than 19 years with end-stage liver, kidney, or intestine failure and with pretransplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected from the trauma database. Measures of nutrition status included a scaled scoring of core muscle mass, and visceral and subcutaneous fat stores. Analysis was conducted using the pooled and individually matched subject-control differences. There were 81 subjects included in the final analysis (liver [n = 35], kidney [n = 20], and intestine [n = 26]). Children with end-stage liver disease had a 23% reduction in muscle mass, a 69% increase in visceral fat, and a 29% increase in subcutaneous fat. End-stage renal disease patients had a 19% reduction in muscle mass and a 258% increase in subcutaneous fat. Intestine failure patients had a 24% reduction in muscle mass, a 30% increase in visceral fat, and a 46% increase in subcutaneous fat. These results demonstrate significant sarcopenia and increased fat stores in end-stage organ failure patients, which supports the idea of an active physiologic mechanism to store fat while losing muscle mass. Sarcopenia may be related to total protein loss from a catabolic state, or from decreased synthesis (liver), wasting (kidney), or malabsorption (intestine).

  14. High-fat diet causes bone loss in young mice by promoting osteoclastogenesis through alteration of the bone marrow environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.

  15. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  16. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, A; Frandsen, E; Kondrup, J

    2007-01-01

    A combination of tyrosine, capsaicin, catechines and caffeine may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and promote satiety, lipolysis and thermogenesis. In addition, dietary calcium may increase fecal fat excretion. To investigate the acute and subchronic effect of a supplement containing the above mentioned agents or placebo taken t.i.d on thermogenesis, body fat loss and fecal fat excretion. In total, 80 overweight-obese subjects ((body mass index) 31.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2), mean+/-s.d.) underwent an initial 4-week hypocaloric diet (3.4 MJ/day). Those who lost>4% body weight were instructed to consume a hypocaloric diet (-1.3 MJ/day) and were randomized to receive either placebo (n=23) or bioactive supplement (n=57) in a double-blind, 8-week intervention. The thermogenic effect of the compound was tested at the first and last day of intervention, and blood pressure, heart rate, body weight and composition were assessed. Weight loss during the induction phase was 6.8+/-1.9 kg. At the first exposure the thermogenic effect of the bioactive supplement exceeded that of placebo by 87.3 kJ/4 h (95%CI: 50.9;123.7, P=0.005) and after 8 weeks this effect was sustained (85.5 kJ/4 h (47.6;123.4), P=0.03). Body fat mass decreased more in the supplement group by 0.9 kg (0.5; 1.3) compared with placebo (P<0.05). The bioactive supplement had no effect on fecal fat excretion, blood pressure or heart rate. The bioactive supplement increased 4-h thermogenesis by 90 kJ more than placebo, and the effect was maintained after 8 weeks and accompanied by a slight reduction in fat mass. These bioactive components may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet.

  17. The contribution of fat-free mass to resting energy expenditure: implications for weight loss strategies in the treatment of adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew G; Evans, Ronald K

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the strong relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), the preservation of FFM is often emphasized in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Typical treatment regimens including an increased dietary consumption of protein and participation in resistance training are common components of adolescent weight management programs, despite limited evidence of a positive influence of FFM on weight loss outcomes in adolescents. Given the larger volume of FFM in obese relative to normal weight adolescents and the common treatment goals of both maximizing weight loss and attenuating the loss of FFM, a better understanding of the influence of FFM on energy balance is needed to determine whether strategies to preserve lean tissue or maximize absolute weight loss should be most emphasized. We review the associations among FFM, REE, and weight loss outcomes, focusing on how these relationships might influence energy balance in obese adolescents.

  18. Dietary consequences of recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context: a secondary analysis with practical implications for registered dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah; Mathers, Elizabeth; Probst, Yasmine; Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Replacing full-fat dairy products with reduced-fat varieties is a dietetic strategy for reducing energy intake while maintaining nutritional adequacy. This study aimed to explore the dietary outcomes of this recommendation in the context of weight loss. This study involved a secondary analysis of diet-history data for 86 adults (23 males and 63 females; body mass index=31.1±3.4) who had completed 3 months of a weight-loss trial in 2009, including advice to consume reduced-fat dairy products. Dairy food intake was categorized using the Australian 1995 National Nutrition Survey food hierarchy. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests determined dairy product consumption change after dietetic intervention. Total fat and energy per day from dairy products decreased significantly, from 14.1±1.2 g to 5.8±0.6 g and 283±20 kcal to 223±14 kcal, respectively, and total carbohydrate from dairy products increased significantly (P=0.04). Only 19.7% of participants met their dietary target of two to three servings of dairy foods per day at 3 months. When analyzed by sex, males decreased their intake of dairy products significantly, from 377.63±62.3 g/day to 357.3±46.7 g/day. Despite consuming less fat from dairy products, females did not significantly reduce energy intake from these foods (P=0.05). This study indicated that men and women responded differently to advice to change from regular to reduced-fat dairy products. Of more concern, however, is that in a weight-loss context, both men and women might choose to consume fewer servings of this food category with significant nutritional implications. Overall, this research highlights the need to consider the impact of sex and the background diet when recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  20. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M.; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P.; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ong, Ken K.

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  1. Ultrasound measurements of isceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lucia, Rolfe E.; Sleigh, A.; Finucane, F.M.; Brage, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Cooper, C.; Sharp, S.J.; Wareham, N.J.; Ong, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  2. A High-Fat Diet Delays Age-Related Hearing Loss Progression in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Uehara, Natsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Hasegawa, Shingo; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age-related hearing loss (AHL), or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup). Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5) or 12-month HFD (n = 4) group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control) diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs). Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) were also counted. Results The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz) at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups. Conclusions The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice. PMID:25625852

  3. A high-fat diet delays age-related hearing loss progression in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fujita

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (AHL, or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD.Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup. Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5 or 12-month HFD (n = 4 group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs. Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs were also counted.The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups.The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice.

  4. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, Pfat loss compared to ADD...... to lose body fat on diets high in fiber and wholegrain than subjects with a low P/B-ratio....

  5. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Casper, Markus; Lammert, Frank

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of gallstones is increasing in association with the obesity epidemic, but rapid weight loss also increases the risk of stone formation. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of strategies to prevent gallbladder stones in adults as they lose weight. Randomized controlled trials of nonsurgical strategies to prevent gallstones were identified by electronic and manual searches. Our final analysis included 13 trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials). The trials compared ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or high-fat weight loss diets with control interventions. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and evaluated heterogeneity and bias with subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analysis. UDCA reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions (risk ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.60; number needed to treat, 9). This effect was significantly larger in trials of diets alone (risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.11-0.25) than in trials of patients who underwent bariatric surgery (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83) (test for subgroup differences, P =.03). UDCA reduced the risk of cholecystectomy for symptomatic stones (risk ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.53). Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). The meta-analyses were confirmed in trials with a low risk of bias but not in sequential analysis. No additional beneficial or harmful outcomes were identified. On the basis of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, during weight loss, UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content appear to prevent formation of gallstones. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversal of adipose tissue loss by probucol in mice with deficiency of both scavenger receptor class B type 1 and LDL receptor on high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2017-05-15

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1(SR-B1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) play vital roles in cholesterol homeostasis. Previous studies indicated a strong link between cholesterol and adipose tissue (AT). In this study, adult male SR-B1 and LDLR double knockout (DKO) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Interestingly, we found severe loss of AT in DKO mice fed with HFD. To reverse the AT loss in DKO mice, 1% probucol was added in HFD. In DKO mice on HFD, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) levels were increased 6 and 15 folds respectively compared with wild type (WT) mice. We found severe loss of AT in whole body of DKO mice compared with WT or single KO mice. In AT of DKO mice, histology showed the very small size of adipocytes and infiltration of inflammatory cells; Genes expressions related to fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis and adipogenesis were decreased; TUNEL analysis and related genes expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation were significantly higher than those of WT or single KO mice. Probucol could reduce increased TC and FC levels, and reverse the loss of fat and apoptosis of AT in DKO mice. AT loss in DKO mice with HFD was probably due to high levels of FC which led to apoptosis induced by ER stress and inflammation of AT. This study provided a novel utility of probucol in rescue of fat loss in DKO mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  8. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  9. Adiponectin deficiency rescues high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and autophagy loss despite persistent steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, R; Nair, S; Zhang, Y; Ren, J

    2017-09-01

    Background &aims:Low levels of adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, are associated with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis although its role in high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury and steatosis remains unclear. Here we hypothesized that APN deficiency alters fat diet-induced hepatic function. To this end, we examined the effect of APN deficiency on high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and steatosis. Adult wild type and APN knockout mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, steatosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and autophagy were examined. High-fat feeding led to elevated body (48.2%) and liver weights (18.8%), increased levels of ALT (87.8%), serum cholesterol (104.4%), hepatic triglycerides (305.6%) and hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by Oil Red O staining, along with a reduced AST/ALT ratio and unchanged AST. Although APN knockout itself did not affect hepatic function and morphology, it reconciled fat diet-induced hepatic injury (Pfat diet intake promoted AMPK phosphorylation, p62 accumulation and apoptosis, including elevated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, along with suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3 and JNK, and the autophagy makers Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3B (Pfat diet intake promotes hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and interrupted autophagy. APN knockout elicits protective effect against hepatic injury possibly associated with autophagy regulation despite persistent hepatic steatosis.

  10. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Ectopic fat storage in the pancreas using 1H-MRS: importance of diabetic status and modulation with bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, B; Abdesselam, I; Kober, F; Jacquier, A; Ronsin, O; Emungania, O; Lesavre, N; Alessi, M-C; Martin, J C; Bernard, M; Dutour, A

    2015-03-01

    Recent literature suggests that ectopic fat deposition in the pancreas may contribute to endocrine and exocrine organ dysfunction, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with pancreatic triglyceride content (PTGC), and to investigate the impact of bariatric surgery on ectopic fat pads, pancreatic fat (PTGC) and hepatic fat (HTGC). In all, 45 subjects (13 lean, 13 obese nondiabetics and 19 T2D, matched for age and gender) underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, computed tomography of the visceral abdominal fat, metabolic and lipidomic analysis, including insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), insulin-secretion homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B) and plasma fatty-acid composition. Twenty obese subjects were reassessed 6 months after the bariatric surgery. PTGC was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic subjects (23.8±3.2%) compared with obese (14.0±3.3; P=0.03) and lean subjects (7.5±0.9%; P=0.0002). PTGC remained significantly associated with T2D after adjusting for age and sex (β=0.47; P=0.004) or even after adjusting for waist circumference, triglycerides and HOMA-IR (β=0.32; P=0.04). T2D, C18:1n-9 (oleic acid), uric acid, triglycerides and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were the five more important parameters involved in PTGC prediction (explained 80% of PTGC variance). Bariatric surgery induced a huge reduction of both HTGC (-51.2±7.9%) and PTGC (-43.8±7.0%) reaching lean levels, whereas body mass index remained greatly elevated. An improvement of insulin resistance HOMA-IR and no change in HOMA-B were observed after bariatric surgery. The PTGC or HTGC losses were not correlated, suggesting tissue-specific mobilization of these ectopic fat stores. Pancreatic fat increased with T2D and drastically decreased after the bariatric surgery. This suggests that decreased PTGC may contribute to improved beta cell function seen after the bariatric

  12. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100

  13. Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, J S; Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, M B; Gram, A S; Sjödin, A; Stallknecht, B

    2017-10-10

    Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity. We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg m-2) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (control; CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35) or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous intensity (VIG, 70% VO2peak reserve, n=38). The primary outcome was change in fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, which was analyzed intention-to-treat. Accumulated energy balance was calculated based on changes in body composition, and ExEE was calculated based on heart rate monitoring during exercise. Testing at 3 and 6 months was completed by 95 and 90 participants, respectively. Fat mass was reduced after 3 and 6 months in BIKE (3 months: -3.6 (-5.5; -1.7) kg (mean (95% CI)); 6 months: -4.2 (-6.6; -1.9) kg; both: Pfat loss was greater in VIG compared with MOD (6 months: -1.8 (-3.6; -0.1) kg, P=0.043). Based on the ExEE and the accumulated energy balance MOD compensated for the ExEE (77 (48; 106) %) but not BIKE (38 (-18; 95) %) and VIG (21 (-14; 55) %). A meaningful fat loss was obtained by 6 months of active commuting and leisure-time exercise, but fat loss was greater with vigorous compared with moderate intensity exercise. Active commuting is an alternative to leisure-time exercise in the management of overweight and obesity. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01962259 (main trial) and NCT01973686 (energy metabolism sub-study).International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.253.

  14. Limb fat to trunk fat ratio in elderly persons is a strong determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Shai; Feiner, Joshua J; Melendez, Mark M; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2007-09-01

    Similar to lipodystrophy syndromes, aging results in increased visceral adiposity with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the extremities. The hypothesis of this study is that the distribution of limb fat to trunk fat (LF/TF) ratio in elderly persons has a stronger correlation than trunk fat alone to insulin resistance and adiponectin levels. Thirty-eight elderly participants were divided into an insulin-resistant (IR) group and an insulin-sensitive (IS) group. Limb fat and trunk fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. There was no significant difference between the IS and IR groups with respect to body mass index, body fat index, absolute amount of trunk fat, or percent body fat. However, the difference in LF/TF ratio between the IS (1.02 +/- 0.05) and the IR groups (0.77 +/- 0.05) was highly significantly different (p <.001). Insulin resistance had a stronger correlation to the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.61, p <.001) than to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.32, p =.051). Adiponectin levels had a strong association with the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.63, p <.001), but did not correlate to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.24, p =.18). The distribution of body fat (LF/TF ratio) in elderly persons is a stronger determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels than is trunk fat alone. The LF/TF ratio can be a useful tool to assess insulin sensitivity in the elderly population.

  15. Comparison of the effect of daily consumption of probiotic compared with low-fat conventional yogurt on weight loss in healthy obese women following an energy-restricted diet: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Mousavi, Neda; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics and low-fat dairy products, to our knowledge, no study has compared the beneficial effect on weight loss of consuming a probiotic yogurt (PY...

  16. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  17. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil; Westh, Karina; Feigh, Michael; Nielsen, Ninna B; Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins...

  18. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  19. Effect of dietary patterns differing in carbohydrate and fat content on blood lipid and glucose profiles based on weight-loss success of breast-cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; Sedlacek, Scot M; Paul, Devchand; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Playdon, Mary C; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Bartels, Sara N; Wisthoff, Mark R

    2012-01-06

    Healthy body weight is an important factor for prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Yet, weight loss and weight gain are not currently included in clinical-practice guidelines for posttreatment of breast cancer. The work reported addresses one of the questions that must be considered in recommending weight loss to patients: does it matter what diet plan is used, a question of particular importance because breast cancer treatment can increase risk for cardiovascular disease. Women who completed treatment for breast cancer were enrolled in a nonrandomized, controlled study investigating effects of weight loss achieved by using two dietary patterns at the extremes of macronutrient composition, although both diet arms were equivalent in protein: high fat, low carbohydrate versus low fat, high carbohydrate. A nonintervention group served as the control arm; women were assigned to intervention arms based on dietary preferences. During the 6-month weight-loss program, which was menu and recipe defined, participants had monthly clinical visits at which anthropometric data were collected and fasting blood was obtained for safety monitoring for plasma lipid profiles and fasting glucose. Results from 142 participants are reported. Adverse effects on fasting blood lipids or glucose were not observed in either dietary arm. A decrease in fasting glucose was observed with progressive weight loss and was greater in participants who lost more weight, but the effect was not statistically significant, even though it was observed across both diet groups (P = 0.21). Beneficial effects of weight loss on cholesterol (4.7%; P = 0.001), triglycerides (21.8%; P = 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (5.8%; P = 0.06) were observed in both groups. For cholesterol (P = 0.07) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.13), greater reduction trends were seen on the low-fat diet pattern; whereas, for triglycerides (P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.08), a decrease

  20. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  1. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  2. Visceral fat accumulation in relation to sex hormones in obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Koppeschaar, H.P.

    In 70 healthy obese subjects (37 men and 33 premenopausal women; aged 27-51 yr; body mass index, 28-38 kg/m2), associations between the initial amount of visceral fat and sex hormone levels were studied as well as between changes that occurred in response to a 4.2 mJ/day deficit diet for 13 weeks.

  3. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  4. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  5. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Fan; Cai, Yin; Cai, Yu; Wang, Yu; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT. The expression of fat-specific protein (FSP)-27, a protein that promotes fusion of triglycerides and formation of unilocular lipid droplets were diminished, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, the upstream regulator of FSP27, was enhanced in EP4-deficient mice. The present study showed that EP4 acts as a negative regulator of WAT remodeling, it tightly coordinates rates of triglyceride storage in lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiratory function in subcutaneous white adipocytes through the phosphorylated AMPK-FSP27 signaling axis. Thus, deletion of EP4 increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in WAT, and fat mass loss ensues in mice.-Ying, F., Cai, Y., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Tang, E. H. C. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  6. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave...

  7. Less-than-expected weight loss in normal-weight women undergoing caloric restriction and exercise is accompanied by preservation of fat-free mass and metabolic adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K; De Souza, M J; Williams, N I

    2017-03-01

    Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic hormones associated with energy conservation. Weight loss occurred in SEV (-3.7±0.9 kg, Pweight loss was significantly less than predicted (SEV: -11.1±1.0 kg; MOD: -6.5±1.1 kg; both P0.33). RMR decreased by -6±2% in MOD (P=0.020). In SEV, RMR did not change on a group level (P=0.66), but participants whose RMR declined lost more weight (P=0.020) and had a higher baseline RMR (P=0.026) than those whose RMR did not decrease. Characteristic changes in leptin (P=0.003), tri-iodothyronine (P=0.013), insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.016) and ghrelin (P=0.049) occurred only in SEV. The energy deficit and adaptive changes in RMR explained 54% of the observed weight loss. In normal-weight women, caloric restriction and exercise resulted in less-than-predicted weight loss. In contrast to previous literature, weight loss consisted almost exclusively of fat mass, whereas fat-free mass was preserved.

  8. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  9. Estrogen or raloxifene during postmenopausal weight loss: adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R E; Gozansky, W S; Wolfe, P; Kittelson, J M; Jankowski, C M; Schwartz, R S; Kohrt, W M

    2014-04-01

    Estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) attenuates abdominal fat gain after menopause, but whether HT improves abdominal fat loss during weight loss is unknown. It was hypothesized that HT or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) would augment reductions in abdominal visceral fat during weight loss when compared to placebo, potentially increasing improvements in glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 119; age 50-70 yr) underwent a 6-month weight-loss (primarily exercise) intervention with randomization to raloxifene (60 mg/d), HT (conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg/d), or placebo. Outcomes were change in total and abdominal (visceral and subcutaneous) fat mass, lipid profile, and fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin. Neither HT nor raloxifene augmented loss of total or abdominal fat mass during exercise-induced weight loss when compared with placebo. Weight loss-induced improvements in risk factors were similar among the three groups, except for a greater reduction in fasted glucose in the HT group (difference in change [95%CI] from placebo; -0.40 [-0.76, -0.05]) and greater reductions in LDL (-0.36 [-0.63, -0.09]) and increases in HDL (0.15 [0.07, 0.24]) in both treatment groups. Postmenopausal HT and raloxifene did not increase abdominal fat loss during weight loss, but did improve some cardiometabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Does the amount of fat mass predict age-related loss of lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Annemarie; Ding, Jingzhong; Stenholm, Sari; Caserotti, Paolo; Houston, Denise K; Nicklas, Barbara J; You, Tongjian; Lee, Jung Sun; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B; Schwartz, Ann V; Cauley, Jane A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B

    2011-08-01

    An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality over 7 years of follow-up and whether this link was explained by adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Data were from 2,307 men and women, aged 70-79 years, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Total fat mass was acquired from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg lean mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Knee extension strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer in Years 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Muscle quality was calculated as muscle strength divided by leg lean mass. Every SD greater fat mass was related to 1.3 kg more leg lean mass at baseline in men and 1.5 kg in women (p women (0.02 kg/year, p disability and mobility impairments.

  11. Liraglutide and obesity in elderly: efficacy in fat loss and safety in order to prevent sarcopenia. A perspective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Bologna, Chiara; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Guerriero, Fabio; Isu, Antonio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-12-01

    For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue (liraglutide) appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Given this background, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the liraglutide treatment, at doses up to 3.0 mg per day, on the body composition, focusing on sarcopenia, in overweight and obese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A perspective study was carried out in overweight and obese T2DM patients with HbA1c equal to 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) ~10.0 % (86), under 3-month treatment (at least) of maximal dose of metformin at stable regime, and additional liraglutide at doses up to 3.0 mg per day. Body composition markers such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), android and gynoid fat mass, and arms and legs fat free mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was also carried out by glucose and HbA1c. Nine subjects (male/female 6/3, mean age 68.22 ± 3.86 years, BMI 32.34 ± 4.89 kg/m2) were evaluated. We noted a median decrease in BMI (-0.78 kg/m2), weight (-2000 g), fat mass (-1498 g) and android fat (-0.9 %), and a increase in SMI (+0.03 kg/m2) from baseline. Glycemic control also improved, with a median change HbA1c of -0.80 %. Twenty-four weeks of liraglutide treatment was associated with reductions in fat mass and android fat. In addition, in order to prevent sarcopenia, it preserved the muscular tropism.

  12. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Julie P; Wolfe, Pamela; Allian-Sauer, Marybeth; Capell, Warren H; Talley, Natalie D; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Hill, James O; Eckel, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the comparative effect of weight-loss diets on metabolic profiles during dieting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (≤20 g/d) with a high-carbohydrate diet (55% of total energy intake) on fasting and hourly metabolic variables during active weight loss. Design: Healthy, obese adults (n = 32; 22 women, 10 men) were randomly assigned to receive either a carbohydrate-restricted diet [High Fat; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 35.8 ± 2.9] or a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet (High Carb; BMI: 36.7 ± 4.6) for 6 wk. A 24-h in-patient feeding study was performed at baseline and after 6 wk. Glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and triglycerides were measured hourly during meals, at regimented times. Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol was measured every 4 h. Results: Patients lost a similar amount of weight in both groups (P = 0.57). There was an absence of any diet treatment effect between groups on fasting triglycerides or on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, which was the main outcome. Fasting insulin decreased (P = 0.03), and both fasting (P = 0.040) and 24-h FFAs (P < 0.0001) increased within the High Fat group. Twenty-four-hour insulin decreased (P < 0.05 for both groups). Fasting LDL cholesterol decreased in the High Carb group only (P = 0.003). In both groups, the differences in fasting and 24-h FFAs at 6 wk were significantly correlated with the change in LDL cholesterol (fasting FFA: r = 0.41, P = 0.02; 24-h FFA: r = 0.52, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Weight loss was similar between diets, but only the high-fat diet increased LDL-cholesterol concentrations. This effect was related to the lack of suppression of both fasting and 24-h FFAs. PMID:20107198

  14. A novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Sonne, Nina; Hellgren, Lars I; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges. Hence, there is an important need to develop weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities. The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on body weight, glucose homeostasis and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue and on food preference was investigated. Furthermore, we elucidated weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated, s.c., with KBP-089 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 μg·kg-1 or vehicle. KB-089 induced in a dose-dependent and sustained weight loss (~17% by 2.5 μg·kg-1 ). Moreover, KBP-089 reduced fat depot size and reduced lipid accumulation in muscle and liver. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, KBP-089 improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight matching led to improved glucose homeostasis by reducing plasma insulin; however, these effect were inferior compared to those of KBP-089. In the food preference test, rats fed a normal diet obtained 74% of their calories from chocolate. KBP-089 reduced total caloric intake and induced a relative increase in chow consumption while drastically reducing chocolate consumption compared with vehicle. The novel DACRA, KBP-089, induces a sustained weight loss, leading to improved metabolic parameters including food preference, and these are beyond those observed simply by diet-induced weight loss. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Offringa, Lisa C; Hartle, Jennifer C; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2016-01-01

    To test for differential weight loss response to low-fat (LF) vs. low-carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) , were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. Baseline % carbohydrate:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6 months, the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; there was no significant diet × IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet × IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  17. Ocular Complications Following Autologous Fat Injections into Facial Area: Case Report of a Recovery from Visual Loss After Ophthalmic Artery Occlusion and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantyr, Aleksandra; Orski, Michał; Marchewka, Ida; Szuta, Mariusz; Orska, Małgorzata; Zapała, Jan

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in popularity of the use of cosmetic fillers in plastic and esthetic surgery, the possibility of severe ocular complications should not be neglected. Of the fillers used, autologous fat is the most common to cause permanent visual deterioration, one of the most severe complications associated with the use of cosmetic fillers. Here we present the first report of a complete recovery of visual acuity from an instance of visual loss with no light perception caused by ophthalmic artery occlusion of the right eye following autologous fat injection in the facial area. Immediate ophthalmological intervention and comprehensive therapy with prostaglandins and vinpocetine made it possible to restore retinal perfusion and achieve complete recovery of visual acuity. Awareness of the iatrogenic artery occlusions associated with facial fillers and the need for immediate treatment should be popularized among injectors to prevent devastating consequences, such as permanent vision loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (Pregardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.

  19. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Aging Upper Face Fat Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, Rémi; Camuzard, Olivier; Piereschi, Sébastien; Staccini, Pascal; Andreani, Olivier; Georgiou, Charalambos; Benatar, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Age-related changes in fat compartments have yet to be fully characterized. Uncertainty remains in terms of volume gains/losses or shape fluctuations over time. The authors' aim was to determine the evolution of subcutaneous fat in the aging upper face, focusing on shifts in volume and dimension. Over the course of 4.5 years, 100 faces of living female Caucasian patients were prospectively studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were stratified by age as follows: group 1, 18 to 30 years; group 2, 30 to 60 years; and group 3, older than 60 years. Superficial temporal and central forehead compartments were delimited, analyzing respective volumes and dimensions by group. In 85 patients studied, superficial temporal fat (mean volume, 5.14 cm) increased 35.48 percent in total volume between youth and old age (p = 0.046). Overall height and magnitude of the lower one-third also increased with aging. Central forehead fat (mean volume, 2.56 cm), studied in 83 patients, showed a 209.75 percent volume gain in group 2 (versus group 1) and a 17.59 percent volume loss in group 3 (versus group 2) (p = 0.001). Subcutaneous facial fat fluctuates with aging, increasing in the upper face and promoting ptosis through basal compartmental expansion.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena J Vogt

    Full Text Available To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in overweight diabetics.Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI: 34.0 kg/m2 prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples.Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p 0.15. Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001 and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001 also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2.MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged.

  1. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  2. High-fat diet-induced obesity triggers alveolar bone loss and spontaneous periodontal disease in growing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuko; Maki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between high-fat food consumption and obesity is well-established. However, it is as yet unclear whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in childhood and adolescence determines age-related changes in jaw bone health. The aim of this study is to examine the age-related influence of HFD-induced obesity on mandibular bone architecture and the structure of the periodontium in growing mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice (6-weeks-old) were divided into two groups (n = 6 each): the control group received a control diet and the experimental group a HFD. After treatment for 4, 8, or 12 weeks, trabecular and cortical bone architecture was assessed using micro-computed tomography. The periodontium and alveolar bone structure were evaluated by histopathology. In HFD mice, body weight, serum total cholesterol, and serum leptin levels were significantly higher than those in age-matched control mice (p periodontal ligament fibres were disrupted, having lost their orientation with respect to the bone surface, and constriction of the periodontal ligament space was inhibited. These results suggest that HFD-induced obesity during growth not only triggers mandibular osteoporosis but also increases the risk of spontaneous periodontal disease.

  3. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  4. Insulin, not glutamine dipeptide, reduces lipases expression and prevents fat wasting and weight loss in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; da Silva, Francemilson Goulart; Silva, Milene Ortiz; Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Martins, Maria Isabel Lovo; Carpinelli, Ângelo Rafael; Mazucco, Tânia Longo; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2017-07-05

    Cachexia is the main cause of mortality in advanced cancer patients. We investigated the effects of insulin (INS) and glutamine dipeptide (GDP), isolated or associated, on cachexia and metabolic changes induced by Walker 256 tumor in rats. INS (NPH, 40 UI/kg, sc) or GDP (1.5g/kg, oral gavage) was once-daily administered during 11 days after tumor cell inoculation. GDP, INS or INS+GDP treatments did not influence the tumor growth. However, INS and INS+GDP prevented retroperitoneal fat wasting and body weight loss of tumor-bearing rats. In consistency, INS and INS+GDP prevented the increased expression of triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), without changing the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of tumor-bearing rats. INS and INS+GDP also prevented anorexia and hyperlactatemia of tumor-bearing rats. However, INS and INS+GDP accentuated the loss of muscle mass (gastrocnemius, soleus and long digital extensor) without affecting the myostatin expression in the gastrocnemius muscle and blood corticosterone. GDP treatment did not promote beneficial effects. It can be concluded that treatment with INS (INS or INS+GDP), not with GDP, prevented fat wasting and weight loss in tumor-bearing rats without reducing tumor growth. These effects might be attributed to the reduction of lipases expression (ATGL and LHS) and increased food intake. The results show the physiological function of INS in the suppression of lipolysis induced by cachexia mediators in tumor-bearing rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  6. Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, K; Gauthier, M-S; Garneau, P Y; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda ). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (Psurgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (Psurgery. Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bout of endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Zonin, Fabio; Neri, Marco; Sivieri, Andrea; Pacelli, Quirico F

    2011-02-01

    Exercise and nutrition are often used in combination to lose body fat and reduce weight. In this respect, exercise programs are as important as correct nutrition. Several issues are still controversial in this field, and among them there are contrasting reports on whether training in a fasting condition can enhance weight loss by stimulating lipolytic activity. The authors' purpose was to verify differences in fat metabolism during training in fasting or feeding conditions. They compared the effect on oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate utilization, estimated by the respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), in 8 healthy young men who performed the same moderate-intensity training session (36 min of cardiovascular training on treadmill at 65% maximum heart rate) in the morning in 2 tests in random sequence: FST test (fasting condition) without any food intake or FED test (feeding condition) after breakfast. In both cases, the same total amount and quality of food was assumed in the 24 hr after the training session. The breakfast, per se, increased both VO2 and RER significantly (4.21 vs. 3.74 and 0.96 vs. 0.84, respectively). Twelve hours after the training session, VO2 was still higher in the FED test, whereas RER was significantly lower in the FED test, indicating greater lipid utilization. The difference was still significant 24 hr after exercise. The authors conclude that when moderate endurance exercise is done to lose body fat, fasting before exercise does not enhance lipid utilization; rather, physical activity after a light meal is advisable.

  8. An isoflavone cladrin prevents high-fat diet-induced bone loss and inhibits the expression of adipogenic gene regulators in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jyoti; Khedgikar, Vikram; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Dixit, Preeti; Singh, Divya; Maurya, Rakesh; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of isoflavone cladrin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced bone loss and adipogenesis. Thirty-two 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: a standard diet group, a HFD group and HFD group with cladrin (5 and 10 mg/kg per day orally) for 12 weeks. The effect of cladrin on bone micro-architecture, bone marrow cell lineages and hyperlipidaemia were assessed. For assessing anti-adipogenic activity of cladrin, 3T3-L1 cells were used. Cladrin attenuated HFD-induced hyperlipidaemia and bone loss by preserving bone micro-architecture and strength. Effect of cladrin was found at the level of bone marrow progenitor cells. Gene expression profile of cladrin-treated mice bone showed upregulation of osteoblast and downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and increased OPG/RANKL ratio. Cladrin inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through downregulation of transcription factors such as PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α and modulated the expression of major adipokines involved behind obesity stimulation without eliciting cell cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We conclude that cladrin may improve obesity-induced bone loss and hyperlipidaemia in mice fed HFD and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by modifying adipokines and could offer clinical benefits as a supplement to treat obesity-induced disorders. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. "That's who I am: a fat person in a thin body": weight loss, negative self-evaluation, and mitigating strategies following weight loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Christine Aramburu; Larsen, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    To explore negative self-evaluation following weight loss surgery (WLS). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women who had WLS. Thematic analysis was conducted through an iterative process, allowing categories and themes to emerge. To ensure rigor, two coders analyzed the data. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. All participants reported health as the motivation for WLS. Overall sentiment regarding WLS was positive. However, negative self-evaluation was reported and includes the following: (a) body-image distortion; (b) body-image dissatisfaction, including excessive skin; and (c) perceived stigma. Mitigating strategies include the following: (a) utilizing markers of progress to increase assimilation of a new identity as a thinner person, and (b) reflecting on the former self as a time of decreased quality of life. Nurse practitioners and other clinicians treat and counsel patients on obesity and obesity-related morbidity, and may need to discuss WLS with patients who are either contemplating it or have already undergone it. The findings from the present study can provide clinicians insight into the possible psychological effects of WLS-associated weight loss. Bringing possible negative self-evaluative effects into open discussion can help optimize patient care and healthcare results. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Body fat loss induced by calcium in co-supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid is associated with increased expression of bone formation genes in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and calcium in weight management in animal models and human studies has been outlined, as well as their use to prevent bone loss at critical stages. In addition, it has been suggested that bone remodeling and energy metabolism are regulated by shared pathways and involve common hormones such as leptin. We have previously shown that supplementation with CLA and calcium in adult obese mice decreases body weight and body fat. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of these two compounds on bone and energy metabolism markers on bone. Mice (C57BL/6J) were divided into five groups according to diet and treatment (up to 56 days): control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF+CLA (CLA), HF+calcium (Ca) and HF with both compounds (CLA+Ca). At the end of treatment, bone formation markers were determined in plasma and expression of selected bone and energy markers was determined in tibia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results show that CLA was associated with decreased tibia weight and minor impact on bone markers, whereas calcium, either alone or co-supplemented with CLA, maintained bone weight and promoted the expression of bone formation genes such as bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein 2 (Bglap2) and collagen Iα1 (Col1a1). Furthermore, it had a significant effect on key players in energy metabolism, in particular leptin and adiponectin tibia receptors. Overall, in addition to the weight loss promoting properties of calcium, on its own or co-supplemented with CLA, our results support beneficial effects on bone metabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Loss of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Function Partially Protects against Peripheral and Cardiac Glucose Metabolic Derangements During a Long-Term High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Jackson

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that carries a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological link between these disorders is not well known. We hypothesize that TLR4 signaling mediates high fat diet (HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac glucose metabolic derangements. Mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ and age-matched control (C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet or normal diet for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were measured. Protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT, AKT (phosphorylated and total, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and SOCS-3 were quantified in the heart using Western Blotting. Both groups fed a long-term HFD had increased body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared to mice fed a normal diet. TLR4-mutant mice were partially protected against long-term HFD-induced insulin resistance. In control mice, feeding a HFD decreased cardiac crude membrane GLUT4 protein content, which was partially rescued in TLR4-mutant mice. TLR4-mutant mice fed a HFD also had increased expression of GLUT8, a novel isoform, compared to mice fed a normal diet. GLUT8 content was positively correlated with SOCS-3 and IL-6 expression in the heart. No significant differences in cytokine expression were observed between groups, suggesting a lack of inflammation in the heart following a HFD. Loss of TLR4 function partially restored a healthy metabolic phenotype, suggesting that TLR4 signaling is a key mechanism in HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac insulin resistance. Our data further suggest that TLR4 exerts its detrimental metabolic effects in the myocardium through a cytokine-independent pathway.

  12. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers......, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....

  13. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  14. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon. Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention. Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002 reduction on body weight (1 kg was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02. This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in

  15. Effect of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melinda L; Yasui, Yutaka; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bowen, Deborah; Rudolph, Rebecca E; Schwartz, Robert S; Yukawa, Michi; Aiello, Erin; Potter, John D; McTiernan, Anne

    2003-01-15

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health concern. Physical activity may promote weight and body fat loss. To examine the effects of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat overall and by level of exercise. Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1997 to 2001. A total of 173 sedentary, overweight (body mass index > or =24.0 and >33% body fat), postmenopausal women aged 50 to 75 years who were living in the Seattle, Wash, area. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention consisting of exercise facility and home-based moderate-intensity exercise (n = 87) or a stretching control group (n = 86). Changes in body weight and waist and hip circumferences at 3 and 12 months; total body, intra-abdominal, and subcutaneous abdominal fat at 12 months. Twelve-month data were available for 168 women. Women in the exercise group participated in moderate-intensity sports/recreational activity for a mean (SD) of 3.5 (1.2) d/wk for 176 (91) min/wk. Walking was the most frequently reported activity. Exercisers showed statistically significant differences from controls in baseline to 12-month changes in body weight (-1.4 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.5 to -0.3 kg), total body fat (-1.0%; 95% CI, -1.6% to -0.4%), intra-abdominal fat (-8.6 g/cm2; 95% CI, -17.8 to 0.9 g/cm2), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (-28.8 g/cm2); 95% CI, -47.5 to -10.0 g/cm2). A significant dose response for greater body fat loss was observed with increasing duration of exercise. Regular exercise such as brisk walking results in reduced body weight and body fat among overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  16. Subcutaneous Tissue Expander Placement with Synthetic Titanium-Coated Mesh in Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Donato; Calabrese, Claudio; Bianchi, Simonetta; Meattini, Icro; Bernini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    A subcutaneous, prepectoral, muscle-sparing approach has been recently described for implant-based breast reconstruction. This is a preliminary series of 2-stage breast reconstructions by means of tissue expander placed subcutaneously with the support of a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh. A pilot series of cases was started in 2012. Inclusion criteria were informed consent, age less than 80 years, normal body mass index (range, 18.5-24.9), no T4 and metastatic cancers, no comorbidities, and nonsmoking patients. Expander losses, infections, seromas, skin/nipple necrosis, wound dehiscence, and reinterventions were registered in follow-up visits. Furthermore, patients were followed up in second-stage procedures and for at least 1 year from implant positioning to collect any surgical complication, reinterventions, cosmetic outcome, and oncological data. Between June 2012 and March 2014, 25 cases were enrolled in the study. Expander/implant loss rate was 0%. Skin/nipple necrosis rate was 4%. Infections rate was 12% after first-stage and 4% after second-stage procedure. Seromas rate was 0%. Five (20%) fat graft procedures were performed over the expander before second-stage reconstruction, and no reinterventions were required after second stage. Patients mean score was 99 for cosmetic outcome satisfaction, in a 0-100 scale. Subcutaneous 2-stage reconstruction with synthetic mesh proved safe and feasible. Patients satisfaction is very good after 14 months median follow-up form definitive implant placement. Although the present study involved only a small number of cases, a tissue-expander subcutaneous reconstruction seems to have promising results. Whenever pectoralis major muscle can be spared, a conservative reconstruction might be an option.

  17. High-fat diet exacerbates pain-like behaviors and periarticular bone loss in mice with CFA-induced knee arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Pérez, Aleyda A; Montalvo-Blanco, Carlos E; Hernández-González, Luis I; Anaya-Reyes, Maricruz; Fernández Del Valle-Laisequilla, Cecilia; Reyes-García, Juan G; Acosta-González, Rosa I; Martínez-Martínez, Arisai; Villarreal-Salcido, Jaira C; Vargas-Muñoz, Virginia M; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Ramírez-Rosas, Martha B; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan M

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to quantify nociceptive spontaneous behaviors, knee edema, proinflammatory cytokines, bone density, and microarchitecture in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with unilateral knee arthritis. ICR male mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or HFD starting at 3 weeks old. At 17 weeks, HFD and SD mice received intra-articular injections either with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) or saline into the right knee joint every 7 days for 4 weeks. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors and knee edema were assessed for 26 days. At day 26 post-first CFA injection, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL were measured by ELISA, and microcomputed tomography analysis of knee joints was performed. HFD-fed mice injected with CFA showed greater spontaneous pain-like behaviors of the affected extremity as well as a decrease in the weight-bearing index compared to SD-fed mice injected with CFA. Knee edema was not significantly different between diets. HFD significantly exacerbated arthritis-induced bone loss at the distal femoral metaphysis but had no effect on femoral diaphyseal cortical bone. HFD did not modify serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines. HFD exacerbates pain-like behaviors and significantly increases the magnitude of periarticular trabecular bone loss in a murine model of unilateral arthritis. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Effect of weight loss on cellulite: gynoid lypodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Hicks, Matthew; Passeretti, David; Gersin, Keith; Kitzmiller, W John; Bakhsh, Adel; Wickett, R Randall; Whitestone, Jennifer; Visscher, Marty O

    2006-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) affects most women, and many seek plastic surgery consultation to improve appearance. Various products are offered, but the literature on the cause and treatment is limited. Understanding the biological and biophysical factors that affect severity may facilitate the development of effective therapies. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people who have lost significant weight as a result of bariatric surgery or medically supervised weight programs. The effect of weight loss on cellulite severity has not been systematically studied and remains a common patient concern. The authors hypothesized that cellulite severity would decrease with weight loss and subsequent decrease in subcutaneous fat in most subjects. The authors examined the cellulite changes in female subjects who were enrolled in medically supervised weight loss programs using quantitative surface roughness by three-dimensional laser surface scanning, tissue composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, dermal-subcutaneous structure with three-dimensional ultrasound, and tissue elasticity with biomechanical measurements. The majority of subjects had an improvement in cellulite with weight loss, but the condition worsened for others. Improvement was associated with significant reductions in weight and percentage of thigh fat, significantly higher starting body mass index, and significantly greater initial severity. Cellulite worsened with a significantly smaller starting body mass index, smaller reductions in weight accompanied by no change in percentage of thigh fat, and significant increases in tissue compliance. Cellulite is a complex condition, and treatments such as weight loss have variable effects on the improvement or worsening of this condition. Additional studies are required to understand how the factors that influence and modulate cellulite severity, particularly those at the level of the subcutaneous tissue septa, can be manipulated to

  19. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  20. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  1. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  2. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Li

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI = 27.3 kg/m(2], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: p<0.01 and R (2 = 23.1%, 24.1%, 20.7%, respectively; for females: p<0.001 and R (2 = 40.4%, 48.8%, 25.4%, respectively. The current study suggests that BIA provides a relatively accurate prediction of %BF in individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  3. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fat; Heart disease - polyunsaturated fat; Peripheral artery disease - polyunsaturated fat; PAD - polyunsaturated fat; Stroke - polyunsaturated fat; CAD - polyunsaturated fat; Heart healthy diet - polyunsaturated fat

  4. Endospanin 1 silencing in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus contributes to sustained weight loss of high fat diet obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauthier, V; Swartz, T D; Chen, P; Roujeau, C; Pagnon, M; Mallet, J; Sarkis, C; Jockers, R; Dam, J

    2014-07-01

    Leptin targets specific receptors (OB-R) expressed in the hypothalamus to regulate energy balance. Leptin decreases food intake in normal weight individuals, but this effect is blunted in obese subjects who are characterized by a state of leptin resistance. The prevention of leptin resistance is one of the major goals of obesity research. Recently, we identified endospanin 1 as a negative regulator of OB-R, which by interacting with OB-R retains the receptor inside the cell. We show here that in obese mice endospanin 1 is upregulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the major brain structure involved in body weight regulation, suggesting that endospanin 1 is implicated in obesity development and/or the installation of leptin resistance. In contrast, silencing of endospanin 1 with lentiviral vectors in the ARC of obese mice fully restores leptin responsiveness when combined with a switch to ad libitum fed chow diet. The recovery of central leptin sensitivity is accompanied by sustained body weight loss and amelioration of blood lipid parameters and steatosis. Collectively, our results define endospanin 1 as a novel therapeutic target against obesity.

  5. Effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on body weight, body fat area and body fat-related markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Toyoda, Masao; Kimura, Moritugu; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Eitaro; Kuriyama, Yusuke; Miyatake, Han; Abe, Makiko; Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of six-month liraglutide treatment on body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat and related markers in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with liraglutide (0.3 mg/day for ≥1 week and then 0.6 mg/day for ≥1 week, gradually increasing the dose to 0.9 mg/day) for six months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, the fasting blood glucose level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, hepatic and renal CT values and the associated markers proinsulin, adiponectin and pentraxin (PTX) 3 were measured. The study included one treatment-naïve patient, 10 patients who were switched from oral antidiabetic drugs and 35 patients who were switched from insulin therapy. At six months after treatment, the preprandial blood glucose levels were higher (148.8±40.5 mg/dL) than the baseline values (130.8±36.7, pbody weight, BMI and abdominal circumference were lower, and the liver/kidney CT ratio improved significantly from 1.64±0.44 at baseline to 1.78±0.42. An analysis of the patients who were not pretreated with insulin resistance ameliorators showed that six months of liraglutide treatment significantly decreased the subcutaneous but not visceral fat areas, significantly decreased the serum adiponectin levels and significantly increased the serum PTX3 levels. In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, liraglutide exhibits weight loss promotion actions, reducing subcutaneous fat areas in particular. The weight and total fat area reduction properties of liraglutide are likely to be beneficial when this medication is used in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin.

  6. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  7. Loss of Mbd2 Protects Mice Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Regulating the Homeostasis of Energy Storage and Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Song, Jia; He, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Shuang; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Qilin; Yang, Ping; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Dao Wen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ning, Qin; Chen, Zhishui; Eizirik, Decio L; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhao, Chunxia; Wang, Cong-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that methyl-CpG-binding domain 2 (MBD2) acts as a reader to decipher DNA methylome-encoded information. We thus in the current study used Mbd2(-/-) mice as a model to dissect the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) on DNA methylome relevant to the pathoetiology of obesity. It was interestingly noted that mice deficient in Mbd2 were protected from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Mechanistic study revealed that HFD rendered epididymal adipose tissues to undergo a DNA methylation turnover as evidenced by the changes of methylation levels and patterns. Specifically, HFD was noted with higher potency to induce DNA hypomethylation in genes relevant to energy storage than that in genes associated with energy expenditure. As a result, arrays of genes were subjected to expression changes, which led to an altered homeostasis for energy storage and expenditure in favor of obesity development. Loss of Mbd2 resulted in impaired implementation of above DNA methylation changes associated with altered energy homeostasis, which then protected mice from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Those data would provide novel insight into the understanding of the pathoetiology underlying obesity with potential for developing effective therapies against obesity in clinical settings. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Loss of function mutation in toll-like receptor-4 does not offer protection against obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diet high in trans fat in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewirtz Andrew T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 triggers inflammatory signaling in response to microbial lipoploysaccharide. It has been reported that loss of TLR4 protected against saturated fat-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. It is not known whether loss of TLR4 function offers protection against trans fat (TF induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether mice with loss of function mutation in TLR4 were resistant to TF-induced pathologies such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Methods C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 mice were cross bred to generate TLR4 mutant and wild type (WT. TLR4 mutant (n = 12 and WT (n = 12 mice were fed either low fat (LF (13.5% fat energy or high TF diets (60% fat energy for 12 weeks. In vitro experiments were conducted on mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 to investigate whether elaidic (trans 18:1 or oleic acid (cis 18:1 would upregulate inflammatory markers. Results TLR4 mutant mice were ~26.4% heavier than WT mice. In both genotypes, mice that received TF diet were significantly heavier than those mice that received LF diet (P Conclusions Loss of function mutation in TLR4 not only did not protect mice from TF-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia but also exacerbated the above pathologies suggesting that functional TLR4 is necessary in attenuating TF-induced deleterious effects. It is likely that TF induces pathologies through pathways independent of TLR4.

  9. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A; Wright Bates, G; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-10-01

    To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40% energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (pdiets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (-7.1%, -4.6%, and -11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (pPCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burden of obesity has increased significantly in the United States over last few decades. Association of obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic problems is well established. Traditionally, adipose tissue in visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in development of insulin resistance. However, growing body of the literature has suggested that adipose tissue in subcutaneous fat depot, not only due to larger volume but also due to inherent functional characteristics, can have significant impact on development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal versus gluteofemoral depots. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger vicious cycle of inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue and subsequent ectopic fat deposition. It is important to shift focus from fat content to functional heterogeneity in adipose tissue depots to better understand the relative role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolic complications of obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice at any level of increased adiposity. Future pharmaceutical interventions aimed at improving adipose tissue function in various subcutaneous depots have potential to help maintain adequate insulin sensitivity and reduce risk for development of insulin resistance complications.

  11. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  13. Changes in regional adiposity and cardio-metabolic function following a weight loss program with sibutramine in obese men with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig L; Yee, Brendon J; Trenell, Mike I; Magnussen, John S; Wang, David; Banerjee, Dev; Berend, Norbert; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2009-10-15

    Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly linked with obesity, both conditions have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension independent of one another. Weight loss is known to improve both cardiovascular risk and OSA severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular and metabolic changes, including compartment-specific fat loss in obese OSA subjects undergoing a weight loss program. Observational study. 93 men with moderate-severe OSA. 6-month open-label weight loss trial combining sibutramine (a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) with a 600-kcal deficit diet and exercise. At baseline and following 6 months of weight loss, OSA was assessed together with CT-quantified intraabdominal and liver fat and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular function. At 6 months, weight loss and improvements in OSA were accompanied by improved insulin resistance (HOMA), increased HDL cholesterol, and reduced total cholesterol/HDL ratio. There were also reductions in measures of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat. Reductions in liver fat and sleep time spent below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation partly explained the improvement in HOMA (R2 = 0.18). In contrast, arterial stiffness (aortic augmentation index), heart rate, blood pressure, and total cholesterol did not change. Weight loss with sibutramine was associated with improvements in metabolic and body composition risk factors but not blood pressure or arterial stiffness. Improved insulin resistance was partly associated with reductions in liver fat and hypoxemia associated with sleep apnea.

  14. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... department with a history of increasing difficulty with breathing and ... ward and commenced on intravenous antibiotics and high flow oxygen. He made remarkable improvement with complete resolution of subcutaneous emphysema on the 4th day ... the left lateral decubitus position.18 Our patient met most.

  15. Pyrexial therapy in subcutaneous phycomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BSN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of subcutaneous phycomycosis occurring in a 2 ½ year old child is reported for its rarity, clinical interest and paucity of literature. The condition failed to resolve with conventional antimycotics but improved with the administration of concomitant pyrexial therapy.

  16. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... to trauma or pathological disease state3, with gastroin- testinal and respiratory diseases most commonly impli- cated.4,5. The respiratory disease commonly associated with pneu- momediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema is bronchial asthma.6 Pneumonia, though a very com- mon childhood ...

  17. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic

  18. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet and an isocaloric low-fat diet on bone health in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Wycherley, Thomas P; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Compromised bone health is a frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate (LC) diets, although limited data are available from long-term, well-controlled, randomized studies. This study compared the effects of an energy-restricted LC diet and traditional, higher-carbohydrate, low-fat (LF) diet on bone health after 12 mo. One hundred eighteen abdominally obese adults were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted (∼6-7 MJ/d [∼1450-1650 kcal/d]), planned isocaloric LC, or LF diet for 12 mo. Body weight, total body bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), and serum bone crosslaps were assessed pre- and postintervention. Sixty-five participants completed the study (LC = 32, LF = 33; age: 51.3 ± 7.1 y; BMI: 33.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2)). Weight loss was similar in both groups (LC: -14.5 ± 9.8 kg, LF: -11.7 ± 7.3 kg; P = 0.26). By 1 y, total body bone mineral content had not changed in either group (LC: 2.84 ± 0.47 to 2.88 ± 0.49 kg, LF: 3.00 ± 0.52 to 3.00 ± 0.51 kg; P = 0.07 time × diet effect). In both groups, total body BMD decreased (LC: 1.26 ± 0.10 to 1.22 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), LF: 1.26 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.08 g/m(2); P Weight loss following a hypocaloric LC diet compared with an LF diet does not differentially affect markers of bone health over 12 mo in overweight and obese adults. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  20. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mengle; Hepler, Chelsea; Vishvanath, Lavanya; MacPherson, Karen A; Busbuso, Napoleon C; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-01-01

    Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified. Here, we utilize two models that confer adipose-specific Zfp423 inactivation during fetal adipose development (Adiponectin-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP and Adiponectin-rtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP). We assess the impact of fetal adipose Zfp423 deletion on the initial formation of adipose tissue and evaluate the metabolic consequences of challenging these animals with high-fat diet feeding. Deletion of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in a different phenotype than is observed when deleting Zfp423 in adipocytes of adult mice. Inactivation of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in arrested differentiation, specifically of inguinal white adipocytes, rather than a white-to-beige phenotypic switch that occurs when Zfp423 is inactivated in adult mice. This is likely explained by the observation that adiponectin driven Cre expression is active at an earlier stage of the adipocyte life cycle during fetal subcutaneous adipose development than in adult mice. Upon high-fat diet feeding, obese adipose Zfp423-deficient animals undergo a pathological adipose tissue expansion, associated with ectopic lipid deposition and systemic insulin resistance. Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient

  1. Cryolipolysis for submental fat reduction in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hye; Park, Ji Hyun; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Ryu, Hwa Jung

    2018-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive method for the selective reduction of fat, especially proven to be safe and effective in body contouring. There is a demand for reduction in submental fat, which is related not only with a favorable appearance but also with signs of aging. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of cryolipolysis for subcutaneous fat reduction in the submental area in Asians. Ten healthy Koreans were treated using a cryolipolysis contact device (CoolMini applicator, Zeltiq Aesthetics). The device was applied on the participant's neck twice via two lateral approaches. Patient's body weight was measured, and photographs were taken at baseline and during the follow-up visit after 8 weeks. Participants were examined with ultrasound and the depth of the subcutaneous fat layer was measured. The subjective reduction of submental fat was noted in most of the participants. Reduction of the subcutaneous fat layer depth was confirmed by ultrasound after 8 weeks of treatment. The results of this study indicate that submental fat can be safely and effectively reduced with use of a cryolipolysis applicator. The present study shows that cryolipolysis can be an option for nonsurgical facial contouring.

  2. Effects of probiotic yogurt on fat distribution and gene expression of proinflammatory factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in overweight and obese people with or without weight-loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, Mitra; Salehi, Eisa; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mofid, Vahid; Zadeh, Mohammad Javad Hossein; Najafi, Forouzan; Ghaflati, Zahra; Bidad, Katayoon; Chamari, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Shidfar, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether probiotics had an effect on proinflammatory markers and cytokines in overweight and obese individuals and whether they could have synergistic effects with weight-loss diets. A total of 75 healthy overweight and obese individuals completed this randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to groups consuming regular yogurt with a low-calorie diet (LCD, RLCD; n = 25) or receiving probiotic yogurt with LCD (PLCD; n = 25) or consuming probiotic yogurt without LCD (PWLCD; n = 25) for 8 weeks. The pribiotic regimen contained 200 g/day yogurt, enriched by Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) colony-forming units/g. Body fat percentage, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, and mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (TNF-α and RAR-related orphan receptor gamma [ROR-γt]) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured. A reduction in body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, and leptin level was observed that was more obvious in groups who received the weight-loss diet with probiotic yogurt. Reduction in the gene expression of ROR-γt was significant in the PLCD group (p weight-loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cells subset specific gene expression in PBMCs, fat percentage, and body weight among overweight and obese individuals.

  3. Fat and bone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis.

  4. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  5. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  6. Feeding Dry Olive Cake Modifies Subcutaneous Fat Composition in Lambs, Noting Cake Resistance to Degradation and Peroxidation Alimentación con Alperujo Modifica la Composición de Grasa Subcutánea en Corderos, con una Nota en la Resistencia del Alperujo a Degradación y Peroxidación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Vera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the extent to which lamb carcass quality and fat composition could be altered by applying a dry olive cake-based ration instead of a conventional ration or pasture feeding. Three treatments were compared in a completely randomized experiment using 36 single male Suffolk Down lambs with an initial age and live weight of 80 d and 25 kg, respectively. The three treatments were: (a suckling lambs kept with their mothers on annual Mediterranean grassland (GRAZE; (b weaned stall-fed lambs on a control ration (CONC; and (c weaned stall-fed lambs on an olive cake-based ration (CAKE. At the end of the 28-d experimental period, lambs were slaughtered, carcass quality evaluated, and samples of subcutaneous fat analyzed for fatty acids. Treatments did not differ in weight gain or carcass weight and quality, but highly significant differences were found in several fatty acid contents. CAKE animals had reduced palmitic acid as well as increased oleic and stearic acid contents. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indices improved with cake feeding. Principal component and discriminant analyses clearly differentiated treatments suggesting they could be applicable for traceability purposes. A laboratory experiment demonstrated that with or without added vitamin E, the dry olive cake did not alter its lipid properties with increased storage time.El propósito del experimento aquí reportado fue determinar en qué grado se puede modificar la composición y calidad de la carcasa de corderos con el suministro de una ración basada en el alperujo de oliva, en comparación con una ración convencional o con el pastoreo directo. Se compararon tres tratamientos usando un diseño completamente al azar con 36 corderos machos Suffolk Down de partos únicos, y con edad y peso inicial de 80 d y 25 kg, respectivamente. Los tres tratamientos consistieron en; (a corderos lactantes mantenidos con sus madres en una pastura anual de tipo

  7. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ong, Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are restricted in large-scale studies due to practical and ethical issues. We aimed to establish whether ultrasound is a valid alternative method to MRI for the quantitative assessment of abdominal fat depots in older individuals. The study population comprised 74 white individuals (41 men and 33 women, aged 67-76 years) participating in the Hertfordshire Birth Cohort Physical Activity trial. Anthropometry included height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Abdominal fat was measured by ultrasound in two compartments: visceral fat defined as the depth from the peritoneum to the lumbar spine; and subcutaneous fat defined as the depth from the skin to the abdominal muscles and compared to reference measures by MRI (10-mm single-slice image). Ultrasound measures were positively correlated with MRI measures of visceral and subcutaneous fat (visceral: r = 0.82 and r = 0.80 in men and women, respectively; subcutaneous: r = 0.63 and 0.68 in men and women, respectively). In multiple regression models, the addition of ultrasound measures significantly improved the prediction of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat in both men and women over and above the contribution of standard anthropometric variables. In conclusion, ultrasound is a valid method to estimate visceral fat in epidemiological studies of older men and women when MRI and computed tomography are not feasible.

  8. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality...

  9. Interaction between GPR120 p.R270H loss-of-function variant and dietary fat intake on incident type 2 diabetes risk in the D.E.S.I.R. study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri, A; Bonnefond, A; Meyre, D; Balkau, B; Roussel, R; Marre, M; Froguel, P; Fumeron, F

    2016-10-01

    GPR120 (encoded by FFAR4) is a lipid sensor that plays an important role in the control of energy balance. GPR120 is activated by long chain fatty acids (FAs) including omega-3 FAs. In humans, the loss of function p.R270H variant of the gene FFAR4 has been associated with a lower protein activity, an increased risk of obesity and higher fasting plasma glucose levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p.R270H interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, 198 incident; 368 prevalent cases) and overweight (787 incident and 2891 prevalent cases) in the prospective D.E.S.I.R. study (n = 5,212, 9 years follow-up). The association of p.R270H with dietary fat and total calories was assessed by linear mixed models. The interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat on T2D and overweight was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The p.R270H variant had a minor allele frequency of 1.45% and was not significantly associated with total calories intake, fat intake or the total calories derived from fat (%). However, there was a significant interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat modulating the incidence of T2D (Pinteraction = 0.02) where the H-carriers had a higher risk of T2D than RR homozygotes in the low fat intake category only. The interaction between p.R270H and fat intake modulating the incidence and prevalence of overweight was not significant. The p.R270H variant of GPR120 modulates the risk of T2D in interaction with dietary fat intake in the D.E.S.I.R. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Change in signal intensity on MRI of fat in the head of markedly emaciated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Sakai, K. [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The amount of fat in various parts of the body decreases in emaciated patients, but responds differently to disease processes. The order of disappearance of fat in various parts of the head has rarely been studied with MRI. We imaged ten patients with anorexia nervosa and one cachectic patient with a psychiatric disorder with a 1.5 T imager. Signal intensities of bone marrow of the skull, subcutaneous tissue, and orbits were assessed on T1- and T2-weighted images, and correlated with the body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb). On T1-weighted images, five patients (BMI 15.6-17.8 kg/m{sup 2}, mean 16.6 kg/m{sup 2}; Hb 10.1-14.2 g/dl, mean 13.8 g/dl) showed the normal pattern of fat. One (BMI 13.6 kg/m{sup 2}, Hb 10.4 g/dl) lost the high signal of bone marrow, but high signal of subcutaneous tissue and the orbits was preserved. High signal from bone marrow and subcutaneous tissue disappeared in three patients (BMI 11.5-13.5 kg/m{sup 2}, mean 12.5 kg/m{sup 2}; Hb 7.9-9.7 g/dl, mean 8.7 g/dl), but orbital high signal was preserved. The remaining two patients (BMI 9.3 and 13.5 kg/m{sup 2}, mean 11.5 kg/m{sup 2}; Hb 7.6 and 8.9 g/dl, mean 8.3 g/dl) showed complete loss of high signal from fat in the head. The order of disappearance of fat (bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, then orbits) correlated with both BMI and Hb. Atrophy of bone marrow was demonstrated on T2-weighted images in five patients with BMI 13.5 kg/m{sup 2} or less, and Hb 9.7 g/dl or less. (orig.)

  12. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.).

  13. Epidural, paraspinal, and subcutaneous lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R. Nuri [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    A unique case of idiopathic diffuse lipomatosis is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with diffuse lipomatosis in the epidural space, paraspinal muscles, and thoracolumbar subcutaneous regions. Epidural lipomatosis involved the entire thoracolumbar spine and was associated with filar thickening and lipoma. In addition, paraspinal muscles, especially the erector spinae group, had diffuse fatty infiltration. The ultimate clinical effect of this fatty tissue was urinary dysfunction, radicular pain and hypoesthesia in both legs and difficulty walking. (orig.)

  14. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  15. Weight loss versus muscle loss: re-evaluating inclusion criteria for future cancer cachexia interventional trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeland, Eric J; Ma, Joseph D; Nelson, Sandahl H; Seibert, Tyler; Heavey, Sean; Revta, Carolyn; Gallivan, Andrea; Baracos, Vickie E

    2017-02-01

    Participation in cancer cachexia clinical trials requires a defined weight loss (WL) over time. A loss in skeletal muscle mass, measured by cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) image analysis, represents a possible alternative. Our aim was to compare WL versus muscle loss in patients who were screened to participate in a cancer cachexia clinical trial. This was a single-center, retrospective analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients screened for an interventional cancer cachexia trial requiring a ≥5 % WL over the preceding 6 months. Concurrent CT images obtained as part of standard oncology care were analyzed for changes in total muscle and fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total). Of patients screened (n = 36), 3 (8 %) enrolled in the trial, 17 (47 %) were excluded due to insufficient WL (20 %), and 16 (44 %) met inclusion criteria for WL. Patients who met screening criteria for WL (5-20 %) had a mean ± SD of 7.7 ± 8.7 % muscle loss, 24.4 ± 37.5 % visceral adipose loss, 21.6 ± 22.3 % subcutaneous adipose loss, and 22.1 ± 24.7 % total adipose loss. Patients excluded due to insufficient WL had 2 ± 6.4 % muscle loss, but a gain of 8.5 ± 39.8 % visceral adipose, and 4.2 ± 28.2 % subcutaneous adipose loss and 0.8 ± 28.4 % total adipose loss. Of the patients excluded due to WL 5 %. Defining cancer cachexia by WL over time may be limited as it does not capture skeletal muscle loss. Cross-sectional CT body composition analysis may improve early detection of muscle loss and patient participation in future cancer cachexia clinical trials.

  16. Indirubin-3'-oxime, an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, enhances osteogenic commitment of ST2 cells and restores bone loss in high-fat diet-induced obese male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a growing issue of the modern world, and its negative impact on bones in obese male patients has been recently reported. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has an established role in the regulation of body fat content and bone density. We investigated the effects of indirubin-3'-oxime (I3O), the GSK3β inhibitor that activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, on trabecular bone in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male mice. I3O reverses the downregulating effect of fatty acid (FA) on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the osteogenic commitment of the bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. FA induces the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. In a male mouse model of HFD-induced obesity, trabecular bone loss was observed in the femora, with a gross increase in abdominal fat; however, the HFD effects were rescued with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by I3O treatment. I3O administration also reversed the increase in the number of HFD-induced adipocytes in the femur bone marrow in trabecular bone. Overall, our results indicate that I3O could be a potential therapeutic agent for obese male patients through downregulation of abdominal fat and net increment in trabecular bone density. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  18. Estimation of carcass composition and fat depots by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to establish prediction equations for subcutaneous adipocyte area and body and tail measurements to estimate carcass composition and fat depots of indigenous Akkaraman lambs. As a major carcass tissue, body fat depots play an important role in deciding the optimum slaughter weight and ...

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  20. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  2. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  3. Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the Frenulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mendis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas of the penis are rare, with only 29 reported cases to date. We record the case of a patient who presented with a 2-year history of a seemingly indolent penile skin lesion. On histopathology of the local resection, a diagnosis of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma was made. Specifically, leiomyosarcoma of the penile frenulum has not been clearly reported previously. The patient underwent a further excision to ensure an adequate resection margin and has had no disease recurrence at subsequent follow-up. Our case was of a lesion that, although clinically benign, was malignant and this possibility should be borne in mind when assessing patients.

  4. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pbone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pExercise had significantly improved BMD of the tibia possibly by inhibiting the bone resorption, as evidenced by no change in plasma osteocalcin levels, a decrease of CTX levels (pbone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous (deep and superficial) adipose tissues in normal and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Prakash, Bhanu; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Chin Meng; Chou, Hong; Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lee, Yung Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Tai, E Shyong; Velan, S Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm to classify abdominal adipose tissues into visceral fat (VAT), deep (DSAT), and superficial (SSAT) subcutaneous fat compartments and evaluate its performance against manual segmentation. Data were acquired from 44 normal (BMI 18.0-22.9 kg/m(2) ) and 38 overweight (BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ) subjects at 3T using a two-point Dixon sequence. A fully automatic segmentation algorithm was developed to segment the fat depots. The first part of the segmentation used graph cuts to separate the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and the second step employed a modified level sets approach to classify deep and superficial subcutaneous tissues. The algorithmic results of segmentation were validated against the ground truth generated by manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm showed good performance with Dice similarity indices of VAT/DSAT/SSAT: 0.92/0.82/0.88 against the ground truth. The study of the fat distribution showed that there is a steady increase in the proportion of DSAT and a decrease in the proportion of SSAT with increasing obesity. The presented technique provides an accurate approach for the segmentation and quantification of abdominal fat depots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary Fat Intake Modifies the Effect of a Common Variant in the LIPC Gene on Changes in Serum Lipid Concentrations during a Long-Term Weight-Loss Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Ng, San San; Bray, George A; Ryan, Donna H; Sacks, Frank M; Ning, Guang; Qi, Lu

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of HDL and LDL. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in the HL gene (LIPC) associated with HDL cholesterol. We tested the effect of a common variant in LIPC on changes in blood lipids in response to weight-loss diets in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial. We genotyped LIPC rs2070895 in 743 overweight or obese adults aged 30-70 y (61% women) who were assigned to high-fat (40% energy) or low-fat (20% energy) diets for 2 y. We measured serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol at baseline and 2 y of intervention. At 2 y of intervention, dietary fat modified effects of the variant on changes in