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Sample records for subcutaneous fat increased

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  3. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  4. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... was quantified. Results: In the subjects given vitamin D-3, the median concentrations of serum 25(OH)D-3, fat vitamin D-3, and fat 25(OH)D-3 were 99 nmol/l, 209 ng/g, and 3.8 ng/g, respectively; and correspondingly in the placebo group 62 nmol/l, 32 ng/g, and 2.5 ng/g. If assuming an equal amount of vitamin D-3...

  5. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  6. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  7. INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with increased subcutaneous fat in women and poor response to resistance training in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoeller Robert F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605 (g.-10,1025G>C, Chr2:118,552,255, NT_022135.15, was reported to be associated with obesity (Body Mass Index, [BMI] in a genome-wide association scan using the Framingham Heart Study but has not been reproduced in other cohorts. As BMI is a relatively insensitive measure of adiposity that is subject to many confounding variables, we sought to determine the relationship between the INSIG2 SNP and subcutaneous fat volumes measured by MRI in a young adult population. Methods We genotyped the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 in college-aged population enrolled in a controlled resistance-training program, (the Functional Polymorphism Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength, FAMuSS cohort, n = 752 volunteers 18–40 yrs. In this longitudinal study, we examined the effect of the INSIG2 polymorphism on subcutaneous fat and muscle volumes of the upper arm measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after 12 wks of resistance training. Gene/phenotype associations were tested using an analysis of covariance model with age and weight as covariates. Further, the % variation in each phenotype attributable to genotype was determined using hierarchical models and tested with a likelihood ratio test. Results Women with a copy of the C allele had higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat (GG: n = 139; 243473 ± 5713 mm3 vs. GC/CC: n = 181; 268521 ± 5003 mm3; p = 0.0011; but men did not show any such association. Men homozygous for the G ancestral allele showed a loss of subcutaneous fat, while those with one or two copies of the C allele gained a greater percentage of subcutaneous fat with resistance training (GG: n = 103; 1.02% ± 1.74% vs. GC/CC: n = 93; 6.39% ± 1.82%; p = 0.035. Conclusion Our results show that the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism underlies variation in subcutaneous adiposity in young adult women and suppresses the positive effects of resistance training on men. This

  8. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  9. The increase in abdominal subcutaneous fat depot is an independent factor to determine the glycemic control after rosiglitazone treatment.

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    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Hur, Kyu-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Jin; Shim, Wan-Sub; Ahn, Chul-Woo; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook; Lim, Sung-Kil; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2007-08-01

    The goal was to investigate the interrelationships between the hypoglycemic effects of rosiglitazone and the changes in the regional adiposity of type 2 diabetic patients. We added rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) to 173 diabetic patients (111 males and 62 females) already taking a stable dose of conventional antidiabetic medications except for thiazolidinediones. The abdominal fat distribution was assessed by ultrasonography at baseline and 12 weeks later. Using ultrasonographic images, the s.c. and visceral fat thickness (SFT and VFT respectively) were measured. Rosiglitazone treatment for 3 months improved the glycemic control. However, the response to rosiglitazone was no more than 36.4%; the deterioration of the glycemic control was found in 16.8% of subjects. In addition, rosiglitazone treatment significantly increased the body fat mass, especially the s.c. fat. However that did not alter the visceral fat content. The percentage changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations after treatment were inversely correlated with the increase in SFT (r=-0.327 and -0.353, Pfat depot after rosiglitazone treatment may be an independent factor that determines the hypoglycemic efficacy.

  10. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  11. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a four weeks-old girl with subcutaneous fat necrosis and associated hypercalcemia is presented. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the New born (SCFN) is an uncommon disorder which is rarely complicated with life threatening hypercalcemia. Though it is reported from many parts of the world this is the first case ...

  12. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  13. Selection for higher body weight in Nelore cattle is effective in achieving an increase of longissimus muscle area without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roque Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.

  14. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat remains an important quality determinant of meat. Although ... Nutritional influences on the fatty acid composition and the associated effect on flavour have been found in beef (Westerling &. Hedrick, 1979; Brown, Melton, .... Effect of maize meal in diet on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF)and kidney fat (KF).

  15. Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad

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    Ryan S. Constantine, BA

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Investigation into fat graft injection location indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in angiogenesis signals between the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in the athymic rat model. Further research should aim to continue to close the gap between clinical practice and basic scientific understanding of fat grafting.

  16. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  17. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); L. Ay (Lamise); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMaternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Not much is known about the associations with other measures of body composition. We assessed the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with the development of subcutaneous fat mass measured as

  19. A history of cranial radiotherapy is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in men with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.J.F.; Alkemade, A.; Venema, H.W.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endocrine deficiencies, like GH and estrogen deficiencies, are likely candidates to explain increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in patients with pituitary insufficiency. However, recent reports pointed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) as an additional determinant of an unfavorable

  20. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  1. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem and progenitor cells from which it arises. Whereas increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are six visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric, and it is a subject of much debate whether these have a common developmental origin and whether this differs from that for subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all six visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue arises from Wt1-expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1-expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show that all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated, and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1-expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT, and pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT. They also support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous, and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes.

  2. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

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    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  3. Multifocal scalp abscess with subcutaneous fat necrosis and scarring alopecia as a complication of scalp mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadry, Razan; Hamadah, Issam; Al-Issa, Abdullah; Field, Lawrence; Alrabiah, Fahad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the treatment method termed mesotherapy. Marketed for nonsurgical fat melting, skin rejuvenation, and hair regrowth, this technique has become increasingly popular and, in the public's view, it is considered to be a relatively benign intervention method. Mesotherapy was introduced over 50 years ago by M. Pistor, a French physician who utilized this technique initially as a novel analgesic therapeutic method for a variety of rheumatologic disorders. Since its introduction, the basic principal of locally injecting subcutaneous doses of varying chemicals has been expanded and is now utilized for the aforementioned cosmetic concerns. With its increased popularity, there has been an increase in the number of reported side effects resulting from mesotherapeutic intervention. We report multifocal scalp abscesses with subcutaneous fat necrosis as a direct result of mesotherapy; therefore, requiring extensive surgical repair.

  4. [Value of aspiration biopsy of subcutaneous fat in amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, P; Carvalho, F; Coelho, A

    1986-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fat (FNAF) was performed in 24 patients, 12 with previously diagnosed amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, and 12 presenting a nephrotic syndrome without amyloidosis on renal biopsy. FNAF was positive in 10 of 12 patients with amyloidosis (sensitivity: 83%) and negative in 12 of 12 patients with non-amyloid nephrotic syndrome (specificity: 100%). Considering a 2.5 to 10% prevalence of amyloidosis in adult patients with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, a positive FNAF is diagnostic of amyloidosis, and a negative FNAF rules out the diagnosis with a probability of 98 to 99%. FNAF is a simple and safe method which can be useful in patients who cannot undergo a renal biopsy.

  5. A history of cranial radiotherapy is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in men with pituitary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, Anke J; Alkemade, Anneke; Venema, Henk W; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2012-04-01

    Endocrine deficiencies, like GH and estrogen deficiencies, are likely candidates to explain increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in patients with pituitary insufficiency. However, recent reports pointed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) as an additional determinant of an unfavorable fat distribution. Therefore, we determined the effect of CRT on abdominal fat distribution in men with treated pituitary insufficiency. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-five consecutive male subjects (16 men with and 19 men without CRT aged 62±12 and 56±14 years respectively, P=0.175) visiting our Endocrine Outpatient Clinic for pituitary insufficiency were invited to participate in this study. A standardized single-slice abdominal CT scan at the level of fourth lumbar vertebra was performed to determine visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio. In addition, we assessed body mass index, total fat percentage with bioelectrical impedance analysis, resting energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry, calorie intake using a diary, and serum hormone concentrations. Subjects with CRT had a smaller subcutaneous fat area (225.1 (71.1-480.7) vs 269.0 (133.2-59.9) cm(2), P=0.022) and a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (0.79 (0.39-1.55) vs 0.63 (0.23-0.88), P=0.001) than subjects without CRT. Both the groups were comparable for body mass index, waist-hip ratio, resting energy expenditure, and calorie intake. Importantly, serum hormone concentrations were similar. In men treated for pituitary insufficiency, previous CRT is associated with a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio.

  6. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  7. Case report: Subcutaneous fat necrosis: report of a case and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) occurs in term newborn with history of difficult delivery. Apart from the soft tissue lesions, the infants may suffer from life threatening hypercalcemia as a complication of disease requiring various medications. A case of subcutaneous fat necrosis with history of birth asphyxia is presented ...

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Büşra; Ay, Lamise; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-04-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Not much is known about the associations with other measures of body composition. We assessed the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with the development of subcutaneous fat mass measured as peripheral and central skinfold thickness measurements in early childhood, in a population-based prospective cohort study from early fetal life onward in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The study was performed in 907 mothers and their children at the ages of 1.5, 6 and 24 months. As compared to non-smoking mothers, mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy were more likely to have a younger age and a lower educational level. Their children had a lower birth weight, higher risk of small size for gestational age and were breastfed for a shorter duration (P-values smoking mothers, mothers who smoked in first trimester only and mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy (P > 0.05). Also, the reported number of cigarettes smoked by mothers in both first and third trimester of pregnancy were not associated with peripheral, central and total subcutaneous fat mass in the offspring at the ages of 1.5, 6 and 24 months. Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy does not influence subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. Follow-up studies are needed in children at older ages and to identify associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with other measures of body composition.

  9. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishwar Vikas; Rupani Asha; Amarapurkar Anjali; Anchinmane Vyankatesh

    2008-01-01

    Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually e...

  10. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbridge, B.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Academic Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: brent.burbridge@usask.ca

    2007-04-15

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  11. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlotti, C; Ceriani, V; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2017-05-01

    Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analyzed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and expressed as thickness, weight, area and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was formally assessed. The result was that subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; decrease of subcutaneous fat was greater than visceral fat when measured as area, volume and weight, not as thickness; percent decrease of visceral fat was always greater than percent decrease of subcutaneous fat, with no differences between different strategies. No intervention preferentially targets visceral fat. Basal visceral fat depots are smaller than basal subcutaneous fat depots. Visceral fat loss is linked to subcutaneous fat loss. With all strategies, percent decrease of visceral fat prevails on subcutaneous fat loss.

  13. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  14. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  15. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  16. miRNA-32 Drives Brown Fat Thermogenesis and Trans-activates Subcutaneous White Fat Browning in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Raymond; Hussain, Nurul Attiqah; Zhang, Qiongyi; Chang, Chengwei; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Yanyun; Cao, Lei; Han, Weiping; Stunkel, Walter; Xu, Feng

    2017-05-09

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and subcutaneous white fat browning are essential components of the thermogenic response to cold stimulus in mammals. microRNAs have been shown to regulate both processes in cis. Here, we identify miR-32 as a BAT-specific super-enhancer-associated miRNA in mice that is selectively expressed in BAT and further upregulated during cold exposure. Inhibiting miR-32 in vivo led to impaired cold tolerance, decreased BAT thermogenesis, and compromised white fat browning as a result of reduced serum FGF21 levels. Further examination showed that miR-32 directly represses its target gene Tob1, thereby activating p38 MAP kinase signaling to drive FGF21 expression and secretion from BAT. BAT-specific miR-32 overexpression led to increased BAT thermogenesis and serum FGF21 levels, which further promotes white fat browning in trans. Our results suggested miR-32 and Tob1 as modulators of FGF21 signaling that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  18. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50 and free-ranging (n = 57 female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01, indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5 was lower (P<0.001 than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5. In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  19. Browning of subcutaneous fat and higher surface temperature in response to phenotype selection for advanced endurance exercise performance in male DUhTP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Albrecht, E; Walz, C; Tuchscherer, A; Hoeflich, A

    2017-02-01

    For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice. Analysis of peripheral fat pads revealed increased brite (brown-in-white) subcutaneous adipose tissues and in subcutaneous fat from DUhTP mice higher levels of irisin and different markers of fat cell browning like T-box transcription factor (Tbx1), PPARα, and uncoupling protein (UCP1) (P surface temperature of DUhTP mice was increased when compared to controls indicating a physiological effect of increased UCP1 expression. The present study suggests that DUhTP mice exhibit different markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and fat browning without external stimuli. At an age of 43 days, sedentary DUhTP mice have improved metabolic health as judged from lower levels of blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. Consequently, the non-inbred mouse model DUhTP represents a novel model for the identification of fat cell browning mechanisms in white adipose tissues.

  20. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavishwar Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually enlarged, nonnucleate, single adipocytes showing laminations, along with calcification and paucity of inflammation. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of fat necrosis within the lipoma. Such lesions can be mistaken on radiology for malignancy.

  1. Correlation between subcutaneous knee fat thickness and chondromalacia patellae on magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-08-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a common cause of anterior knee pain in young patients and can be detected noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between subcutaneous fat thickness around the knee joint on axial MRIs as a surrogate marker of obesity, with the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae.

  2. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Yonkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in healthy New Zealand White rabbits. Twelve clinically healthy rabbits with an average weight of 3.00±0.03 kg were used. The fatty acid composition of interscapular, inguinal, pericardial, perirenal and omental fat depots was determined by gas chromatography. The palmitic (C16:0 and linoleic (C18:2 acids, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 prevailed in all fat depots. The highest percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0 was detected in subcutaneous depots: inguinal (41.05±1.80% and interscapular (38.30±0.73%, whereas the highest percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 was found in the visceral depots: perirenal (44.26±0.96% and pericardial (42.77±1.19%. Among the saturated fatty acids, myristic (C14:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were established in higher content in subcutaneous depots than in visceral ones. Palmitoleic acid (C16:1 content in the pericardial fat depot was 10.63±2.60%, while in the interscapular, perirenal, omental and inguinal FD it was almost twice lower (Р<0.001. In the omental depot, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 content was significantly higher only vs the interscapular depot (P<0.05. The high content of saturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous depots determined their higher atherogenic and saturation index, unlike visceral ones, where a significantly higher content of unsaturated fatty acids was reported. Differences in fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots proved the specific metabolism in each of them. On the other hand, this led to differences in the nutritional value of various parts of rabbit carcass.

  3. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  4. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  5. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  6. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  7. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xianghua; Cheng, Shuiqin; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Guisheng; Chen, Wencui; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens. Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group. Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in almost all

  8. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  9. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  10. Correlation between subcutaneous knee fat thickness and chondromalacia patellae on magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hong Kuan; Donnellan, John; Ryan, Davinia; Torreggiani, William C

    2013-08-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a common cause of anterior knee pain in young patients and can be detected noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between subcutaneous fat thickness around the knee joint on axial MRIs as a surrogate marker of obesity, with the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae. A retrospective review was conducted of knee MRIs in 170 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Imaging was performed over a 12-month period on a 1.5T MRI system with a dedicated extremity coil. Two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal imaging assessed each examination in consensus for the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae and graded positive studies from 0 (absent) to 3 (full cartilage thickness defect). Measurement of subcutaneous knee fat thickness was obtained on the medial aspect of the knee. MRI findings of chondromalacia patellae were present in 33 patients (19.4%), of which, there were 11 grade 1 lesions (33.3%), 9 grade 2 lesions (27.3%), and 13 grade 3 lesions (39.4%). The mean subcutaneous knee fat thickness was significantly higher in the chondromalacia patellae group for all grades compared with the normal group (P chondromalacia patellae (R = 0.48 [95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.68]; P chondromalacia patellae. Subcutaneous knee fat thickness as a surrogate marker of obesity was positively associated with the presence and severity of chondromalacia patellae on MRI. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM, as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2 of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434. Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM.

  12. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  13. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  14. Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT, and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1 anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, (2 DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF, percent trunk fat (PTF, trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR, (3 MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5, soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001 than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007, and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006 than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06. In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both. WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008, but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry, and PTF and TEFR (DXA are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

  15. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  16. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  17. Effect of melatonin on expression of leptin in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin-resistant rats

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    Ying LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of melatonin (MLT on protein and mRNA expression of leptin (Lep in subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin resistance (IR rats. Methods Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=27 and control group (CN group, n=10. Rats in model group were fed with high glucose diet for 6 weeks. Twenty rats having developed IR in the model group were further randomly divided into two groups: IR group (n=10 and melatonin group (MLT group, n=10. Rats in CN group and MLT group were fed with 10mg/(kg.d of standard chow or MLT, respectively, for 6 weeks from the beginning of the 7th week. At the end of the 12th week, the subcutaneous fat tissue was harvested from bilateral inguinal areas of the rats for the evaluation of the protein and mRNA expression of Lep by immunohistochemistry and RTPCR. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting serum leptin (Lep, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, malondialdehyde (MDA and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly lower (P0.05. The protein and mRNA expressions of Lep in subcutaneous adipose tissue were significantly higher in IR group than in CN group (P<0.01, while they were significantly lower in MLT group than in IR group (P<0.01. Conclusion MLT may improve IR and the status of oxidation stress, and inhibit the over expression of Lep protein and mRNA in subcutaneous fat tissue in the high-glucose diet-induced IR rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.04

  18. Influence of subcutaneous fat on mechanomyographic signals at three levels of voluntary effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study aims to assess the influence of different skinfold thicknesses (ST and their relation to the attenuation of the mechanomyographic (MMG signal at different force levels (maximal voluntary contraction – MVC, 40% of MVC and 70% of MVC of the rectus femoris muscle. Methods Fifteen volunteers were divided in two groups: ST lower than 10mm (G35 (7 participants. Student t tests were employed to investigate differences between G35 regarding MMG analysis parameters (acceleration root mean square – aRMS, zero crossing – ZC, and median frequency – MDF, for the X, Y and Z axes, as well as for the modulus of these three axes. Results We found that thicker layers of body fat act as attenuator filters for the MMG signal [MDFMVC: X (p = 0.005, Z (p = 0.003; MDF70%MVC: X (p = 0.034; ZCMVC: Z (p = 0.037, modulus (p = 0.005; ZC70%MVC: Z (p = 0.047]. We found significant correlation between ST values and aRMS in three levels, in the Yaxis (p = 0.591, for the group G35 in 40%MVC (R2 = 0.610, and 70%MVC (R2 = 0.592. The MDF parameter showed correlation with ST values only in the Yaxis in 70%MVC (R2 = 0.700 for G>35. Conclusions We observed MMG signal attenuation in at least one of the parameters analyzed for each level of the rectus femoris muscle force, indicating that MMG signals are significantly attenuated with increasing thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer.

  19. c-Abl inhibition mitigates diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Sun, Jian-Guang; Wang, Ji-Qiu; Li, Binhua; Liu, Qingsong; Ning, Guang; Jin, Wanzhu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. The expression of c-Abl in different fat tissues from obese humans or mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were first analysed by western blotting and quantitative PCR. We employed conditional deletion of the c-Abl gene (also known as Abl1) in adipose tissue using Fabp4-Cre and 6-week-old mice were fed with either a chow diet (CD) or an HFD. Age-matched wild-type mice were treated with the c-Abl inhibitor nilotinib or with vehicle and exposed to either CD or HFD, followed by analysis of body mass, fat mass, glucose and insulin tolerance. Histological staining, ELISA and biochemical analysis were used to clarify details of changes in physiology and molecular signalling. c-Abl was highly expressed in subcutaneous fat from obese humans and HFD-induced obese mice. Conditional knockout of c-Abl in adipose tissue improved insulin sensitivity and mitigated HFD-induced body mass gain, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Consistently, treatment with nilotinib significantly reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Further biochemical analyses suggested that c-Abl inhibition improved whole-body insulin sensitivity by reducing HFD-triggered insulin resistance and increasing adiponectin in subcutaneous fat. Our findings define a new biological role for c-Abl in the regulation of diet-induced obesity through improving insulin sensitivity of subcutaneous fat. This suggests it may become a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  20. Impact of skin-subcutaneous fat layer thickness on electrical impedance myography measurements: an initial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, A W; Chin, A B; Lee, K S; Rutkove, S B

    2007-11-01

    To determine the impact of skin-subcutaneous fat layer thickness on electrical impedance myography (EIM) measurements. Linear 50 kHz EIM was performed on quadriceps of 62 healthy subjects (mean age 52.2+/-20.6 years) with a wide variety of skin-subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thicknesses, as measured by ultrasound. Correlations were sought between the main EIM outcome parameter phase (theta) and SFL thickness. A multiple regression analysis was also performed for theta with SFL thickness and age as independent variables. Mean skin-fat thickness was significantly different (p<0.01) between men (0.76+/-0.23 cm) and women (1.43+/-0.51 cm). Neither linear nor quadratic fits produced significant correlations between theta and SFL thickness. A significant but weak positive correlation (r(2)=0.14, p<0.05) was seen between age and SFL thickness in women, but not in men. A strong negative correlation between age and theta was observed for both men (r(2)=0.48, p<0.01) and women (r(2)=0.68, p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, age but not SFL thickness was found to have a significant association with theta. SFL thickness does not contribute substantially to the phase measured by linear-EIM. EIM data can be interpreted confidently in individuals with varying SFL thickness.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor ChIP-sequencing of subcutaneous fat reveals modulation of inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Brock, Clifton O; Volden, Paul A; Hernandez, Kyle; Skor, Maxwell; Kocherginsky, Masha; Park, Julie E; Brady, Matthew J; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2015-11-01

    To identify glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated chromatin sequences and target genes in primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat. GR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing (seq) methodology in subcutaneous human adipocytes treated ex vivo with dexamethasone (dex) was optimized to identify genome-wide dex-dependent GR-binding regions (GBRs). Gene expression analyses were performed in parallel ± dex treatment. Fat was obtained from four female surgical patients without obesity with a median age of 50.5 years. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 219 dex-associated GBRs. Of these, 136 GBRs were located within 100 kb of the transcriptional start site and associated with 123 genes. Combining these data with dex-induced gene expression, 70 of the 123 putative direct target genes were significantly up- or downregulated following 4 hours of dex treatment. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the top 10 pathways reflected regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was identified as a potential direct GR target gene. This is the first report of genome-wide GR ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis in human fat. The results implicate regulation of key GR target genes that are involved in dampening inflammation and promoting cellular metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Allometry in carcasses of lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group, with approximately 100 days of age, average body of 16.24 ± 1.78 kg, were slaughtered with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mmof subcutaneous fat thickness, measured by ultrasound in the Longissimus, to evaluate the allometric growth. Lambs fed a complete pelleted diet calculated to ensure a daily weight gain of0.30 kg. Slaughtering was performed as the female lambs reached the pre-established fat thickness. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4ºC, chilled carcasses were cut in half and weighed. The right side was separated into five sections to determine the allometry of carcasses and cuts. Neck and rib showed isogonic growth in all treatments. Loin has remained late growth to 2.0 and3.0 mm. Shoulder and leg were isogonic growth in the treatments 3.0 and4.0 mm. The leg in relation to half carcass showed the greatest correlation. The cuts exhibited differentiated development in the growth rates of tissues. It is recommended to slaughter female lambs when they reach3.0 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness, since the carcass has already reached physiological maturity. Shoulder and leg cuts are best suited for dissection for presenting the highest correlation with the carcass in females of the Pantaneiro group.

  3. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  4. Association between subcutaneous and intramuscular fat content in porcine ham and loin depending on age, breed and FABP3 and LEPR genes transcript abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, M; Ropka-Molik, K; Terman, A; Piórkowska, K; Oczkowicz, M; Bereta, A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the level of intramuscular fat (IMF) in loin (musculus longissimus dorsi) and ham (musculus semimembranosus) and the level of subcutaneous fat in these cuts depending on breed, age and the expression level of FABP3 and LEPR genes. The results obtained showed that only the breed influenced on the level of both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat to the same extent (P ≤ 0.001). The age of animals had an effect on fat content of the cuts (P ≤ 0.001) and to a lower extent on the level of IMF in both muscles (P ≤ 0.05). We confirmed highly significant effect of breed and age on the LEPR mRNA abundance--the expression of the this gene increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) with age and the highest expression was found for the Puławska breed in m. longissimus dorsi and for the Polish Landrace breed in m. semimembranosus. We observed the high correlations between the transcript level of the LEPR gene and the fat content of individual cuts (P ≤ 0.01). The expression level of FABP3 gene influenced the level of IMF (P ≤ 0.01), but not the level of subcutaneous fat in loin and ham.

  5. Sub-cutaneous fat thickness measured by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and calipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P A; Sowood, P J; Belyavin, A; Cohen, J B; Smith, F W

    1988-06-01

    Sub-cutaneous fat thickness was measured at 12 sites on the body surface of 24 males and 26 females using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skinfold calipers, and A-mode ultrasound. The mean of the 12 fat thickness measurements and individual site thicknesses were compared between individuals using analysis of variance. In males, the mean thicknesses for ultrasound and calipers were similar (P greater than 0.05) but both were less than the MRI (P less than 0.001). MRI and ultrasound were similar in females but less than calipers (P less than 0.001). A good between-subject correlation was found between all three methods in the males but only the calipers and MRI were well correlated in females. Within-subject correlations are poor for all measures and in both sexes. Factor loadings for a varimax rotation of two principal components indicate that the fat is distributed in 1 of 2 patterns: either principally on the trunk or on the limbs. The principal component analysis and the result of canonical correlations obtained from the factor loadings confirm the findings of the analysis of variance, in that a general level of fatness is measurable by all three methods over a range of subjects. However, the pattern of fat thicknesses measured over a number of specific sites by one method of measurement is unlikely to be duplicated by either of the other two methods on the same individual.

  6. In vivo assessment of subcutaneous fat in dogs by real-time ultrasonography and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan-Carreira, Rita; Martins, Luis; Miranda, Sónia; Olivério, Pedro; Silva, Severiano R

    2016-10-20

    Systems for estimating body condition score (BCS) are currently used in canine practice to monitor fatness levels. These tools are cheap and easy to use but lack the necessary precision to monitor small changes in body fat, particularly during weight control treatments or in research. The present work aims to study the application of real-time ultrasonography (RTU) together with image analysis in the assessment of subcutaneous fat depots in dogs. Ultrasound images were collected from five anatomical locations (chest, flank, abdomen, thigh and lumbar) from 28 healthy dogs of different breeds and with a body weight (BW) ranging from 5.2 to 33.0 kg. BCS was collected by visual appraisal using a 5-point scale. Subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) was estimated from RTU images, using the average of three measurements taken in fat deposits located above the muscles represented in each image. Correlations were established between SFT and BW or BCS as well as a classification of BCS-based fatness [overweight (BCS = 4), ideal (BCS = 3) and lean (BCS = 2)]. SFT was found to differ between the five regions considered (P dogs included in the study and also those correlating most with BW, in contrast to the chest, which showed the least variation. Overall, a strong correlation was found between BCS and SFT. The highest correlations were established for the flank, abdomen and lumbar areas. In every anatomical area, a decrease in SFT was observed across all three BCS classes, ranging from 48 to 65 % among overweight and ideal dogs, and from 46 to 83 % among ideal and lean dogs. Preliminary data showed that within this population there was a strong correlation between BCS and SFT estimated from RTU images. It was also observed that RTU measurements for fat thickness differed among the anatomical points surveyed suggesting differences in their sensitivity to a change in BCS. The images displaying the best prediction value for fatness variations were those collected at the

  7. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Light physical activity increased body fat percentage in elderly Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia is rapidly increasing, particularly in older people. Obesity is characterized by increased percentage of body fat in the form of visceral fat and non-visceral or subcutaneous fat. The aim of this study was to analyze body fat percentage (BFP and associated risk factors, i.e. type of residence (rural or urban, physical activity, gender, age, intakes of energy and fat, and socio-economic background (educational level and occupational status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 older persons (517 females and 295 males from December 2007- February 2008 in the cities of Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul, and Magetan subdistricts. BFP was assessed using an Omron Fat Analyzer. Nutritional intakes were collected through interviews using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. To obtain overall total energy expenditure for physical activity (PA, the energy expenditures for exercise (sports PA, daily activities, and leisure time PA were added together. The study results indicated that urban residence and light PA at age 55 years constituted risk factors for high BFP. Light PA at 55 years of age was the most influential risk factor, since it was 4.3 times greater than vigorous PA at the same age (OR=4.3; 95% Confidence interval 2.6-7.1 It is recommended to implement nutritional counseling about adequate intakes for increased PA in all age groups (adolescents, adults, older persons, particularly in urban areas with their greater risk of high BFP.

  9. Light physical activity increased body fat percentage in elderly Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia is rapidly increasing, particularly in older people. Obesity is characterized by increased percentage of body fat in the form of visceral fat and non-visceral or subcutaneous fat. The aim of this study was to analyze body fat percentage (BFP and associated risk factors, i.e. type of residence (rural or urban, physical activity, gender, age, intakes of energy and fat, and socio-economic background (educational level and occupational status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 older persons (517 females and 295 males from December 2007- February 2008 in the cities of Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul, and Magetan subdistricts. BFP was assessed using an Omron Fat Analyzer. Nutritional intakes were collected through interviews using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. To obtain overall total energy expenditure for physical activity (PA, the energy expenditures for exercise (sports PA, daily activities, and leisure time PA were added together. The study results indicated that urban residence and light PA at age 55 years constituted risk factors for high BFP. Light PA at 55 years of age was the most influential risk factor, since it was 4.3 times greater than vigorous PA at the same age (OR=4.3; 95% Confidence interval 2.6-7.1 It is recommended to implement nutritional counseling about adequate intakes for increased PA in all age groups (adolescents, adults, older persons, particularly in urban areas with their greater risk of high BFP.

  10. Lipid composition and sensory traits of meat from Pantaneiro lambs slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid composition and sensory traits of the meat from female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT were evaluated by ultrasound. Twenty-four lambs weighing 16.24 ± 1.78 kg were confined in feedlots. These animals were fed with pelleted diet formulated to provide a daily weight gain of 0.30 kg. As the lambs reached the pre-set SFT in the weekly evaluation by ultrasound, they were slaughtered on the day following the measurement, regardless of their weight. The SFT did not alter the fatty acid profile of meat from Pantaneiro lambs. For the sensory analysis, the meat from the animals slaughtered with 4.00 mm SFT received the best score for variables overall acceptance and characteristic flavor as compared with the females slaughtered with 2.00 mm SFT. The treatment with 3.00 mm SFT, however, did not differ from the others. For sensory traits odor and juiciness, no effect of SFT was found. It is recommended to slaughter lambs with 3.00 mm thickness of subcutaneous fat on the loin, because covered better number of favorable attributes in sensory analysis.

  11. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gollisch, Katja S. C.; Brandauer, Josef; Jessen, Niels; Toyoda, Taro; Nayer, Ali; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity improves glucose tolerance and decreases adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the effects of exercise training on subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (parametrial) adipose tissue in rats that were fed a chow diet (13% fat) or made insulin resistant by a high-fat diet (60% fat). Sprague-Dawley rats performed 4 wk of voluntary wheel running or were kept as sedentary controls. The training groups fed chow and the high-fat diet achieved similar running distances (8.8 ±...

  12. Instrumental colour of Iberian ham subcutaneous fat and lean (biceps femoris): Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapiso, Ana I; García, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    The influence of crossbreeding (Iberian vs Iberian×Duroc 50% pigs) and rearing system (Montanera vs Pienso) on the instrumental colour of Iberian ham (subcutaneous fat and biceps femoris muscle) and the relationships to sensory appearance and chemical composition were researched by using a factorial design. In subcutaneous fat, a significant effect (pPienso hams than in Montanera hams. CIEL*a*b* variables of subcutaneous fat were closely related to subcutaneous fatty acid composition, the largest correlationships involving L* (L* and 18:0, 0.652, p<0.001; L* and 18:1, -0.616, p<0.001). Instrumental colour variables and sensory appearance were also correlated (L* and fat pinkness, -0.539, p<0.001). In lean (biceps femoris), instrumental colour data was not affected by crossbreeding and rearing system. CIEL*a*b* variables were not related to chemical composition (moisture, NaCl, intramuscular fat and pigment content), although they were correlated to sensory appearance (L* and marbling, 0.419, p=0.014).

  13. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hypocalcemia Associated with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

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    Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFNN is a rare benign inflammatory disorder of the adipose tissue but may be complicated by hypercalcemia or less frequently, hypocalcemia, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Here we report the case of a neonate with subcutaneous fat necrosis who surprisingly developed hypocalcemia instead of hypercalcemia. A full-term female neonate was delivered by emergency cesarean section for fetal distress and was subsequently admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit. The mother’s pregnancy was uncomplicated up to delivery. Her anthropometric measurements were birth weight 4.1 kg (95th percentile, length 50 cm (50th percentile, and head circumference 34.5 cm (50th percentile. The Apgar scores were 2, 3, and 8 at 1, 5, 10 minutes, respectively. There was no abnormal facies and she was fed with breast milk only. On the seventh day of life, the infant was found to have multiple nodules located in the neck, upper back, and right arm. The nodules were firm, well circumscribed with no evidence of tenderness. Her total serum calcium level was 1.55 mmol/L (normal range 2.2 to 2.7 mmol/L and this was associated with hypotonia and poor sucking reflex. The packed cell volume was 40%. The serum albumin and blood glucose levels were normal. Her blood culture was sterile. A clinical diagnosis of hypocalcemia associated with SCFNN was made. The infant was treated for hypocalcemia (using calcium gluconate and was carefully followed-up. The skin lesions resolved completely three months after their eruption. Repeat serum calcium measurements at three, six, and nine months of age were all within normal limits. Although SCFNN is a rare benign clinical condition, it may be complicated by hypocalcemia. Therefore, periodic measurements of the serum calcium levels is warranted in such a patient, beginning from the neonatal period up to the age of six months.

  15. Severe Sarcopenia and Increased Fat Stores in Pediatric Patients With Liver, Kidney, or Intestine Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Bush, Weston J; Miller, Christina; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A

    2017-11-01

    Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. Children younger than 19 years with end-stage liver, kidney, or intestine failure and with pretransplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected from the trauma database. Measures of nutrition status included a scaled scoring of core muscle mass, and visceral and subcutaneous fat stores. Analysis was conducted using the pooled and individually matched subject-control differences. There were 81 subjects included in the final analysis (liver [n = 35], kidney [n = 20], and intestine [n = 26]). Children with end-stage liver disease had a 23% reduction in muscle mass, a 69% increase in visceral fat, and a 29% increase in subcutaneous fat. End-stage renal disease patients had a 19% reduction in muscle mass and a 258% increase in subcutaneous fat. Intestine failure patients had a 24% reduction in muscle mass, a 30% increase in visceral fat, and a 46% increase in subcutaneous fat. These results demonstrate significant sarcopenia and increased fat stores in end-stage organ failure patients, which supports the idea of an active physiologic mechanism to store fat while losing muscle mass. Sarcopenia may be related to total protein loss from a catabolic state, or from decreased synthesis (liver), wasting (kidney), or malabsorption (intestine).

  16. Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, N.; Kanaya, A.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, Frances A; Seidell, J C

    AIMS: We investigated whether low subcutaneous thigh fat is an independent risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, and whether these associations differ between sexes, and between white and black adults. Our secondary aim was to investigate which body composition characteristics (lean

  17. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    ...) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets...

  18. Productive performance and economic analysis of Santa Inês sheep slaughtered at different subcutaneous fat levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Queiroz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and economic performance of feedlot-finished Santa Inês lambs slaughtered at three subcutaneous fat levels. Twenty-four uncastrated male lambs with 100 ± 10 days of age and an initial body weight of 22.6 ± 3.9 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments and slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm. A completely randomized design consisting of three treatments and eight repetitions per treatment was adopted. Productivity parameters included final body weight, dry matter intake, daily and total weight gains, and feed conversion. For the determination of economically viable fat thickness for slaughter, only direct production costs such as lamb purchase costs, feed costs and cost of labor were considered, and revenue, expenses and profit were analyzed. The final body weight and total weight gain differed significantly (P<0.05 between treatments. Lambs slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.0 and 4.0 mm had a higher final body weight (33.84 ± 1.71 and 34.65 ± 1.79 kg, respectively and total weight gain (9.06 ± 1.04 and 11.82 ± 1.02 kg. However, lambs with 3.0 mm fat thickness exhibited better economic results (profit of US$ 3.10 per kg cold carcass. The slaughter of Santa Inês lambs at 3.0 mm subcutaneous fat thickness is recommended since it provides better productive performance, higher profit per kilogram carcass, and greater profitability.

  19. Ontogenesis changes and sex dimorphism of subcutaneous fat distribution: 12-year longitudinal study of children and adolescents from Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowska, Maria; Suder, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the direction and tempo of subcutaneous fat redistribution during ontogenesis, appearing sex differences and relations to puberty on the basis of 12-year longitudinal data of 270 boys and 154 girls from Cracow, Poland. They all had complete data (from 7 to 18-years old) of three trunk (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac) and three extremity (triceps, knee, medial calf) skinfold thicknesses. The type of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution was determined based on trunk to extremity ratio to analyze the process of fat redistribution. The analysis included medians of extremity and trunk skinfolds and medians of their sums and age altered frequency of central and peripheral type of fat distribution. To present empirical values, the median variability of the sums of three trunk and extremity skinfolds was calculated using a third degree polynomial as an age function. Polynomial regression of extremity skinfolds median explained 88% of its variability (F = 71.2, P < 0.001) and for trunk skinfolds as far as 96% (F = 111.65, P < 0.001). The median variability curves of both types of distribution crossed at the age of 11.88 in girls and 13.45 in boys directly preceding puberty stage, which indicated clear dependencies between fat redistribution and puberty. The results showed a tight connection between the process of subcutaneous fat redistribution and puberty, and also sex dimorphism of the process. More dynamic fat redistribution in boys contrasted trunk and extremity fatness, while in girls less dynamic changes resulted in more even fatness. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  1. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  2. Neuronal genes for subcutaneous fat thickness in human and pig are identified by local genomic sequencing and combined SNP association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Tai Lee

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major global public health problem that increases the risk for cardiovascular or metabolic disease. The pigs represent an exceptional biomedical model related to energy metabolism and obesity in humans. To pinpoint causal genetic factors for a common form of obesity, we conducted local genomic de novo sequencing, 18.2 Mb, of a porcine QTL region affecting fatness traits, and carried out SNP association studies for backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in pigs. In order to relate the association studies in pigs to human obesity, we performed a targeted genome wide association study for subcutaneous fat thickness in a cohort population of 8,842 Korean individuals. These combined association studies in human and pig revealed a significant SNP located in a gene family with sequence similarity 73, member A (FAM73A associated with subscapular skin-fold thickness in humans (rs4121165, GC-corrected p-value  = 0.0000175 and with backfat thickness in pigs (ASGA0029495, p-value  = 0.000031. Our combined association studies also suggest that eight neuronal genes are responsible for subcutaneous fat thickness: NEGR1, SLC44A5, PDE4B, LPHN2, ELTD1, ST6GALNAC3, ST6GALNAC5, and TTLL7. These results provide strong support for a major involvement of the CNS in the genetic predisposition to a common form of obesity.

  3. Study of subcutaneous fat, BMI in diabetic and non-diabetic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnoi, Jagdish; Bomb, B S; Ranjith Babu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a Metabolic Disorder which has got prime focus in the present days. An increase in body fat is generally associated with an increase in risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is further adding the severity. Therefore, any measures that could prevent or delay the development of diabetes are urgently needed. The present study is focused on early detection of the occurre...

  4. Subcutaneous fat pads on body MRI - an early sign of congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG (CDG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher A.; Schulze, Andreas [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Yoon, Grace [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Neurology, Toronto (Canada); Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Paediatric Neuroradiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Infants with phosphomannomutase 2 - congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG), formerly known as CDG1a, present with failure to thrive, visceral dysfunction, thromboembolic events and developmental delays noted before 6 months of age. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the considerable variability in phenotype. Characteristic, but not universal, features include inverted nipples and abnormal subcutaneous fat pads. Neuroimaging performed in the first 4 months of life may be normal, although cerebellar and brainstem atrophy is usual after 3 months of age. Cerebellar and brainstem atrophy have been noted as early as 11 days of life. We present an infant whose typical subcutaneous and retroperitoneal fat deposits were clinically occult, but identified on body MRI. (orig.)

  5. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  6. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w./day. Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α, compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  7. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  8. Regional composition of carcass and tissue composition of cuts from lambs slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Santana Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT on the regional composition of the carcass, the tissue composition of cuts, and the leg muscularity index of Santa Inês lambs. This experiment involved 24 uncastrated male lambs at approximately 100 days of age and at an average live weight of 22.70 ± 3.75 kg that were kept in the feedlot, where they received a complete pelleted diet formulated to provide a daily gain of 0.30 kg. The animals were slaughtered as they reached the pre-defined SFT of 2.00, 3.00, and 4.00 mm, evaluated by ultrasonography. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 mm SFT had a heavier shoulder (1.80 kg and leg (2.99 kg, differing from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm. No significant differences were observed (P > 0.05 between the treatments for the percentages of muscle in the cuts, which averaged 48.38% for the neck, 58.71% for the shoulder, 43.87% for the ribs, 53.56% for the loin, and 64.52% for the leg. Lambs slaughtered with 4.00 and 3.00 mm SFT differed from those slaughtered with 2.00 mm SFT for the percentage of total fat in the shoulder, which averaged 20.10, 19.02, and 15.79%, respectively. The animals slaughtered with 2.00 mm of fat exhibited the highest percentage of bone in the loin (20.23%. Leg muscularity was lower (0.34 in those slaughtered with 2.00 mm of subcutaneous fat. Slaughtering Santa Inês lambs with different subcutaneous fat thicknesses yields different regional compositions of the carcass, tissue compositions of cuts, and leg muscularity indices. It is recommended to slaughter Santa Inês lambs when they reach a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.00 mm.

  9. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose...... tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio......-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI...

  10. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  11. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effect of genotype on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 Celta breed pigs were used to investigate the effect of genotype (Barcina, Carballiña and Santiaguesa lines on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular (IMF and subcutaneous fat (SF. The total IMF content was influenced by genotype (P Un total de 45 cerdos de raza Celta fueron usados para estudiar el efecto del genotipo (líneas Barcina, Carballiña y Santiaguesa sobre la composición de ácidos grasos de la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. El contenido en grasa intramuscular estuvo influenciado por el genotipo (P < 0.05; la Barcina presentó los mayores valores (5.21% vs 1.99 y 3.59 para las líneas Santiaguesa y Carballiña respectivamente. Los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular de la línea Santiaguesa mostraron mayores contenidos de PUFA que las otras dos líneas. Los índices nutricionales también se vieron influenciados por el genotipo; la línea Santiguesa presentó los menores valores de los índices aterogénico y trombogénico y los mayores de la relación entre ácidos grasos hipo e hipercolesterolémicos. En los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular se obtuvieron mayores valores de MUFA y menores de PUFA (P < 0.05 que en la grasa subcutánea. En los lípidos polares, las muestras de grasa intramuscular presentaron los mayores valores de PUFA (entre 37–44%. Finalmente, la grasa subcutánea mostró valores superiores de MUFA y SFA que la intramuscular (P < 0.05. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa intramuscular y de espesor de grasa subcutánea implica que su deposición puede estar regulada por diferentes mecanismos.

  13. Feeding encapsulated ground full-fat soybeans to increase polyunsaturated fat concentrations and effects on flavor volatiles in fresh lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Waller, J C; Melton, S L; Saxton, A M; Pordesimo, L O

    2004-09-01

    This research assessed the potential of increasing PUFA concentrations and the effect on flavor volatiles in red meat by feeding ground, full-fat soybean supplemented in casein complex. Supplements consisted of untreated ground, full-fat soybean (CO) or ground, full-fat soybeans treated with acetaldehyde (AC) or diacetyl (DA) to form gels. On a DM basis, the control (CO), AC, and DA supplements contained 48.6, 50.0, and 49.1% CP and 17.3, 17.3, and 17.4% fat, respectively. Weaned feeder lambs (n = 18) were divided into three treatment groups with two pens of three lambs per group. One of three supplements (200 g of DM) plus 1 kg DM of a ground corn basal diet and 0.36 kg DM of grass hay was fed daily to each of six lambs in a group for 9 wk. Samples of the intramuscular (LM), intermuscular, subcutaneous, and kidney fat were obtained from each lamb carcass for determination of total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles. Flavor volatiles of broiled LM were also analyzed. Total fat content of the LM was 3.7, 4.6, and 2.6% for lambs consuming diets supplemented with CO, AC, and DA, respectively. Compared with lambs fed the untreated supplement (CO), lambs supplemented with AC or DA had 1) higher (P rumen of the lambs, resulting in increased deposition in the muscle and adipose tissues of lamb.

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor ChIP-sequencing of primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat reveals modulation of inflammatory pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Brock, Clifton O.; Volden, Paul A.; Hernandez, Kyle; Skor, Maxwell; Kocherginsky, Masha; Park, Julie E.; Brady, Matthew J.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated chromatin sequences and target genes in primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Methods GR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing methodology in subcutaneous human adipocytes treated ex-vivo with dexamethasone (dex) was optimized to identify genome-wide dex-dependent GR binding regions (GBRs). Gene expression analyses were performed in parallel ± dex treatment. Results Fat was obtained from four non-obese female surgical patients with a median age of 50.5 years. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 219 dex-associated GBRs. Of these, 136 GBRs were located within 100 kb of the transcriptional start site and associated with 123 genes. Combining these data with dex-induced gene expression, 70 of the 123 putative direct target genes were significantly up- or downregulated following four hours of dex treatment. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the top 10 pathways reflected regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was identified as a potential direct GR target gene. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genome-wide GR ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis in human fat. The results implicate regulation of key GR target genes that are involved in dampening inflammation and promoting cellular metabolism. PMID:26408078

  15. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  16. Suture Closure versus Non-Closure of Subcutaneous Fat and Cosmetic Outcome after Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Husslein

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of subcutaneous fat suture closure versus non-closure at cesarean section (CS on long-term cosmetic outcome.Women undergoing planned or unplanned CS were randomized to either subcutaneous fat suture closure or non-closure using a 1∶1 allocation algorithm. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Scar evaluation was performed after two and six months. Primary outcome measures were Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS summary scores six months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS summary scores, retraction of the scar below the level of the surrounding skin, duration of surgery, and development of hematoma, seroma, surgical site infection (SSI or wound disruption. Data were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.A total of 116 women were randomized and 91 participants, 47 in the closure and 44 in the non-closure group, completed the trial and were analyzed. There were no differences in patient morphometrics or surgery indications between groups. At two and six months no significant differences were found with respect to POSAS or VSS scores between groups. After two months significantly more women in the non-closure group described their scar as being retracted below the level of the skin (36% vs. 15%, p = 0.02 whereas no difference was observed at six months. There were significantly more hematomas in the non-closure (25% compared to the closure group (4% (p = 0.005. There was no difference in duration of surgery, SSI, seroma formation or wound disruption between groups.Suture closure of the subcutaneous fat at CS does not affect long-term cosmetic outcome. (Level I evidence.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01542346.

  17. Applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to segment and quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat areas from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with a number of diseases and accurately assessment of subtypes of adipose tissue volume plays a significant role in predicting disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning models to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral (VFA) fat areas depicting on CT images. A dataset involving CT images from 40 patients were retrospectively collected and equally divided into two independent groups (i.e. training and testing group). The new CAD scheme consisted of two sequential convolutional neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. Selection-CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to automatically select CT slices belonging to abdomen areas and SegmentationCNN was trained using 84,000 fat-pixel patches to classify fat-pixels as belonging to SFA or VFA. Then, data from the testing group was used to evaluate the performance of the optimized CAD scheme. Comparing to manually labelled results, the classification accuracy of CT slices selection generated by Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using Segmentation-CNN yielded 96.8%. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep learning based CAD scheme to recognize human abdominal section from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from CT slices with high agreement compared with subjective segmentation results.

  18. Determination of neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat of Iberian pigs from different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to determine the relationship between the content of a branched hydrocarbon (neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat and the feeding system of Iberian pigs during the fattening period previous to slaughter. Thirty-six batches of Iberian pigs, belonging to the four categories of feeding systems described in the Spanish legislation (Bellota, Recebo, Campo and Cebo were studied. These categories differ in their degree of utilization of the natural resources (acorn and pasture of the extensive rearing system or in their level of replacement by concentrated feed. SPE combined with GC-MS techniques were carried out to isolate and to identify hydrocarbons. Recebo and Bellota batches showed the highest levels of neophytadiene content, followed by Campo batches, and finally, batches of the Cebo category. The results showed a great variability between batches from the same feeding category, mainly from Bellota, Recebo and Campo categories, which makes the classification of the animals in these three categories difficult. However, the animals from the Cebo category were correctly classified when reared in intensive conditions.El objetivo del trabajo se centró en determinar el contenido de un hidrocarburo ramificado (neofitadieno en la grasa subcutánea del cerdo ibérico, y su relación con el tipo de alimentación recibida durante la etapa de cebo previa al sacrificio (en la fase final de cebo. Para ello, se estudiaron treinta y seis lotes de cerdos Ibéricos, pertenecientes a las cuatro categorías de calidad en base a la alimentación de los animales establecidas en la Norma de Calidad (Bellota, Recebo, Campo y Cebo. Estas categorías se diferencian en el grado de aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales de la dehesa (bellotas y hierba y en el nivel de sustitución de los mismos por piensos concentrados. Para el aislamiento e identificación de los hidrocarburos se utilizaron técnicas de SPE combinadas con GC-MS. Los

  19. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

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    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  20. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

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    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  1. Different transcriptional control of metabolism and extracellular matrix in visceral and subcutaneous fat of obese and rimonabant treated mice.

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    Carine Poussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SCAT adipose tissues play different roles in physiology and obesity. The molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion in obesity and following body weight reduction are poorly defined. METHODOLOGY: C57Bl/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 6 months developed low, medium, or high body weight as compared to normal chow fed mice. Mice from each groups were then treated with the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant or vehicle for 24 days to normalize their body weight. Transcriptomic data for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from each group of mice were obtained and analyzed to identify: i genes regulated by HFD irrespective of body weight, ii genes whose expression correlated with body weight, iii the biological processes activated in each tissue using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, iv the transcriptional programs affected by rimonabant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In VAT, "metabolic" genes encoding enzymes for lipid and steroid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism were down-regulated irrespective of body weight whereas "structure" genes controlling cell architecture and tissue remodeling had expression levels correlated with body weight. In SCAT, the identified "metabolic" and "structure" genes were mostly different from those identified in VAT and were regulated irrespective of body weight. GSEA indicated active adipogenesis in both tissues but a more prominent involvement of tissue stroma in VAT than in SCAT. Rimonabant treatment normalized most gene expression but further reduced oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in SCAT but not in VAT. CONCLUSION: VAT and SCAT show strikingly different gene expression programs in response to high fat diet and rimonabant treatment. Our results may lead to identification of therapeutic targets acting on specific fat depots to control obesity.

  2. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

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    Alizadeh; Halabchi; Mazaheri; Abolhasani; Tabesh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other ...

  3. An ER? agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-fei Miao; Wen Su; Yu-bing Dai; Wan-fu Wu; Bo Huang; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Hao Nguyen; Laure Maneix; You-fei Guan; Margaret Warner; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ER? influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with ...

  4. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts.

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    Sophie Cohen

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment.We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA and the Netherlands (NL, and in healthy controls (SA. Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time.In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013. In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001, with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003.Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally.

  5. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

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    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  6. Morphology alterations of skin and subcutaneous fat at NIR laser irradiation combined with delivery of encapsulated indocyanine green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of the in vivo photochemical treatment of rats with obesity using indocyanine green (ICG) dissolved in saline or dispersed in an encapsulated form at NIR laser irradiation, which was monitored by tissue sampling and histochemistry. The subcutaneous injection of the ICG solution or ICG encapsulated into polyelectrolyte microcapsules, followed by diode laser irradiation (808 nm, 8 W/cm2, 1 min), resulted in substantial differences in lipolysis of subcutaneous fat. Most of the morphology alterations occurred in response to the laser irradiation if a free-ICG solution had been injected. In such conditions, membrane disruption, stretching, and even delamination in some cases were observed for a number of cells. The encapsulated ICG aroused similar morphology changes but with weakly expressed adipocyte destruction under the laser irradiation. The Cochran Q test rendered the difference between the treatment alternatives statistically significant. By this means, laser treatment using the encapsulated form of ICG seems more promising and could be used for safe layerwise laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  7. The Appropriateness of the Length of Insulin Needles Based on Determination of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness in the Abdomen and Upper Arm in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Kang Hee Sim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLonger needle and complicated insulin injection technique such as injecting at a 45-degree angle and making skinfolds may decrease patient compliance to insulin injection therapy. In this light, shorter insulin needles have been recently developed. However, it is necessary to ascertain that such shorter needles are appropriate for Korean patients with diabetes as well.MethodsFirst, the diverse demographic and diabetic features of 156 Korean adults with diabetes were collected by a questionnaire and a device unit of body fat measurement. The skin and subcutaneous fat thicknesses of each subject were measured by Ultrasound device with a 7- to 12-MHz probe. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression.ResultsThe mean skin thickness was 2.29±0.37 mm in the abdomen and 2.00±0.34 mm in the upper arms, and the mean subcutaneous fat thickness was to 10.15±6.54 mm in the abdomen and 5.50±2.68 mm in the upper arms. Our analysis showed that the factors affecting the skin thickness of the abdomen and upper arms were gender and body mass index (BMI, whereas the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the abdomen were gender and BMI, and the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the upper arms were gender, BMI, and age. Insulin fluids may not appear to be intradermally injected into the abdomen and upper arms at any needle lengths. The risk of intramuscular injection is likely to increase with longer insulin needles and lower BMI.ConclusionIt is recommended to fully inform the patients about the lengths of needles for insulin injections. As for the recommended needle length, the findings of this study indicate that needles as short as 4 mm are sufficient to deliver insulin for Korean patients with diabetes.

  8. Clinical and morphological characteristics of skin and subcutaneous fat damage after surgical treatment and radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer (literature review

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    E. E. Topuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on late radiation injury (RI of skin and subcutaneous fat after surgical treatment and radiation therapy (RT in patients with breast cancer (BC. In Russia, the rate of radiation injuries in patients after RT exceeds 10–15 %. Combination treatment of BC (surgery and radiation carries a risk of RI of skin and subcutaneous fat which might lead to dystrophic changes in the form of prominent radiation-induced fibrosis of the irradiated area, lower the quality of life, cause suffering and even death. Most of BC patients are of working age, so the problem of local RI is of social importance, and it requires effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation allowing for favorable conditions for patients’ social adaptation. Currently, there’s no consensus on the mechanisms of development of skin and subcutaneous fat late RI, and it’s being considered from several angles. Therefore, problems of determination of individual sensitivity to ionizing radiation and further study of local RI of skin and subcutaneous fat after surgical treatment and RT in BC patients are of utmost importance.

  9. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Red blood cell trans-18:1 isomeric profile correlates with subcutaneous fat and muscle profiles in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldai, Noelia; Dugan, Michael E R; Rolland, David C; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Due to significant variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in beef it would be useful to determine if levels of trans-18:1 isomers in samples collected ante-mortem are correlated with those collected post-mortem. Beef blood (RBC), subcutaneous fat (SC) and muscle (intramuscular fat; IM) samples were collected from an experiment with dietary vitamin E with/without flaxseed (n=80) and fatty acids analyzed. Across treatments, correlation analysis of total and individual trans-18:1 isomers were performed between tissues. Correlations between SC and IM were highly significant for all individual and total trans-18:1. RBC trans-18:1 were also well correlated with other tissues except for vaccenic acid. Levels of 10t-, 12t- and 13t/14t- were amongst the best correlated between RBC and SC and IM profiles. Levels of 6t/7t/8t-, 9t-, and 15t-18:1 showed significant but lower correlation factors particularly between RBC and SC. These results confirm the possibility of utilizing blood as a non-destructive sample to predict the total and isomeric profile of trans-18:1 in beef. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer sensory evaluation, fatty acid composition, and shelf-life of ground beef with subcutaneous fat trimmings from different carcass locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Harbison, Amanda L; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-06-01

    Brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round subcutaneous fat trim were used to produce ground beef patties then evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, volatile chemical compounds and consumer sensory evaluation. Color, TBARS, consumer sensory evaluation, and cook/freezer loss did not differ (P>0.05) among carcass fat locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P=0.044) in the ground beef using brisket fat than using the chuck and flank fat. Patties made with brisket fat were higher in cis-vaccenic acid (P=0.016) and the saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P=0.018) than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P=0.013) in patties using flank and plate fat. Ground beef with brisket fat was higher (P=0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Altering the profile of non-polar, triglyceride fatty acids has no effect on sensory flavor or major volatile chemical compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chondrogenic Potency Analyses of Donor-Matched Chondrocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Infrapatellar Fat Pad, and Subcutaneous Fat

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    John Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI is a cell-based therapy that has been used clinically for over 20 years to treat cartilage injuries more efficiently in order to negate or delay the need for joint replacement surgery. In this time, very little has changed in the ACI procedure, but now many centres are considering or using alternative cell sources for cartilage repair, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this study, we have tested the chondrogenic potential of donor-matched MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM, infrapatellar fat pad (FP, and subcutaneous fat (SCF, compared to chondrocytes. We have confirmed that there is a chondrogenic potency hierarchy ranging across these cell types, with the most potent being chondrocytes, followed by FP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and lastly SCF-MSCs. We have also examined gene expression and surface marker profiles in a predictive model to identify cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential. In doing so, we have shown that Sox-9, Alk-1, and Coll X expressions, as well as immunopositivity for CD49c and CD39, have predictive value for all of the cell types tested in indicating chondrogenic potency. The findings from this study have significant clinical implications for the refinement and development of novel cell-based cartilage repair strategies.

  13. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the subcutaneous fat from iberian pigs fattened on the traditional feed: “Montanera”. effect of anatomical location and length of feeding

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    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of 200 samples of subcutaneous fat from two different anatomical locations (rump and adipose tissue covering the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian purebred pigs reared on “Montanera” were determined. Significant differences were found for the majority fatty acids and for some triacylglycerol species (PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL among the two anatomical locations, being the rump location less saturated. The activity level of the key enzyme involved in lipogenesis differed (p Biceps femoris, increases faster than that of the subcutaneous fat covering a muscle with low oxidative metabolism, as Longissimus dorsi.Se ha determinado la composición de ácidos grasos y de triglicéridos en 200 muestras de grasa subcutánea procedentes de dos localizaciones anatómicas (rabadilla y tejido adiposo que recubre el músculo Biceps femoris de cerdos ibéricos puros alimentados en “Montanera”. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para la mayoría de ácidos grasos y para algunos triglicéridos PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL entre las dos localizaciones anatómicas, siendo la rabadilla la menos saturada. El nivel de actividad de la enzima involucrada en la lipogénesis defirió significativamente (p B. femoris, aumenta más rápidamente que la de la grasa subcutánea que recubre un músculo con bajo metabolismo oxidativo, como el Longissimus dorsi.

  14. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calvo, Laura; Dervishi, Elda; Joy, Margalida; Sarto, Pilar; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Serrano, Magdalena; Ordovás, Jose M; Calvo, Jorge H

    2017-01-17

    The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitamin E that might also be involved in meat quality. In the first treatment, seven lambs were fed a basal concentrate from weaning to slaughter (CON). In the second treatment, seven lambs received basal concentrate from weaning to 4.71 ± 2.62 days and thereafter concentrate supplemented with 500 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg (VE) during the last 33.28 ± 1.07 days before slaughter. The addition of vitamin E to the diet increased the α-tocopherol muscle content and drastically diminished the lipid oxidation of meat. Gene expression profiles for treatments VE and CON were clearly separated from each other in the LT and SF. Vitamin E supplementation had a dramatic effect on subcutaneous fat gene expression, showing general up-regulation of significant genes, compared to CON treatment. In LT, vitamin E supplementation caused down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling cascade. Functional analysis of SF showed that vitamin E supplementation caused up-regulation of the lipid biosynthesis process, cholesterol, and sterol and steroid biosynthesis, and it down-regulated genes related to the stress response. Different gene expression patterns were found between the SF and LT, suggesting tissue specific responses to vitamin E supplementation. Our study enabled us to identify novel genes and metabolic pathways related to vitamin E metabolism that might be implicated in meat quality. Further exploration of these genes and vitamin E could lead to a better understanding of how vitamin E affects the oxidative process that occurs in manufactured meat products.

  15. Cloxacillin concentrations in serum, subcutaneous fat, and muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T B; Nilsson, T K; Breimer, L H; Schneede, J; Arfvidsson, B; Norgren, L

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) have poor wound healing in the ankle and foot areas. Secondary wound infections are frequent and often treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics. This study set out to investigate to what extent the unbound fraction of 4 g of cloxacillin i.v. reaches its target organ in poorly vascularized tissues, i.e., the calf and foot of patients suffering from CLI. Cloxacillin concentrations were measured by HPLC in serum and in microdialysis samples from skin and muscle of the lower part of the calf and as reference subcutaneously at the pectoral level in eight patients suffering from CLI (four males, four females, mean age 78 years, range 66-85 years) and in three healthy controls (two females, one male, mean age 67, range 66-68 years). In patients suffering from CLI, the tissue penetration of cloxacillin after a single 4 g dose was comparable to that of healthy controls, despite impaired blood circulation. The reduced blood flow in the peripheral vessels of the CLI patients presented here apparently is not the rate-limiting factor for delivery or tissue penetration of cloxacillin.

  16. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  17. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  18. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

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    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  19. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  20. Fatty acid analysis of subcutaneous fat from animals with a reliable and safe feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Indias, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Iberian pig fat characteristics depend on the type of feeding at the end of its finish-fattening period. The routine analysis to differentiate among the qualities of the feeding types given to the pigs in the fattening stage has been the use of fatty acid profiles by gas chromatography. Due to de doubts about the effectiveness of this analysis in the montanera period, the aim of this global study was to test the validity of various analytical methods to determine the feeding type of Iberian pigs, focusing on the fatty acid profile. Three montanera periods with a total of 749 samples from 38 batches have been studied; using a total of 144 dry-cured shoulder shanks, 99 of which are of known pig origin. Results showed that the determination of the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography is not a consistent method to classify the animals according to diet in the recebo category, although it provided good percentages of success for classifying the bellota and cebo categories.Las características de la grasa de cerdo Ibérico dependen del tipo de alimentación recibida en el último estadío de engorde. El análisis que se ha utilizado hasta ahora para diferenciar las diferentes calidades de alimentación de los cerdos en este período ha sido el análisis de los perfiles de ácidos grasos de la grasa por técnicas de cromatografía de gases. Debido a las dudas sobre la efectividad de esta técnica en la montanera, el objetivo del proyecto global (RTA2008-0026 fue probar la validez de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación del cerdo ibérico, centrándonos en este trabajo en el estudio de los perfiles de ácidos grasos. Para el desarrollo de este estudio se utilizaron tres campañas de montanera con un total de 749 muestras de 38 partidas, y con 144 paletas de las cuales 99 tenían una trazabilidad completa. Los resultados mostraron que la determinación de la alimentación de los cerdos ibéricos usando el an

  1. Adipose Stromal Cells from Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Facilitate Migration of Ovarian Cancer Cells via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyun; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Soochi; Haegeman, Guy; Tsang, Benjamin K; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-04-01

    Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) play an important regulatory role in cancer progression and metastasis by regulating systemic inflammation and tissue metabolism. This study examined whether visceral and subcutaneous ASCs (V- and S-ASCs) facilitate the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. CD45(-) and CD31(-) double-negative ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous and visceral fat using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Ovarian cancer cells were cultured in conditioned media (CM) obtained from ASCs to determine the cancer-promoting effects of ASCs. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Boyden chamber assay, and western blotting were performed to determine the proliferative activity, migration ability, and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, respectively. CM from ASCs enhanced the migration of the ovarian cancer line, SKOV3, via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Interestingly, in response to ASC-CM, the ascites cells derived from an ovarian cancer patient showed an increase in growth and migration. The migration of ovarian cancer cells was suppressed by blocking the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 using a neutralizing antibody against interleukin 6, small molecular inhibitors (e.g., WP1066 and TG101348), and silencing of STAT3 using siRNA. Anatomical differences between S- and V-ASCs did not affect the growth and migration of the ovarian cancer cell line and ascites cells from the ovarian cancer patients. ASCs may regulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and possibly provide a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  2. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-Calvo, Laura; Dervishi, Elda; Joy, Margalida; Sarto, Pilar; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Serrano, Magdalena; Ordov?s, Jose M.; Calvo, Jorge H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitamin E that might also be involved in meat quality. In the first treatment, seven lambs were fed a basal concentrate from weaning to slaughter (CON). In the second treatment, seven lambs received basa...

  3. Influence of genetic type, live weight at slaughter and carcass fatness on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham in the heavy pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiego, D P Lo; Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; De Leonibus, E

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to assess some quality traits of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham for Parma production, obtained from 56 "traditional" Landrace×Large White (L×LW) and 56 Cotswold commercial hybrid (CH) pigs reared in the same conditions and slaughtered at an average live weight (l.w.) of about 165 kg. Further, the relationships between lipid composition, l.w. and carcass fatness were studied. Compared to the CH, the fatty tissue of L×LW pigs showed a lower water (6.33% vs. 7.35%, P<0.01) and a higher lipid (91.18% vs. 90.18%, P<0.01) content. CH lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.53% vs. 13.75%, P<0.01), and smaller saturated fatty acids (38.20% vs. 40.26%, P<0.01) content and a higher iodine value (69.69 vs. 65.22, P<0.01). An increased slaughter weight was associated with a lower degree of lipid unsaturation, but only the lowest weight class (<160 kg) showed a significant difference compared to the other two classes (⩾160<170 and ⩾170 kg). Regardless of genetic type or l.w. class, an increase in backfat thickness is associated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a remarkable reduction in polyunsaturated content.

  4. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  5. Immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunogenic autologous tumor lysate increases murine glioblastoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmans, Jochen; Van Woensel, Matthias; Creyns, Brecht; Dejaegher, Joost; Bullens, Dominique M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2017-10-24

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor, aim to improve its disastrous consequences. On top of the standard treatment, one strategy uses T cell activation by autologous dendritic cells (DC) ex vivo loaded with tumor lysate to attack remaining cancer cells. Wondering whether 'targeting' in vivo DCs could replace these ex vivo ones, immunogenic autologous tumor lysate was used to treat glioma-inoculated mice in the absence of ex vivo loaded DCs. Potential immune mechanisms were studied in two orthotopic, immunocompetent murine glioma models. Pre-tumoral subcutaneous lysate treatment resulted in a survival benefit comparable to subcutaneous DC therapy. Focussing on the immune response, glioma T cell infiltration was observed in parallel with decreased amounts of regulatory T cells. Moreover, these results were accompanied by the presence of strong tumor-specific immunological memory, shown by complete survival of a second glioblastoma tumor, inoculated 100 days after the first one. Finally, in combination with temozolomide, survival of established glioma in mice could be increased. Our results show the potential of immunogenic autologous tumor lysate used to treat murine glioblastoma, which will be worthwhile to study in clinical trials as it has potential as a cost-efficient adjuvant treatment strategy for gliomas.

  6. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and pathways regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells: the effects of subcutaneous and visceral fat, and long-chain saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y Y; Hatzinikolas, G; Weir, J M; Janovská, A; McAinch, A J; Game, P; Meikle, P J; Wittert, G A

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine the effect of long-chain saturated and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, specifically palmitic acid (PA; 16:0), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and their interactions with factors from adipose tissue, on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. L6 myotubes were cultured with PA, DHA or LA (0.4mmol/l), with or without conditioned media from human subcutaneous (SC) and visceral (IAB) fat. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipid content, mRNA expression of key genes involved in nutrient utilization and protein expression of inhibitor protein inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were measured. PA and IAB fat reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and their combined effect was similar to that of PA alone. PA-induced insulin resistance was ameliorated by inhibiting the de novo synthesis of ceramide, IκBα degradation or mTOR activation. The PA effect was also partially reversed by DHA and completely by LA in the presence of SC fat. PA increased diacylglycerol content, which was reduced by LA and to a greater extent when either IAB or SC fat was also present. PA increased SCD1 whereas DHA and LA increased AMPKα2 mRNA. In the presence of SC or IAB fat, the combination of PA with either DHA or LA decreased SCD1 and increased AMPKα2 mRNA. PA-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle involves inflammatory (nuclear factor kappa B/mTOR) and nutrient (ceramide) pathways. PUFAs promote pathways, at a transcriptional level, that increase fat oxidation and synergize with factors from SC fat to abrogate PA-induced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  8. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  9. [Biometric ranging of the corpses destroyed at the site of a catastrophe in terms of gender, longitudinal and circumferencial dimensions, and the degree of subcutaneous fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Negasheva, M A

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative criteria for biometric ranging of destroyed corpses in terms of anatomical localization, gender, longitudinal length, trunk circumference, and the folds of subcutaneous fat are proposed. The wealth of anthropometric materials obtained in the studies of various Caucasoid populations was used to calculate the normative tables for biometric ranging of the decomposed corpses. The proposed technology excludes the subjective assessments for the purpose of such classification at the sites of catastrophes. Moreover, it promotes the accumulation of the variety of valuable information, such as the size of the collar, headwear, and footwear, clothing size and height, and portrait features, that can be used for victim identification.

  10. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  11. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  12. Different fattening systems of Iberian pigs according to the 1-alkene hydrocarbon content in the subcutaneous fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera-Alcaide, I.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-Alkene content in samples of subcutaneous fat corresponding to 755 castrated male Iberian pigs has been determined by an off-line combination of HPLC and GC method. The samples corresponded to three groups based on the type of feeding during the finish fattening period (“Montanera”, fed on acorns and pasture; “Recebo”, fed on acorns, feed and pasture; and “Cebo”, fed on feed and pasture. By using the n-alkenes as chemical descriptors, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to differentiate between the three fattening diet types for Iberian pigs. The most differentiating variables were n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 and n-C24:1. However, a clear classification of the samples was not achieved. The level of classification was improved when the data corresponding to the animals fed with the “Recebo” fattening diet was removed from the analysis. A relationship between n-C14:1, n-C16:1 and n-C18:1 levels and the slaughter period was found to be very low for the animals fed with the “Cebo” fattening diet when the animals had not been closely managed and pasture had not been included in their fattening diet.El contenido de n-alquenos de la grasa subcutánea de 755 muestras procedentes de cerdos ibéricos machos, se ha determinado mediante combinación off-line de los métodos HPLC y GC. Las muestras correspondían a tres grupos según el tipo de alimentación en el período final de engorde (“Montanera”, alimentados con bellota y pasto; “Recebo”, alimentados con bellota, pasto y pienso; y “Cebo”, alimentados con pienso y pasto. Usando los n-alquenos como descriptores químicos, se aplicaron técnicas de análisis multivariante para diferenciar entre los tres tipos de alimentación de cerdo ibérico. Se encontró que las variables más diferenciadores fueron n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 y n-C24:1. Sin embargo, el total de las muestras no están clasificadas, mejorando el nivel de clasificación cuando se eliminan

  13. Associations of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and Secretion Differ Between Men and Women: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin; Widya, Ralph; de Koning, Eelco; Jazet, Ingrid; Lamb, Hildo; le Cessie, Saskia; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Jan; Rosendaal, Frits; den Heijer, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women). With linear regression analysis, we examined associations of abdominal SAT and VAT with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women, while adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, menopausal state and hormone use in women, and models with VAT additionally for total body fat. Participants had a mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 56 (6) years, body mass index: 25.9 (3.9) kg/m2, VAT: 89 (55) cm2, and SAT: 235 (95) cm2. In the multivariate models in men, per SD of VAT the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 20% (95% CI: 14-26) higher, and per SD SAT 21% (15-27) higher. In women, per SD of VAT the HOMA-IR was 40% (29-52) higher, and per SD SAT 12% (6-19) higher. Associations with measures of insulin secretion were weaker than with insulin resistance. In men, abdominal SAT and VAT were associated with insulin resistance to a similar extent, whereas in women particularly VAT was associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Future studies need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the metabolic effects of visceral fat in women. Simple and less expensive measures that can distinct abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat are needed for an improved metabolic risk stratification.

  14. The Ratio Between Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat Assessed by Computed Tomography Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Cardiac Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Bettencourt, Nuno; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Nuno; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Gama, Vasco

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients consisted of those without known heart disease referred to cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We included all patients with available information on VAT and SAT areas and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We assessed the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure at least 1 month after cardiac CT. The final population consisted of 713 participants (61% male; mean age, 57.7±10.2 years) followed up for a median of 1.3 years. The combined endpoint occurred in 66 patients; these patients showed a higher VAT/SAT ratio (1.06±0.74 vs 0.80±0.52, P=.0001). The VAT/SAT ratio was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (HR = 1.43; 95%CI, 1.03-1.99), irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. The ratio between abdominal VAT/SAT was an independent predictor of death and coronary events, irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. This ratio is a CT-derived metric that may help to better identify patients with increased risk of death or cardiac events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Cell Fates of Induced Schwann Cells from Subcutaneous Fat Tissue and Naïve Schwann Cells in the Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. Methods. Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat’s subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat. Results. At 12 weeks after transplantation, nSCs were detected only in the restricted area of cell transplantation site but iSCs were widely distributed all over the sciatic nerve. Based on double fluorescence observations, both iSCs and naïve ones were colocalized with P0-expressing myelin sheath, outbound by laminin-expressing basal membrane, and terminated at contactin-associated protein-expressing doublets. However, some of iSCs were also differentiated to the fibrocyte/fibroblast-like cells. In the histological analysis of repaired sciatic nerves, axon density was higher in iSC-received group than in the nSCs group and normal sciatic nerve. Conclusion. iSCs induced from subcutaneous fat tissues have higher engraftment and migration capacity than nSCs.

  16. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Miljkovic, I.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Launer, L.; Garcia, M.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Posthuma, D.; Carr, J.J.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Cupples, L.A.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants

  17. Increases in seizure latencies induced by subcutaneous docosahexaenoic acid are lost at higher doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Taha, Ameer Y; Mantha, Rebecca L; Ciobanu, Flaviu A; Zeng, Qiudi H; Tchkhartichvili, George M; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2012-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which has been found to have anticonvulsant properties. Our group has previously reported in a pilot study that the acute administration of subcutaneous (s.c.) DHA increases seizure latencies in the maximal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test, however it loses its effect at higher doses. The purpose of the present experiments was (1) to confirm that DHA loses its effect at higher doses, (2) to correlate the anticonvulsant properties of DHA with DHA levels in the different lipid pools of serum and (3) to evaluate whether an anticonvulsant dose of DHA resulted in an increase in DHA release from the brain phospholipids following induction of seizure. In the first experiment, male Wistar rats were injected s.c. with 200, 300, 400 or 600 mg/kg of DHA, or 400mg/kg oleic acid (OA, isocaloric control), and seizure tested with the maximal PTZ test 1h post injection (Experiment 1). In a second experiment, subjects received either: (1) an effective dose of DHA (400mg/kg), (2) a higher, non-effective dose (600 mg/kg; based on the findings of Experiment 1), or (3) OA (400mg/kg). Subjects were sacrificed 1h post injection and blood was collected for fatty acid analysis (Experiment 2). In the third experiment, subjects were injected with either the effective dose of DHA (400mg/kg) or OA (400mg/kg). One hour post lipid injection, animals received either PTZ or saline, and animals were euthanized via microwave fixation. Brain were extracted and unesterified fatty acid concentrations were measured (Experiment 3). Experiment 1 confirmed that DHA loses its effects at higher doses in the maximal PTZ test. The 400mg/kg dose was maximally effective but effects were lost at 600 mg/kg. Experiment 2 showed that only the unesterified DHA pool in serum was statistically increased by an acute injection of s.c. DHA (P0.05). Curiously, unesterified DHA levels were similar in both the 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg dosage groups

  18. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  19. Exercise improves fat metabolism in muscle but does not increase 24-h fat oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Melanson, Edward L; Paul S MacLean; Hill, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of research into the effects of exercise on fat metabolism, there is still no clear understanding of how exercise helps to regulate fat mass. Although exercise improves the capacity of muscle to oxidize fat, our studies suggest that moderate duration exercise (≤ 1 hr) has little impact on 24-h fat oxidation.

  20. Toward reconstruction of the subcutaneous fat layer with the use of adipose-derived stromal cell-seeded collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Katharina; Jakubietz, Michael G; Jakubietz, Rafael G; Schmidt, Karsten; Muhr, Christian; Bauer-Kreisel, Petra; Blunk, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Complex injuries of the upper and lower extremities often result in scarring and subsequent adhesion formation, which may cause severe pain and distinctly reduce range of motion. In revision surgery, replacement of the missing subcutaneous tissue is desirable to prevent new adhesions, to cushion scarred tendons and nerves and to regain tissue elasticity. Therefore, the objective of this study was the in vitro evaluation of cell-seeded collagen matrices to serve as the basis for the reconstruction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer. Five commercially available acellular dermal collagen matrices were seeded with human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASC). Size and shape stability of cell-matrix constructs were assessed and cell adhesion onto the matrix surface was evaluated histologically. Adipogenic differentiation of hASC on matrices was evaluated by means of histological staining, triglyceride quantification, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis. The collagen matrix Permacol was the only cell-seeded material that exhibited excellent size and shape stability. For Permacol and Strattice, successful seeding with continuous cell layers on top of the matrices was observed. For both matrices, histological staining, triglyceride quantification and messenger RNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors indicated substantial adipogenic differentiation of hASC after long-term induction as well as after short-term induction of only 4 days. Of all matrices investigated, only Permacol exhibited adequate handling stability and the development of a thin adipose tissue layer on top of the matrix. Thus, this matrix appears promising to be used in the development of a subcutaneous cushioning layer after complex injuries involving large scar formation. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subcutaneous and segmental fat loss with and without supportive supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie high protein diet in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; Vogel, Roxanne M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Griffin, J Daniel; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone.

  2. Obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to survival of postmenopausal breast cancer patients participating in the DOM-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; de Waard van de Spek, FB; Seidell, J C; Fracheboud, J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of obesity and fat distribution on survival of breast cancer patients was studied prospectively in 241 women with a natural menopause who participated in a breast cancer screening project, the DOM-project in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Mean follow-up time was 9.1 years and endpoint of

  3. Chronic infusion of taurolithocholate into the brain increases fat oxidation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, Hannah M; Tambyrajah, Lauren L; van den Berg, Rosa; Mol, Isabel M; van den Heuvel, Jose K; Koehorst, Martijn; Groen, Albert K; Boelen, Anita; Kalsbeek, Andries; Romijn, Johannes A; Rensen, Patrick C N; Kooijman, Sander; Soeters, Maarten R

    2018-02-01

    Bile acids can function in the postprandial state as circulating signaling molecules in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism via the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR. Both receptors are present in the central nervous system, but their function in the brain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of taurolithocholate (tLCA), a strong TGR5 agonist, and GW4064, a synthetic FXR agonist, on energy metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic i.c.v. infusion of tLCA, GW4064, or vehicle on energy expenditure, body weight and composition as well as tissue specific fatty acid uptake in mice equipped with osmotic minipumps. We found that i.c.v. administration of tLCA (final concentration in cerebrospinal fluid: 1 μM) increased fat oxidation (tLCA group: 0.083 ± 0.006 vs control group: 0.036 ± 0.023 kcal/h, F = 5.46, P = 0.04) and decreased fat mass (after 9 days of tLCA infusion: 1.35 ± 0.13 vs controls: 1.96 ± 0.23 g, P = 0.03). These changes were associated with enhanced uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids by brown adipose tissue and with browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. I.c.v. administration of GW4064 (final concentration in cerebrospinal fluid: 10 μM) did not affect energy metabolism, body composition nor bile acid levels, negating a role of FXR in the central nervous system in metabolic control. In conclusion, bile acids such as tLCA may exert metabolic effects on fat metabolism via the brain. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Development and tracking of central patterns of subcutaneous fat of rural South African youth: Ellisras longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han Cg; Makgae, Phuti J

    2009-12-09

    Individuals grow and accumulate central patterns of body fat into the diseases they will suffer from as older adults. The need to elicit the development and tracking of central patterns of body fat from younger age into adolescent remains to be explored. Skinfolds measurements were done according to the standard procedures in the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986) were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. The development of triceps, biceps, suprailiac and suscapular skinfolds of Ellisras girls were significantly higher (p < 0.001 to 0.05) compared to boys over time. The tracking coefficient between the initial measurements and the subsequent measurements was higher for skinfolds (r about 0.63) than for skinfold ratios (r about 0.43). Longitudinal tracking coefficient measuring the association between the initial measurements and all the follow up measurements simultaneously was about 0.57. The accumulation of central patterns of body fat of Ellisras children starts in childhood and adolescence spurt with Ellisras girls acquiring more than boys over time. High significant tracking of skinfold thickness while the skinfold ratios show low and insignificant tracking over time. The magnitude of central patterns of body fat accumulation over time requires further investigation to clarify their association with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  5. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  6. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  7. Supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol maintain the oxidative stability of n-3 long-chain fatty acid enriched subcutaneous fat and frozen loin, but not of dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Claeys, Erik; Raes, Katleen; van Mullem, Danny; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-10-01

    Meat products enriched with n-3 fatty acids are more prone to oxidation. The aim was to investigate whether supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol can enhance the colour and lipid oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acids enriched dry fermented sausages, frozen loins and subcutaneous fat. Pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 18 g kg(-1) fish oil and 50, 150 or 300 mg kg(-1) α-tocopheryl acetate. The control group received 12 g kg(-1) soy oil and 150 mg kg(-1) α-tocopheryl acetate. α-Tocopherol levels of the frozen loin, dry fermented sausage and subcutaneous fat were elevated as a result of the dietary α-tocopherol supplementation. Lipid oxidation occurred to the same extend in the n-3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins when compared to the control group. In the subcutaneous fat enriched with n-3 fatty acids reduced lipid oxidation was found when comparing 50 mg kg(-1) versus 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) . However, in the dry fermented sausages no such effect was observed and higher TBARS values were found in the n-3 fatty acid enriched sausages compared to the control group. Colour parameters of the loin and subcutaneous fat were not affected, whereas some significant differences in the dry fermented sausages were found. The colour stability of the frozen loins was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supra-nutritional levels of α-tocopherol maintain the oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acid enriched frozen loins and subcutaneous fat, but not of dry fermented sausages. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Pprotein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  9. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  10. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  11. Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and obese humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN and obese (OB adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF diet. Ten LN (BMI = 22.5±2.5 kg/m², age = 30±8 yrs and nine OB (BMI = 35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy and HF (50% of energy diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01 during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01 and OB (0.85±0.01. The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4 and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1-α (PGC1-α significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.

  12. Increased survival of human free fat grafts with varying densities of human adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Feng; Li, Jie; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Long, Jie; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    The high absorption rate of transplanted fat has limited the application of autogenous fat grafts in the clinical setting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on fat regeneration by investigating the impact of PRP and conditioned medium on the biological characteristics of ASCs. Fat grafts were prepared with ASCs at densities of 107 /ml, 106 /ml, 105 /ml, 104 /ml and 0/ml with and without PRP and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Liquid overflow method, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the fat grafts. The residual fat volume of the 105 /ml ASC + PRP group was significantly higher than that of other treatment conditions after 90 days. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that in 105 /ml ASCs-treated grafts normal adipocyte area and capillary formation were increased dramatically compared with other treatment conditions. It is concluded that fat grafts consisting of PRP and 105 /ml ASCs constitute an ideal transplant strategy, which may result in decreased absorption and accelerated fat regeneration. This simple and reliable method could provide a valuable and needed tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  14. SMAS Fusion Zones Determine the Subfascial and Subcutaneous Anatomy of the Human Face: Fascial Spaces, Fat Compartments, and Models of Facial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessa, Joel E

    2016-05-01

    Fusion zones between superficial fascia and deep fascia have been recognized by surgical anatomists since 1938. Anatomical dissection performed by the author suggested that additional superficial fascia fusion zones exist. A study was performed to evaluate and define fusion zones between the superficial and the deep fascia. Dissection of fresh and minimally preserved cadavers was performed using the accepted technique for defining anatomic spaces: dye injection combined with cross-sectional anatomical dissection. This study identified bilaminar membranes traveling from deep to superficial fascia at consistent locations in all specimens. These membranes exist as fusion zones between superficial and deep fascia, and are referred to as SMAS fusion zones. Nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics transition between the deep and superficial fascia of the face by traveling along and within these membranes, a construct that provides stability and minimizes shear. Bilaminar subfascial membranes continue into the subcutaneous tissues as unilaminar septa on their way to skin. This three-dimensional lattice of interlocking horizontal, vertical, and oblique membranes defines the anatomic boundaries of the fascial spaces as well as the deep and superficial fat compartments of the face. This information facilitates accurate volume augmentation; helps to avoid facial nerve injury; and provides the conceptual basis for understanding jowls as a manifestation of enlargement of the buccal space that occurs with age. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  16. Deposição diária e sazonal de gordura subcutânea em Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Daily and seasonal deposition of subcutaneous fat in Phacellodomus rufifrons, a Neotropical ovenbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Goulart

    2007-01-01

    feeding is possible. Allied to this fact, there is a seasonal increase of the lipid stores as the winter gets closer, which enable the bird to survive through this season. Data on tropical birds are however rare. This study concerns the knowledge of the fat dynamics of the Rufous-fronted Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821, an ovenbird (Passeriformes, Furnariidae endemic of the Neotropical region, on a seasonal tropical environment, the Southeastern Brazilian Cerrado, a savannah-like ecosystem. The fieldwork was carried out between August 2001 and July 2002 at Serra do Cipó National Park, municipality of Jaboticatubas in the state of Minas Gerais. The data on subcutaneous fat was visually scored on the captured individuals. As the furcular subcutaneous amount of lipid varied, it was established four categories for this parameter. We found out that there was a significant increase of the fat levels along the day, as in the temperate region species, but there was not a significant seasonal variation. Also the mean body weight did not change throughout the year or throughout the day. Our results show that the daily variation in the Cerrado region can act as a stressing situation that could lead to overnight physiological adaptation. On the other hand, seasonal variation could be balanced by the habit of sleeping all year long inside the nest, a behavior relatively rare for passerine birds.

  17. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Sun

    Full Text Available Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  18. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave...

  19. Fatness-Associated FTO Gene Variant Increases Mortality Independent of Fatness - in Cohorts of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Kring, SI; Berentzen, TL

    2009-01-01

    men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI>or=31.0 kg/m(2)) and a random 1% sample of the others were identified. In 1992-94, at an average age of 46 years, 752 of the obese and 876 of the others were re-examined, including measurements of weight, fat mass, height...

  20. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  1. Influence on chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in co-culture with donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Sansone, V; Preis, F W Baruffaldi; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) has been proposed for autologous cartilage cell-based therapies, to overcome the issues associated to limited availability of articular chondrocytes (ACs). To evaluate the potentiality of a co-culture approach in aged osteoarthritic patients, MSCs from infrapatellar fat pad (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs) were co-cultured with donor-matched osteoarthritic, expanded and cryopreserved, ACs in a 75%/25% ratio. Co-cultures were prepared also from nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to evaluate their possible use as an alternative to ACs. Pellets were differentiated for 14 days, using mono-cultures of each cell type as reference. Chondrogenic genes SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN were less expressed in co-cultures compared to ACs and NCs. Total GAGs content in co-cultures did not differ significantly from values predicted as the sum of each cell type contribution corrected for the co-culture ratio, as confirmed by histology. No significant differences were observed for GAGs/DNA in mono-cultures, demonstrating a reduced chondrogenic potential of ACs and NCs. In conclusion, a small percentage of expanded and cryopreserved ACs and NCs did not lead to IFP-MSCs and ASCs chondro-induction. Our results suggest that chondrogenic potential and origin of chondrocytes may play a relevant role in the outcome of co-cultures, indicating a need for further investigations to demonstrate their clinical relevance in the treatment of aged osteoarthritic patients.

  2. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involved......) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was evaluated in biopsies from SCAAT. Lipolysis in SCAAT was substantially higher in IUGR than in CON subjects despite markedly lower mRNA expression of lipases. Blood flow was higher in IUGR compared with CON in both SCAAT and SCFAT...

  3. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  4. Pioglitazone compared with metformin increases pericardial fat volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, J T; Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R W; Rijzewijk, L J; Menting, L J; Diamant, M; Bax, J J; de Roos, A; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists are involved in fat cell differentiation. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone vs. metformin on pericardial fat volume in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the relationship between pericardial fat volume, other fat compartments, and myocardial function at baseline and after treatment. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, intervention study. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Patients included 78 men with T2DM (aged 56.5 +/- 0.6 yr; glycosylated hemoglobin 7.1 +/- 0.1%) without structural heart disease. Patients were randomly assigned to pioglitazone (30 mg/d) or metformin (2000 mg/d) and matching placebo during 24 wk. Pericardial and abdominal fat volumes and myocardial left ventricular function were measured by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic and myocardial triglyceride content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Pioglitazone increased pericardial fat volume [30.5 +/- 1.7 ml (baseline) vs. 33.1 +/- 1.8 ml], whereas metformin did not affect pericardial fat volume (29.2 +/- 1.5 ml vs. 29.6 +/- 1.6 ml, between groups P = 0.02). After correction for body mass index and age, only visceral fat volume correlated with pericardial fat volume at baseline (r = 0.55, P pioglitazone was not associated with a decrease in left ventricular diastolic function. In T2DM patients, pioglitazone increases pericardial fat volume. This increase in pericardial fat volume did not negatively affect myocardial function after 24 wk. These observations question the notion of an inverse causal relationship between pericardial fat volume and myocardial function.

  5. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M

    2001-01-01

    the relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...... expression of GHR and GHRtr in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined and expressed relative to the expression of beta-actin. Gene expression of GHR in abdominal sc adipose tissue was not altered, whereas the expression of GHRtr increased significantly. In skeletal muscle inverse changes were seen...

  6. No increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes during 48 h of subcutaneous glucagon-like-peptide-1 administration in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Soendergaard, Liselotte; Rungby, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GLP-1(7-36 amide) or placebo was continuously infused subcutaneously and titrated to a dose of 4.8 pmol/kg per min. RESULTS: Two subjects in the GLP-1 group and one subject in the placebo group were withdrawn due to protocol specified plasma glucose (PG) ... of insulin and C-peptide were higher with GLP-1 infusion. However, PG was similar during GLP-1 vs. placebo infusions. GLP-1 infusion increased norepinephrine and cortisol levels during OGTT. CONCLUSION: The counter-regulatory response during 48 h of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion was preserved despite long...

  7. Fatness-associated FTO gene variant increases mortality independent of fatness--in cohorts of Danish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zimmermann

    Full Text Available The A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs9939609, in the FTO gene is associated with increased fatness. We hypothesized that the SNP is associated with morbidity and mortality through the effect on fatness.In a population of 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI>or=31.0 kg/m(2 and a random 1% sample of the others were identified. In 1992-94, at an average age of 46 years, 752 of the obese and 876 of the others were re-examined, including measurements of weight, fat mass, height, and waist circumference, and DNA sampling. Hospitalization and death occurring during the following median 13.5 years were ascertained by linkage to national registers. Cox regression analyses were performed using a dominant effect model (TT vs. TA or AA. In total 205 men died. Mortality was 42% lower (p = 0.001 with the TT genotype than in A-allele carriers. This phenomenon was observed in both the obese and the randomly sampled cohort when analysed separately. Adjustment for fatness covariates attenuated the association only slightly. Exploratory analyses of cause-specific mortality and morbidity prior to death suggested a general protective effect of the TT genotype, whereas there were only weak associations with disease incidence, except for diseases of the nervous system.Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar to smoking, but without a particular underlying disease pattern barring an increase in the risk of diseases of the nervous system.

  8. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  9. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  10. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  11. Trans fat feeding results in higher serum alanine aminotransferase and increased insulin resistance compared with a standard murine high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Sean W P; Elias, Marc; Moseley, Richard H; Green, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Diets high in trans fats are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. The influence of these toxic fatty acids on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has not been significantly examined. Therefore, we sought to compare the effect of a murine diet high in trans fat to a standard high-fat diet that is devoid of trans fats but high in saturated fats. Male AKR/J mice were fed a calorically identical trans fat diet or standard high-fat diet for 10 days, 4 wk, and 8 wk. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid, insulin, and leptin levels were determined and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Additionally, hepatic triglyceride content and gene expression of several proinflammatory genes were assessed. By 8 wk, trans fat-fed mice exhibited higher ALT values than standard high-fat-fed mice (126 +/- 16 vs. 71 +/- 7 U/l, P Trans fat-fed mice also had increased insulin resistance compared with high-fat-fed mice at 4 and 8 wk with significantly higher insulin levels and lower QUICKI values. Additionally, hepatic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression was 3.6-fold higher at 4 wk (P trans fat-fed mice compared with standard high-fat-fed mice. Trans fat feeding results in higher ALT values, increased insulin resistance, and elevated IL-1beta levels compared with standard high-fat feeding.

  12. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J C; Collette, H J; de Waard van de Spek, FB

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up

  13. Obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in postmenopausal women participating in the Diagnostic Investigation of Mammary Cancer Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J C; Collette, H J; de Waard van de Spek, FB

    1992-01-01

    Associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer were studied in 16,355 postmenopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49 to 68 years, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the Diagnostic Investigation of Mammary Cancer [DOM] project in Utrecht, The

  14. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  15. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  16. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Mathôt, Ron A A; Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), S-warfarin (CYP2C9) and caffeine (CYP1A2). In 9 healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetics of the five drugs were assessed after an overnight fast at two separate occasions: after a regular diet and after 3 days of a hypercaloric high fat diet (i.e. regular diet supplemented with 500 mL cream [1715 kcal, 35% fat]). Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SEM]) were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. The high fat diet increased exposure to midazolam by 19% from 24.7 (2.6) to 29.5 (3.6) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.04) and exposure to omeprazole by 31% from 726 (104) to 951 (168) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.05). Exposure to metoprolol, caffeine and S-warfarin was not affected by the high fat diet. A short-term hypercaloric high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole, possibly reflecting modulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

  17. Insulin increases body fat despite control of food intake and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbay, N; Bracco, E F; Geliebter, A; Stewart, I M; Hashim, S A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of experimentally induced hyperinsulinemia on body composition was studied in rats with food intakes precisely controlled by intragastric feeding and physical activity manipulated by sedation with chlordiazepoxide (CDP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 38) were fitted surgically with gastrostomy tubes. After 8 days the animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received daily injections of protamine-zinc insulin; group 2 received daily injections of saline; group 3 received the same insulin doses as group 1 plus daily administration of CDP mixed with the diet; group 4 received daily injections of saline plus CDP in the diet. All groups were tubefed identical amounts of semiliquid diet via gastrostomy. Physical activity was measured by electronic monitor. After 4 wk the rats were killed. The insulin-treated groups (1 and 3) had significantly larger fat depots and larger mean fat cell size than the noninsulin-treated groups (2 and 4). This increase in fat occurred concurrently with a decrease in carcass protein and water. Physical activity, as measured, was unaltered by insulin but was significantly reduced by CDP. Treatment with CDP only increased the dorsal fat depot and liver weight but had no significant effect on total dissected fat depots and had a reductive effect on carcass protein. In conclusion insulin treatment enhanced the efficiency of conversion of energy intake into fat energy stores.

  18. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  19. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  20. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α are induced by solar radiation in vitro and may be involved in facial subcutaneous fat loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Pappas, Apostolos; Zhang, Li; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Cavender, Druie

    2013-07-01

    The loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat is associated with aging. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), interleukin-11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are known to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes. This study investigated the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in solar-radiation-induced facial fat loss. Cultured fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and skin equivalents were exposed to various doses of radiation from a solar simulator. Inflammatory cytokines' mRNA production and protein secretion were examined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. In some experiments, epidermal-dermal equivalents were pretreated topically with a broad-spectrum sunscreen prior to solar simulated radiation (SSR). Human facial preadipocytes treated with recombinant IL-11 or with conditioned media from solar-irradiated equivalents were evaluated for the level of adipocyte differentiation by image analyses, Oil red O staining, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α protein secretion were induced from epidermal-dermal equivalents by exposure to SSR. A sunscreen prevented SSR-induced inflammatory cytokines production from such equivalents. Exposure of facial preadipocytes to conditioned medium from solar-irradiated epidermal-dermal equivalents inhibited their differentiation into mature adipocytes. Consequently, conditioned medium from sunscreen-pretreated, solar-irradiated equivalents did not inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes. A cocktail of neutralizing antibodies to IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α significantly reduced the SSR-induced inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation. These results support the hypothesis that SSR-induced inflammatory cytokine may be involved in the photoaging-induced loss of facial subcutaneous fat. Inhibition of this process, e.g. by sunscreens, might slow or prevent photoaging-induced changes in facial contouring. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative

  1. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Ton, So Ha; Phang, Sonia Chew Wen; Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets) and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult) on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively) Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal), and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water) diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group). Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  2. A comparative assessment of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat as a potential cell source for knee osteoarthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Pan, Zhang-Yi; Zou, Ying; He, Yi; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Yin, Feng

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is a novel potential therapy for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the efficacy of ASCs from different regions of the body remains unknown. This study investigated whether ASCs from subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue provide the same improvement of OA. Mouse and human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were excised for ASC isolation. Morphology, proliferation, surface markers and adipocyte differentiation of subcutaneous ASCs (S-ASCs) and visceral ASCs (V-ASCs) were analysed. A surgically induced rat model of OA was established, and 4 weeks after the operation, S-ASCs, V-ASCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, control) were injected into the articular cavity. Histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses were performed 6 weeks after ASC injection. The ability of ASCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed by in vitro chondrogenesis, and the immunosuppressive activity of ASCs was evaluated by co-culturing with macrophages. The proliferation of V-ASCs was significantly greater than that of S-ASCs, but S-ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V-ASCs. In addition, the infracted cartilage treated with S-ASCs showed significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V-ASCs. Moreover, S-ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an effective cell source for cell therapy of OA as it promotes stem cell differentiation into chondrocytes and inhibits immunological reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    .... Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects...

  4. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J. C.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up period of 15 years (mean follow-up time 12.5 years) 260 women developed breast cancer. Fat distribution, assessed by contrasting groups of subcapsular and triceps skinfold thickness, was found to be unrelated to breast cancer incidence. No significant relationship between body fat, measured either by weight, Quetelet's index, triceps skinfold or subscapular skinfold, and breast cancer risk was found when analysed in quartiles. However, women in the upper decile compared with the lower decile of the distribution of Quetelet's index were found to have a 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1-3.3) higher risk for breast cancer. These results seemed to be in contrast with the significant positive association between fatness, analysed in quartiles, and breast cancer observed in a cross-sectional study, based on mammographic screening, carried out previously in the same population. Although the differences between the present, prospective, study and our cross-sectional study may be due to chance it may be that there are differences between characteristics of breast cancer detected at screening and subsequently, which influence the associations between measures of fatness and risk of breast cancer. PMID:8297734

  5. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-12-01

    As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  6. Efficacy of increasing physical activity to reduce children's visceral fat: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Grow, H Mollie; Stark, Lori J; Seeley, Randy J; Roehrig, Helmut

    2011-04-01

    To examine whether differentially targeting physical activity within the context of pilot family-based pediatric weight control treatment results in differential change in abdominal fat, particularly visceral fat. Twenty-nine overweight children (>85(th) body mass index [BMI] percentile) and at least one participating parent were randomly assigned to one of two family-based behavioral weight management conditions that either targeted 1) primarily dietary change (STANDARD; n = 15) or 2) dietary plus physical activity change (ADDED; n = 14). Differences at post-treatment in overall child weight status (e.g., BMI), whole-body composition (measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry), and abdominal fat (measured by waist circumference and magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses, as were post-treatment parent BMI and waist circumference. Child and parent physical activity and dietary behavior changes were also evaluated. Results. At post-treatment, overall child weight status, whole-body composition, and child dietary measures did not differ by condition. Children in the ADDED condition tended to have higher physical activity and lower visceral abdominal fat at post-treatment relative to children in the STANDARD condition. Increasing physical activity may be important to optimize reductions in abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, among overweight children provided with family-based behavioral weight management treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00359957.

  7. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  8. Acute p-synephrine ingestion increases fat oxidation rate during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-08-01

    p-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used in dietary supplements for weight management because of its purported thermogenic effects. However, there is a lack of scientific information about its effectiveness to increase fat metabolism during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of an acute ingestion of p-synephrine on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. In a double-blind, randomized and counterbalanced experimental design, 18 healthy subjects performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg kg(-1) ) or after the ingestion of a placebo (cellulose). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry at rest and during a cycle ergometer ramp exercise test (increases of 25 W every 3 min) until volitional fatigue. In comparison with the placebo, the ingestion of p-synephrine did not change energy consumption (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 kcal min(-1) ; P = 0.69) or fat oxidation rate at rest (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.04 g min(-1) ; P = 0.15). However, the intake of p-synephrine moved the fat oxidation-exercise intensity curve upwards during the incremental exercise (P exercise although it did not affect the intensity at which maximal fat oxidation was achieved (55.8 ± 7.7 vs. 56.7 ± 8.2% VO2peak ; P = 0.51). The acute ingestion of p-synephrine increased the fat oxidation rate while it reduced the carbohydrate oxidation rate when exercising at low-to-moderate exercise intensities. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman

    2003-01-01

    The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed suppl...

  10. Deltamethrin increases the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiyi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsiu; Yue, Yiren; Sun, Quancai; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2017-03-01

    Research has shown that permethrin, a Type-I pyrethroid, increases triglyceride (fat) accumulation in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about any similar effect of deltamethrin, a Type-II pyrethroid, which produces a distinct syndrome of poisoning in mammals compared with permethrin. This study was therefore aimed to explore the role of deltamethrin on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans. Deltamethrin (10 μM) significantly increased the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and wild type C. elegans compared to respective controls. Deltamethrin decreased the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (pAMPKα) over AMPKα and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) over ACC, while it increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, deltamethrin potentiated fat accumulation in C. elegans without affecting growth or pharyngeal pumping rate. Moreover, deltamethrin significantly reduced the total progeny number and locomotive activities in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Deltamethrin increased fat accumulation via aak-2 (an ortholog of AMPKα) and nhr-49 (a homolog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and also downstream target of aak-2) mediated mechanisms. The current work is the first report of the effects of deltamethrin on increased fat storage by 3T3- L1 adipocytes and C. elegans via aak-2 (AMPKα ortholog)-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Role of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burden of obesity has increased significantly in the United States over last few decades. Association of obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic problems is well established. Traditionally, adipose tissue in visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in development of insulin resistance. However, growing body of the literature has suggested that adipose tissue in subcutaneous fat depot, not only due to larger volume but also due to inherent functional characteristics, can have significant impact on development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal versus gluteofemoral depots. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger vicious cycle of inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue and subsequent ectopic fat deposition. It is important to shift focus from fat content to functional heterogeneity in adipose tissue depots to better understand the relative role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolic complications of obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice at any level of increased adiposity. Future pharmaceutical interventions aimed at improving adipose tissue function in various subcutaneous depots have potential to help maintain adequate insulin sensitivity and reduce risk for development of insulin resistance complications.

  13. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Increased Epicardial Fat Volume Is Independently Associated with the Presence and Severity of Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Benjamin D; Stojanovska, Jadranka; Brown, Richard K J; Attili, Anil K; Jackson, Eizabeth A; Ognenovski, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to determine if intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with the presence and severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc), defined by the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A total of 265 patients were included in the study, 202 of whom had SSc (134 had SSc with no PAH and 68 had SSc-associated PAH) and who underwent high-resolution computed tomography, and 63 controls who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography with calcium scoring. Intrathoracic and epicardial (EFV) fat volumes were quantified by manual tracing of the mediastinum and the pericardium, the difference of which represents the extrapericardial fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and the presence and severity of SSc, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and interstitial lung disease, were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Of the 202 patients with SSc, the mean age was 55 years (ranged from 20 to 86), and 79% (159 of 202) were women. Adjusted EFV (odds ratio [OR]: 1.065; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.046-1.084, P = fat volume (OR: 1.028, 95% CI: 1.017-1.038, P = fat volume (OR: 1.033, 95% CI: 1.023-1.043, P = 0.001) were associated with the presence of SSc. Only EFV was associated with SSc severity (adjusted OR: 1.010, 95% CI: 1.003-1.018, P = 0.007). Increased epicardial fat volume is associated with the presence and severity of SSc, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and interstitial lung disease. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High fat food increases gastric residence and thus thresholds for objective symptoms in allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alan; Knulst, Andre; Le, Thuy-My; Bures, Peter; Salt, Louise; Mills, E N Clare; Malcolm, Paul; Andreou, Adrian; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2012-11-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that high fat foods such as chocolate induce reduced rates of gastric emptying in comparison to lower fat foods and that this can impact uptake of allergens and subsequent reactions in allergic patients. In four volunteers, magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure gastric emptying of a series of nine doses of either dark chocolate bars containing 35% fat or a chocolate dessert containing 8% fat. Analysis showed a mean rate of decrease in gastric volume with an 8% fat dessert was 0.33 ± 0.09 mL/min compared to an average rate of increase in gastric volume of 0.09 ± 0.10 mL/min for the chocolate bars. In parallel, eight allergic patients were challenged for either peanut or hazelnut in the same two matrices and doses using a standardized protocol. A statistical analysis of the objective symptoms in the allergic patients showed that the chocolate bars gave a significantly higher threshold for objective symptoms than the dessert. Chocolate bars induced lower gastric emptying rates and in food challenges with allergic patients gave a higher threshold of elicitation for objective reactions than a dessert. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20......% or 50% of energy). The 2 diets were served on 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 8.00 h, 16.30 h and 19.30 h, and analysed for triglycerides, FVII coagulant activity using human (FVII:C) or bovine thromboplastin (FVII:Bt), and FVII amidolytic activity (FVII:Am). The ratio FVII...

  17. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  18. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin......, glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ....05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P plasma concentration of vitC was significantly positively correlated with plasma glucose and insulin concentrations...

  19. Does increased glucose exposure lead to increased body fat and reduced lean body mass in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S; Davenport, A

    2014-11-01

    Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6 g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3 kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3 kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term.

  20. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed...... supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver......, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver....

  1. Programming Merino lambs by early feed restriction reduces growth rates and increases fat accretion during the fattening period with no effect on meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alba; Giráldez, F Javier; Mateo, Javier; Frutos, Javier; Andrés, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of early feed restriction on carcass and meat quality traits in Merino lambs. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4.81±0.256kg) were assigned to two groups (12 animals in each group). The first group (ad libitum, ADL) was kept permanently with the dams. The second group (restricted, RES) was milk-restricted. After weaning (15kg), daily feed intake of all lambs was identical, but a lower gain: feed ratio was recorded in the RES group (0.320 vs. 0.261; P<0.001). After animals were slaughtered (27kg), lower ultimate pH and reduced yellow colouration of subcutaneous fat was recorded in meat from the RES lambs when compared to ADL group, whereas a trend towards a significant increment of intramuscular fat content and no effect on meat quality traits was observed in the RES lambs. Early feed restriction may be useful to increase intramuscular fat accretion in Merino lambs during the fattening period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary linseed oil increases trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in caprine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Cívico, A; de la Fuente, M A; Juárez, M; Sánchez, N Núñez; Blanco, F Peña; Marín, A L Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment). Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets with the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (33/67) and 2 starch-to-nonforage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ratios (0.8 and 3.1), which were supplemented or not with 30 g/d of linseed oil for 25 d in a crossover design. Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 contents in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography fitted with an extremely polar capillary column (SLB-IL111). Levels of trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in individual milk fat samples ranged from 0 to 0.2% of total fatty acids, and its content in milk fat increased 8 fold due to linseed oil supplementation, substantiating the predominant role of α-linolenic acid in its formation. The trans-10,cis-15 18:2 levels in milk fat were similar in both experiments, despite the fact starch-to-nonforage NDF ratio of their respective basal diets greatly differed. In conclusion, trans-10,cis-15 18:2 was clearly related to linseed oil supplementation, and its increase in milk fat was comparable when the basal diets were rich in either nonforage NDF or starch. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disproportionately increased 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in young men with low birth weight during a high-fat overfeeding challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    men were included in a 5-day HFO (60 E % fat, +50 % calories) study. The 24-h EE, respiratory quotient and substrate oxidation rates were assessed by indirect calorimetry using respiratory chambers. RESULTS: After adjusting for body composition, the LBW subjects displayed increased nighttime EE (P = 0......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased...... nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. METHODS: Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young...

  4. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  5. Mice chronically fed high-fat diet have increased mortality and disturbed immune response in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Strandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a potentially deadly disease that often is caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As there are few effective therapies for sepsis, increased basic knowledge about factors predisposing is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of Western diet on mortality induced by intravenous S. aureus inoculation and the immune functions before and after bacterial inoculation. Here we show that C57Bl/6 mice on high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks, like genetically obese Ob/Ob mice on low-fat diet (LFD, have increased mortality during S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with LFD-fed C57Bl/6 controls. Bacterial load in the kidneys 5-7 days after inoculation was increased 10-fold in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. At that time, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels and fat mRNA expression of the immune suppressing cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-10 compared with LFD-fed mice. In addition, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1beta. Also, HFD-fed mice with and without infection had increased levels of macrophages in fat. The proportion and function of phagocytosing granulocytes, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by peritoneal lavage cells were decreased in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that chronic HFD disturb several innate immune functions in mice, and impairs the ability to clear S. aureus and survive sepsis.

  6. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  7. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Exercise before breakfast increases 24-h fat oxidation in female subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    Full Text Available Exercise performed in a postprandial state does not increase 24-h fat oxidation of male and female subjects. Conversely, it has been shown in male subjects that exercise performed in a postabsorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation compared with that in sedentary control and that with exercise trials performed after breakfast, lunch, or dinner. There is a paucity of study evaluating the effect of exercise performed in a postabsorptive state in female subjects.Nine young female subjects participated in indirect calorimetry measurement over 24-h using a room-size metabolic chamber in which subjects remained sedentary or performed 60 min exercise before breakfast at 50% of [Formula: see text]. Exercise was accompanied by an increase in energy intake to ensure that subjects were in a similar state of energy balance over 24 h for the two trials.Compared with the sedentary condition, exercise performed before breakfast increased 24-h fat oxidation (519 ± 37 vs. 400 ± 41 kcal/day. Time courses of relative energy balance differed between trials with transient negative energy balance observed before breakfast. The lowest values of relative energy balance observed during the 24-h calorimetry, i.e., transient energy deficit, were greater in exercise trials than in sedentary trials. The transient deficit in carbohydrate balance was also observed before breakfast, and magnitude of the deficit was greater in exercise trial compared to that of sedentary trial.Under energy-balanced conditions, exercise performed in a post-absorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation in female subjects. The effect of exercise performed before breakfast can be attributed to nutritional state: a transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate at the end of exercise.

  9. Increased fat mass is associated with increased bone size but reduced volumetric density in pre pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Z A; Harvey, N C; Kim, M; Ntani, G; Robinson, S M; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with an increased risk of fracture in both adults and children. It has been suggested that, despite greater bone size, obese individuals may have reduced true volumetric density; however this is difficult to assess using two dimensional techniques such as DXA. We evaluated the relationship between fat mass, and bone size and density, in a population cohort of children in whom DXA and pQCT measurements had been acquired. We recruited 530 children at 6 years old from the Southampton Women's Survey. The children underwent measurement of bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine and hip, together with body composition, by DXA (Hologic Discovery, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). In addition 132 of these children underwent pQCT measurements at the tibia (Stratec XCT2000, Stratec Biomedical Systems, Birkenfeld, Germany). Significant positive associations were observed between total fat mass and both bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the whole body minus head, lumbar spine and hip sites (all pfat mass (adjusted for lean mass) was negatively associated with both trabecular and cortical density (β=-14.6 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.003; β=-7.7 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.02 respectively). These results suggest that fat mass is negatively associated with volumetric bone density at 6 years old, independent of lean mass, despite positive associations with bone size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlated responses to selection for increased intramuscular fat in a Chinese quality chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J; Zhang, Y

    2007-11-01

    The correlated response in traits encompassing meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, egg production, and egg quality traits arising from selection for increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content of breast muscle were investigated in the fifth generation of a selection experiment including a line (F) selected for increased IMF and a randombred control line (C). The results showed that breast muscle IMF content in the F line (4.25%) was significantly higher (P IMF content in thigh muscle (20.03 vs. 19.41%, P 0.05) in the following traits: drip loss, meat color (L*, a*, and b*), carcass percentage, thigh muscle weight, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, first egg weight, egg number (until 43 wk), Haugh units, shell thickness, and egg shape. The results of the present study demonstrated that selection for breast muscle IMF leads to desirable changes in meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, and egg production traits.

  11. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  12. Ultrastructural and morphometric study on fat cells of the so called subcutaneous "fascia areolaris" and "fascia lamelaris" in the human inguinal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C A; de Souza, R R; Fujimura, I; de Araujo, M V; Takakura, C F

    1984-01-01

    The fat cells of the so called fascia areolaris and fascia lamelaris (Velpeau 1834; Sterzi 1910) of men and women (aged from 20 to 35 years) were ultrastructural and morphometrically (cell volume) studied. No noteworthy submicroscopic difference was observed between fascias. The cell volumes obtained from planimetric measures showed the following values: 3.770 X 10(5) microns and 2.497 X 10(5) microns in the fascia aerolaris and lamelaris of men, respectively. For the women the values were: 7.222 X 10(5) microns and 5.025 X 10(5) microns (Fig. 3). The analysis of variance shows significant differences between the sexes and between fascia areolaris and lamelaris. The difference between the fascias supports the Sterzi's (1910) description on the tela subcutanea as being formed by those two distinct layers.

  13. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  14. Preferential impact of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A deficiency on visceral fat in mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Harstad, Sara L; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat, more so than subcutaneous fat, is strongly associated with severe metabolic complications. However, the factors regulating depot-specific adipogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we show differential expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a secreted regulator of local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action, in adipose tissue of mice. PAPP-A mRNA expression was fivefold higher in visceral (mesenteric) fat compared with subcutaneous (inguinal, subscapular), perirenal, and brown fat of mice. To investigate the possible role of depot-specific PAPP-A expression in fat accumulation, wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 20 wk. Adipocyte size increased in subcutaneous and perirenal depots similarly in WT and PAPP-A KO mice. However, fat cell size and in vivo lipid uptake were significantly reduced in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. After 20 wk on HFD, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream signaling intermediate of IGF-I and insulin receptor activation, was significantly decreased by 50% in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in WT mice, but was significantly increased threefold in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in PAPP-A KO mice. This appeared to be because of enhanced insulin-stimulated signaling in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO mice. These data establish fat depot-specific expression of PAPP-A and indicate preferential impact of PAPP-A deficiency on visceral fat in the mouse that is associated with enhanced insulin receptor signaling. Thus, PAPP-A may be a potential target for treatment and/or prevention strategies for visceral obesity and related morbidities.

  15. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis:The aim of this study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre-type distribution and substrate oxidation during exercise in arm and leg muscles in male postobese (PO), obese (O) and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control (C) subjects. The hypothesis of the study...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...

  16. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON, coconut oil (CO and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA. We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters - high density lipoprotein (HDL, triacylglycerol (TAG, TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose -, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  17. Circulating SIRT1 Increases After Intragastric Balloon Fat Loss in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Fiore, Daniela; Persichetti, Agnese; Basciani, Sabrina; Lubrano, Carla; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Genco, Alfredo; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Gnessi, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs), ubiquitous deacetylases, are main regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. SIRT1 has a positive impact on obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, and other metabolic disorders. Lean subjects have higher expression of SIRT1 in the adipose tissue compared to obese. However, it is not known whether weight loss associates with changes in blood SIRT1. We evaluated the effect of weight loss on circulating SIRT1, metabolic parameters, and body composition. Thirty-two obese subjects were studied before and 6 months after BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) [22 patients, BMI 41.82 ± 6.28 kg/m(2)] or hypocaloric diet [10 patients, BMI 38.95 ± 6.90 kg/m(2)]. Plasma SIRT1, body composition, measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides), and inflammation markers (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen) were recorded. SIRT1 levels showed a significant increase, together with a significant reduction of BMI, excess body weight, and total fat mass either after BIB or diet intervention. The percent excess body weight loss was 33.73 ± 19.06 and 22.08 ± 11.62 % after BIB and diet, respectively, a trend toward a metabolic and inflammatory amelioration was observed with both treatments. Negative correlation between SIRT1 and % fat mass (BIB, ρ = -0.537, p = 0.017; diet, ρ = -0.638, p = 0.047) was also seen. The reduction of fat mass associates with increased plasma SIRT1 indicating that, besides tissue levels, circulating SIRT1 is stimulated by a negative caloric balance. The rise of plasma SIRT1 may represent a parameter associating with fat loss rather than weight lowering regardless of the weight reduction system method used.

  18. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (-2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (-4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and "dynamic" β-cell response (96.1 · 10(9); P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (-4.8 cm(2); P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (-1.2 cm(2); P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the change in tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.05). A

  19. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2016-06-29

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Results also imply that

  1. Increased perirenal fat area is not associated with adverse outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Schødt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    .001). Perirenal fat area was not associated with any of the measured adverse outcomes. Patients with BMI ≥ 30 had significantly higher intraoperative blood loss (191 mL, p = 0.001). Conclusion Perirenal fat area was not an important predictor of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer......Introduction Intraabdominal visceral obesity may increase technical challenges during laparoscopic rectal resection and hypothetically therefore increase the risk of perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to analyze intraabdominal obesity by means of perirenal fat against risk...... with intravenous contrast were assessed in a blinded manner to estimate the perirenal fat area (cm2). Result A total of 195 patients were included (median age 70 years (range 27–87), 58 women and 137 men) for analysis. There was a moderate correlation between BMI and perirenal fat area (r = 0.499, p = 0...

  2. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P ... and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance....

  3. Automated segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous (deep and superficial) adipose tissues in normal and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Prakash, Bhanu; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Chin Meng; Chou, Hong; Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lee, Yung Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Tai, E Shyong; Velan, S Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm to classify abdominal adipose tissues into visceral fat (VAT), deep (DSAT), and superficial (SSAT) subcutaneous fat compartments and evaluate its performance against manual segmentation. Data were acquired from 44 normal (BMI 18.0-22.9 kg/m(2) ) and 38 overweight (BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ) subjects at 3T using a two-point Dixon sequence. A fully automatic segmentation algorithm was developed to segment the fat depots. The first part of the segmentation used graph cuts to separate the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and the second step employed a modified level sets approach to classify deep and superficial subcutaneous tissues. The algorithmic results of segmentation were validated against the ground truth generated by manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm showed good performance with Dice similarity indices of VAT/DSAT/SSAT: 0.92/0.82/0.88 against the ground truth. The study of the fat distribution showed that there is a steady increase in the proportion of DSAT and a decrease in the proportion of SSAT with increasing obesity. The presented technique provides an accurate approach for the segmentation and quantification of abdominal fat depots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dynorphin knockout reduces fat mass and increases weight loss during fasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Amanda; Lin, Shu; McNamara, Keely; Slack, Katy; Enriquez, Ronaldo; Lee, Nicola J; Boey, Dana; Smythe, George A; Schwarzer, Christoph; Baldock, Paul; Karl, Tim; Lin, En-Ju D; Couzens, Michelle; Herzog, Herbert

    2007-07-01

    Endogenous opioids, particularly dynorphins, have been implicated in regulation of energy balance, but it is not known how they mediate this in vivo. We investigated energy homeostasis in dynorphin knockout mice (Dyn(-/-) mice) and probed the interactions between dynorphins and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system. Dyn(-/-) mice were no different from wild types with regards to body weight and basal and fasting-induced food intake, but fecal output was increased, suggesting decreased nutrient absorption, and they had significantly less white fat and lost more weight during a 24-h fast. The neuroendocrine and thermal responses to fasting were at least as pronounced in Dyn(-/-) as in wild types, and there was no stimulatory effect of dynorphin knockout on 24-h energy expenditure (kilocalories of heat produced) or physical activity. However, Dyn(-/-) mice showed increased circulating concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenlacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, suggesting increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The respiratory exchange ratio of male but not female Dyn(-/-) mice was reduced, demonstrating increased fat oxidation. Interestingly, expression of the orexigenic acting NPY in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was reduced in Dyn(-/-) mice. However, fasting-induced increases in pre-prodynorphin expression in the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the ventromedial hypothalamus but not the lateral hypothalamus were abolished by deletion of Y(1) but not Y(2) receptors. Therefore, ablation of dynorphins results in increases in fatty acid oxidation in male mice, reductions in adiposity, and increased weight loss during fasting, possibly via increases in sympathetic activity, decreases in intestinal nutrient absorption, and interactions with the NPYergic system.

  5. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10(-2) [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  6. The metabolic syndrome, cardiopulmonary fitness, and subcutaneous trunk fat as independent determinants of arterial stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, I.; Henry, R.M.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms that link the metabolic syndrome to increased cardiovascular risk are incompletely understood, especially in young people. We therefore examined whether the metabolic syndrome was associated with arterial stiffness and whether any such associations were independent of

  7. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a demand and need for healthy solid dietary fats. However, synthetic fats can be tailored to contain specific physiologic properties. Our goal was to design dietary solid test fats that would be both beneficial to the atherogenic lipid profile and stable against lipid peroxidation. Sixteen...

  8. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  9. The effect of age and gender on the fat distribution in Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Peer-reviewed paper: Proc. ... The goal of this study was to determine the effect of gender on visceral and subcutaneous fat ... Age had a positive effect on % visceral fat with an increase of 0.029% for wethers and 0.032% for ewes per day. Similarly, fat thickness increased at a rate of 0.070 mm for wethers and 0.053 mm for ...

  10. Visceral fat is associated with the racial differences in liver fat between black and white adolescent boys with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoJung; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether racial differences in liver fat are associated with the differences in abdominal fat distribution or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Participants included 57 black and white obese boys (12-18 years). Total and abdominal fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. CRF was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test with the use of standard open-circuit spirometry techniques until volitional fatigue. Liver fat was measured using a 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fatty liver was defined as having liver fat ≥5%. In the sample, 16.1% of black boys and 30.8% of white boys had fatty liver. Liver fat was associated (P ≤ .05) with body mass index (BMI) percentile (r = 0.28), total fat (r = 0.31), waist circumference (r = 0.38), visceral fat (r = 0.62), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (r = 0.30), and CRF (r = -0.27) adjusting for age and race. White boys had greater liver fat than black boys with adjustment for age and differences in BMI percentile or CRF, but not with waist circumference or visceral fat (P > .05). In a model with age, ethnicity, total body fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat, abdominal subcutaneous fat, and CRF, visceral fat was the only factor to be independently associated with increased odds of having fatty liver (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21; P = .003). The racial disparities in liver fat between obese black vs white adolescents are explained, in part, by differences in visceral fat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  12. Niacin Increases Adiponectin and Decreases Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Desiree; Graff, Emily C.; White, B. Douglas; Judd, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Materials and Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD) and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2−/− (niacin receptor−/−) mice. Results Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2−/− mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription) in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion). However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner. PMID:23967184

  13. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. The PPARy ligand rosiglitazone influences triacylglycerol metabolism in non-obese males, without increasing the transcriptional activity of PPARy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Kersten, A.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    PPAR¿ is obligatory for fat mass generation and is thought to determine the amount of TAG stored per fat cell. We investigated whether ligand availability for PPAR¿ is rate limiting in fat mass generation and substrate metabolism. Twenty healthy men (20¿29 years) were randomly assigned to receive

  15. High-fat diet increases ghrelin-expressing cells in stomach, contributing to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Azhar, Saida; El Dhaybi, Mohammed; Guerin, Charlène; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moise; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Mechanisms of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity may involve ghrelin, an orexigenic and adipogenic hormone secreted by the stomach. Previous studies showed that obese subjects may display higher numbers of ghrelin-producing cells and increased affinity of plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) for ghrelin, protecting it from degradation. The aim of this study was to determine if a HFD in mice would increase the number of ghrelin-expressing cells and affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG. Obesity in mice was induced by consumption of a 13-wk HFD. The number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach was analyzed by in situ hybridization and compared with chow-fed, nonobese controls and with genetically obese ob/ob mice. Affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG was analyzed using surface plasmon resonance. Plasma levels of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin were measured. HFD resulted in 30% of body fat content versus only 8% in controls (P < 0.001). The number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells was 15% (P < 0.05) higher in HFD-fed mice than in controls, contrasting with ob/ob mice, having a 41% (P < 0.001) decrease. Both models of obesity had normal plasma levels of ghrelin but a decrease of its des-acylated form. Ghrelin-reactive IgG affinity was found in the micromolar range with mean values of the dissociation equilibrium constant 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) lower in HFD-fed versus control mice. Results from the present study showed that HFD in mice induces obesogenic changes, including increased numbers of ghrelin precursor-expressing cells and increased affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG. Such changes may contribute to the mechanisms of HFD-induced obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peripheral fat loss and decline in adipogenesis in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Giuseppe; McNurlan, Margaret A; Mileva, Izolda; Zemlyak, Alla; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C

    2013-03-01

    Aging is associated with a redistribution of body fat including a relative loss of subcutaneous peripheral fat. These changes in body fat can have important clinical consequences since they are linked to increased risk of metabolic complications. The causes and mechanisms of loss of peripheral fat associated with aging are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess whether defects in adipogenesis contribute to fat loss in aging humans, as suggested from animal studies, and to evaluate the role of inflammation on pathogenesis of fat loss. Preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous peripheral fat of healthy young and elderly subjects were compared in their ability to replicate and differentiate. The results show that both the rate of replication and differentiation of preadipocytes are reduced in older subjects. The reduction in adipogenesis is accompanied by a higher plasma level of the inflammatory marker, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, and greater release of tumor necrosis factor α from fat tissue. Thus, the gradual relative loss of peripheral fat in aging humans may in part result from a defect in adipogenesis, which may be linked to inflammation and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from fat tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oedema in the Lumbar Subcutaneous Fat, on Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging, of Patients with No History of Cardiac, Renal or Hepatic Disease, Is Significantly Associated with Obesity and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM West

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between oedema in the subcutaneous fat of the lumbar region during routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and patients’ age, gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive examinations of 95 females and 54 males, 18 years and older, scanned at 1.5T between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed. Presence and extent of oedema were determined. Oedema was sized on the anatomical segments. Data were analysed using tests for means, odd’s ratio (OR, Chi-squared test, McNemar’s test, linear and backward stepwise multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Patients with oedema had significantly higher BMI (30.3 kg/m2 vs 24.9 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and were older (49.9 years vs 43.9 years, p = 0.01 than those without oedema. The OR for oedema in obese vs non-obese patients was 8.6. The Chi-squared and McNemar tests were significant, p = 0 and p < 0.001, respectively. Body mass index and age predicted oedema on backward stepwise regression and, on ANOVA, at 23.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Males were marginally less likely to have oedema (p = 0.056 and had marginally less oedema (p = 0.056 than females. Conclusion: Body mass index and age, but not gender, predict oedema. Body mass index predicts oedema five times as much as age.

  18. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is more effective than multiple daily insulin injections in preventing albumin excretion rate increase in Type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, G; Bruttomesso, D; Bonomo, M; Dodesini, A R; Costa, S; Meneghini, E; Corsi, A; Nosari, I; Trevisan, R

    2009-06-01

    To compare the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) on albumin excretion rate (AER) in Type 1 diabetic patients. In a 3-year multicentre retrospective observational study, 110 Type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII were compared with 110 patients treated with MDI matched at baseline for age, sex, diabetes duration and HbA(1c). At entry, 90 patients in each group had normal AER and 20 persistent microalbuminuria. AER, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HbA(1c,) lipids and blood pressure were assessed. HbA(1c) was lower in the CSII than in the MDI group (8.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.4 +/- 1.3%; P AER [median (95% confidence interval)], similar at baseline [6.0 microg/min (9, 21) in the CSII group vs. 4.4 (8, 16) in the MDI group, NS] was significantly lower in the patients treated with CSII both at year 2 and at year 3 of follow-up [4.7 microg/min (6, 12) vs. 6.4 (13, 29), P therapy may be useful in decreasing the progressive increase in AER in Type 1 diabetic patients.

  19. Ethanolic Extract of Taheebo Attenuates Increase in Body Weight and Fatty Liver in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage; the diet of experimental (TBE mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  20. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitt...

  1. Pioglitazone Compared with Metformin Increases Pericardial Fat Volume in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Lamb, H.J.; van der Meer, R.W.; Rijzewijk, L.J.; Menting, L.J.; Diamant, M.; Bax, J.J.; de Roos, A.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists are involved in fat cell differentiation. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone vs. metformin on pericardial fat volume in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the

  2. Pioglitazone compared with metformin increases pericardial fat volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J. T.; Lamb, H. J.; van der Meer, R. W.; Rijzewijk, L. J.; Menting, L. J.; Diamant, M.; Bax, J. J.; de Roos, A.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists are involved in fat cell differentiation. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone vs. metformin on pericardial fat volume in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the relationship

  3. Long term testosterone administration increases visceral fat mass in female-to-male transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Megens, J.A.J.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We,

  4. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J C; Megens, J.A.J.; Gooren, Louis J G

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We,

  5. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S.; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change −2.13% (−3.74%, −0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

  6. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  7. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Exercise ameliorates high fat diet induced cardiac dysfunction by increasing interleukin 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesherwani, Varun; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Hackfort, Bryan T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD) leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, 8 week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1 h/day for 5 days/week for 8 weeks). The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex) and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  9. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  10. Decreased fat storage by Lactobacillus paracasei is associated with increased levels of angiopoietin-like 4 protein (ANGPTL4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aronsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intervention strategies for obesity are global issues that require immediate attention. One approach is to exploit the growing consensus that beneficial gut microbiota could be of use in intervention regimes. Our objective was to determine the mechanism by which the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei F19 (F19 could alter fat storage. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 is a circulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL inhibitor that controls triglyceride deposition into adipocytes and has been reported to be regulated by gut microbes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A diet intervention study of mice fed high-fat chow supplemented with F19 was carried out to study potential mechanistic effects on fat storage. Mice given F19 displayed significantly less body fat, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and a changed lipoprotein profile. Given that previous studies on fat storage have identified ANGPTL4 as an effector, we also investigated circulating levels of ANGPTL4, which proved to be higher in the F19-treated group. This increase, together with total body fat and triglyceride levels told a story of inhibited LPL action through ANGPTL4 leading to decreased fat storage. Co-culture experiments of colonic cell lines and F19 were set up in order to monitor any ensuing alterations in ANGPTL4 expression by qPCR. We observed that potentially secreted factors from F19 can induce ANGPTL4 gene expression, acting in part through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha and gamma. To prove validity of in vitro findings, germ-free mice were monocolonized with F19. Here we again found changes in serum triglycerides as well as ANGPTL4 in response to F19. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide an interesting mechanism whereby modifying ANGPTL4, a central player in fat storage regulation, through manipulating gut flora could be an important gateway upon which intervention trials of weight management can be based.

  11. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  12. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  13. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in r...

  14. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  15. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  16. Hypoxia-Induced Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases the Susceptibility of Rats to High-Fat Diet–Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Morton, Jude S.; Proctor, Spencer D.; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Davidge, Sandra T.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is recognized that there is a remarkable variability in the systemic response to high-fat (HF) diets that cannot be completely explained by genetic factors. In addition, pregnancy complications leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) later in life. Thus, we hypothesized that offspring born with IUGR exhibit permanent metabolic changes that make them more susceptible to HF diet–induced MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SD rats born normal (control) or with hypoxia-induced IUGR were randomized to low-fat (10% fat) or HF (45% fat) diets. After 9 weeks of feeding, physiological and molecular pathways involved in the MetS were evaluated. RESULTS IUGR offspring exhibited decreased energy intake and physical activity relative to controls. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with decreased total body fat content, a relative increase in intra-abdominal fat deposition and adipocyte size, an increase in fasting plasma concentrations of leptin, triglyceride and free fatty acids, and an increased concentration of triglycerides and ceramides in both liver and skeletal muscle. These changes in lipid homeostasis were accompanied by in vivo insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance and associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C θ, inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1, and a decreased activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) in liver and skeletal muscle in response to insulin. CONCLUSIONS IUGR enhances specific deleterious metabolic responses to a HF diet. Our results suggest that offspring born with IUGR may require special attention and follow-up to prevent the early onset of MetS. PMID:21270262

  17. Ketogenic diet-fed rats have increased fat mass and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Letícia C; Chittó, Ana L; Müller, Alexandre P; Rocha, Juliana K; Castro da Silva, Mariane; Quincozes-Santos, André; Nardin, Patrícia; Rotta, Liane N; Ziegler, Denize R; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Da Silva, Roselis S M; Perry, Marcos L S; Gottfried, Carmem

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), characterized by high fat and low carbohydrate and protein contents, has been proposed to be beneficial in children with epilepsy disorders not helped by conventional anti-epileptic drug treatment. Weight loss and inadequate growth is an important drawback of this diet and metabolic causes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine body weight variation during KD feeding for 6 wk of Wistar rats; fat mass and adipocyte cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were also observed. PEPCK activity was determined based on the [H(14)CO(3) (-)]-oxaloacetate exchange reaction. KD-fed rats gained weight at a less rapid rate than normal-fed rats, but with a significant increment in fat mass. The fat mass/body weight ratio already differed between ketogenic and control rats after the first week of treatment, and was 2.4 x higher in ketogenic rats. The visceral lipogenesis was supported by an increment in adipocyte PEPCK, aiming to provide glycerol 3-phosphate to triacylglycerol synthesis and this fat accumulation was accompanied by glucose intolerance. These data contribute to our understanding of the metabolic effects of the KD in adipose tissue and liver and suggest some potential risks of this diet, particularly visceral fat accumulation.

  18. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... department with a history of increasing difficulty with breathing and ... ward and commenced on intravenous antibiotics and high flow oxygen. He made remarkable improvement with complete resolution of subcutaneous emphysema on the 4th day ... the left lateral decubitus position.18 Our patient met most.

  19. MR spectroscopy of hepatic fat and adiponectin and leptin levels during testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Andersen, P E; Diaz, Alejandro Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine-secreting profile. Testosterone r...

  20. An increase in epicardial fat in women is associated with thrombotic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Barrera Hernández, Susana; Fernández Muñoz, María de Jesús; Saucedo García, Renata Patricia; Rodríguez Luna, Ana Karen; Martínez Murillo, Carlos

    2018-01-29

    A decrease in fibrinolytic activity and an increase in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and fibrinolytic activity by measuring the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 56 apparently healthy women aged 45 to 60 years. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were performed on all participants. The fibrinolytic activity was determined by measuring PAI-1 by ELISA. Epicardial thickness was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The concentration of PAI-1 was directly associated with the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue (r=0.475, P=.001), body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, glucose, and HDL-cholesterol. The multivariate regression analysis indicated that epicardial fat independently predicts the concentrations of PAI-1. Women with thicker epicardial adipose tissue have reduced fibrinolytic activity, and consequently greater thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity of mice to lipopolysaccharide is increased by a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was hypothesized that a pro-atherogenic, high saturated fat and cholesterol diet (HCD would increase the inflammatory response to E. coli endotoxin (LPS and increase its concentration in plasma after administration to mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a HCD or a control diet (CD for 4 weeks, and then treated with saline, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg LPS/kg, ip. Liver injury (alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, collagen staining, circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ, factors that can bind LPS (serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein A1, LPS binding protein, and CD14, and plasma levels of LPS were measured. The hepatic response was assessed by measuring vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 proteins, and VCAM-1 and iNOS mRNAs. Hepatic mRNA encoding the LPS receptor, Toll like receptor 4, was also determined. Results Two mg LPS/kg killed 100% of mice fed HCD within 5 d, while no mice fed CD died. All mice treated with 0 to 1 mg LPS/kg survived 24 h. HCD increased plasma alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the enzymes were increased more by LPS in HCD than CD mice. Induction of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ by LPS was greater with HCD than CD. Hepatic VCAM-1 and iNOS protein and mRNA were induced by LPS more in mice fed HCD than CD. Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 caused by LPS was prolonged in HCD compared with CD mice. Despite the hepatic effects of HCD, diet had no effect on the LPS plasma concentration-time profile. HCD alone did not affect circulating levels of plasma apolipoprotein A1 or LPS binding protein. However, plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and CD14, and hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA were increased in mice fed HCD. Conclusion

  2. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  3. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  4. Increased epicardial fat is independently associated with the presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation and radiofrequency ablation outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, UH B1-132 Taubman/Box 0302, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sinno, Mohamad; Oral, Hakan [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Watcharotone, Kuanwong [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment outcome. IRB approval was obtained and patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. 169 patients with AF (75 non-paroxysmal and 94 paroxysmal) and 62 control patients underwent cardiac CT examination. Extrapericardial (EPFV) and epicardial fat volumes (EFV) were measured on CT, the sum of which is the total intrathoracic fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and presence and chronicity of AF, and outcome after RFA, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. EFV was significantly associated with presence [OR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.003-1.03), p = 0.01], chronicity of AF [1.008 (1.001-1.020), p = 0.03] and AF recurrence after RFA [1.009 (1.001-1.01), p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with a larger EFV had a shorter time to AF recurrence (p = 0.017) and a higher rate of recurrence (54 % vs 46 %) (p = 0.002) after RFA. EPFV had no significant associations. Increased epicardial fat is associated with the presence and chronicity of AF, a higher probability of AF recurrence after RFA and a shorter AF-free interval. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  6. Low-fat, light, and reduced in calories : Do these claims really lead to an increase in consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent experimental research has shown that light, low-fat and other claims that signal low calorie content can increase consumption and hence can be counter-effective. In this article we use detailed data from the Dutch National Food Consumption survey to determine the extent to which

  7. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24680136

  8. Ectopic fat depots and left ventricular function in nondiabetic men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granér, Marit; Nyman, Kristofer; Siren, Reijo; Pentikäinen, Markku O; Lundbom, Jesper; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lauerma, Kirsi; Lundbom, Nina; Nieminen, Markku S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has emerged as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different ectopic fat depots on left ventricular (LV) function in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LV function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, epicardial and pericardial fat by MRI in 75 nondiabetic men. Subjects were stratified by hepatic triglyceride content into low, moderate, and high liver fat groups. Myocardial triglyceride, epicardial and pericardial fat, VAT, and subcutaneous adipose tissue increased stepwise from low to high liver fat group. Parameters of LV diastolic function showed a stepwise decrease over tertiles of liver fat and VAT, and they were inversely correlated with hepatic triglyceride, VAT, and VAT/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. In multivariable analyses, hepatic triglyceride and VAT were independent predictors of LV diastolic function, whereas myocardial triglyceride was not associated with measures of diastolic function. Myocardial triglyceride, epicardial and pericardial fat increased with increasing amount of liver fat and VAT. Hepatic steatosis and VAT associated with significant changes in LV structure and function. The association of LV diastolic function with hepatic triglyceride and VAT may be because of toxic systemic effects. The effects of myocardial triglyceride on LV structure and function seem to be more complex than previously thought and merit further study. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  10. Protection from High Fat Diet-induced Increase in Ceramide in Mice Lacking Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1*

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Charmi; Yang, Guang; Lee, Ian; Bielawski, Jacek; Yusuf A Hannun; Samad, Fahumiya

    2008-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and adipose tissue plays a central role in this process. Ceramide, the key intermediate of sphingolipid metabolism, also contributes to obesity-related disorders. We show that a high fat diet increased ceramide levels in the adipose tissues and plasma in C57BL/6J mice via a mechanism that involves an increase in gene expression of enzymes mediating ceramide generation through the de novo pathway (e.g. serine palmitoyltransfe...

  11. Increased blood cholesterol after a high saturated fat diet is prevented by aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Juan Fernando; Fernández-Elías, Valentín Emilio; Hamouti, Nassim; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    A high saturated fatty acids diet (HSFAD) deteriorates metabolic and cardiovascular health while aerobic training improves them. The aim of this study was to investigate in physically inactive and overweight people if 2 weeks of HSFAD leads to hyperlipemia or insulin resistance and if concurrent aerobic exercise training counteracts those effects. Fourteen overweight (body mass index, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg·m(-2)), healthy, young individuals (aged 24.8 ± 1.8 years) were randomly assigned to a diet (D) or a diet plus exercise (D + E) group. During 14 consecutive days both groups increased dietary saturated fatty acids from 31 ± 10 to 52 ± 14 g·day(-1) (p fat intake. Concurrent to the diet, the D + E group underwent 11 cycle-ergometer sessions of 55 min at 60% peak oxygen uptake (V˙O(2peak)). Before and after intervention, insulin sensitivity and body composition were estimated, and blood lipids, resting blood pressure, and VO(2peak) were measured. Body weight and composition, plasma free fatty acids composition and concentration, and insulin sensitivity remained unchanged in both groups. However, post-intervention total cholesterol (T(C)) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased above pre-intervention values in the D group (147 ± 8 to 161 ± 9 mg·dL(-1), p = 0.018 and 71 ± 10 to 82 ± 10 mg·dL(-1), p = 0.034, respectively). In contrast, in the D + E group, T(C) and LDL-C remained unchanged (153 ± 20 to 157 ± 24 mg·dL(-1) and 71 ± 21 to 70 ± 25 mg·dL(-1)). Additionally, the D + E group lowered systolic blood pressure (6 ± 2 mm Hg, p = 0.029) and increased VO(2peak) (6 ± 2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.020). Increases in T(C) and LDL-C concentration induced by 14 days of HSFAD can be prevented by concurrent aerobic exercise training, which, in addition, improves cardiorespiratory fitness.

  12. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preperitoneal fat as a non-invasive marker of increased risk of severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniella Braz; Oliveira Neto, Jaime Araújo; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; Paiva, Fernando Fernandes; Ravani, José Pedro Rodrigues; Gomes, Marilia Brito; Lanzoni, Valeria; Campos, Carlos Frederico Ferreira; Machado-Silva, Lilian; Perez, Renata Mello; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza

    2018-02-01

    Fat distribution may have prognostic value in the evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study was conducted to evaluate associations of magnetic resonance imaging-measured abdominal fat areas with steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, assessed histopathologically, in patients with type 2 diabetes. This prospective study included 66 patients with type 2 diabetes (12 males, 54 females, age 26-68 years), without chronic liver disease of other causes. Axial dual-echo magnetic resonance images were acquired. Visceral, subcutaneous, and preperitoneal fat areas were measured using Osirix software. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from all patients and examined histopathologically to evaluate steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. Linear (for steatosis) and logistic (for steatohepatitis and fibrosis) regression models were fitted for the outcomes. R2 was used as a measure of how much model variance the predictors explained and to compare different predictors of the same outcome. Visceral and preperitoneal fat areas correlated well with histopathologically determined liver steatosis grade (both P = 0.004) and liver fibrosis (P = 0.008 and P = 0.037, respectively). All fat areas correlated well with steatohepatitis (P ≤ 0.002). Preperitoneal and visceral fat areas were the best predictors of steatohepatitis (R2 = 0.379) and fibrosis (R2 = 0.181), respectively. Visceral fat area was the best predictor of fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Preperitoneal fat area was the best predictor of steatohepatitis and is a potential new non-invasive marker for use in the screening of these patients to detect more aggressive forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Dose-Response Effects of p-Synephrine on Fat Oxidation Rate During Exercise of Increasing Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects different doses of p-synephrine on maximal fat oxidation during exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects volunteered to participate in a double-blind and randomised experimental design composed of four identical experimental trials. On four trials separated by 72 h, participants ingested a placebo or 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine. After resting for 60 min to allow substance absorption, participants performed an exercise test of increasing intensity on a cycle ergometer while gas exchange was measured continuously. None of the doses of p-synephrine affected energy expenditure or heart rates during the test. The highest rate of fat oxidation with the placebo (0.35 ± 0.05 g/min) was reached at 38.0 ± 1.9% of VO 2max . The ingestion of 1 mg/kg increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.47 ± 0.11 g/min (p = 0.01) but did not change the intensity at which it was obtained (42.0 ± 9.4% of VO 2max ). The ingestion of 2 and 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.55 ± 0.14 g/min (p < 0.01), although only 3 mg/kg slightly changed the intensity at which it was obtained (43.0 ± 9.5% of VO 2max , p < 0.01). In conclusion, although all p-synephrine increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise, the highest effects were found with 2 and 3 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Intramyocardial Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Increases Pericardial Fat with Recovery of Myocardial Function after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC with mouse endothelial cells (mEC on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10, mASC (n = 10, mEC (n = 10 and mASC+mEC (n = 10 via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas. Echocardiography and cardiac positron emission tomography (PET were compared at baseline and on 28 days after AMI. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction measured by PET, increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to mEC and control groups. Furthermore, significant decreases in fibrosis were confirmed after sacrifice on 28 days in mASC and mASC+mEC groups. Successful cell engraftment was confirmed by positive Y-Chromosome staining in the transplantation region. Pericardial fat increased significantly in mASC and mASC+mEC groups compared to control group, and pericardial fat was shown to originate from the AMI rat. mASC group expressed higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels in plasma than control group. In addition, pericardial fat from AMI rats demonstrated increased phospho-AMPK levels and reduced phospho-ACC levels. Intramyocardial mASC transplantation after AMI in rats increased pericardial fat, which might play a protective role in the recovery of myocardial function after ischemic myocardial damage.

  16. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  17. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI >= 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Conclusion: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban...... residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation....

  19. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Aarestrup, Julie; Petersen, Kristina En; Søndergaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Mette S; Astrup, Arne

    2012-02-03

    Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004.

  20. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  1. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35...... and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  2. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  3. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  4. Fat oxidation during exercise and satiety during recovery are increased following a low-glycemic index breakfast in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Astbury, Nerys M; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2009-05-01

    Consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) before endurance exercise results in increased fat oxidation during exercise in trained men and women. It is not known if this phenomenon occurs during low intensity exercise and in untrained participants. We examined the effects of breakfasts containing high-GI (HGI) or LGI foods on substrate utilization during rest and walking exercise in sedentary women. The metabolic and appetite responses to a standard lunch consumed after exercise were also investigated. Eight healthy sedentary women completed 2 trials. On each occasion, participants were provided with a HGI or LGI breakfast 3 h before walking for 60 min. Following exercise, participants were provided with lunch and remained in the laboratory for a further 2 h. Plasma glucose and serum insulin responses (area under the curve) were higher following the HGI breakfast than following the LGI breakfast (P fat oxidation was suppressed following both breakfasts but remained higher in the LGI trial (P fat oxidation was also greater in the LGI trial (P fat oxidation during subsequent exercise and improves satiety during recovery in sedentary females.

  5. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Tompkins, Connie L; Dumas, Julie A; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2013-04-01

    The Western diet increases risk of metabolic disease. We determined whether lowering the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the Western diet would affect physical activity and energy expenditure. With the use of a balanced design, 2 cohorts of 18 and 14 young adults were enrolled in separate randomized, double-masked, crossover trials that compared a 3-wk high-palmitic acid diet (HPA; similar to the Western diet fat composition) to a low-palmitic acid and high-oleic acid diet (HOA; similar to the Mediterranean diet fat composition). All foods were provided by the investigators, and the palmitic acid (PA):oleic acid (OA) ratio was manipulated by adding different oil blends to the same foods. In both cohorts, we assessed physical activity (monitored continuously by using accelerometry) and resting energy expenditure (REE). To gain insight into a possible mood disturbance that might explain changes in physical activity, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered in cohort 2. Physical activity was higher during the HOA than during the HPA in 15 of 17 subjects in cohort 1 (P = 0.008) (mean: 12% higher; P = 0.003) and in 12 of 12 subjects in the second, confirmatory cohort (P = 0.005) (mean: 15% higher; P = 0.003). When the HOA was compared with the HPA, REE measured during the fed state was 3% higher for cohort 1 (P hostility score was significantly higher during the HPA (P = 0.007). The replacement of dietary PA with OA was associated with increased physical activity and REE and less anger. Besides presumed effects on mitochondrial function (increased REE), the dietary PA:OA ratio appears to affect behavior. The second cohort was derived from a study that was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as R01DK082803.

  6. Acute dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Lim, Sung-Ryoun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Myung, Dae-Seong; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Yong-Wook

    2008-06-01

    Generalized subcutaneous edema is an uncommon manifestation of inflammatory myopathy. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with severe generalized edema, an erythematous skin rash, dysphagia and proximal muscle weakness. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis from the clinical signs, increased muscle enzymes, electromyographic findings and a muscle biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased signal intensity in the muscular and subcutaneous layers. The conditions causing generalized edema were excluded. It was concluded that the generalized edema was secondary to dermatomyositis. Aggressive treatments with high-dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents were used to control the severe subcutaneous edema.

  7. Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Abate

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The burden of obesity has increased globally over the last few decades and its association with insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic problems have adversely affected our ability to reduce population morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in the development of insulin resistance. However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of subcutaneous truncal/abdominal adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in the functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal vs. intraabdominal vs. gluteo-femoral fat depots. More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the development of metabolic complications independent of adipose tissue volume or distribution. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat deposition. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice to improve adipose tissue function and avoid development of insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic complications.

  8. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  9. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M.; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P.; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ong, Ken K.

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  10. Ultrasound measurements of isceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lucia, Rolfe E.; Sleigh, A.; Finucane, F.M.; Brage, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Cooper, C.; Sharp, S.J.; Wareham, N.J.; Ong, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  11. Increased intensity of a single exercise bout stimulates subsequent fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, B; Toubro, S; Ranneries, C; Rehfeld, J F; Holst, J J; Christensen, N J; Astrup, A

    1999-12-01

    The physical activity pattern in society has in recent years changed from necessary occupational activity to voluntary activities during leisure-time. How this change in lifestyle affects the selection of dietary intakes is presently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the different effects of high vs. low-intensity exercise on the following day's dietary energy intake and macronutrient selection. The study was designed as a controlled randomized cross-over study which compared food selection and energy intake the day following a low-intensity vs a high-intensity exercise bout. We included 32 healthy normal-weight subjects of four subgroups (young males, young females, old males and old females). On two different occasions they performed either 60 min low-intensity (30% of VO2max) or 30 min high-intensity (60% of VO2max) exercise during 24h measurements of energy expenditure. The energy intake and macronutrient selection of the subsequent day was assessed by offering them an adlibitum buffet at breakfast and at lunch. Following the low-intensity exercise the subjects chose a diet with an energy percentage from fat similar to that of their habitual diet-36.7% (95% CI: 34.3, 39.0) vs 35.6% (95% CI: 33.0, 38.2; NS). Following the high-intensity exercise they chose a diet with 39.9% (95% CI: 37.2, 42.6) fat, which was 3.2% (95% CI: 0.6, 5.9) higher than following the low-intensity exercise (P<0.05) and 4.2% (95% CI: 1.1, 7.4) more than their habitual diet (P<0.01). The present study shows that changing the type of activity of a single exercise bout from 30% of maximal aerobic capacity for 60 min to 60% for only 30 min resulted in consumption of a diet the following day with a higher fat energy percentage compared with the diet selected after the low-intensity exercise. However, the higher fat content diet did not result in a higher energy intake.

  12. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  13. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  14. Type 2 diabetes: A side effect of the adaptation of neurons and fat cells to support increased cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter; Andras, Alina

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious disease that is affecting an increasing part of the population in most countries. A new hypothesis is presented in this paper about the underlying causes and mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease. It is proposed that the disease is the price that the organism pays for having improved cognitive performance that is achieved through increased level of neurite growth dynamics of neurons. The suggested mechanism of the disease development involves neural centres that deal with the sensing of fat and sugar levels in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid, the regulation of the mobilisation of these resources in the body, the regulation of the storage of sugar and fat in the body, and the regulation of feeding behaviour. The key idea of the proposed mechanism is that the hypothesised resource mobilisation neural centre overestimates the resource needs of neurons and generates and inflated resource requesting signals. The paper discusses how short- and long-term equilibrium regulation of fat and sugar resources may emerge and how this regulation may get imbalanced leading to the emergence of type 2 diabetes in the animal or human. The paper proposes a number of experimental tests that can confirm or deny the validity of the hypothesis formulated here. Possible implications for development of new drugs aimed to prevent or reduce the negative impacts of type 2 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing maternal percentage body fat in early second trimester: a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Min; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai

    2015-02-01

    To determine if maternal percentage body fat (PBF) or fat free mass (FFM) in the early second trimester of pregnancy influenced the development of preeclampsia. A matched nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort study of 1668 women at Gansu provincial maternal and child care hospital from July 2007 to August 2011 in China. Maternal PBF and FFM were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis during 12th-16th gestational week. The demographic characteristics were all chart abstracted. After childbirth, 70 cases of preeclampsia were matched by race/age with 140 uncomplicated pregnancies women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associated risk factors. Pre-pregnancy body mass index were higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls (p preeclampsia (adjusted OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 4.15-41.60) among women with PBF ≥ 40% versus women with PBF preeclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.6-3.6). Maternal PBF but not FFM is a predictor of preeclampsia in the early second trimester. Excessive adipose tissue possibly played an important role in developing of preeclampsia.

  16. Histological changes associated with mesotherapy for fat dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T; Morgan, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Mesotherapy is a form of medical therapy popular in Europe and South America. It is used for treating a variety of medical conditions, including the treatment of localized fat deposits and cellulite. Phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate injections are a popular technique to treat localized fat accumulations and have recently become synonymous with mesotherapy, although their history and technique are distinct. To treat localized fat deposits, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholate (DC) are utilized. To date, there have been no published histological studies that explain the mechanism of action of PC and DC.Method. In this study the authors have obtained skin biopsies from a patient who had undergone mesotherapy with PC and DC. Punch biopsies were taken at one and two weeks after the procedure.Results. Each of the biopsies taken at one and two weeks after treatment with PC and DC showed a normal epithelium and dermis, with a mixed septal and lobular panniculitis. The fat lobules were infiltrated by increased numbers of lymphocytes and, in particular, macrophages. The macrophages consisted of conventional forms, foam cells, and multinucleated fat-containing giant cells. The inflammation was associated with serous atrophy and microcyst formation.Conclusion. This study demonstrates that mesotherapy with PC and DC affects the subcutaneous fat. We theorize that the reduction of subcutaneous fat likely follows inflammatory-mediated necrosis and resorption.

  17. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  18. The role of SOCS2 in recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) regulating lipid metabolism in high-fat-diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai Li; Feng, Min; Tan, Xiao; Yan, Guo Yong; Sun, Chao

    2013-03-01

    In addition to regulate body growth and development process, growth hormone (GH) also involved in lipid metabolism, decreasing fat mass and improving lipolysis. To normal mice, GH could reduce their fat content, but events turned uncertain coming to the pattern of feeding high-fat-diet. In order to investigate the role of GH in adipogenesis of mice with high-fat-diet, the high-fat-diet feeding mice were randomly assigned into three groups and treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and the somatostatin analogue octreotide respectively. Results demonstrated that both rhGH and octreotide could reduce the body weight but the trends diminished in the end. HDL-C level was increased in octreotide treated groups but the activity of lipase was increased significantly in both two groups. RhGH remarkable increased the expression of SOCS2, FAS (P < 0.01) and SREBP-1c (P < 0.05), decreased the expression of SOCS1, SOCS3 (P < 0.05) and HSL (P < 0.01) in subcutaneous fat mass. In visceral fat tissue, all genes were increased except SOCS2 (P < 0.01), at the same time the visceral fat mass was decreased. The protein phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5 which were treated with octreotide were increased in subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and liver (P < 0.01) and were increased significant in visceral fat by rhGH treated (P < 0.01). In liver, only JAK2 protein phosphorylation was raised (P < 0.01). In conclusion, rhGH and octreotide could decrease the whole body mass before 6 days; the trend was weaken in later period with high-fat-diet. RhGH could increase the subcutaneous fat mass and reduce the visceral fat mass, and SOCS2 might be involved in regulation of the mechanism through JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway.

  19. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  20. Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Mozaffarian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced saturated fat (SFA consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD, but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA.We systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. Studies were included if they randomized participants to increased PUFA for at least 1 year without major concomitant interventions, had an appropriate control group, and reported incidence of CHD (myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death. Inclusions/exclusions were adjudicated and data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators and included population characteristics, control and intervention diets, follow-up duration, types of events, risk ratios, and SEs. Pooled effects were calculated using inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events. Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy (range 8.0%-20.7% in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy (range 4.0%-6.4% in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.95, p = 0.008, corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.97 for each 5% energy of increased PUFA, without evidence for statistical heterogeneity (Q-statistic p = 0.13; I(2 = 37%. Meta-regression identified study

  1. Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Micha, Renata; Wallace, Sarah

    2010-03-23

    Reduced saturated fat (SFA) consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA. We systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. Studies were included if they randomized participants to increased PUFA for at least 1 year without major concomitant interventions, had an appropriate control group, and reported incidence of CHD (myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death). Inclusions/exclusions were adjudicated and data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators and included population characteristics, control and intervention diets, follow-up duration, types of events, risk ratios, and SEs. Pooled effects were calculated using inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events. Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy (range 8.0%-20.7%) in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy (range 4.0%-6.4%) in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.95, p = 0.008), corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.97) for each 5% energy of increased PUFA, without evidence for statistical heterogeneity (Q-statistic p = 0.13; I(2) = 37%). Meta-regression identified study duration as an

  2. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Janice Y; Tompkins, Connie L; Dumas, Julie A; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Western diet increases risk of metabolic disease. Objective: We determined whether lowering the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the Western diet would affect physical activity and energy expenditure. Design: With the use of a balanced design, 2 cohorts of 18 and 14 young adults were enrolled in separate randomized, double-masked, crossover trials that compared a 3-wk high–palmitic acid diet (HPA; similar to the Western diet fat composition) to a low–palmitic acid and high–oleic acid diet (HOA; similar to the Mediterranean diet fat composition). All foods were provided by the investigators, and the palmitic acid (PA):oleic acid (OA) ratio was manipulated by adding different oil blends to the same foods. In both cohorts, we assessed physical activity (monitored continuously by using accelerometry) and resting energy expenditure (REE). To gain insight into a possible mood disturbance that might explain changes in physical activity, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered in cohort 2. Results: Physical activity was higher during the HOA than during the HPA in 15 of 17 subjects in cohort 1 (P = 0.008) (mean: 12% higher; P = 0.003) and in 12 of 12 subjects in the second, confirmatory cohort (P = 0.005) (mean: 15% higher; P = 0.003). When the HOA was compared with the HPA, REE measured during the fed state was 3% higher for cohort 1 (P < 0.01), and REE was 4.5% higher in the fasted state for cohort 2 (P = 0.04). POMS testing showed that the anger-hostility score was significantly higher during the HPA (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The replacement of dietary PA with OA was associated with increased physical activity and REE and less anger. Besides presumed effects on mitochondrial function (increased REE), the dietary PA:OA ratio appears to affect behavior. The second cohort was derived from a study that was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as R01DK082803. PMID:23446891

  3. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p Flax drink consumption compared to control (p Flax bread compared to control (p Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  4. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  5. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

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    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  6. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  7. Reduction in hydroxyhydroquinone from coffee increases postprandial fat utilization in healthy humans: a randomized double-blind, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of reduction in hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) from roasted coffee on energy utilization in humans. Indirect calorimetry showed that one-week ingestion of HHQ-reduced coffee led to significantly higher postprandial fat utilization than that of HHQ-containing coffee. This finding indicates that reduction in HHQ from coffee increases postprandial fat utilization.

  8. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat western diet, but the mechanism underlying this relationship remains to be determined. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a high-fat diet promotes aberrant crypt (AC) format...

  9. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Boas, Malene; Jensen, Tina K; Grandjean, Philippe; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Andersen, Helle R

    2011-09-20

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203) and at 6 to 11 years of age (n = 177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to 11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during

  10. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

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    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  11. The effect of aggression I: The increases of metabolic cost and mobilization of fat reserves in male striped hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2018-01-02

    Aggression can benefit individuals by enhancing their dominance and thereby their ability to acquire and retain resources that increase survival or fitness. Engaging in aggressive behavior costs energy and how animals manage their energy budget to accommodate aggression remains unclear. We conducted three experiments to examine changes in physiological, behavioral and hormonal markers indicative of energy budget in male striped hamsters subject to resident-intruder aggression tests. Body temperature, metabolic rate and serum corticosterone levels significantly increased in resident hamsters immediately after the introduction of intruders. Energy intake did not change, but the metabolic rate of residents increased by 16.1% after 42-days of repeated encounters with intruders. Residents had significantly decreased body fat content and serum thyroxine (T4) levels, and a considerably elevated tri-iodothyronine (T3)/T4 ratio compared to a control group that had no intruders. Attack latency considerably shortened, and the number of attack bouts and total duration of attacks, significantly increased in residents on day 42 compared to day 1 of experiments. These findings may suggest that the conversion of T4 to T3 is involved in defensive aggression behavior. The mobilization of fat reserves resulting in lean body mass is probably common response to the increased metabolic cost of aggression in small mammals. Aggressive behavior, which is important for the successful acquisition and defense of resources, may be of significance for adaptation and evolution of metabolic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Massive Subcutaneous Emphysema in Robotic Sacrocolpopexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hatice; Cremins, Angela; Jones, Keisha A.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of robotic surgery has increased the popularity of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy, may rarely cause massive subcutaneous emphysema, which may be coincident with life-threatening situations such as hypercarbia, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Although the literature contains several reports of massive subcutaneous emphysema after a variety of laparoscopic procedures, we were not able to identify any report of this complication associated with laparoscopic or robotic sacrocolpopexy. Massive subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 3 women after robotic sacrocolpopexy in our practice. The patients had remarkable but reversible physical deformities lasting up to 1 week. A valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure system was used in all 3 of our cases. Our objective is to define the risk of massive subcutaneous emphysema during robotic sacrocolpopexy in light of these cases and discuss probable predisposing factors including the use of valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure trocars. PMID:23925018

  14. A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif

    2015-09-28

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMImalnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  15. Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

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    Yee Jennifer K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity has been described in obese states, with an increased desaturation index (DI suggesting enhanced lipogenesis. Differences in the DI among various phenotypes of abnormal adiposity have not been studied. Abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurs in rare adipose disorders (RADs including Dercum's disease (DD, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL, and familial multiple lipomatosis (FML. Examining the DI in subcutaneous fat of people with DD, MSL and FML may provide information on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in these disorders. The aims of this pilot study were: 1 to determine if differences in adipose tissue DIs are present among RADs, and 2 to determine if the DIs correlate to clinical or biochemical parameters. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from human participants with DD (n = 6, MSL (n = 5, FML (n = 8 and obese Controls (n = 6. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The DIs (palmitoleic/palmitic, oleic/stearic, vaccenic/stearic ratios were calculated from the gas chromatogram peak intensities. SCD1 gene expression was determined. Spearman's correlations between the DIs and available clinical or biochemical data were performed. Results In DD subjects, the vaccenic/stearic index was lower (p p Conclusions The positive associations between the DIs and measures of adiposity (BMI and percent body fat support increased desaturase activity in obesity. The lower vaccenic/stearic DI in DD SAT compared with Controls suggests presence of other factors involved in fat accumulation in addition to lifestyle. Other mechanisms driving fat accumulation in DD such as inflammation or lymphatic dysfunction should be investigated.

  16. Evaluation of increased vitamin D fortification in high-temperature, short-time-processed 2% milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A L; Metzger, L E

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased vitamin D fortification (250 IU/serving) of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt on the sensory characteristics and stability of vitamin D during processing and storage. Three replicates of HTST pasteurized 2% fat milk, UHT pasteurized 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt were manufactured. Each of the 3 replicates for all products contained a control (no vitamin D fortification), a treatment group with 100 IU vitamin D/serving (current level of vitamin D fortification), and a treatment group with 250 IU vitamin D/serving. A cold-water dispersible vitamin D(3) concentrate was used for all fortifications. The HTST-processed 2% fat milk was stored for 21 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 14, and 21. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 14. The UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk was stored for 60 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 40, and 60. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 40. Low-fat strawberry yogurt was stored for 42 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing, and on d 0, 28, and 42. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 28. Vitamin D levels in the fortified products were found to be similar to the target levels of fortification (100 and 250 IU vitamin D per serving) for all products, indicating no loss of vitamin D during processing. Vitamin D was also found to be stable over the shelf life of each product. Increasing the fortification of vitamin D from 100 to 250 IU/serving did not result in a change in the sensory characteristics of HTST-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, or low-fat strawberry yogurt. These results indicate that it is feasible to increase vitamin D fortification from 100 to 250 IU per serving in these products. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. Intrinsic Differences in Adipocyte Precursor Cells From Different White Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A.; Gesta, Stephane; Schulz, Tim J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate that adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) isolated from visceral and subcutaneous white adipose depots of mice have distinct patterns of gene expression, differentiation potential, and response to environmental and genetic influences. APCs derived from subcutaneous fat differentiate well in the presence of classical induction cocktail, whereas those from visceral fat differentiate poorly but can be induced to differentiate by addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-4. This difference correlates with major differences in gene expression signature between subcutaneous and visceral APCs. The number of APCs is higher in obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice than obesity-resistant 129 mice, and the number in both depots is increased by up to 270% by exposure of mice to high-fat diet. Thus, APCs from visceral and subcutaneous depots are dynamic populations, which have intrinsic differences in gene expression, differentiation properties, and responses to environmental/genetic factors. Regulation of these populations may provide a new target for the treatment and prevention of obesity and its metabolic complications. PMID:22596050

  18. Combination of aerobic exercise and an arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture increases fat mobilization and ketone body synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Takai, Shoko; Ikegami, Shuji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    During exercise, blood levels of several hormones increase acutely. We hypothesized that consumption of a specific combination of amino acids (arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine; A-mix) may be involved in secretion of glucagon, and when combined with exercise may promote fat catabolism. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomized in a crossover study to ingest either A-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo (3 g of dextrin/dose). Thirty minutes after ingesting, each condition subsequently performed workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 h. After oral intake of A-mix, the concentrations of plasma ketone bodies and adrenalin during and post-exercise were significantly increased. The area under the curve for glycerol and glucagon was significantly increased in the post-exercise by A-mix administration. These results suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of A-mix causes a shift of energy source from carbohydrate to fat combustion by increasing secretion of adrenalin and glucagon.

  19. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  20. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Jeffrey F Horowitz

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but t...

  1. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  2. Maraviroc shows differential effects on glucose uptake and lipolysis in human subcutaneous cultured adipocytes in comparison with omental adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perez-Matute

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maraviroc (MVC, the first approved CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 antagonist, is used for treating HIV-1-infected patients with CCR5 tropism. MVC has been proved safe in all respects and showed beneficial effects on lipid profile of HIV patients with dislipidemia. Adipocyte dysfunction seems to be responsible for many metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. Subcutaneous and visceral fat depots are not only physiologically but also metabolically different and metabolic disturbances are more closely associated with visceral than subcutaneous fat accumulation. It has been suggested that antiretrovirals affect both fat depots in a different extent. Thus, whether isolated human adipocytes display regio-specific sensitivity to the metabolic effects of MVC have been tested in this study. Human subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes were used as the source of human adipocytes. These cells were treated with therapeutic concentrations of MVC (0.5–25 µM at day 14 post-differentiation (4 and 24 hours of treatment. Glucose utilization, lactate production and glycerol released into the media were measured using an autoanalyzer. Adiponectin secretion was determined by an ELISA array. A dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed in subcutaneous adipocytes treated with MVC (+72% of stimulation for MVC 25 µM, p < 0.01. This stimulatory effect was tissue specific, as no effects were observed in omental adipocytes. MVC did not exert any significant effect on adiponectin secretion. No significant effects were observed on lactate production neither in subcutaneous nor omental adipocytes. Interestingly, 4 hours of treatment with MVC induced a significant increase in the amount of glycerol released into the media by subcutaneous adipocytes (p < 0.001, but this effect disappeared with longer exposure of adipocytes to MVC (24 h. No effects were observed on lipolysis in omental adipocytes although a slight tendency to

  3. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  5. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; Pmuscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment; which was associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I.

  7. Increased thermogenic response to food and fat oxidation in female athletes: relationship with VO(2 max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P; Ledoux, M; Garrel, D R

    2000-09-01

    The thermogenic response to food (TRF) and substrate oxidation were studied in 12 endurance-trained and 13 untrained female subjects. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were calculated by indirect calorimetry before and for 6 h after an oral test meal and after the same meal given intragastrically on a separate occasion. The TRF was calculated after the oral meal, the obligatory component after the intragastric meal (OTRF), and the facultative component from the difference between the two. VO(2 max) was measured on a treadmill and body composition by underwater weighing. The TRF and OTRF were significantly higher in trained than in untrained subjects: 223 +/- 63 vs. 185 +/- 50 kJ/6 h (P < 0.03) and 174 +/- 38 vs. 131 +/- 37 kJ/6 h (P < 0.01) for the TRF and OTRF in trained vs. untrained subjects, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that maximum O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)), but not percentage of body fat, was significantly related to OTRF (r =0.68, P < 0.01). Trained subjects had higher fatty acid oxidation than untrained subjects before (0.6 vs. 0.4 mg. kg(-1). min(-1), P < 0.05) and after the oral meal (13 +/- 6 vs. 8 +/- 4 g/6 h P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that 1) TRF is higher in trained than in untrained women; 2) this is due to a higher cost of nutrient digestion, absorption and storage; 3) the difference is related to higher VO(2 max); and 4) fatty acid oxidation is greater in trained women in both the postabsorptive and postprandial states. These observations suggest that endurance training induces metabolic changes that favor leanness.

  8. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-enriched fat grafting: experiments using White rabbits and an automated cell processing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The grafting of fat mixed with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is being increasingly applied to compensate for the disadvantages of previous fat grafting methods. Devices that automatically isolate fat stem cells also have recently been developed. ASCs were isolated from the inguinal region of White rabbits using Icellator®, and the number of cells and their viability were measured. The cell count per fat graft (mL) was adjusted to the following concentrations and subcutaneously transplanted into the back: Control group, Fat + PBS; Fat + ASCs (×0.5) group, 1.6 × 105 cells/mL; and Fat + ASCs (×1) group, 3.2 × 105 cells/mL. Grafted fat weight was measured after 8 weeks, and histological, immunohistological, and specifically stained sections were prepared. Fat absorption was reduced in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups. The number of blood vessels was higher in Fat + ASCs (×1) than in the control group, and blood vessel areas were higher in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups than in the control group. The usefulness of the automated cell processing apparatus, Icellator®, was confirmed, and the results obtained suggest that grafted ASCs promote the vascularization and engraftment of fat grafts.

  9. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  10. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J den Hartigh

    Full Text Available Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance.We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%, an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism.Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured.By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation.These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter promoting a healthier form of weight loss.

  11. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  12. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each of ...

  13. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  14. Feeding Dry Olive Cake Modifies Subcutaneous Fat Composition in Lambs, Noting Cake Resistance to Degradation and Peroxidation Alimentación con Alperujo Modifica la Composición de Grasa Subcutánea en Corderos, con una Nota en la Resistencia del Alperujo a Degradación y Peroxidación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Vera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the extent to which lamb carcass quality and fat composition could be altered by applying a dry olive cake-based ration instead of a conventional ration or pasture feeding. Three treatments were compared in a completely randomized experiment using 36 single male Suffolk Down lambs with an initial age and live weight of 80 d and 25 kg, respectively. The three treatments were: (a suckling lambs kept with their mothers on annual Mediterranean grassland (GRAZE; (b weaned stall-fed lambs on a control ration (CONC; and (c weaned stall-fed lambs on an olive cake-based ration (CAKE. At the end of the 28-d experimental period, lambs were slaughtered, carcass quality evaluated, and samples of subcutaneous fat analyzed for fatty acids. Treatments did not differ in weight gain or carcass weight and quality, but highly significant differences were found in several fatty acid contents. CAKE animals had reduced palmitic acid as well as increased oleic and stearic acid contents. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indices improved with cake feeding. Principal component and discriminant analyses clearly differentiated treatments suggesting they could be applicable for traceability purposes. A laboratory experiment demonstrated that with or without added vitamin E, the dry olive cake did not alter its lipid properties with increased storage time.El propósito del experimento aquí reportado fue determinar en qué grado se puede modificar la composición y calidad de la carcasa de corderos con el suministro de una ración basada en el alperujo de oliva, en comparación con una ración convencional o con el pastoreo directo. Se compararon tres tratamientos usando un diseño completamente al azar con 36 corderos machos Suffolk Down de partos únicos, y con edad y peso inicial de 80 d y 25 kg, respectivamente. Los tres tratamientos consistieron en; (a corderos lactantes mantenidos con sus madres en una pastura anual de tipo

  15. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  16. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  17. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....

  18. A high-fat diet increases risk of ventricular arrhythmia in female rats: enhanced arrhythmic risk in the absence of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Marie-Claude; Cardin, Sophie; Comtois, Philippe; Clément, Robert; Gosselin, Hugues; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Le Quang, Khaï; Nattel, Stanley; Perrault, Louis P; Calderone, Angelino

    2010-04-01

    Obesity increases the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and impairs wound healing. However, it is presently unknown whether a high-fat diet affects arrhythmic risk or wound healing before the onset of overt obesity or hyperlipidemia. After 8 wk of feeding a high-fat diet to adult female rats, a nonsignificant increase in body weight was observed and associated with a normal plasma lipid profile. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, scar length (standard diet 0.29 +/- 0.09 vs. high-fat 0.32 +/- 0.13 cm), thickness (standard diet 0.047 +/- 0.02 vs. high-fat 0.059 +/- 0.01 cm), and collagen alpha(1) type 1 content (standard diet 0.21 +/- 0.04 vs. high-fat 0.20 +/- 0.04 arbitrary units/mm(2)) of infarcted hearts were not altered by the high-fat diet. However, the mortality rate was greatly increased 24 h postinfarction (from 5% to 46%, P diet. In the hearts of rats fed a high-fat diet, connexin-40 expression was absent, connexin-43 was hypophosphorylated and lateralized, and neurofilament-M immunoreactive fiber density (standard diet 2,020 +/- 260 vs. high-fat diet 2,830 +/- 250 microm(2)/mm(2)) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression were increased (P obesity and hyperlipidemia, sympathetic hyperinnervation and an aberrant pattern of gap junctional protein expression and regulation in the heart of female rats fed a high-fat diet may have contributed in part to the higher incidence of inducible cardiac arrhythmias.

  19. Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permana, Paska A; Nair, Saraswathy; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Expansion of adipose tissue mass results from increased number and size of adipocyte cells. We hypothesized that subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes in obese individuals might have an intrinsically higher propensity to differentiate into adipocytes. Thus we investigated the relationship between...... obesity and the level of in vitro preadipocyte differentiation in Pima Indians. Subcutaneous abdominal stromal vascular fractions containing preadipocytes were cultured from 58 nondiabetic subjects [31 M/27 F, 30 +/- 6 yr, body fat 34 +/- 8% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (means +/- SD)]. The average...... not (IGF-IR, r = 0.003, P = 1.0; PPARgamma, r = -0.1, P = 0.5; GATA-3, r = 0.02, P = 0.9; CUP/AP-2alpha, r = -0.2, P = 0.1; ECSM2, r = 0.04, P = 0.7). Contrary to our hypothesis, the results may indicate a blunted in vitro differentiation potential of preadipocytes in centrally obese individuals. The lower...

  20. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Vonk, R. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.

    2016-01-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin

  1. Blood free fatty acids were not increased in high-fat diet induced obese insulin-resistant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junfeng; Wu, Yongjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Lu, Li; Wang, Li; Zhang, Baolai; Cui, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    The close connection between high blood FFA and insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals is well-known. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the blood FFA increased in obese-IR animals. Obese-IR animal models were established using high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD and streptozocin, and treated with drugs. The serum FFA of obese-IR animals was not increased, even significantly lower than that of normal animals, and were not significantly decreased when insulin sensitivity and obesity-related indices were ameliorated after treatment. The results suggest that blood FFA are unlikely the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total prot...... rehabilitated. Nevertheless, LNS yields more fat-free tissue and higher recovery rates than CSB. Moreover, current LNSs with DS may be improved by shifting to SI. The role of milk relative to soy merits further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN42569496.......BACKGROUND: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total...... protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between September 9, 2013, and August 29, 2014, a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial recruited 6- to 23-month-old children with MAM in Burkina Faso. The intervention comprised 12 weeks...

  3. Age-associated increases in the size of the infrapatellar fat pad in knee osteoarthritis as measured by 3T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Charles, Hal Cecil; Kraus, Virginia B; Guilak, Farshid; Nunley, James A

    2010-09-01

    Obesity, as a primary risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), has been shown to alter joint loading, but may also result in metabolic changes characterized by chronic, low-level inflammation due to increased circulating levels of adipose-derived cytokines, or "adipokines." The presence of the infrapatellar fat pad in the knee suggests that local changes in adipokine concentrations may influence knee OA. This study examined the hypotheses that the volume of the infrapatellar fat pad is correlated to the body mass index (BMI) of OA patients, and that fat pad volume is greater in subjects with OA. Fat pad volume was measured in sequential magnetic resonance (MR) images taken over one year in a cohort of 15 control and 15 knee OA subjects. No differences were observed in the fat pad volume between the two groups at baseline, 3, 6, or 12 months. In control subjects, no significant correlations were present between any parameters (age, BMI, weight, volume of fat pad at any time point). However, in the osteoarthritic group, fat pad volume was correlated with age at every time point. One possible explanation is that local factors related to knee OA may also induce enlargement of the fat pad with age. Alternatively, subjects who are prone to growth or enlargement of the fat pad may also be more prone to symptomatic OA. These findings provide intriguing preliminary data on the potential role of the infrapatellar fat pad in OA, although additional study is required to better understand the mechanisms of this relationship. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  5. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  6. HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased Fatty Infiltration of the Thigh Muscle with Aging Independent of Fat Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javzandulam Natsag

    Full Text Available Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA.Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression. Models all were adjusted for HIV serostatus, age, race, and body mass index (BMI; each model was further adjusted for covariates that differed by HIV serostatus, including insulin resistance, hepatitis C, malignancy, smoking, alcohol use, and self-reported limitation in physical activity.HIV-infected men had greater thigh muscle CSA (p<0.001 but lower muscle density (p<0.001 compared to HIV-uninfected men. Muscle density remained lower in HIV-infected men (p = 0.001 when abdominal visceral adiposity, and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue area were substituted for BMI in a multivariable model. Muscle density decreased by 0.16 HU per year (p<0.001 of increasing age among the HIV-infected men, but not in the HIV-uninfected men (HIV x age interaction -0.20 HU; p = 0.002.HIV-infected men had lower thigh muscle density compared to HIV-uninfected men, and a more pronounced decline with increasing age, indicative of greater fatty infiltration. These findings suggest that lower muscle quality among HIV-infected persons may be a risk factor for impairments in physical function with aging.

  7. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P Obesity was associated with increased HOMA-IR and CRP in both genders (all P ≤ 0.001). Increasing PUFAs was associated with decreasing CRP in men (P = 0.02). In conclusion, increasing the percentage of calories from sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  8. Regulation of white adipogenesis and its relation to ectopic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Birgit; Smith, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is the largest and least harmful adipose depot to store excess lipids. However, SAT has a limited ability to expand and recruit new cells. When the SAT adipose cells become expanded (hypertrophic obesity), this leads to a dysregulated and dysfunctional SAT and the accumulation of ectopic fat in many depots. Increased hepatic and visceral fat are well-known ectopic fat depots and reflect the inability of SAT to accommodate excess fat. Ectopic fat also leads to paracrine and endocrine effects and promotes the metabolic profile of the Metabolic Syndrome. In addition, ectopic fat accumulation in and around the heart and vessels are considered to be active and cross talk with the tissues, thereby enhancing several aspects associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ingestion of native and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fats acutely increases circulating numbers of endothelial microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Wayne H F; de Jong, Sylvia A; Hessian, Paul A; Williams, Michael J A

    2010-03-01

    Circulating numbers of endothelial microparticles (EMP) are an index of endothelial injury and dysfunction; and microparticles positive to CD31 antibody increase acutely after cooked, fatty fast-food meals that are rich in saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and lipid oxidation products. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of meals rich in SAFA and native and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated vegetable oil on circulating numbers of EMP positive to CD144 antibody, a more specific marker of EMP. Twenty-two apparently healthy subjects received isocaloric meals rich in cream (CR), unheated sunflower oil, or heated sunflower oil in a randomized crossover study design. Circulating numbers of CD144-EMP and plasma lipids and Svedberg unit of flotation (S(f)) greater than 400 triglyceride content were measured before and 1 and 3 hours after the meals. Triglycerides in the plasma S(f) greater than 400 fraction increased significantly (P < .001) after the meals, with a significantly (P < .05) larger increase after the CR meal. Plasma CD144-EMP increased significantly (20%, P < .05) after the unheated sunflower oil and heated sunflower oil meals and did not increase significantly (P = .55) after the CR meal. This response was significantly different among the meals (P = .002) when first-visit fasting plasma glucose was a covariate. In conclusion, these data suggest that ingestion of meals rich in n-6 polyunsaturated vegetable oil irrespective of whether it has been mildly thermally oxidized may acutely alter the state of the vascular endothelium, resulting in increased shedding of CD144-EMP. The physiologic implications of these findings remain to be determined. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2018-01-09

    Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND) or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR) during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods. Male offspring were onto either the regular chow, 60% fructose, or high-fat diet (HFA) from weaning to 12 weeks of age and assigned to four groups: ND/ND, HFR/ND, HFR/HFR, and HFR/HFA. Maternal high-fructose diet exacerbates post-weaning high-fat diet-induced programmed hypertension. Post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets similarly reduced Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkag2, Ppara, Pparb, and Ppargc1a mRNA expression in offspring kidneys exposed to maternal high-fructose intake. Additionally, post-weaning high-fat diet significantly reduced renal mRNA levels of Ulk1, Atg5, and Nrf2 and induced greater oxidative stress than did high-fructose diet. Although maternal high-fructose intake increases soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) expression in the kidney, which was restored by post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Maternal high-fructose diet programs differential vulnerability to developing hypertension in male offspring in response to post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption.

  11. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  12. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  13. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates, poten...... of gluconeogenesis and of fasting glucose levels in the LBW subjects....

  14. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m2) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications.

  16. From fan to fat? Vicarious losing increases unhealthy eating, but self-affirmation is an effective remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Yann; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in cities with winning teams, and remain at their usual levels in comparable cities without an NFL team or with an NFL team that did not play. These effects are greater in cities with the most committed fans, when the opponents are more evenly matched, and when the defeats are narrow. We found similar results when measuring the actual or intended food consumption of French soccer fans who had previously been asked to write about or watch highlights from victories or defeats of soccer teams. However, these unhealthy consequences of vicarious defeats disappear when supporters spontaneously self-affirm or are given the opportunity to do so.

  17. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs nebulized salbutamol in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Madan, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the subcutaneous epinephrine with nebulized salbutamol. Fifty asthmatic children in the age range of 6-14 years were divided into two equal groups. Group I children were given subcutaneous epinephrine and Group II were nebulized with salbutamol. Patients were observed at 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minute intervals. Both the groups had comparable mean increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR %) (Group I 27.7 +/- 0.7; Group II 28.8 +/- 0.06, p >0.05). In Group I there was significant increase in systolic blood pressure, 30 minutes after the start of treatment, however it settled on its own by 60 minutes. Both the groups had satisfactory improvement in clinical parameters which continued upto 4 hours after start of treatment. Subcutaneous epinephrine can be safely used if nebulizers are not available.

  18. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Serum FGF21 increases with hepatic fat accumulation in pediatric onset intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Heikkilä, Päivi; Lohi, Jouko; Raivio, Taneli; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2014-01-01

    Previously, FGF21 has been related to glucose and lipid metabolism and liver steatosis. Our aim was to evaluate serum FGF21 levels in pediatric onset intestinal failure (IF). Serum FGF21 was measured in 35 IF patients at median age of 7.8 years (range 0.2-27) and 59 matched healthy controls. Thirty patients underwent liver biopsy. Serum FGF21 levels were increased in patients compared to controls [229 pg/ml (21-20,345) vs. 133 pg/ml (7-1607), p=0.018]. Frequency of liver steatosis (60% vs. 50%, p=0.709) was similar during (6/10) and after (10/20) weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN). Patients with steatosis had markedly higher serum FGF21 concentration [626 pg/ml (21-20,345) vs. 108 pg/ml (32-568), p=0.002] and more advanced liver fibrosis [Metavir stage 1.6 (0-4) vs. 0.7 (0-3), p=0.020] without associated inflammation or Mallory body formation. Serum FGF21 levels reflected the degree of steatosis [FGF21 in grade 3 vs. grades 0-2, pliver steatosis grade (β=0.630, p=0.001) predicted serum FGF21 concentration. In pediatric IF increased serum FGF21 levels reflect liver steatosis, while both are exclusively associated with duration of PN and extent of small intestinal resection. Liver steatosis is coupled with progression of fibrosis without accompanying inflammation. Serum FGF21 assay may be useful for diagnosing liver steatosis in IF patients. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all cows, regardless of category, compared to 1× feeding. Our results suggest that cows at higher risk for SARA eat less evenly throughout the day; increasing feeding frequency may reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows and may also increase milk fat yield. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  1. Mitochondrial gene expression and increased oxidative metabolism: role in increased lifespan of fat-specific insulin receptor knock-out mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katic, Masa; Kennedy, Adam R.; Leykin, Igor; Norris, Andrew; McGettrick, Aileen; Gesta, Stephane; Russell, Steven J.; Bluher, Matthias; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Summary Caloric restriction, leanness and decreased activity of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor signaling are associated with increased longevity in a wide range of organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. Fat-specific insulin receptor knock-out (FIRKO) mice represent an interesting dichotomy, with leanness and increased lifespan, despite normal or increased food intake. To determine the mechanisms by which a lack of insulin signaling in adipose tissue might exert this effect, we performed physiological and gene expression studies in FIRKO and control mice as they aged. At the whole body level, FIRKO mice demonstrated an increase in basal metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) of FIRKO mice from 6 to 36 months of age revealed persistently high expression of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation as compared to expression of the same genes in WAT from controls that showed a tendency to decline in expression with age. These changes in gene expression were correlated with increased cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV at the protein level, increased citrate synthase activity, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and PGC-1β, and an increase in mitochondrial DNA in WAT of FIRKO mice. Together, these data suggest that maintenance of mitochondrial activity and metabolic rates in adipose tissue may be important contributors to the increased lifespan of the FIRKO mouse. PMID:18001293

  2. Deletion of Rictor in brain and fat alters peripheral clock gene expression and increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drägert, Katja; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Seebeck, Petra; Azzi, Abdelhalim; Brown, Steven A; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Held, Ulrike; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Arras, Margarete; Humar, Rok; Hall, Michael N; Battegay, Edouard; Haas, Elvira

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the essential protein RICTOR and is activated by growth factors. mTORC2 in adipose tissue contributes to the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the perivascular adipose tissue, mTORC2 ensures normal vascular reactivity by controlling expression of inflammatory molecules. To assess whether RICTOR/mTORC2 contributes to blood pressure regulation, we applied a radiotelemetry approach in control and Rictor knockout (Rictor(aP2KO)) mice generated using adipocyte protein-2 gene promoter-driven CRE recombinase expression to delete Rictor. The 24-hour mean arterial pressure was increased in Rictor(aP2KO) mice, and the physiological decline in mean arterial pressure during the dark period was impaired. In parallel, heart rate and locomotor activity were elevated during the dark period with a pattern similar to blood pressure changes. This phenotype was associated with mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their receptor expression in adipocytes. Moreover, clock gene expression was reduced or phase-shifted in perivascular adipose tissue. No differences in clock gene expression were observed in the master clock suprachiasmatic nucleus, although Rictor gene expression was also lower in brain of Rictor(aP2KO) mice. Thus, this study highlights the importance of RICTOR/mTORC2 for interactions between vasculature, adipocytes, and brain to tune physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure and locomotor activity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Proença, A.R.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-26

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes.

  4. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P BMI-classified subjects (P BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  5. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  6. Effects of increasing increments of fat- and sugar-rich snacks in the diet on energy and macronutrient intake in lean and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Nik; Horgan, Graham; Whybrow, Stephen; Stubbs, James

    2006-09-01

    Two studies have examined the effect on energy intake and macronutrient selection of increasing increments of mandatory high-fat or high-sugar snacks into the diet in men. The present study used a within-subject, repeated-measures design. In each experiment, six lean and six overweight, unrestrained men were each studied over three 7 d treatment periods, during which they were given mandatory snacks of the same energy density (550 kJ/100 g) comprising the following (in terms of percentage energy as fat-carbohydrate-protein): high-fat, 80:10:10; high-sugar, 10:80:10, of which 65 % was sugar, and 15 % starch. Subjects were given 0, 1.5 or 3.0 MJ/d snacks, in a randomised counterbalanced design, to be consumed mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Throughout each day, subjects had access ad libitum to fifteen high-protein, fifteen high-fat and fifteen high-carbohydrate foods, rotated on a 3 d menu. Mandatory high-fat snacks significantly elevated energy intake and fat intake, whereas high-sugar snacks elevated energy intake and carbohydrate intake (all P<0.02). Mandatory increases in sugar intake did not displace fat from the diet or vice versa. It was concluded that the ingestion of up to 3 MJ/d high-fat and high-sugar foods promoted weak compensation (18 % and 30 %, respectively) and therefore elevated daily energy intake by approximately 2.0-2.5 MJ.

  7. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Celia L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Crabtree, Nicola; Steel, Sue A; McCloskey, Eugene; Duncan, Emma L; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Fraser, William D; Smith, George Davey; Tobias, Jon H

    2013-02-01

    High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear. To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone phenotypes, eg, bone mass and/or bone turnover. We conducted a case-control study of 153 cases with unexplained HBM recruited from 4 UK centers by screening 219 088 DXA scans. A total of 138 first-degree relatives (of whom 51 had HBM) and 39 spouses were also recruited. Unaffected individuals served as controls. We measured fat mass, by DXA, and bone turnover markers. Among women, fat mass was inversely related to age in controls (P = .01), but not in HBM cases (P = .96) in whom mean fat mass was 8.9 [95% CI 4.7, 13.0] kg higher compared with controls (fully adjusted mean difference, P fat mass in male HBM cases was less marked (gender interaction P = .03). Compared with controls, lean mass was also increased in female HBM cases (by 3.3 [1.2, 5.4] kg; P fat mass increases, resulting in 4.5% lower percentage lean mass in HBM cases (P fat mass were fully attenuated after hip bone mineral density (BMD) adjustment (P = .52) but unchanged after adjustment for bone turnover (P fat mass adjustment (P fat mass in females, statistically explained by their greater BMD, but not by markers of bone turnover.

  8. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  9. The increase of fatty acid-binding protein aP2 in overweight and obese children: interactions with dietary fat and impact on measures of subclinical inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberli, I; Beljean, N; Lehmann, R; I'Allemand, D; Spinas, G A; Zimmermann, M B

    2008-10-01

    In adults, circulating aP2 may link obesity, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, but there are few data in children. Experimental models support that dietary factors, particularly dietary fat, may be major determinants of phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate, in normal, overweight and obese children, the relationships among aP2, the metabolic syndrome, inflammation and diet. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Northern Switzerland. Subjects for this study were 6- to 14-year-old, prepubertal and early pubertal, normal weight, overweight and obese children (n=124). Body mass index (BMI), body fat percent, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, circulating aP2, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma lipids and dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients were determined. Circulating aP2 markedly increased with increasing central and total adiposity, and predicted measures of insulin resistance. Independent of BMI standard deviation scores and puberty, aP2 correlated with intake of the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E as well as circulating concentrations of CRP, leptin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Children with lower aP2 concentrations consuming high-fat diets did not show an increase in fasting insulin or CRP, whereas those with higher aP2 concentrations showed marked increases in these measures with high intakes of fat or saturated fat. Increased central and overall adiposity in children are associated with higher circulating aP2 concentrations. In children with high dietary intakes of total fat and saturated fat, but not those with low intakes, higher aP2 concentrations are associated with measures of insulin resistance and inflammation.

  10. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Nicolas D; Shrivastava, Cara R; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2); 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal ( approximately 800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal ( approximately 530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the "missing" fat ( approximately 30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [(13)C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [(13)C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)). The recovery of the ingested [(13)C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 +/- 252 and 687 +/- 161 microM.h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [(13)C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 +/- 252 and 1,134 +/- 247 microM.h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36). In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose

  11. Cardiovascular risk score is linked to subcutaneous adipocyte size and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, M; Arner, P

    2017-09-01

    Although white adipose tissue mass and distribution correlates with cardiovascular disease, the fat cell-specific perturbations underlying this association are not known. We determined the relationship between adipocyte size and lipid metabolism with cardiovascular risk. Adipocyte size as well as spontaneous (basal) and hormone-stimulated effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism (lipolysis and lipogenesis) were investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of 304 men and 775 women. Subjects were classified into five categories according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) metabolic syndrome criteria. Adipocyte size increased with increasing ATPIII score (P ATPIII (P ATPIII classes. Basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis decreased with increasing score (P ATPIII score and lipolysis but negatively with lipogenesis. All these differences were independent of age, sex and body weight status (P ATPIII in score. Independently of sex, age and body weight status, a high cardiovascular risk score associates with increased circulating free fatty acid levels and hormone-specific alterations of lipolysis/lipogenesis in enlarged subcutaneous fat cells. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  13. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  14. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Fan; Cai, Yin; Cai, Yu; Wang, Yu; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT. The expression of fat-specific protein (FSP)-27, a protein that promotes fusion of triglycerides and formation of unilocular lipid droplets were diminished, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, the upstream regulator of FSP27, was enhanced in EP4-deficient mice. The present study showed that EP4 acts as a negative regulator of WAT remodeling, it tightly coordinates rates of triglyceride storage in lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiratory function in subcutaneous white adipocytes through the phosphorylated AMPK-FSP27 signaling axis. Thus, deletion of EP4 increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in WAT, and fat mass loss ensues in mice.-Ying, F., Cai, Y., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Tang, E. H. C. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  16. Increased bone resorption and impaired bone microarchitecture in short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Janina M; Kiefer, Florian W; Varga, Peter; Pail, Pamela; Rauner, Martina; Stupphann, Daniela; Resch, Heinrich; Moser, Doris; Zysset, Philippe K; Stulnig, Thomas M; Pietschmann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Although obesity traditionally has been considered a condition of low risk for osteoporosis, this classic view has recently been questioned. The aim of this study was to assess bone microarchitecture and turnover in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n = 18) were randomized into 3 diet groups. One third (n = 6) received a low-fat diet for 24 weeks, one third was kept on an extended high-fat diet (eHF), and the remaining was switched from low-fat to high-fat chow 3 weeks before sacrifice (sHF). Serum levels of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, and cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) were measured. In addition, bone microarchitecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography; and lumbar spine bone density was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin were significantly elevated in obese animals (sHF: +48%, +24%, +265%, and +102%; eHF: +43%, +52%, +761%, and +292%). The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin showed a negative correlation with bone density and bone volume. Interestingly, short-term high-fat chow caused similar bone loss as extended high-fat feeding. Bone volume was decreased by 12% in sHF and 19% in eHF. Bone mineral density was 25% (sHF) and 27% (eHF) lower when compared with control mice on low-fat diet. As assessed by the structure model index, bone microarchitecture changed from plate- to rod-like appearance upon high-fat challenge. Trabecular and cortical thickness remained unaffected. Short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity caused significant bone loss in male C57BL/6J mice mainly because of resorptive changes in trabecular architecture. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H2O2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  18. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  19. Limb fat to trunk fat ratio in elderly persons is a strong determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Shai; Feiner, Joshua J; Melendez, Mark M; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2007-09-01

    Similar to lipodystrophy syndromes, aging results in increased visceral adiposity with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the extremities. The hypothesis of this study is that the distribution of limb fat to trunk fat (LF/TF) ratio in elderly persons has a stronger correlation than trunk fat alone to insulin resistance and adiponectin levels. Thirty-eight elderly participants were divided into an insulin-resistant (IR) group and an insulin-sensitive (IS) group. Limb fat and trunk fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. There was no significant difference between the IS and IR groups with respect to body mass index, body fat index, absolute amount of trunk fat, or percent body fat. However, the difference in LF/TF ratio between the IS (1.02 +/- 0.05) and the IR groups (0.77 +/- 0.05) was highly significantly different (p <.001). Insulin resistance had a stronger correlation to the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.61, p <.001) than to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.32, p =.051). Adiponectin levels had a strong association with the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.63, p <.001), but did not correlate to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.24, p =.18). The distribution of body fat (LF/TF ratio) in elderly persons is a stronger determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels than is trunk fat alone. The LF/TF ratio can be a useful tool to assess insulin sensitivity in the elderly population.

  20. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Baur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1 a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h−1; (2 HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS; and (3 HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h−1; Low HMS. The exercise protocol (~3 h consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso; 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low, and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (−19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; −22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely, but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  1. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel A; Vargas, Fernanda de C S; Bach, Christopher W; Garvey, Jordan A; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-06-25

    While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS). The exercise protocol (~3 h) consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively) relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso); 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low), and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (-19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; -22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely) during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely) and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely) vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely), but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  2. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (Pdiet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P; Conti, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body fat assessment in women. Special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J A; Friedl, K E

    1992-04-01

    Methods of in vivo body fat estimation are based on simple assumptions about body composition which work reasonably well for men, while estimations in women have been largely extrapolated from the male studies so that women are treated as men with just more of the same fat. Compared to men, fat regulation in women is considerably more elaborate, with more and different sites for storage and a larger proportion of fat distributed to the extremities and in subcutaneous locations. Thus, a ratio of waist-to-hips girth which reflects increasing fatness in men only specifies 2 different extremes of a broader spectrum of possibilities for fat distribution in women. This complicates anthropometric prediction of total fatness and clearly limits the generalisability of any female equations. Anthropometric methods are further confounded by difficulties in the criterion methods against which they are developed. For example, the validity of assumptions about the fractional contributions of bone mineral and body water to fat-free mass and density may not hold through the reproductive cycles. Women athletes involved in weight-bearing or strength training may increase bone mineral content above average values but if they become amenorrhoeic, bone mineral density may fall significantly below average values. Fit premenopausal women distribute fat differently and have a higher bone mineral content than unfit postmenopausal women. Genetic factors which also affect criterion method assumptions in men are superimposed on these additional complications in women. Body fat in female athletes extends across almost the entire range of female fatness, with some of the lowest measurements in distance runners and body builders which fall into the normal male range, but also with some relatively high values in swimmers and strength athletes, which would classify these women as obese by male standards. Thus, total body fat reflects a more complex regulation and has a different meaning to health

  6. Increased television viewing is associated with elevated body fatness but not with lower total energy expenditure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Diane M; Djafarian, Kurosh; Stewart, Joanne; Speakman, John R

    2009-04-01

    Television (TV) viewing in children is associated with a higher body mass index, but it is unknown whether this reflects body fatness, and, if it does, why. The objective was to investigate whether TV viewing is associated with body fatness, physical activity, and total energy expenditure in preschool children. Eighty-nine children were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by doubly labeled water, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by accelerometry. There was a significant positive association between fat mass (corrected for fat-free body mass) and TV viewing (F = 9.05, P = 0.004). Each extra hour of watching TV was associated with an extra 1 kg of body fat. Children who watched more TV were also significantly less physically active (F = 5.16, P = 0.026). Independent of body composition and sex, children with greater physical activity levels had higher TEE (F = 5.15, P = 0.029); however, physical activity did not mediate the relation between TV viewing and adiposity (P > 0.05). Preschool children who watch more TV are fatter and are less active, and activity influences TEE. However, despite TV viewing being linked to lower physical activity, the relation between TV viewing and fatness is not mediated by physical activity. The results suggest that a relation between TV viewing and fatness is more likely to be due to an effect on food intake.

  7. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsouris, David; Qi, Peter; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Stanojcic, Mile; Chen, Peter; Parousis, Alexandra; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-11-24

    Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism.

  9. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernersson Åsa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Methods Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6 years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. Results During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8 kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1 kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4 kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018. DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9 kg (p = 0.01. After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0 kg (p = 0.01 while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5 kg (p = 0.88. Conclusion One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  10. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  11. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Jade Cabestre; Margatho, Lisandra Oliveira; Rorato, Rodrigo; Rosales, Roberta Ribeiro Costa; Debarba, Lucas Kniess; Coletti, Ricardo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Carol F; Elias, Lucila Leico K

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. [EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF CORE FAT TRANSFER WITH DIFFERENT DIAMETERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wangchi; Liang, Zhi; Yang, Weiguo; Lin, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the survival rate of core fat tissue with different diameters by advanced fat harvesting instrument. Based on core fat transfer by 1 mL syringe, the fat harvesting instrument was modified with different diameters, including 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm respectively. Between May 2014 and April 2015, the fat harvesting instrument with diameters of 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm was respectively used to harvest abdominal fat in 3 of 12 patients undergoing autologous fat transplantation. The glucose transportation quantities and the fat cell viability were measured. Then 64 nude mice at the age of 3-4 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups (groups A, B, C, and D, n=16). And 0.5 mL fat harvested with diameters of 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm was implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous space. After fat transplantation, the mice survival and the appearance at the recipient site were observed. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after fat transplantation, the grafted fat was harvested for gross, histological and immunohistochemical observations; the intact adipocytes and capillary were counted. The glucose transportation quantities gradually increased with increased diameter, showing significant difference among groups (Pappearance became flat at the recipient site, but the appearance of groups C and D was better than groups A and B. Normal shape of the fat and capillary were found in groups C and D. At immediate and 1 week after fat transplantation, there was no significant difference in fat weight among 4 groups (P>0.05); the fat weight of group A was significantly less than that of groups B, C, and D (P0.05). Histological and immunohistochemical observations showed better integrity of the cells, less necrosis, and higher vascular density in group D than groups A, B, and C as time extension. The adipocyte integrity of group A was significantly worse than that of other 3 groups at other time points (P0.05). At each time point, the capillary counting had an increasing trend with increased diameter

  13. Cinnamomum cassia Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice through the Increase of Muscle Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Young; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Anna; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo Won

    2017-01-01

    The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks. CC extract administration significantly decreased body weights, food intakes, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and ALT levels, prevented oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, inhibited the protein expressions of MyHC and PGC1[Formula: see text] and the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppressed lipid accumulation in liver, decreased adipocyte size and increased muscle mass in obese mice. For this in vitro study, C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into the myotubes for five days, and then treated with CC extract (0.1 or 0.2[Formula: see text]mg/ml) for 24[Formula: see text]h. CC extract significantly increased ATP levels by increasing the mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as, PGC1[Formula: see text], NRF-1, and Tfam, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC. Our results suggest CC extract controls weight gain in obese mice by inhibiting lipid accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, and that its action mechanism involves the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells.

  14. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa

    2009-01-01

    and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X......OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous......-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue areas using abdominal computed tomography at 18 to 20 years of age. RESULTS: The main finding in the present study was that subjects with increases in BMI Z score of more than 1 SD during adolescence had, independent of prepubertal BMI, both larger subcutaneous (+138%; P

  15. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake.

  16. Prolonged high fat/alcohol exposure increases TRPV4 and its functional responses in pancreatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L P; Ma, F; Abshire, S M; Westlund, K N

    2013-05-01

    The present study investigated transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) ion channels in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) isolated from rats with high-fat and alcohol diet (HFA)-induced chronic pancreatitis. TRPV4 is a calcium-permeable nonselective ion channel responsive to osmotic changes, alcohol metabolites arachidonic acid, anandamide, their derivatives, and injury-related lipid mediators. Male Lewis rats were fed HFA for 6-8 wk before isolation and primary culture of PSCs. Control PSCs were harvested from rats fed standard chow. Immunoreactivity for cytoskeletal protein activation product α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β subunit (PDGFR-β) characterized the cells as PSCs. TRPV4 expression increased in PSCs of HFA-fed rats and control cultures after alcohol treatment (50 mM). Cell responses to activation of inducible TRPV4 were assessed with live cell calcium imaging. Threefold increased and sustained intracellular calcium mobilization responses occurred in 70% of pancreatic stellate cells from HFA-fed rats in response to TRPV4 activators arachidonic acid, lipid second messenger, phorbol ester 4 α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD), and 50% hypoosmotic media compared with relatively unresponsive PSCs from control rats. Activation responses were attenuated by nonselective TRPV channel blocker ruthenium red. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 1 ng/ml, 16 h) increased responses to 4αPDD in control PSCs. These findings implicate TRPV4-mediated calcium responses inducible after HFA exposure and inflammation in reactive responses of activated PSCs that impair pancreatic function, such as responsiveness to cytokines and the deposition of collagen fibrosis that precipitates ductal blockage and pain.

  17. Berberine treatment increases Akkermansia in the gut and improves high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Danying; Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jimin; Weng, Shuqiang; Dong, Ling; Liu, Taotao; Hu, Yu; Shen, Xizhong

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a major role in metabolic disorders. Berberine is used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the role of berberine in modulating metabolic disorders is not fully clear because berberine has poor oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated whether the antiatherosclerotic effect of berberine is related to alterations in gut microbial structure and if so, whether specific bacterial taxa contribute to the beneficial effects of berberine. Apoe-/- mice were fed either a normal-chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Berberine was administered to mice in drinking water (0.5 g/L) for 14 weeks. Gut microbiota profiles were established by high throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effects of berberine on metabolic endotoxemia, tissue inflammation and gut barrier integrity were also investigated. Berberine treatment significantly reduced atherosclerosis in HFD-fed mice. Akkermansia spp. abundance was markedly increased in HFD-fed mice treated with berberine. Moreover, berberine decreased HFD-induced metabolic endotoxemia and lowered arterial and intestinal expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Berberine treatment increased intestinal expression of tight junction proteins and the thickness of the colonic mucus layer, which are related to restoration of gut barrier integrity in HFD-fed mice. Modulation of gut microbiota, specifically an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, may contribute to the antiatherosclerotic and metabolic protective effects of berberine, which is poorly absorbed orally. Our findings therefore support the therapeutic value of gut microbiota manipulation in treating atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( AEE intake. Endogenous losses of AEE were greater ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( AEE than CO. Dietary fat source did not affect endogenous losses of AEE. The lower digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  19. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  20. Effects of bariatric surgery on cardiac ectopic fat: lesser decrease in epicardial fat compared to visceral fat loss and no change in myocardial triglyceride content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Jacquier, Alexis; Kober, Frank; Abdesselam, Ines; Cuisset, Thomas; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Emungania, Olivier; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-10-09

    This study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss on cardiac ectopic fat using 3T magnetic resonance imaging in morbid obesity. Heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in obese patients. Deposition of cardiac ectopic fat has been related to increased heart risk. Whether sustained weight loss can modulate epicardial fat or myocardial fat is unknown. Twenty-three morbidly obese patients underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), magnetic resonance imaging to assess epicardial fat volume (EFV), cardiac function, and computed tomography visceral abdominal fat (VAF) measurements at baseline and 6 months after BS. The BS reduced body mass index significantly, from 43.1±4.5 kg/m2 to 32.3±4.0 kg/m2, subcutaneous fat from 649±162 cm2 to 442±127 cm2, VAF from 190±83 cm2 to 107±44 cm2, and EFV from 137±37 ml to 98±25 ml (all ploss (ploss in EFV was limited (-27±11%) compared to VAF diminution (-40±19%). The EFV variation was not correlated with percentage of body mass index or VAF loss (p=0.007). The ratio of %EFV to %VAF loss decreased with sleep apnea syndrome (1.34±0.3 vs. 0.52±0.08, pfat deposition, with a significant decrease in epicardial fat and no change in myocardial fat. Epicardial fat volume loss was limited in patients with sleep apnea. (Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Epicardial Adipose Tissue and on Myocardial Function; NCT01284816). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A-mode and B-mode ultrasound measurement of fat thickness: a cadaver validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Thompson, Brennan J; Anderson, D Andy; Schwartz, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    With technological advances, there has been a resurgence in ultrasound as a method to measure subcutaneous fat thickness. Despite the increased interest in this methodology, research comparing A-mode and B-mode ultrasound devices is lacking. Subcutaneous fat thickness measured by a low resolution (2.5 MHz) A-mode ultrasound and a high resolution (12 MHz) B-mode ultrasound were compared to the actual fat thickness in dissected cadavers. Subcutaneous fat thickness of six cadavers was measured at the abdomen, thigh, triceps, and calf (plus chest for males and suprailiac for females) with both ultrasound devices before the cadavers were dissected and site-specific thickness was measured. Correlations between both ultrasounds and the dissected measurement exceeded 0.90 at all sites with a few exceptions. At the abdomen, the relationship between the ultrasounds was 0.76, and the B-mode and dissected measurement was also 0.76. The correlation between dissection and A-mode was 0.75 for the suprailiac site, but it was not possible to discern the separation of tissue at this site when using the B-mode device. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the devices and the dissected measurement at any of the six sites. The mean difference in fat thickness between A-mode and B-mode was mode and B-mode ultrasound are equally capable of providing measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness with an accuracy of <1 mm at most sites.

  2. Reduced protein diets increase intramuscular fat of psoas major, a red muscle, in lean and fatty pig genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M S; Lopes, P A; Costa, P; Coelho, D; Alfaia, C M; Prates, J A M

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of pig's genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (control v. reduced) on intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fatty acid composition and fibre profile of psoas major, a representative red muscle in pig's carcass scarcely studied relative to white longissimus lumborum. The experiment was conducted on 40 intact male pigs (20 Alentejana purebred and 20 Large White×Landrace×Pietrain crossbred) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Pigs were divided and allocated to four dietary groups: control protein diet equilibrated for lysine (17.5% of CP and 0.7% of lysine) and reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13.1% of crude protein and 0.4% of lysine) within a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two genotypes and two diets). Alentejana purebred had higher IMF content (15.7%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (8.9%), whereas crossbred pigs had higher PM weight (46.3%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (20.1%). The genotype also affected colour with higher lightness (15.1%) and yellowness (33.8%) and lower redness (9.9%) scores in crossbred pigs. In line with this, fatty pigs displayed more oxidative fibres (29.5%), whilst lean pigs had more glycolytic (54.4%). Relative to fatty acids, RPD increased MUFA (5.2%) and SFA (3.2%) but decreased PUFA (14.8%). Ultimately, RPD increased IMF content (15.7%) in the red muscle under study, with no impact on glycolytic to oxidative fibre type transformation.

  3. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, Jasper; Timmers, S.; Warnke, I.; Jocken, J.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Groot, de Philip; Bendik, Igor; Schrauwen, Patrick; Goossens, Gijs H.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by
    impairments in lipid metabolism.We previously showed that 3-d supplementation
    of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol
    (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the
    capacity to switch from fat

  4. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, J.; Timmers, S.; Warnke, I.; Jocken, J.W.; Boekschoten, M. van; Groot, P.; Bendik, I.; Schrauwen, P.; Goossens, G.H.; Blaak, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by impairments in lipid metabolism. We previously showed that 3-d supplementation of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the capacity to switch from fat toward

  5. Maternal fat, but not lean, mass is increased among overweight/obese women with excess gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERGGREN, Erica K.; GROH-WARGO, Sharon; PRESLEY, Larraine; HAUGUEL-DE MOUZON, Sylvie; CATALANO, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight gain in pregnancy is an essential physiological adaptation, supporting growth and development of a fetus, and is distributed among lean mass including total body water, and fat mass gains. Although gestational weight gain provides a source of energy for the mother and fetus, excess gestational weight gain may underlie reported associations between parity and future metabolic disorders, and is linked to postpartum weight retention and insulin resistance. Although weight gain is often proposed as a modifiable variable to mitigate adverse maternal and offspring health outcomes, our knowledge of specific maternal body composition changes with weight gain, and the potential metabolic consequences, is limited. Furthermore, although gestational weight gain alters maternal body composition, the impact of excess weight gain on fat and lean mass is not well studied. Understanding the accrual of fat and lean body mass may improve our understanding of the role of excessive gestational weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. Objective To quantify the relationship between gestational weight gain and maternal fat and lean body mass accrual, and to compare fat and lean body mass accrual according to 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy adherence. We hypothesized that exceeding current weight gain guidelines would be associated with greater fat, compared with lean body, mass accrual. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 49 overweight/obese women; all 49 are included in this secondary analysis. Maternal weight and body composition using air densitometry (BOD POD) were collected in early (13 0/6-16 6/7 weeks) and late (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks) pregnancy. Correlations were made between gestational weight gain and change in fat and lean body mass. We compared change in fat and lean body mass by adherence to 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy

  6. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  7. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  8. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  9. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  10. High-fat diet action on adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity depends on the control low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Awada, Manar; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Capel, Frédéric; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Debard, Cyrille; Pesenti, Sandra; Morio, Béatrice; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Animal studies using a high-fat diet (HFD) have studied the effects of lipid overconsumption by comparing a defined HFD either with a natural-ingredient chow diet or with a defined low-fat diet (LFD), despite the dramatic differences between these control diets. We hypothesized that these differences in the control diet could modify the conclusions regarding the effects that an increase of fat in the diet has on several metabolic parameters. For 11 weeks, C57bl6/J mice were fed a low-fat chow diet (8% energy from fat), a typical semisynthetic LFD (12%), or a semisynthetic HFD (sy-HF) (40%). Conclusions about the effect of sy-HF on body weight gain, subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue inflammation were modified according to the control LFD. Conversely, conclusions about epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; fat intake effects on liver and muscular lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and markers of low-grade inflammation; and of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration were the same regardless of the use of low-fat chow diet or semisynthetic LFD. For some physiological outcomes, conflicting conclusions were even reached about the effects of increased fat intake according to the chosen low-fat control. Some deleterious effects of sy-HF may not be explained by lipid overconsumption but rather by the overall quality of ingredients in a semisynthetic diet. According to the control LFD chosen, conclusions on the lipid-related effects of HFDs must be formulated with great care because some end points are profoundly affected by the ingredient composition of the diet rather than by fat content. © 2013.

  11. Visceral adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with dyslipidemia independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y; Tchernof, André

    2011-05-01

    We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

  12. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  13. Increased hepatic fatty acid polyunsaturation precedes ectopic lipid deposition in the liver in adaptation to high-fat diets in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Francisca; Duarte, João M N; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-10-12

    We monitored hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid (FA) composition in the context of enhanced lipid handling induced by a metabolic high-fat diet (HFD) challenge and fasting. Mice received a control diet (10% of kilocalories from fat, N = 14) or an HFD (45% or 60% of kilocalories from fat, N = 10 and N = 16, respectively) for 26 weeks. A subset of five mice receiving an HFD (60% of kilocalories from fat) were switched to the control diet for the final 7 weeks. At nine time points, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in vivo at 14.1 T, interleaved with glucose tolerance tests. Glucose intolerance promptly developed with the HFD, followed by a progressive increase of fasting insulin level, simultaneously with that of HLC. These metabolic defects were normalized by dietary reversal. HFD feeding immediately increased polyunsaturation of hepatic FA, before lipid accumulation. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic lipids (increased HLC and FA polyunsaturation, decreased FA monounsaturation) in control-diet-fed mice were not completely reproduced in HFD-fed mice, not even after dietary reversal. A similar adaptation of hepatic lipids to both fasting and an HFD suggests common mechanisms of lipid trafficking from adipose tissue to the liver. Altered hepatic lipid handling with fasting indicates imperfect metabolic recovery from HFD exposure.

  14. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fat; Heart disease - polyunsaturated fat; Peripheral artery disease - polyunsaturated fat; PAD - polyunsaturated fat; Stroke - polyunsaturated fat; CAD - polyunsaturated fat; Heart healthy diet - polyunsaturated fat

  16. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Emily A; Stroup, Bridget M; Murali, Sangita G; O'Neill, Lucas M; Ntambi, James M; Ney, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone. Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test. Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat content, GMP increased total body bone

  17. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Sawin

    Full Text Available Glycomacropeptide (GMP is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear.To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat or 13% Fat Kcal (control with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone.Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal or control diets (13% Fat Kcal with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test.Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD, femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat content, GMP increased total

  18. Associations of fat and muscle tissue with cognitive status in older adults: the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spauwen, Peggy J J; Murphy, Rachel A; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa E; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Lopez, Oscar L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-03-01

    studies on the association of dementia with specific body composition (BC) components are scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations of BC measures with different levels of cognitive function in late-life. we studied 5,169 participants (mean age 76 years, 42.9% men) in the AGES-Reykjavik Study of whom 485 (9.4%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 307 (5.9%) with dementia. Visceral fat, abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat, and thigh muscle were assessed by computed tomography. MCI and dementia were based on clinical assessment and a consensus meeting; those without MCI or dementia were categorised as normal. Multinomial regression models assessed the associations stratified by sex and in additional analyses by midlife body mass index (BMI). among women, there was a decreased likelihood of dementia per SD increase in abdominal subcutaneous fat (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59-0.88), thigh subcutaneous fat (0.81; 0.67-0.98) and thigh muscle (0.63; 0.52-0.76), but not visceral fat, adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, stroke and depression. Inverse associations of fat with dementia were attenuated by weight change from midlife and were strongest in women with midlife BMI muscle was associated with a decreased likelihood of dementia (0.75; 0.61-0.92). BC was not associated with MCI in men or women. a higher amount of abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat were associated with a lower likelihood of dementia in women only, while more thigh muscle was associated with a lower likelihood of dementia in men and women.

  19. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  20. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  1. Irvingia gabonensis fat: nutritional properties and effect of increasing amounts on the growth and lipid metabolism of young rats wistar sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Linder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs are generally considered to increase plasma cholesterol. It has also been claimed that they increase cardio-vascular disease, although the claim that some of SFAs can increase HDL-cholesterol is poorly documented. Irvingia gabonensis kernels after being dried and crushed they are generally used to prepare a sticky and aromatic soup very much consumed in Cameroun and West Africa countries. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of dika nut fat on the growing and lipids metabolism of young rats. Method For The nutritional evaluation related to the performances of growth and the analysis of increasing amounts of dika nut fat (0; 5.1; 7.34 and 13.48% in young rats of wistar sp. The animals were taken individually out of metabolic cage for each ration 5 repetitions per sex (males and females were carried out. Results The results obtained during the 3 weeks of treatment shows that the performances of consumption were positive. A highly significant increase (P Conclusion This study shows that the increasing amount of dika nut fat alter significantly cholesterol and triglyceride at high dose diet, but also increase HDL-cholesterol.

  2. Effects of a hyperbaric environment on subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-top).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Tafeit, Erwin; Fraidl, Michaela; Dietmaier, Gabriele; Anegg, Udo; Klemen, Huberta; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The physiological reactions of the body in scuba diving situation can be simulated in a pressure chamber by increasing the ambient pressure. In this study the influence of a hyperbaric environment of 6 bar on the changes of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thicknesses on different body sites in 68 voluntary men with undersea diving experience was investigated. Measurements of SAT-topography (SAT-Top) were performed with the optical device Lipometer before and after hyperbaric exposure. We observed a significant increase of the SAT-layers of the upper body zones, upper abdomen (+24.5%), lower abdomen (+21%) and front chest (+19%) after hyperbaric exposure. This increase of volume can be assumed to the nitrogen accumulation in fat cells at increased ambient pressures. In conclusion we describe for the first time in detail the influence of a hyperbaric environment on quantitative and topographic changes of SAT.

  3. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol buildup in your arteries (blood vessels). Cholesterol is ...

  4. Arterial and fat tissue inflammation are highly correlated: a prospective {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Stephanie; Moncrieff, Colin; Izquierdo-Garcia, David [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease might relate to inflammation in both fat tissue and the arterial wall. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET is a surrogate marker of vessel wall inflammation. The aim of the study was to measure FDG uptake in both regions using PET and identify links between adipose and arterial inflammation. Included in the study were 173 cardiovascular patients who were prospectively imaged with FDG PET/CT. Arterial FDG uptake was measured in the carotid arteries and ascending aorta. The same was done in fat tissue in the neck, the presternal region (both subcutaneous) and the pericardium. FDG uptake was quantified as average maximal target-to-background ratio ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify significant associations between arterial and adipose tissue FDG uptake and clinical variables as given by the standardized correlation coefficient (β). FDG uptake values in all fat tissue regions were highly predictive of vascular FDG uptake in both the carotids (β 0.262, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region) and aorta (β 0.22, p = 0.008, in the chest pericardial region; β 0.193, p = 0.019, in the chest subcutaneous region). Obesity was significantly associated with elevated FDG uptake in adipose tissue (β 0.470, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region; β 0.619, p = 0.028, in the chest subcutaneous region; β 0.978, p = 0.035, in the chest pericardial region). FDG uptake in diverse fat tissue regions was significantly associated with arterial FDG uptake, a reasonable surrogate of inflammation. Increasing body weight significantly predicted the level of fatty inflammation. FDG PET therefore provides imaging evidence of an inflammatory link between fat tissue and the vasculature in patients with cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  5. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  6. Dysfunctional fat cells, lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFronzo, R A

    2004-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Considerable evidence implicates altered fat topography and defects in adipocyte metabolism in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In individuals who develop type 2 diabetes, fat cells tend to be enlarged. Enlarged fat cells are resistant to the antilipolytic effects of insulin, leading to day-long elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Chronically increased plasma FFA stimulates gluconeogenesis, induces hepatic and muscle insulin resistance, and impairs insulin secretion in genetically predisposed individuals. These FFA-induced disturbances are referred to as lipotoxicity. Enlarged fat cells also have diminished capacity to store fat. When adipocyte storage capacity is exceeded, lipid 'overflows' into muscle and liver, and possibly the beta-cells of the pancreas, exacerbating insulin resistance and further impairing insulin secretion. In addition, dysfunctional fat cells produce excessive amounts of insulin resistance-inducing, inflammatory and atherosclerosis-provoking cytokines, and fail to secrete normal amounts of insulin-sensitizing cytokines. As more evidence emerges, there is a stronger case for targeting adipose tissue in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists, for example the thiazolidinediones, redistribute fat within the body (decrease visceral and hepatic fat; increase subcutaneous fat) and have been shown to enhance adipocyte insulin sensitivity, inhibit lipolysis, reduce plasma FFA and favourably influence the production of adipocytokines. This article examines in detail the role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and highlights the potential of PPAR agonists to improve the management of patients with the condition.

  7. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Obesity Resistance and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Ahnak-/- Mice Fed a High Fat Diet Are Related to Impaired Adipogenesis and Increased Energy Expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Shin

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that AHNAK expression is altered in obesity, although its role in adipose tissue development remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which Ahnak influences adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis.We investigated the in vitro role of AHNAK in adipogenesis using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs and C3H10T1/2 cells. AHNAK-KO male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat and examined for glucose and insulin tolerances, for body fat compositions, and by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Energy expenditures were assessed using metabolic cages and by measuring the expression levels of genes involved in thermogenesis in white or brown adipose tissues.Adipogenesis in ADSCs was impaired in AHNAK-KO mice. The loss of AHNAK led to decreased BMP4/SMAD1 signaling, resulting in the downregulation of key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (P<0.05. AHNAK directly interacted with SMAD1 on the Pparγ2 promoter. Concomitantly, HFD-fed AHNAK-KO mice displayed reduced hepatosteatosis and improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance (P<0.001, enhanced insulin sensitivity (P<0.001, and increased energy expenditure (P<0.05, without undergoing alterations in food intake and physical activity.AHNAK plays a crucial role in body fat accumulation by regulating adipose tissue development via interaction with the SMAD1 protein and can be involved in metabolic homeostasis.

  10. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  11. Improvement of skin quality after fat grafting: clinical observation and an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojallal, Ali; Lequeux, Charlotte; Shipkov, Christo; Breton, Pierre; Foyatier, Jean-Louis; Braye, Fabienne; Damour, Odile

    2009-09-01

    Restoration of volume and contour defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. Autologous fat tissue transfer is gaining increasing popularity in this field. The aim of this study was to investigate the histologic modifications of the skin after fat tissue grafting on an animal model. Thirty nude mice, divided into three groups, were used in the experiment. All 30 mice received human fat tissue on one side. On the opposite side, 10 mice received nothing (negative control group), 10 mice received cell proliferation medium, and the remaining 10 mice received only subcutaneous tunneling. Eight weeks later, biopsies of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were performed and specimens were analyzed by hematoxylin-phloxin-saffron staining. Dermis thickness was measured. To differentiate human from murine collagen fibers, human and murine collagen type I antibodies were used. The other types of collagen were investigated by immunohistochemistry (immunostaining) using collagen type III, V, and VI antibodies. Fat tissue was found in all animals. Macroscopically, fat tissue presented normal aspects, with abundant peripheral neovascularization. Histologic examination showed abundant extracellular matrix around the injected human fat tissue. This was attributable to increased type I collagen fibers of murine origin as a result of the murine fibroblast stimulation by the grafted human fat tissue. Dermal thickness after fat grafting was significantly greater. This was not attributable to inflammatory reactions, because no modification was detected in our control groups. This study shows that fat tissue grafting stimulates a neosynthesis of collagen fibers at the recipient site and makes the dermis thicker. However, the long-term effects remain undetermined and need further investigation.

  12. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Jasper; Timmers, Silvie; Warnke, Ines; Jocken, Johan We; van Boekschoten, Mark; de Groot, Philip; Bendik, Igor; Schrauwen, Patrick; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-07-01

    The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by impairments in lipid metabolism. We previously showed that 3-d supplementation of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the capacity to switch from fat toward carbohydrate oxidation with a high-fat mixed meal (HFMM) test in men. The present study aimed to investigate the longer-term effect of EGCG+RES supplementation on metabolic profile, mitochondrial capacity, fat oxidation, lipolysis, and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. In this randomized double-blind study, 38 overweight and obese subjects [18 men; aged 38 ± 2 y; body mass index (kg/m(2)): 29.7 ± 0.5] received either EGCG+RES (282 and 80 mg/d, respectively) or placebo for 12 wk. Before and after the intervention, oxidative capacity and gene expression were assessed in skeletal muscle. Fasting and postprandial (HFMM) lipid metabolism was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, blood sampling, and microdialysis. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose infusion. EGCG+RES supplementation did not affect the fasting plasma metabolic profile. Although whole-body fat mass was not affected, visceral adipose tissue mass tended to decrease after the intervention compared with placebo (P-time × treatment = 0.09). EGCG+RES supplementation significantly increased oxidative capacity in permeabilized muscle fibers (P-time × treatment fat oxidation was not significantly affected by EGCG+RES (P-EGCG+RES = 0.46 and 0.38, respectively) but declined after placebo (P-placebo = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). Energy expenditure was not altered (P-time × treatment = 0.96). Furthermore, EGCG+RES supplementation attenuated the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations during the HFMM test that was observed after placebo (P-time × treatment = 0.04, P-placebo = 0.01). Finally, EGCG+RES had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose

  13. Fat necrosis of the breast: clinical, mammographic and sonographic features

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    Bilgen, Isil Guenhan; Ustun, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur

    2001-08-01

    Objective: the purpose of this study was to describe and quantitate the clinical, mammographic and sonographic (US) features and to evaluate the evolution of fat necrosis in the breast. Materials and methods: a retrospective review of the clinical, mammographic and US findings of 126 fat necrosis lesions in 94 patients, diagnosed between 1989 and 1999, was done. All the cases included in the study had at least 3 years follow-up mammograms. In addition, 48 patients with a total of 62 fat necrosis lesions, also had an US follow-up. Fat necrosis was diagnosed on the basis of histologic (n=25) and initial or follow-up imaging (n=69) findings. Results: the predominant mammographic features of the 114 lesions apparent on mammograms were radiolucent oil cyst (n=34, 26.9%), round opacity (n=16, 12.6%), asymmetrical opacity or heterogenicity of the subcutaneous tissues (n=20, 15.8%), dystrophic calcifications (n=34, 26.9%), clustered pleomorphic microcalcifications (n=5, 3.9%), and suspicious speculated mass (n=5, 3.9%). In five patients with 12 (9.5%) palpable masses, mammograms were normal. The predominant US features of the 112 lesions apparent on sonograms were solid (n=18, 14.2%), anechoic with posterior acoustic enhancement (n=21, 16.6%), anechoic with posterior acoustic shadowing (n=20, 15.8%), cystic with internal echoes (n=14, 11.1%), cystic with mural nodule (n=5, 3.9%) and increased echogenicity of the subcutaneous tissues (n=34, 26.9%). In five patients with 14 (11.1%) lesions, sonographic examination was normal. Mammographic follow-up showed that five of the radiolucent oil cysts developed curvilinear calcifications, six of the round opacities decreased in size and density, and another two disappeared. Eleven of the dystrophic calcifications became even more coarse. Six of the asymmetrical opacities became vague and one developed an oil cyst and coarse calcifications. The only nonoperated speculated mass developed a typical small radiolucent oil cyst in the

  14. Obesity-induced hypoadiponectinaemia: the opposite influences of central and peripheral fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M C; Oliveira, I O; Freitas, D F; Horta, B L; Ong, K K; Gigante, D P; Barros, A J D

    2017-12-01

    The substantial reduction in adiponectin concentration among obese individuals seems to depend on fat distribution and is a marker of metabolic and adipose tissue dysfunction. We aimed to: (i) address whether abdominal fat from different compartments (visceral, deep subcutaneous abdominal and superficial subcutaneous abdominal) and gluteofemoral fat are independently associated with blood adiponectin concentration; and (ii) investigate whether abdominal (proxied by waist circumference) and gluteofemoral fat (proxied by hip circumference) accumulation causally determine blood adiponectin concentration. To investigate the independent association of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat with adiponectin concentration, we used multivariable regression and data from 30-year-old adults from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (n = 2,743). To assess the causal role of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat accumulation on adiponectin concentration, we used Mendelian randomization and data from two consortia of genome-wide association studies-the GIANT (n > 210 000) and ADIPOGen consortia (n = 29 347). In the multivariable regression analysis, all abdominal fat depots were negatively associated with adiponectin concentration, specially visceral abdominal fat [men: β = -0.24 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in abdominal fat; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.31, -0.18; P = 8*10-13; women: β = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.25; P = 7*10-27), whereas gluteofemoral fat was positively associated with adiponectin concentration (men: β = 0.13 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in gluteofemoral fat; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.008; women: β = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.31; P = 7*10-11). In the Mendelian randomization analysis, genetically-predicted waist circumference was inversely related to blood adiponectin concentration (β = -0.27 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in waist circumference; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.19; P = 2

  15. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Aging Upper Face Fat Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, Rémi; Camuzard, Olivier; Piereschi, Sébastien; Staccini, Pascal; Andreani, Olivier; Georgiou, Charalambos; Benatar, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Age-related changes in fat compartments have yet to be fully characterized. Uncertainty remains in terms of volume gains/losses or shape fluctuations over time. The authors' aim was to determine the evolution of subcutaneous fat in the aging upper face, focusing on shifts in volume and dimension. Over the course of 4.5 years, 100 faces of living female Caucasian patients were prospectively studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were stratified by age as follows: group 1, 18 to 30 years; group 2, 30 to 60 years; and group 3, older than 60 years. Superficial temporal and central forehead compartments were delimited, analyzing respective volumes and dimensions by group. In 85 patients studied, superficial temporal fat (mean volume, 5.14 cm) increased 35.48 percent in total volume between youth and old age (p = 0.046). Overall height and magnitude of the lower one-third also increased with aging. Central forehead fat (mean volume, 2.56 cm), studied in 83 patients, showed a 209.75 percent volume gain in group 2 (versus group 1) and a 17.59 percent volume loss in group 3 (versus group 2) (p = 0.001). Subcutaneous facial fat fluctuates with aging, increasing in the upper face and promoting ptosis through basal compartmental expansion.

  16. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  17. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-07

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Elizabeth R.; Alexander, Barbara T.; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M.; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, fe...

  19. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

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    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. BMP4 Gene Therapy in Mature Mice Reduces BAT Activation but Protects from Obesity by Browning Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Hoffmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1. These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. On a control diet, they show unchanged body weight but improved insulin sensitivity. In contrast, AAV-BMP4-treated mice showed beiging of BAT with reduced UCP1, increased lipids, and reduced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Thus, BMP4 exerts different effects on WAT and BAT, but the overall effect is to enhance insulin sensitivity and whole-body energy expenditure by browning subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  2. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  3. An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA. In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT; in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG, and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood.

  4. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  5. Primary Sonographic Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis

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    M E Shivu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a small diffuse swelling on the left side of her face. She was diagnosed with intramuscular cysticercosis in the masseter muscle (case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the muscular system and subcutaneous tissues with surrounding phlegmon on high-resolution ultrasound and managed conservatively. To our knowledge, the imaging findings of disseminated muscular cysUcercosis have been reported before only a few numbers of times. In this case, the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of high-resolution sonography of the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. It showed multiple oval to circular, predominantly anechoic lesions, which were around 1 cm in diameter. Most of these cystic lesions showed a hyperechoic focus within suggestive of a scolex. There was no increased vascularity surrounding the lesions. Thus, sonography can primarily make the correct diagnosis of disseminated muscular cysticercosis if such lesions are seen. In endemic areas, cysticercosis should be considered one of the differential diagnosis of the subcutaneous swellings.

  6. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Stienstra, R; van Diepen, J A; Hijmans, A; van der Laak, J A; Vervoort, G M M; Tack, C J

    2013-12-01

    Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the insulin-associated increase in fat mass would also result in changes in the morphology of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and in increased inflammation, especially when weight gain was excessive. We investigated the effects of weight gain on adipocyte size, macrophage influx, and mRNA expression and protein levels of key inflammatory markers within the adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 6 months after starting insulin therapy. As expected, insulin therapy significantly increased body weight. At the level of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin treatment led to an influx of macrophages. When comparing patients gaining no or little weight with patients gaining >4% body weight after 6 months of insulin therapy, both subgroups displayed an increase in macrophage influx. However, individuals who had gained weight had higher protein levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, TNF-α and IL-1β after 6 months of insulin therapy compared with those who had not gained weight. We conclude that insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycaemic control but also induced body weight gain and an influx of macrophages into the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In patients characterised by a pronounced insulin-associated weight gain, the influx of macrophages into the adipose tissue was accompanied by a more pronounced inflammatory status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00781495. The study was funded by European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes and the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation.

  7. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J

    2011-05-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.

  8. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; Pwomen. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  9. Protein and fat meal content increase insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes – Role of duration of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Hoogt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Hyperglycaemia remains a challenge in type 1 diabetes since current regimes used to determine meal insulin requirements prove to be ineffective. This is particularly problematic for meals containing