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Sample records for subcutaneous alternaria alternata

  1. AMYLASE FROM Alternaria alternata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A local isolate of Alternaria alternata isolated from soil under the decaying cassava peels heap was screened for the production of a-amylase and hydrolysis of starch. The maximal dextrinizing amylolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme was obtained at temperature of 600C and pH 7.0. Apart from glucose, sucrose and ...

  2. Alternaria alternata as a mycoparasite of Rhizopus nigricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Pandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus nigricans was studied in vitro in dual cultures to examine their antagonistic behaviour. A. alternata parasitised R. nigricans by direct penetration of hyphae, sporangiophores and sporangia. R. nigricans is described here as a new host record for the mycoparasite A. alternata.

  3. Alternaria alternata as a mycoparasite of Rhizopus nigricans

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Pandy; Madhu Mohan; Gupta, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus nigricans was studied in vitro in dual cultures to examine their antagonistic behaviour. A. alternata parasitised R. nigricans by direct penetration of hyphae, sporangiophores and sporangia. R. nigricans is described here as a new host record for the mycoparasite A. alternata.

  4. Tenuazonic acid, a toxic produced by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronuck, R A; Steele, J A; Mirocha, C J; Christensen, C M

    1972-03-01

    Fifty-seven of 87 isolates of Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler grown on autoclaved, moist corn-rice substrate and fed to rats were lethal. The major toxin produced was isolated and characterized as tenuazonic acid. Twenty of 23 toxigenic Alternaria isolates examined produced tenuazonic acid. No tenuazonic acid could be detected in either of the field samples of sorghum or blackeyed peas, which were heavily invaded by Alternaria.

  5. Tenuazonic Acid, a Toxin Produced by Alternaria alternata1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronuck, R. A.; Steele, J. A.; Mirocha, C. J.; Christensen, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Fifty-seven of 87 isolates of Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler grown on autoclaved, moist corn-rice substrate and fed to rats were lethal. The major toxin produced was isolated and characterized as tenuazonic acid. Twenty of 23 toxigenic Alternaria isolates examined produced tenuazonic acid. No tenuazonic acid could be detected in either of the field samples of sorghum or blackeyed peas, which were heavily invaded by Alternaria. PMID:5063203

  6. Differentiation of Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria alternata based on morphology, metabolite profiles, and cultural characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    Some small-spored species belonging to the genus Alternaria Nees have been studied according to their chemical, morphological, and cultural characteristics. A data matrix was constructed based on a combination of characters. Cluster analysis of the combined data set showed good resolution of two...... groups of small-spored Alternaria the Alternaria infectoria group and the Alternaria alternata group. Isolates in the A. infectoria group produced only unique metabolites of unknown identity, whereas all isolates in the A. alternata group produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. Furthermore...

  7. Requisitos nutricionais para o fungo Alternaria alternata Nutritional requirements for the fungus Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Maria Maganhotto de S. Silva

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma linhagem de Alternaria alternata (ALT A foi cultivada em meio sintético com diferentes fontes de C, N e vitaminas. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado durante sete dias após a semeadura e a esporulação no décimo dia de incubação. O meio sintético básico suplementado com biotina, NH4Cl e os carboidratos maltose e glicose suportaram um bom crescimento micelial (em média 0,75 cm/dia. Galactose e arabinose induziram significativamente a produção de esporos (mL-1, da ordem de 5,0 x10³ e 4,1 x 10³, respectivamente. Nas diferentes fontes de vitamina e N não houve diferenças significativas quanto ao crescimento micelial e à esporulação.A strain of Alternaria alternata (ALT A was tested using different sources of C, N and vitamins in order to find a medium for its growth and sporulation. The mycelial growth was evaluated for seven days after sowing and the sporulation on the tenth day of incubation. Among various C, N and vitamins compounds tested, highest mycelial growth was achieved with maltose and glucose (C, NH4Cl (N and biotin, with an average ratio of 0.75 cm/day. Sporulation reached highest values with galactose and arabinose (5.0 x 10³ and 4.1 x 10³ conidia mL-1, respectively. Others vitamins and N compounds did not influence the growth and sporulation.

  8. Mycoherbicidal potential of Alternaria alternata for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... the use of plant pathogens as biological control agents. (Ellison and Barreto, 2004; Cipriani et al., 2009; Siddiqui et al., 2010). Recently, Siddiqui et al. (2009a) reported a new fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata responsible for causing leaf blight in C. album. The pathogen causes up to 70% mor-.

  9. Mycosynthesis of iron nanoparticles by Alternaria alternata and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology is one of the most emerging fields in the recent years. In the current investigation, we report the biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) employing Alternaria alternata fungus, which is an eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Fe-NPs were synthesized through the reduction of ...

  10. Tenuazonic acid production by Alternaria alternata and Alternaria tenuissima isolated from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N D; Diener, U L; Morgan-Jones, G

    1977-08-01

    Cultures of Alternaria alternata (three isolates) and Alternaria tenuissima (three isolates) obtained from cottonseeds and bolls were toxigenic when cultured on various laboratory media. A mycotoxin was isolated and identified as tenuazonic acid by using solvent partition, thin-layer chromatography, and instrument analyses. Toxicity was monitored with brine shrimp and chicken embryo bioassays. All cultures except A. alternata 938 produced tenuazonic acid when grown on cottonseed and on yeast extract-sucrose broth. The most toxin (266 mg/kg) was produced by A. tenuissima 843 on cottonseed.

  11. Microbial Transformation of 14-Anhydrodigoxigenin by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimei; Tang, Wanxia; Chen, Ridao; Dai, Jungui

    2015-12-01

    The microbial transformation of 14-anhydrodigoxigenin (1) by Alternaria alternata CGMCC 3.577 led to the production of seven new metabolites, 2-8. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (CD, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS) data analyses. The reactions in the bioprocess exhibited diversity, including specific oxidation, hydroxylation, reduction, epoxidation, and dehydration. In addition, a hypothetical biocatalytic pathway is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Hou

    Full Text Available The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs, such as tenuazonic acid (TeA, alternariol (AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME. By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction.

  13. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yujie; Ma, Xiao; Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564

  15. Alternaria alternata and its allergens: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Irena; Siwak, Emilia; Terlecki, Grzegorz; Wolańczyk-Mędrala, Anna; Mędrala, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Alternaria alternata is mainly an outdoor fungus whose spores disseminate in warm, dry air, so in temperate climates, their count peaks in the summers. Alternaria may also be found in damp, insufficiently ventilated houses, where its allergenic properties cocreate the sick building syndrome. Mold-induced respiratory allergies and research on Alternaria both have a lengthy history: the first was described as early as 1698 and the second dates back to 1817. However, the two were only linked in 1930 when Alternaria spores were found to cause allergic asthma. The allergenic extracts from Alternaria hyphae and spores still remain in use but are variable and insufficiently standardized as they are often a random mixture of allergenic ingredients and coincidental impurities. In contrast, contemporary biochemistry and molecular biology make it possible to obtain pure allergen molecules. To date, 16 allergens of A. alternata have been isolated, many of which are enzymes: Alt a 4 (disulfide isomerase), Alt a 6 (enolase), Alt a 8 (mannitol dehydrogenase), Alt a 10 (alcohol dehydrogenase), Alt a 13 (glutathione-S-transferase), and Alt a MnSOD (Mn superoxide dismutase). Others have structural and regulatory functions: Alt a 5 and Alt a 12 comprise the structure of large ribosomal subunits and mediate translation, Alt a 3 is a molecular chaperone, Alt a 7 regulates transcription, Alt a NTF2 facilitates protein import into the nucleus, and Alt a TCTP acts like a cytokine. The function of four allergenic proteins, Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 9, and Alt a 70 kDa, remains unknown.

  16. Toxigenic profile and AFLP variability of Alternaria alternata and Alternaria infectoria occurring on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, María Silvina; Sturm, María Elena; Reynoso, María Marta; Chulze, Sofia Noemi; Ramirez, María Laura

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability to produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata and A. infectoria strains recovered from wheat kernels obtained from one of the main production area in Argentina; to confirm using AFLPs molecular markers the identify of the isolates up to species level, and to evaluate the intra and inter-specific genetic diversity of these two Alternaria species. Among all the Alternaria strains tested (254), 84% of them were able to produce mycotoxins. The most frequent profile of toxin production found was the co-production of AOH and AME in both species tested. TA was only produced by strains of A. alternata. Amplified fragment polymorphism (AFLPs) analysis was applied to a set of 89 isolates of Alternaria spp (40 were A. infectoria and 49 were A. alternata) in order to confirm the morphological identification. The results showed that AFLPs are powerful diagnostic tool for differentiating between A. alternata and A. infectoria. Indeed, in the current study the outgroup strains, A. tenuissima was consistently classified. Characteristic polymorphic bands separated these two species regardless of the primer combination used. Related to intraspecific variability, A. alternata and A. infectoria isolates evaluated seemed to form and homogeneous group with a high degree of similarity among the isolates within each species. However, there was more scoreable polymorphism within A. alternata than within A. infectoria isolates. There was a concordance between morphological identification and separation up to species level using molecular markers. Clear polymorphism both within and between species showed that AFLP can be used to asses genetic variation in A. alternata and A. infectoria. The most important finding of the present study was the report on AOH and AME production by A. infectoria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Argentina on a semisynthetic media for the

  17. Toxigenic profile and AFLP variability of Alternaria alternata and Alternaria infectoria occurring on wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Oviedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability to produce alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and tenuazonic acid (TA by A. alternata and A. infectoria strains recovered from wheat kernels obtained from one of the main production area in Argentina; to confirm using AFLPs molecular markers the identify of the isolates up to species level, and to evaluate the intra and inter-specific genetic diversity of these two Alternaria species. Among all the Alternaria strains tested (254, 84% of them were able to produce mycotoxins. The most frequent profile of toxin production found was the co-production of AOH and AME in both species tested. TA was only produced by strains of A. alternata. Amplified fragment polymorphism (AFLPs analysis was applied to a set of 89 isolates of Alternaria spp (40 were A. infectoria and 49 were A. alternata in order to confirm the morphological identification. The results showed that AFLPs are powerful diagnostic tool for differentiating between A. alternata and A. infectoria. Indeed, in the current study the outgroup strains, A. tenuissima was consistently classified. Characteristic polymorphic bands separated these two species regardless of the primer combination used. Related to intraspecific variability, A. alternata and A. infectoria isolates evaluated seemed to form and homogeneous group with a high degree of similarity among the isolates within each species. However, there was more scoreable polymorphism within A. alternata than within A. infectoria isolates. There was a concordance between morphological identification and separation up to species level using molecular markers. Clear polymorphism both within and between species showed that AFLP can be used to asses genetic variation in A. alternata and A. infectoria. The most important finding of the present study was the report on AOH and AME production by A. infectoria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Argentina on a semisynthetic

  18. Morphogenetic Alterations of Alternaria alternata Exposed to Dicarboximide Fungicide, Iprodione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide-resistant Alternaria alternata impede the practical control of the Alternaria diseases in crop fields. This study aimed to investigate cytological fungicide resistance mechanisms of A. alternata against dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. A. alternata isolated from cactus brown spot was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA with or without iprodione, and the fungal cultures with different growth characteristics from no, initial and full growth were observed by light and electron microscopy. Mycelia began to grow from one day after incubation (DAI and continued to be in full growth (control-growth, Con-G on PDA without fungicide, while on PDA with iprodione, no fungal growth (iprodione-no growth, Ipr-N occurred for the first 3 DAI, but once the initial growth (iprodioneinitial growth, Ipr-I began at 4–5 DAI, the colonies grew and expanded continuously to be in full growth (iprodione-growth, Ipr-G, suggesting Ipr-I may be a turning moment of the morphogenetic changes resisting fungicidal toxicity. Con-G formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and septa and intact dense cytoplasm. In Ipr-N, fungal sporulation was inhibited by forming mostly undeveloped unicellular conidia with degraded and necrotic cytoplasm. However, in Ipr-I, conspicuous cellular changes occurred during sporulation by forming multicellular conidia with double layered (thickened cell walls and accumulation of proliferated lipid bodies in the conidial cytoplasm, which may inhibit the penetration of the fungicide into conidial cells, reducing fungicide-associated toxicity, and may be utilized as energy and nutritional sources, respectively, for the further fungal growth to form mature colonies as in Ipr-G that formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and intact cytoplasm with lipid bodies as in Con-G.

  19. Morphogenetic Alterations of Alternaria alternata Exposed to Dicarboximide Fungicide, Iprodione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide-resistant Alternaria alternata impede the practical control of the Alternaria diseases in crop fields. This study aimed to investigate cytological fungicide resistance mechanisms of A. alternata against dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. A. alternata isolated from cactus brown spot was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA with or without iprodione, and the fungal cultures with different growth characteristics from no, initial and full growth were observed by light and electron microscopy. Mycelia began to grow from one day after incubation (DAI and continued to be in full growth (control-growth, Con-G on PDA without fungicide, while on PDA with iprodione, no fungal growth (iprodione-no growth, Ipr-N occurred for the first 3 DAI, but once the initial growth (iprodione-initial growth, Ipr-I began at 4–5 DAI, the colonies grew and expanded continuously to be in full growth (iprodione-growth, Ipr-G, suggesting Ipr-I may be a turning moment of the morphogenetic changes resisting fungicidal toxicity. Con-G formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and septa and intact dense cytoplasm. In Ipr-N, fungal sporulation was inhibited by forming mostly undeveloped unicellular conidia with degraded and necrotic cytoplasm. However, in Ipr-I, conspicuous cellular changes occurred during sporulation by forming multicellular conidia with double layered (thickened cell walls and accumulation of proliferated lipid bodies in the conidial cytoplasm, which may inhibit the penetration of the fungicide into conidial cells, reducing fungicide-associated toxicity, and may be utilized as energy and nutritional sources, respectively, for the further fungal growth to form mature colonies as in Ipr-G that formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and intact cytoplasm with lipid bodies as in Con-G.

  20. Establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 in Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderoth, Maximilian; Pinecker, Christoph; Voß, Benjamin; Fischer, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious. In addition, A. alternata lacks a sexual cycle and classical genetic approaches cannot be combined with molecular biological methods. Here, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 can be efficiently used for gene inactivation. Two genes of the melanin biosynthesis pathway, pksA and brm2, were chosen as targets. Several white mutants were obtained after several rounds of strain purification through protoplast regeneration or spore inoculation. Mutation of the genes was due to deletions from 1bp to 1.5kbp. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was also used to inactivate the orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase gene pyrG to create a uracil-auxotrophic strain. The strain was counter-selected with fluor-orotic acid and could be re-transformed with pyrG from Aspergillus fumigatus and pyr-4 from Neurospora crassa. In order to test the functioning of GFP, the fluorescent protein was fused to a nuclear localization signal derived from the StuA transcription factor of Aspergillus nidulans. After transformation bright nuclei were visible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaf proteome profiling of transgenic mint infected with Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ragini; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Majumdar, Aparupa Bose; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2013-11-20

    The genus Mentha has been widely used in food, flavor, culinary, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Substantial damage to this crop happened regularly due to environmental stresses like metal toxicity and pathogen attack. Here, an approach has been taken to raise transgenic mint over-expressing γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-ECS), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH biosynthesis, resulted enhanced GSH content and its in planta expression confers significant tolerance towards abiotic/biotic stresses viz. metal toxicity - Cd, Zn as well as against infection of Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani. A differential proteomic analysis through 2-DE and MALDI TOF-TOF MSMS was performed to focus on the altered abundance of functionally important protein species in control and infected transgenic mint. Results showed a significant variation in the protein profile of the infected transgenic plant as compared to the wild/control transgenic counterpart. In addition to protein species related to stress and defense, redox regulation, transcription factors and energy & metabolism, protein species related to signaling and gene regulation as well as cell division also showed differential accumulation in infected transgenic. Hence, proteomics can be used as a tool to decipher the mechanism of action of GSH in providing tolerance against a necrotrophic fungus, A. alternata in transgenic mint. The reported work describes a comparative proteomics of non-model unsequenced plants like Mentha. There is a comparative protein profile between transgenic and its wild counterparts under control and infected condition. The work has an impact in crop proteomics and also tries to explain the application of proteomic approach to decipher the mechanism by which a foreign metabolite mediates stress tolerance in plant under control and infected condition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isotope fractionation of selenium during fungal biomethylation by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kathrin; Johnson, Thomas M; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    The natural abundance of stable Se isotopes may reflect sources and formation conditions of methylated Se. We aimed at (1) quantifying the degree of methylation of selenate [Se(VI)] and (hydro)selenite [Se(IV)] by the fungus Alternaria alternata at pH 4 and 7 and (2) determining the effects of these different Se sources and pH values on 82Se/76Se ratios (δ82/76Se) in methylselenides. Alternaria alternata was incubated with Se(VI) and Se(IV) in closed microcosms for 11-15 days and additionally with Se(IV) for 3-5 days at 30 °C. We determined Se concentrations and δ82/76Se values in source Se(VI) and Se(IV), media, fungi, and trapped methylselenides. In Se(VI) incubations, methylselenide volatilization ended before the 11th day, and the amounts of trapped methylselenide were not significantly different among the 11-15 day incubations. In 11-15 days, 2.9-11% of Se(VI) and 21-29% of Se(IV) were methylated, and in 3-5 days, 3-5% of Se(IV) was methylated. The initial δ82/76Se values of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were -0.69±SD 0.07‰, and -0.20±0.05‰, respectively. The δ82/76Se values of methylselenides differed significantly between Se(VI) (-3.97‰ to -3.25‰) and Se(IV) (-1.44‰ to -0.16‰) as sources after 11-15 days of incubation; pH had little influence on δ82/76Se values. Thus, the δ82/76Se values of methylselenide indicate the source species of methylselenides used in this study. The strong isotope fractionation of Se(VI) is probably attributable to the different reduction steps of Se(VI) to Se(-II) which were rate-limiting explaining the low methylation yields, but not to the methylation itself. The shorter incubation of Se(IV) for 3-5 days showed a large Se isotope fractionation of at least -6‰ before the biomethylation reaction reached its end. This initial Se isotope fractionation during methylation of Se(IV) is much larger than previously published.

  3. Diversity and movement of indoor Alternaria alternata across the mainland USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; van der Merwe, N A; Jurjević, Ž; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-08-01

    Alternaria spp. from sect. Alternaria are frequently associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma and allergic fungal rhinitis and sinusitis. Since Alternaria is omnipresent in the outdoor environment, it is thought that the indoor spore concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor spore concentration. However, few studies have investigated indoor Alternaria isolates, or attempted a phylogeographic or population genetic approach to investigate their movement. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular diversity of indoor Alternaria isolates in the USA, and to test for recombination, using these approaches. Alternaria isolates collected throughout the USA were identified using ITS, gapdh and endoPG gene sequencing. This was followed by genotyping and population genetic inference of isolates belonging to Alternaria sect. Alternaria together with 37 reference isolates, using five microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that species of Alternaria sect. Alternaria represented 98% (153 isolates) of the indoor isolates collected throughout the USA, of which 137 isolates could be assigned to A. alternata, 15 to the A. arborescens species complex and a single isolate to A. burnsii. The remaining 2% (3 isolates) represented sect. Infectoriae (single isolate) and sect. Pseudoulocladium (2 isolates). Population assignment analyses of the 137 A. alternata isolates suggested that subpopulations did not exist within the sample. The A. alternata isolates were thus divided into four artificial subpopulations to represent four quadrants of the USA. Forty-four isolates representing the south-western quadrant displayed the highest level of uniqueness based on private alleles, while the highest level of gene flow was detected between the south-eastern (32 isolates) and south-western quadrants. Genotypic diversity was high for all quadrants, and a test for linkage disequilibrium suggested that A. alternata has a cryptic sexual

  4. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, N.; Tsuge, T.

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  6. Induced resistance in tomato fruit by γ-aminobutyric acid for the control of alternaria rot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiali; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Yangyang; Fu, Da; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2017-04-15

    The study investigated the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the control of alternaria rot in tomato fruit and the possible mechanism involved. Our results showed exogenous GABA could stimulate remarkable resistance to the alternaria rot, while it had no direct antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, along with the expression of these corresponding genes, were significantly induced in the GABA treatment. The obtained data suggested GABA induced resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen A. alternata, at least in part by activating antioxidant enzymes, restricting the levels of cell death caused by reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, the key enzyme genes of GABA shunt, GABA transaminase and succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, were found up-regulated in the GABA treatment. The activation of the GABA shunt might play a vital role in the resistance mechanism underpinning GABA-induced plant immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternaria alternata infection associated osteomyelitis of maxilla: A rare disease entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata is one of the rarest fungi associated with paranasal sinusitis. Alternaria species are pigmented (also known as dematiaceous or phaeoid filamentous fungi, which are well-known soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that infrequently cause infection in humans mainly, cutaneous lesions. We present a case of osteomyelitis of maxilla caused by a rare fungus- A. alternata in a diabetic patient with poor glycemic control who was successfully treated with antifungal and surgical debridement over the period of 6 months.

  8. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PCR and real-time PCR assays to detect fungi of Alternaria alternata species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Brillowska-Dąbrowska, Anna; Jagielski, Tomasz; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the Alternaria genus are mostly associated with allergic diseases. However, with a growing number of immunocompromised patients, these fungi, with A. alternata being the most prevalent one, are increasingly recognized as etiological agents of infections (phaeohyphomycoses) in humans. Nowadays, identification of Alternaria spp. requires their pure culture and is solely based on morphological criteria. Clinically, Alternaria infections may be indistinguishable from other fungal diseases. Therefore, a diagnostic result is often delayed or even not achieved at all. In this paper we present easy to perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays enabling detection of A. alternata species. On the basis of alignment of β-tubulin gene sequences, A. alternata-specific primers were designed. DNA from fungal isolates, extracted in a two-step procedure, were used in PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The assays specificity was confirmed, since positive results were obtained for all A. alternata isolates, and no positive results were obtained neither for other molds, dermatophytes, yeast-like fungi, nor human DNA. The assays developed here enable fast and unambiguous identification of A. alternata pathogens.

  10. Sensitivity among species of Solanaceae to AAL toxins produced by Alternaria alternata f.sp lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, LA; van der Weerden, GM; Nijkamp, HJJ; Hille, J

    2000-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici produces AAL toxins that cause necrosis in tomato tissues with high specificity. Resistance or susceptibility of tomato to the fungus and insensitivity or sensitivity to AAL toxins are determined by a single locus, Asc. In order to

  11. Alternaria alternata prevalence in cereal grains and soybean seeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Leticia Elvira; González, Héctor Horacio Lucas; Resnik, Silvia Liliana; Pacin, Ana

    2007-03-01

    A mycological survey was carried out at Entre Ríos province, Argentina, on sorghum grain, maize, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested and stored wheat. The isolation frequencies and relative densities of species belonging to genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and other fungi were calculated. Alternaria alternata was the major fungal species isolated from sorghum, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested wheat, and a low incidence of Fusarium species was observed on the same substrates. In maize the major fungal species isolated was Fusarium verticillioides. The high incidence levels of A. alternata observed,suggest that it may be necessary to determine, among other mycotoxins, if Alternaria toxins occur in these commodities.

  12. Carrier-bound Alt a 1 peptides without allergenic activity for vaccination against Alternaria alternata allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaroch, T. E.; Focke, M.; Fleischmann, K.; Balic, N.; Lupinek, C.; Blatt, K.; Ferrara, R.; Mari, A.; Ebner, C.; Valent, P.; Spitzauer, S.; Swoboda, I.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is a major elicitor of allergic asthma. Diagnosis and specific immunotherapy (SIT) of Alternaria allergy are often limited by the insufficient quality of natural mould extracts. Objective To investigate whether recombinant Alt a 1 can be used for reliable diagnosis of Alternaria alternata allergy and to develop a safe, non-allergenic vaccine for SIT of Alternaria allergy. Methods The qualitative sensitization profile of 80 Alternaria-allergic patients from Austria and Italy was investigated using an allergen micro-array and the amount of Alternaria-specific IgE directed to rAlt a 1 was quantified by ImmunoCAP measurements. Peptides spanning regions of predicted high surface accessibility of Alt a 1 were synthesized and tested for IgE reactivity and allergenic activity, using sera and basophils from allergic patients. Carrier-bound peptides were studied for their ability to induce IgG antibodies in rabbits which recognize Alt a 1 and inhibit allergic patients’ IgE reactivity to Alt a 1. Results rAlt a 1 allowed diagnosis of Alternaria allergy in all tested patients, bound the vast majority (i.e. >95%) of Alternaria-specific IgE and elicited basophil activation already at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL. Four non-allergenic peptides were synthesized which, after coupling to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin, induced Alt a 1-specific IgG and inhibited allergic patients’ IgE binding to Alt a 1. Conclusions and clinical relevance rAlt a 1 is a highly allergenic molecule allowing sensitive diagnosis of Alternaria allergy. Carrier-bound non-allergenic Alt a 1 peptides are candidates for safe SIT of Alternaria allergy. PMID:22909168

  13. Cross-allergenicity between Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata determined by radioallergosorbent test inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Sakamoto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus restrictus, an osmophilic fungus, is abundant in house dust. We have shown previously that the incidence of immediate hypersensitivity to A. restrictus is comparable to that for Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata in asthmatic children. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST inhibition was used to determine whether A. restrictus shares similar allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Mycelial mats of the three species cultivated on completely synthetic media were used for extract preparation. IgE antibodies to each fungus were measured with RAST using a polyvinyl chloride microplate as a solid phase. Analysis of a serum pool obtained from nine asthmatic children with a positive RAST to A. restrictus showed that A. restrictus inhibited the RAST to A. restrictus, A. fumigatus and A. alternata by more than 80%. Similar results were observed with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Additionally, when 13 serum samples with a positive RAST to A. restrictus were tested separately, A. restrictus substantially inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in all subjects tested. A. fumigatus and A. alternata inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in 10 and 8 of the samples studied, respectively. These findings indicate that A. restrictus shares allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. The allergenic cross-reactivity between A. fumigatus and A. alternata was also demonstrated.

  14. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristina Batista de; Rentschler, Luana Lopes Assumpção; Bueno, João Tavares; Boaventura, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of...

  15. A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandwagt, Bas F.; Mesbah, Laurent A.; Takken, Frank L.W.; Laurent, Pascal L.; Kneppers, Tarcies J.A.; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.

    2000-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which

  16. Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianru; Xu, Shixiang; Wu, Tao; Guo, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils such as citronella oil exhibit antifungal activity and are potential alternative inhibitors to chemical synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases. In this study the antifungal activity of citronella oil against Alternaria alternata was investigated. In vitro, citronella oil showed strong inhibition activity against A. alternata. The minimum inhibitory concentration in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth medium was determined as 1 and 0.8 µL mL(-1) respectively. In vivo the disease incidence of Lycopersicon esculentum (cherry tomato) treated with citronella oil was significantly (P cherry tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mycoherbicidal potential of Alternaria alternata for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoherbicidal formulation was prepared in 20% canola oil emulsion with 107 conidia mL-1 of A. alternata. The mycoherbicidal formulation was sprayed at 2 - 3 and then at 4 - 5 leaf stage of the weed. Application of mycoherbicide significantly reduced the biomass of the target weed species up to 90%. Mycoherbicidal ...

  18. Mycoherbicidal potential of Alternaria alternata for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... formulation was sprayed at 2 - 3 and then at 4 - 5 leaf stage of the weed. Application ... experimental field was sandy loam in texture having organic matter ... These chemical fertilizers were ... alternata was produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. ... Effect of mycoherbicide on biomass of C. album.

  19. Barrier disrupting effects of alternaria alternata extract on bronchial epithelium from asthmatic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Marina S; Loxham, Matthew; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dennison, Patrick W; Shamji, Betty W H; Edwards, Matthew J; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    Sensitization and exposure to the allergenic fungus Alternaria alternata has been associated with increased risk of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The first cells to encounter inhaled allergens are epithelial cells at the airway mucosal surface. Epithelial barrier function has previously been reported to be defective in asthma. This study investigated the contribution of proteases from Alternaria alternata on epithelial barrier function and inflammatory responses and compared responses of in vitro cultures of differentiated bronchial epithelial cells derived from severely asthmatic donors with those from non-asthmatic controls. Polarised 16HBE cells or air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial cultures from non-asthmatic or severe asthmatic donors were challenged apically with extracts of Alternaria and changes in inflammatory cytokine release and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were measured. Protease activity in Alternaria extracts was characterised and the effect of selectively inhibiting protease activity on epithelial responses was examined using protease inhibitors and heat-treatment. In 16HBE cells, Alternaria extracts stimulated release of IL-8 and TNFα, with concomitant reduction in TER; these effects were prevented by heat-treatment of the extracts. Examination of the effects of protease inhibitors suggested that serine proteases were the predominant class of proteases mediating these effects. ALI cultures from asthmatic donors exhibited a reduced IL-8 response to Alternaria relative to those from healthy controls, while neither responded with increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) release. Only cultures from asthmatic donors were susceptible to the barrier-weakening effects of Alternaria. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium of severely asthmatic individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of Alternaria.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK- mediated signaling pathways have been known to have important functions in eukaryotic organisms. The mechanisms by which the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata senses and responds to environmental signals have begun to be elucidated. Available data indicate that A. alternata utilizes the Fus3, Hog1 and Slt2 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways, either separately or in a cooperative manner, for conidia formation, resistance to oxidative and osmotic stress, and pathogenesis to citrus. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of MAPK signaling pathways, in conjunction with the two-component histidine kinase and the Skn7 response regulator, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  1. Dual infection of a white-tailed deer by Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, I F; Gordon, M A; Stone, W B

    1975-10-01

    Infection by both Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata was found in a 5 1/2-year-old, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Encrusted lesions characteristic of dermatophilosis were observed on the hocks, flanks, and back. Giemsa-staining of smears of material from beneath the crusts revealed branching filaments, transversely and longitudinally divided into packets of coccoid cells typical of D congolensis. Hyphae morphologically consistent with those of A alternata were found in methenamine-silver- and hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tissue from the ears, flanks, and back. Nutrient agar cultures inoculated with tissue from an ear and hindlimb of the deer yielded, respectively, A alternata and D congolensis.

  2. Effects of food preservatives on Alternaria alternata growth and tenuazonic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combina, M; Dalcero, A M; Varsavsky, E; Chulze, S

    1999-10-01

    The effects of different organic acids on Alternaria alternata growth and tenuazonic acid production (TeA) were evaluated. Both TeA pure toxin solution and TeA production in solid medium were considered. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and sodium propionate, all preservatives commonly used by food industry in Argentina, were tested. TeA was stable as pure toxin solution when was treated with the salts of organic acids used. A differential effect was observed when the preservatives were evaluated in relation to A. alternata growth and TeA production in solid medium. Levels above 10 mg/kg of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate produced a total inhibition of fungal development and toxin biosynthesis. Sodium propionate produced a 59% decrease in A. alternata growth and total inhibition of TeA production only at the highest concentration of preservatives used.

  3. Resistance and susceptibility of mandarins and their hybrids to Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla de Andrade Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caused by Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brown spot (ABS is a major fungal disease of mandarins in Brazil, causing serious losses in commercial orchards of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco and Murcott tangor [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck × C. reticulata Blanco]. The response of 31 accessions/genotypes of mandarins and their hybrids to A. alternata, was evaluated in São Paulo state, Brazil. The incidence and severity of the disease in fruit were evaluated in the field, using diagrammatic scale, four times during 2008 and 2009. Based on these data, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was calculated. In parallel, in vivo and in vitro inoculations with A. alternata were made on leaves to confirm field results. Resistance and susceptibility was evaluated in controlled experiments by counting the number of lesions per leaf using a diagrammatic scale. Most of the genotypes were symptomatic after inoculation with A. alternata with disease most severe on the hybrids Nova, África do Sul, Ponkan and Murcott. Cultivars like Cravo, Nules and Ortanique that have excellent fruit quality and had lower AUDPCs, whereas Fremont and Thomas were highly resistant to the fungus and did not show any symptoms in the field or in controlled inoculations. The attractiveness and pronounced flavor of Fremont and Thomas fruit make them new options for the citriculture.

  4. Examination of Alternaria alternata mutagenicity and effects of nitrosylation using the Ames Salmonella test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T J; Cherry, W; Soper, K; Langlois, I; Vijay, H M

    2001-01-01

    Molds of the genus Alternaria are common food pathogens responsible for the spoilage of fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. Although consumption of Alternaria alternata-contaminated foodstuffs has been implicated in an elevated incidence of esophageal carcinogenesis, the mutagenic potencies of several A. alternata toxins seem unable to account for the levels of activity found using crude mycelial extracts. In this study, the mutagenic effects of nitrosylation were examined with the major Alternaria metabolites Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME), Altertoxin I (ATX I), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic Acid (TA), and Radicinin (RAD) using the Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100. In the absence of nitrosylation, ATX I was mutagenic when tested from 1 to 100 microg/plate in TA98 with rat liver S9 for activation, while AOH and ATX I were weakly mutagenic +/- S9 in TA100. Incubation with nitrite generally increased mutagenic potencies with ATX I strongly mutagenic +/- S9 in both TA98 and TA100, while ALT, AOH, AME, and RAD responses were enhanced in TA100 + S9. However, subsequent examination of three extracts made from A. alternata culture broth, acetone-washed mycelia, and the acetone washes showed a different mutagenic response with both broth and acetone washes directly mutagenic in TA98 and TA100 but with a reduced response + S9. The acetone-washed mycelial extract was found to have the lowest mutagenic activity of the three extracts tested. Nitrosylation had little effect on the mutagenicity of any of the extracts. Thus, while nitrosylation increases the mutagenicity of ATX I, and to a lesser extent that of several other Alternaria toxins, the results demonstrate that Alternaria produces a major mutagenic activity with a S. typhimurium response different from that found with the purified toxins. Efforts are currently underway to chemically identify this mutagenic species. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS) after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7) and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (HOG1) mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD). Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. PMID:24278721

  6. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase (HOG1 mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD. Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  7. Rapid Molecular detection of citrus brown spot disease using ACT gene in Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moghimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Using rapid detection methods is important for detection of plant pathogens and also prevention through spreading pests in agriculture. Citrus brown spot disease caused by pathogenic isolates of Alternaria alternata is a common disease in Iran. Materials and methods: In this study, for the first time a PCR based molecular method was used for rapid diagnosis of brown spot disease. Nine isolates of A. Alternata were isolated in PDA medium from different citrus gardens. The plant pathogenic activity was examined in tangerine leaves for isolates. Results showed that these isolates are the agents of brown spot disease. PCR amplification of specific ACT-toxin gene was performed for DNA extracted from A. alternata isolates, with 11 different fungal isolates as negative controls and 5 DNA samples extracted from soil. Results: Results showed that A. alternata, the causal agent of brown spot disease, can be carefully distinguished from other pathogenic agents by performing PCR amplification with specific primers for ACT toxin gene. Also, the results from Nested-PCR method confirmed the primary reaction and the specificity of A. alternata for brown spot disease. PCR results to control samples of the other standard fungal isolates, showed no amplification band. In addition, PCR with the DNA extracted from contaminated soils confirmed the presence of ACT toxin gene. Discussion and conclusion: Molecular procedure presented here can be used in rapid identification and prevention of brown spot infection in citrus gardens all over the country.

  8. Impaired induction of allergic lung inflammation by Alternaria alternata mutant MAPK homologue Fus3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Baum, Rachel; Lund, Sean; Khorram, Naseem; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Doherty, Taylor A

    2013-11-01

    The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is associated with development of asthma, though the mechanisms underlying the allergenicity of Alternaria are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether the MAP kinase homologue Fus3 of Alternaria contributed to allergic airway responses. Wild-type (WT) and Fus3 deficient Alternaria extracts were given intranasal to mice. Extracts from Fus3 deficient Alternaria that had a functional copy of Fus3 introduced were also administered (CpFus3). Mice were challenged once and levels of BAL eosinophils and innate cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoeitin (TSLP), and IL-25 (IL-17E) were assessed. Alternaria extracts or protease-inhibited extract were administered with (OVA) during sensitization prior to ovalbumin only challenges to determine extract adjuvant activity. Levels of BAL inflammatory cells, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as airway infiltration and mucus production were measured. WT Alternaria induced innate airway eosinophilia within 3 days. Mice given Fus3 deficient Alternaria were significantly impaired in developing airway eosinophilia that was largely restored by CpFus3. Further, BAL IL-33, TSLP, and Eotaxin-1 levels were reduced after challenge with Fus3 mutant extract compared with WT and CpFus3 extracts. WT and CpFus3 extracts demonstrated strong adjuvant activity in vivo as levels of BAL eosinophils, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as peribronchial inflammation and mucus production were induced. In contrast, the adjuvant activity of Fus3 extract or protease-inhibited WT extract was largely impaired. Finally, protease activity and Alt a1 levels were reduced in Fus3 mutant extract. Thus, Fus3 contributes to the Th2-sensitizing properties of Alternaria.

  9. Metabolic Profiling on Alternaria Toxins and Components of Xinjiang Jujubes Incubated with Pathogenic Alternaria alternata and Alternaria tenuissima via Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongqiang; Fan, Yingying; Tan, Yanglan; Tian, Ye; Liu, Na; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Duoyong; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Aibo

    2017-09-27

    Xinjiang jujubes (Zizyphus rhamnaceae) are important agro-economical foods with the highest planting area and yields in China; however, black spot disease and contaminated Alternaria toxins have unfortunately caused a decline or loss of jujube nutritional quality in recent years. In this study, we used ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry to profile both Alternaria toxins and components in three representative Xinjiang jujubes, Hami Huang, Hetian Jun, and Ruoqiang Hui. Before liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, jujubes were inoculated with two main pathogens of Alternaria alternata (Aa) and Alternaria tenuissima (At). Different combinations of jujube varieties with pathogenic isolates display different metabolic profiles, as expected. Moreover, four major Alternaria toxins, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid, were detected in all samples. The inoculation of both pathogens significantly decreased the levels of nutrients and metabolites in jujube, including four saponins, three organic acids, and three alkaloids, whereas it increased the level of several glycerol phosphates. The flavonoid profiles are diverse. Lastly, inoculation of Aa changes more metabolites in jujubes than At. Our data provide insights to better understand the detrimental contamination of Alternaria pathogens in Xinjiang jujubes and improve food safety of jujubes.

  10. Cholinesterase inhibitor (Altenuene) from an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata: optimization, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, J; Kaur, A; Kaur, R; Yadav, A K; Sharma, V; Chadha, B S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to screen endophytic fungi isolated from Vinca rosea for their potential to produce acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Endophytic fungi isolated from V. rosea (Catharanthus roseus), were screened for AChE inhibitor production using Ellman's method. Maximum inhibition against AChE (78%) was observed in an isolate VS-10, identified to be Alternaria alternata on morphological and molecular basis. The isolate also inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (73%). Significant increase (1·3 fold) was achieved after optimization of process parameters using one variable at time approach. The inhibitor was purified using chromatographic techniques. The structure elucidation of the inhibitor was carried out using spectroscopic techniques and was identified to be 'altenuene'. The purified inhibitor possessed antioxidant potential as revealed by dot blot assay. The insecticidal potential of purified inhibitor was evaluated by feeding Spodoptora litura on diet amended with inhibitor. It evinced significant larval mortality. Endophytic A. alternata can serve as a source of dual cholinesterase inhibitor 'altenuene' with significant antioxidant and insecticidal activity. This is the first report on acetylcholinestearse inhibitory activity of altenuene. Alternaria alternata has the potential to produce a dual ChE inhibitor with antioxidant activity useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in agriculture as biocontrol agent. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Discrete lineages within Alternaria alternata species group: Identification using new highly variable loci and support from morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Andrew D; Barbara, Dez J; Harrison, Richard J; Lane, Charles R; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; Woodhall, James W; Clarkson, John P

    2015-11-01

    The Alternaria alternata species group is ubiquitous in the environment acting as saprotrophs, human allergens, and plant pathogens. Many morphological species have been described within the group and it is unclear whether these represent re-descriptions of the same species or discrete evolutionary taxa. Sequencing of five loci identified three major lineages within the A. alternata species group. These loci included three new phylogenetic loci (TMA22, PGS1, and REV3) identified as highly variable based on publically available genome sequence data for Dothideomycete species. Lineages were identified as A. alternata ssp. arborescens, A. alternata ssp. tenuissima, and A. alternata ssp. gaisen in accordance with the placement of reference isolates. The phylogenetic results were supported by morphological analysis, which differentiated strains in A. alternata ssp. arborescens and A. alternata ssp. tenuissima and also aligned with previous morphological species descriptions for A. arborescens and A. tenuissima. However, phylogenetic analysis placed the morphologically described species A. alternata and A. mali within the A. alternata ssp. tenuissima and did not support them as discrete taxa. As A. alternata are of phytosanitary importance, the molecular loci used in this study offer new opportunities for molecular identification of isolates by national plant protection organizations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingshuang; Sun, Xuepeng; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianping; Chung, Kuangren; Li, Hongye

    2016-09-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces the A. citri toxin (ACT) and is the causal agent of citrus brown spot that results in significant yield losses worldwide. Both the production of ACT and the ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for A. alternata pathogenicity in citrus. In this study, we report the 34.41 Mb genome sequence of strain Z7 of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The host selective ACT gene cluster in strain Z7 was identified, which included 25 genes with 19 of them not reported previously. Of these, 10 genes were present only in the tangerine pathotype, representing the most likely candidate genes for this pathotype specialization. A transcriptome analysis of the global effects of H2O2 on gene expression revealed 1108 up-regulated and 498 down-regulated genes. Expressions of those genes encoding catalase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin and glutathione were highly induced. Genes encoding several protein families including kinases, transcription factors, transporters, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin and heat shock proteins were found associated with adaptation to oxidative stress. Our data not only revealed the molecular basis of ACT biosynthesis but also provided new insights into the potential pathways that the phytopathogen A. alternata copes with oxidative stress.

  13. Efficacy of a pyrimidine derivative to control spot disease on Solanum melongena caused by Alternaria alternata

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    Nemat M. Hassan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pyrimidine derivative (4,6-dimethyl-N-phenyldiethyl pyrimidine, DPDP was tested as a foliar spray fungicide at 50 mg l−1 for protection of eggplant (Solanum melongena from spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. Varied concentrations of DPDP (10–50 mg l−1 differentially inhibited mycelial growth, conidial count and conidial germination of A. alternata growth in vitro; the magnitude of inhibition increased with increasing concentration. In vivo, an experiment was conducted in pots using a complete block randomized design and repeated twice with three replications and four treatments (control, A. alternata alone, DPDP alone and combination of DPDP and A. alternata for 5 weeks (1 plant in pot × 3 pots per set (3 replications per treatment × 4 sets (4 treatments × 5 weeks × 2 experimental repetitions = 120 pots. In this experiment, 10-day-old eggplant seedlings were transplanted in pots and then inoculated with A. alternata, DPDP or their combination 1 week later. Leaves of the A. alternata-infected eggplant suffered from chlorosis, necrosis and brown spots during the subsequent 5 weeks. Disease intensity was obvious in infected leaves but withdrawn by DPDP. There were relationships between incidence and severity, greater in plant leaves infected A. alternata alone and diminished with the presence of DPDP. Moreover, the infection resulted in reductions in growth, decreases in contents of anthocyanins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and thiols as well as inhibitions in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Nonetheless, the application of DPDP at 50 mg led to a recovery of the infected eggplant; the infection-induced deleterious effects were mostly reversed by DPDP. However, treatment with DPDP alone seemed with no significant impacts. Due to its safe use to host and the inhibition for the pathogen, DPDP could be suggested as an efficient fungicide for

  14. Production and Characterization of Cellulase and β-Glucosidase from a Mutant of Alternaria alternata

    OpenAIRE

    Macris, Basil J.

    1984-01-01

    A mutant of Alternaria alternata excreted enhanced levels of carboxymethylcellulase and particularly β-glucosidase when grown in cellulose liquid media. Both enzymes were purified two- to four-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration, and the kinetic data showed Km values of 16.64 mg/ml of culture fluid for carboxymethylcellulase and 0.14 mM p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucoside and 0.81 mM cellobiose for β-glucosidase at pH 5. Carboxymethylcellulase and extracellular β-glucosidase fun...

  15. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

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    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  16. The major Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1: A reliable and specific marker of fungal contamination in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M F; Uriel, N; Teifoori, F; Postigo, I; Suñén, E; Martínez, J

    2017-09-18

    The ubiquitously present spores of Alternaria alternata can spoil a wide variety of foodstuffs, including a variety of fruits belonging to the Citrus genus. The major allergenic protein of A. alternata, Alt a 1, is a species-specific molecular marker that has been strongly associated with allergenicity and phytopathogenicity of this fungal species. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the detection of Alt a 1 as a reliable indicator of A. alternata contamination in citrus fruits. To accomplish this aim, sixty oranges were artificially infected with a spore suspension of A. alternata. Internal fruit material was collected at different incubation times (one, two and three weeks after the fungal inoculation) and used for both total RNA extraction and protein extraction. Alt a 1 detection was then performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Alt a 1 specific primers and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experimental model presented in this work was effective to simulate the typical Alternaria black rot phenotype and its progression. Although both PCR and ELISA techniques have been successfully carried out for detecting Alt a 1 allergen in A. alternata infected oranges, the PCR method was found to be more sensitive than ELISA. Nevertheless, ELISA results were highly valuable to demonstrate that considerable amounts of Alt a 1 are produced during A. alternata fruit infection process, corroborating the recently proposed hypothesis that this protein plays a role in the pathogenicity and virulence of Alternaria species. Such evidence suggests that the detection of Alt a 1 by PCR-based assay may be used as a specific indicator of the presence of pathogenic and allergenic fungal species, A. alternata, in fruits. This knowledge can be employed to control the fungal infection and mitigate agricultural losses as well as human exposure to A. alternata allergens and toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhamnolipids induce oxidative stress responses in cherry tomato fruit to Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fujie; Hu, Hao; Lu, Laifeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Rhamnolipids showed an antimicrobial activity applicable to a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, but mechanisms were mostly focused on their direct inhibitory effect. This study showed that disease incidence obviously decreased when cherry tomatoes were treated with rhamnolipids, whether before or after Alternaria alternata inoculation. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and catalase, were increased in rhamnolipid-pretreated cherry tomato inoculated with A. alternata within 12 h, while contents of reactive oxygen species decreased. Moreover, resistant response of cherry tomato treated with rhamnolipids and A. alternata was also attributed to activity stimulation of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, accompanied with an increase in reduced glutathione, which is beneficial for scavenging excessive H2 O2 . Results indicated that rhamnolipids could effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested cherry tomato by inducing fruit resistance and mechanisms involved in elicitation of antioxidative reactions such as the ability to scavenge excess reactive oxygen species. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Exploring polyamine metabolism of Alternaria alternata to target new substances to control the fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2017-08-01

    Polyamines are essential for all living organisms as they are involved in several vital cell functions. The biosynthetic pathway of polyamines and its regulation is well established and, in this sense, the ornithine descarboxylase (ODC) enzyme acts as one of the controlling factors of the entire pathway. In this work we assessed the inhibition of the ODC with D, l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on Alternaria alternata and we observed that fungal growth and mycotoxin production were reduced. This inhibition was not completely restored by the addition of exogenous putrescine. Actually, increasing concentrations of putrescine on the growth media negatively affected mycotoxin production, which was corroborated by the downregulation of pksJ and altR, both genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis. We also studied the polyamine metabolism of A. alternata with the goal of finding new targets that compromise its growth and its mycotoxin production capacity. In this sense, we tested two different polyamine analogs, AMXT-2455 and AMXT-3016, and we observed that they partially controlled A. alternata's viability in vitro and in vivo using tomato plants. Finding strategies to design new fungicide substances is becoming a matter of interest as resistance problems are emerging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: raquelbraghini@yahoo.com.br; Pozzi, C.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Rua Heitor Penteado 56, CEP 13460-000, Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Aquino, S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355 , CEP 01246-902, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, L.O.; Correa, B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different {gamma}-radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Seeds and grains were divided into four groups: Control Group (not irradiated), and Groups 1, 2 and 3, inoculated with an A. alternata spore suspension (1x10{sup 6} spores/mL) and exposed to 2, 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and seeded on DRBC (dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) and DCMA (dichloran chloramphenicol malt extract agar) media, after which the number of colony-forming units per gram was determined in each group. In addition, fungal morphology after irradiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 kGy was effective in reducing the growth of A. alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different {gamma}-radiation doses used.

  20. Process development for the elucidation of mycotoxin formation in Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The black mould Alternaria alternata produces a wide diversity of mycotoxins which are of particular health concern. Since no maximum allowable limits are set for Alternaria toxins in food and feed, prevention of Alternaria infestations and mycotoxin spoilage is the only way to avoid health risks. Thus, the understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis is essential. For that purpose, a reliable batch process in a 2 L bioreactor was established which enables the study of several parameters influencing the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata DSM 12633. Modified Czapek-Dox medium was used with glucose as carbon source and ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources. Consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as formation of the three mycotoxins were monitored; the average data of five independent fermentations was plotted and fitted using a logistic equation with four parameters. Maximum mycotoxin concentrations of 3.49 ± 0.12 mg/L AOH, 1.62 ± 0.14 mg/L AME and 38.28 ± 0.1 mg/L TA were obtained. In this system the effect of different aeration rates (0.53 vvm-0.013 vvm) was tested which exerted a great influence on mycotoxin production. The use of the semi-synthetic Czapek-Dox medium allowed the exchange of carbon and nitrogen sources for acetate and aspartic acid. The use of acetate instead of glucose resulted in the sole production of alternariol whereas the exchange of ammonium and nitrate for aspartate enhanced the production of both AOH and AME while TA production was not affected. PMID:21970547

  1. Effect of environmental factors on tenuazonic acid production by Alternaria alternata on soybean-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, M S; Ramirez, M L; Barros, G G; Chulze, S N

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effects of water activity (a(W); 0.995-0.90), temperature (5, 18, 25 and 30 degrees C), time of incubation (7-35 days) and their interactions on tenuazonic acid (TA) production on 2% soybean-based agar by two Alternaria alternata strains isolated from soybean in Argentina. TA production by two isolates of A. alternata was examined under interacting conditions of a(W), temperature and time of incubation on 2% soybean-based agar. Maximum TA production was obtained for both strains at 0.98 a(W), but at 30 and 25 degrees C for the strains for RC 21 and RC 39, respectively. The toxin concentration varied considerably depending on a(W), temperature, incubation time and strain interactions. TA was produced over the temperature range from 5 to 30 degrees C and a(W) range from 0.92 to 0.995, however at 5 and 18 degrees C little TA was produced at a(W) below 0.94. Contour maps were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk for TA accumulation. The optimum and marginal conditions for TA production by A. alternata on soybean-based agar were identified. The results indicated that TA production by A. alternata is favoured by different temperatures in different strains. Data obtained provide very useful information for predicting the possible risk factors for TA contamination of soybean as the a(W) and temperature range used in this study simulate those occurring during grain ripening. The knowledge of TA production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(W) conditions for growth are relevant as improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality.

  2. Isolation, identification and selection of antagonistic yeast against Alternaria alternata infection and tenuazonic acid production in wine grapes from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendes, Luciana P; Merín, María G; Fontana, Ariel R; Bottini, Rubén A; Ramirez, María L; Morata de Ambrosini, Vilma I

    2017-11-08

    Epiphytic isolates with yeast characteristics from grapes of the Malbec cultivar were obtained in order to find antagonists against Alternaria alternata. From a total of 111 isolates, 82% corresponded to the yeast-like organism Aureobasidium pullulans and the rest to the non-Saccharomyces yeasts Hanseniaspora uvarum (6.3%), Metschnikowia pulcherrima or spp. (5.4%), Cryptoccocus laurentti II (2.7%), Starmerella bacilaris or Candida zemplinina (2.7%) and Rhodotorula spp. (0.9%). The 22.4% (15 out of 67) of epiphytic yeasts and yeast-like organisms evaluated were able to reduce A. alternata infection from 0.0 to 4.4% when applied 2h previous to pathogen inoculation on wounds of grape berries. From these selected strains, 14 out of 15 strains completely prevented A. alternata infection (0.0%), which implies potential for field application. All Metschnikowia (pulcherrima or spp.), S. bacillaris and almost all H. uvarum evaluated strains showed antagonist capability against A. alternata. Meanwhile, none of the lesser nutritional requirement strains belonging to A. pullulans, Cr. laurenti II and Rhodotorula spp. did. All the yeasts with capacity to prevent A. alternata infection also reduced tenuazonic acid (TA) production by 81.2 to 99.8%, finding TA levels similar to negative controls. Therefore, the epiphytic yeasts selected are promising as biological control agents against Alternaria infection and toxin production in grapes for winemaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Similar and distinct roles of NADPH oxidase components in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-08-01

    The fungal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, which has been implicated in the production of low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS), contains mainly NoxA, NoxB (gp91(phox) homologues) and NoxR (p67(phox) homologue). Here, we report the developmental and pathological functions of NoxB and NoxR in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Loss-of-function genetics revealed that all three Nox components are required for the accumulation of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Alternaria alternata strains lacking NoxA, NoxB or NoxR also displayed an increased sensitivity to H₂O₂ and many ROS-generating oxidants. These phenotypes are highly similar to those previously seen for the Δyap1 mutant lacking a YAP1 transcriptional regulator and for the Δhog1 mutant lacking a HOG1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, implicating a possible link among them. A fungal strain carrying a NoxA NoxB or NoxA NoxR double mutation was more sensitive to the test compounds than the strain mutated at a single gene, implicating a synergistic function among Nox components. The ΔnoxB mutant strain failed to produce any conidia; both ΔnoxA and ΔnoxR mutant strains showed a severe reduction in sporulation. Mutant strains carrying defective NoxB had higher chitin content than the wild-type and were insensitive to calcofluor white, Congo red and the fungicides vinclozolin and fludioxonil. Virulence assays revealed that all three Nox components are required for the elaboration of the penetration process. The inability to penetrate the citrus host, observed for Δnox mutants, could be overcome by wounding and by reacquiring a dominant Nox gene. The A. alternata NoxR did not influence the expression of NoxB, but negatively regulated NoxA. Importantly, the expression of both YAP1 and HOG1 genes, whose products are involved in resistance to ROS, was down-regulated in fungi carrying defective NoxA, NoxB or NoxR. Our results highlight the

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals that Ethylene/H2O2-mediated hypersensitive response and program cell death determine the compatible interaction of Sand pear and alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major production restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cult...

  5. The rare case of Alternaria alternata cutaneous and pulmonary infection in a heart transplant recipient treated by azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sečníková, Zuzana; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Vojáčková, Naděžda; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Hošková, Lenka; Fialová, Jorga; Džambová, Martina; Hercogová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Alternaria alternata cutaneous and pulmonary infection in a 62-year-old man after heart transplantation treated by azole antifungals. Alternaria spp. belong to a group of opportunistic dematiaceous fungi with worldwide distribution. The cutaneous form of the infection in human is very rare and occurs predominantly among immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, diagnosis is often delayed or not reached at all. Appropriate treatment is not standardized and remains a matter of discussion. According to current studies, the best results are obtained with systemic azole antifungal therapy combined with surgical intervention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Structure-Antifungal Activity Relationship of Fluorinated Dihydroguaiaretic Acid Derivatives and Preventive Activity against Alternaria alternata Japanese Pear Pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakazaki, Shoko; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2017-08-09

    The structure-activity relationship of the antifungal fluorinated dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives was evaluated. Some of the newly synthesized lignan compounds were found to show higher antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata (Japanese pear and apple pathotypes) and A. citri than the lead compound, 3-fluoro-3'-methoxylignan-4'-ol (3). The broad antifungal spectrum of 3'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 16 was observed, and the 3'-fluoro-4'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 38 was found to show the highest activity against the A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, with an EC 50 value of 11 μM. The preventive effect of the potent lignan on the infection of A. alternata in the Japanese pear's leaves was also shown.

  7. Discoloured seeds of amaranth plant infected by Alternaria alternata: physiological, histopathological alterations and fungal secondary metabolites associated or registered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelting María Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aspects of discolouration that could influence both the production and consumption of amaranth were analyzed with the objectives to identify the presence of Alternaria alternata on seeds, to analyze possible changes in the anatomy of seed tissues and to detect the presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Component plating, histopathological and mycological analyses on discoloured seeds allowed i location of propagules of A. alternata in all seminal components; ii observation of hypertrophies in perisperm and embryo and iii determination of several fungal secondary metabolites, mainly high concentrations of tenuazonic acid. To our knowledge, the information presented in this paper, related to physiological, histopathological changes and fungal secondary metabolites on discoloured seeds of (Amaranthus mantegazzianus syn. A. caudatus subsp. mantegazzianus (Pass Hanelt affected by A. alternata, is the first worldwide record.

  8. Identification of a novel phylogenetic lineage of Alternaria alternata causing citrus brown spot in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Fu, Yushi; Nie, Danni; Stewart, Jane E; Peever, Tobin L; Li, Hongye

    2015-05-01

    Alternaria alternata sensu lato, casual agent of citrus brown spot, first identified in Yunnan province in 2010 and subsequently found in Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong provinces, Chongqing municipality andGuangxi autonomous region in China. During 2010-2012, 86 isolates were collected from diseased citrus, of which 85 % isolates were pathogenic to Ponkan tangerine. Phylogenetic analyses of Chinese and worldwide isolates using partial sequences of an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and combined dataset ofendoPG and two anonymous loci (OPA1-3, OPA2-1) found that Chinese isolates fell into two of three previously described clades. One clade ('clade 3') contained isolates from Turkey and Israel, and the other clade ('clade 1') contained isolates from Florida, USA. None of the isolates from China fell into the last previously described clade ('clade 2'). However, 24 isolates from Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi fell into a fourth clade ('clade 4') not previously reported to be associated with citrus brown spot. This clade included multilocus haplotypes known to infect Japanese pear and strawberry. The observation that Chinese brown spot isolates fell into only two of three known worldwide lineages suggests that this fungus may not have co-evolved with its host in China but elsewhere in Southeast Asia and introduced to China. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visceral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata offering a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a heterogeneous group of opportunistic infections caused by dematiaceous molds, which are distributed worldwide as plant pathogens but rarely cause human diseases. However, due to the growing populations of immunocompromised patients, these fungi are frequently recognized as important human pathogens. We are reporting this very rare, unique case for the first time from Islamabad, Pakistan, describing the association of visceral Phaeohyphomycosis caused by the opportunistic fungus Alternaria alternata, affecting the left kidney, with the immunocompromised state in a young incidentally detected patient with insulin-dependent type I diabetes. The case was diagnosed on the basis of a high index of clinical suspicion, microbial cultures, microscopy, imaging studies and endourological procedures. The patient did not respond well to the highly sensitive Amphotericin B, resulting in loss of the kidney. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians involved in treating immunocompromised patients should have a high degree of clinical suspicion for such opportunistic pathogens to allow timely initiation of the correct diagnostic and therapeutic work-up.

  10. Genetic variability of Brazilian isolates of Alternaria alternata detected by AFLP and RAPD techniques Variabilidade genética de isolados Brasileiros de Alternaria alternata por meio de marcadores moleculares de AFLP e RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dini-Andreote

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alternaria brown spot (ABS is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens. The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA. Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control.A mancha marrom ou mancha de Alternaria é uma doença causada pelo fungo Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, encontrada no Brasil desde 2001 em plantas de tangerina e seus híbridos. Por se tratar de uma doença recente no Brasil, a epidemiologia e variabilidade genética deste patógeno compõem importantes pontos a serem estudados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade genética deste pat

  11. Diversity and movement of indoor Alternaria alternata across the mainland USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Merwe, Van Der N.A.; Jurjevic, Z.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria spp. from sect. Alternaria are frequently associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma and allergic fungal rhinitis and sinusitis. Since Alternaria is omnipresent in the outdoor environment, it is thought that the indoor spore concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor

  12. Putative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Cytochrome P450 Genes Responsible for Tentoxin Biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata ZJ33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Hai; Han, Wen-Jin; Gui, Xi-Wu; Wei, Tao; Tang, Shuang-Yan; Jin, Jian-Ming

    2016-08-02

    Tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by several Alternaria species, inhibits the F₁-ATPase activity of chloroplasts, resulting in chlorosis in sensitive plants. In this study, we report two clustered genes, encoding a putative non-ribosome peptide synthetase (NRPS) TES and a cytochrome P450 protein TES1, that are required for tentoxin biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata strain ZJ33, which was isolated from blighted leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum. Using a pair of primers designed according to the consensus sequences of the adenylation domain of NRPSs, two fragments containing putative adenylation domains were amplified from A. alternata ZJ33, and subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that these fragments belonged to the same NRPS coding sequence. With no introns, TES consists of a single 15,486 base pair open reading frame encoding a predicted 5161 amino acid protein. Meanwhile, the TES1 gene is predicted to contain five introns and encode a 506 amino acid protein. The TES protein is predicted to be comprised of four peptide synthase modules with two additional N-methylation domains, and the number and arrangement of the modules in TES were consistent with the number and arrangement of the amino acid residues of tentoxin, respectively. Notably, both TES and TES1 null mutants generated via homologous recombination failed to produce tentoxin. This study provides the first evidence concerning the biosynthesis of tentoxin in A. alternata.

  13. Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit by use of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong

    2008-04-30

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.

  14. Epidemiología de la mancha marrón de las mandarinas causada por Alternaria alternata. Desarrollo de estrategias de control eficientes

    OpenAIRE

    BASSIMBA, DISSOLUQUELE DANIEL MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Alternaria brown spot (ABS), caused by the 'tangerine' pathotype of Alternaria alternata, (Fr.) Keissl. is a serious disease in several mandarin cultivars such as 'Fortune', 'Nova' and other hybrids. Although the disease is widespread in the Mediterranean Basin, the epidemiology of the disease in semi-arid conditions is unknown. Epidemiological studies were conducted during two consecutive years in Spain. The presence of inoculum was studies on leaves, twigs and fruit on aff...

  15. Effects of temperature and incubation period on production of toxic metabolites by Alternaria radicina and A. alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Tylkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of toxic metabolites by four isolates of Alternaria radicina and two isolates of A. alternata in rice grains and carrot discs at 1, 10 and 20°C was investigated. Incubation lasted 21 and 35 days or 14 and 28 days for rice grains and carrot discs, respectively. Accumulation of toxins in inoculated carrot roots stored for 24 weeks and in inoculated dried carrots stored for 48 weeks was also determined. It was found that A. radicina produced radicinin (RAD and epi-radicinol (epi-ROH, whereas tenuazonic acid (TeA, altertoxin I (ATX I, alternariol (AOH and alternariol methyl ether (AME were produced by A. alternata. Although the isolates tested were capable of producing toxins in rice grains at 1°C, none of them was detected in carrot discs. Accumulation of epi-ROH was observed in carrot roots stored for 24 weeks, whereas decreased amounts of RAD and epi-ROH were observed in dried carrots stored for 48 weeks. No A. alternata toxins were detected in stored carrot roots, whereas trace amounts of AOH were recorded in dried carrots after 32 and 48 weeks of storage.

  16. LaeA and VeA are involved in growth morphology, asexual development, and mycotoxin production in Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, N; Lawrence, C B; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J; Crespo-Sempere, A

    2016-12-05

    Alternaria alternata is a common filamentous fungus that contaminates various fruits, grains and vegetables causing important economic losses to farmers and the food industry. A. alternata is a mycotoxigenic mould, which may jeopardize human and animal health. Two of the most common A. alternata mycotoxins found in food and feed are alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. In this study we examined the role of LaeA and VeA, two regulatory proteins belonging to the velvet family, which have been described to be involved in several functions in many fungi including secondary metabolism. We found that deletion of laeA and veA genes, respectively, greatly reduced sporulation and strongly compromised mycotoxin production, both in vitro or during pathogenesis of tomato fruits. We have also studied how the loss of laeA and veA may affect expression of genes related to alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether biosynthesis (pksJ and altR), and to melanin biosynthesis (cmrA, pksA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocontrol of post-harvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry tomatoes with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fujie; Xu, Shixiang; Guo, Jun; Chen, Qianru; Meng, Qin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, the content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while the content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiments. Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Associação de Alternaria dauci e A. alternata com sementes de coentro e eficiência do tratamento químico Association of Alternaria dauci and A. alternata with coriander seeds and efficiency of chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Doze lotes de sementes de coentro foram avaliados quanto à presença de Alternaria spp., utilizando-se 600 sementes de cada lote, pelo método do papel de filtro. Foram constatadas duas espécies, A. dauci (AD em oito lotes e A. alternata (AA em seis. Em seguida foram semeadas 400 sementes de cada lote em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células, verificando-se apenas a presença de AD nos cotilédones, com infecção variando de 0,33 a 4,67%. O lote que apresentou maior incidência de AA e AD foi tratado com fungicidas (thiram, benomyl, captam e iprodione ou misturas dos mesmos e 400 sementes de cada tratamento foram semeadas em gerbox. O melhor tratamento foi obtido com a mistura iprodione + thiram, com 0,5% e 0% de incidência de AA e AD, respectivamente. Sementes tratadas foram semeadas em bandeja de isopor e aos 21 dias após a semeadura foi feita a leitura, observando-se os cotilédones que apresentavam sintomas. Estes foram removidos das plantas e colocados em câmara úmida para comprovação da presença de Alternaria spp. As plantas resultantes de sementes não tratadas apresentaram infecção de 13% com AD, enquanto aquelas originárias de sementes tratadas com a mistura thiram + iprodione não apresentaram infeção. Os resultados comprovam a eficiência da mistura thiram + iprodione para redução ou eliminação de A. dauci e A. alternata em sementes de coentro.Twelve lots of coriander seeds were evaluated for the presence of Alternaria spp., using 600 seeds per lot in the blotter test. Two Alternaria species were detected, A. dauci (AD in eight lots and A. alternata (AA in six lots. A sample of 400 seeds was sown in styrofoam trays and the incidence of spots on cotyledons was evaluated 21 days after sowing. Only lesions caused by AD were observed on leaves. The seed lot with higher incidence of AA and AD was treated with fungicides (thiram, benomyl, captam and iprodione and 400 seeds in each treatment were placed in

  19. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Specific Identification of ACT Producing Alternaria alternata, the Agent of Brown Spot Disease in Tangerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Hamid; Moradi, Amir; Hamedi, Javad; Basiri, Mina

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, accurate, and easy identification of pathogenic agents has always been important in medicine, veterinary, and agriculture. The brown spot infection is among the most common diseases in tangerine caused by Alternaria alternata. Due to the existence of seven various pathotypes of A. alternata species, it is challenging and time consuming to detect a pathotype responsible for citrus brown spot. In this study, we were seeking a rapid and specific approach to identify the tangerine pathotype within the A. alternata-pathogenic species, using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and actts2 gene as a marker molecule. Nine pathogenic samples were obtained from the region of Ramsar, Iran, and certified as A. alternata-pathogenic isolates. Specific primers were designed for regions coding for Alternaria citri toxin (ACT), and the PCR and LAMP reactions were performed. Our data showed that the primers designed for the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata were specific, and in both reactions, positive results were only observed in desired pathotypes. In the other pathotypes of this species as well as other standard fungal samples as negative controls, no positive result was observed. Therefore, our results suggest the possibility to detect the tangerine-specific A. alternata pathotype from other related species with a high accuracy and in early stages of the disease.

  20. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay–based assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternata–derived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)–based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  1. Water activity and temperature effects on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata strains isolated from Malbec wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendes, L P; Zachetti, V G L; Pereyra, A; Morata de Ambrosini, V I; Ramirez, M L

    2017-02-01

    To study the effects of water activity (a W ; 0·99, 0·98, 0·97, 0·96 and 0·95), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C), incubation time (7-28 days), and their interactions on mycelial growth and alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) mycotoxin production on a synthetic nutrient (SN) media similar to grape composition by three strains of Alternaria alternata isolated from wine grapes from Argentina. Interacting conditions of a W , temperature and time of incubation were used to examine growth and mycotoxin production. All strains were able to grow at 0·95 a W , but maximum growth rates were obtained at 0·99 a W and 25°C. Maximum levels of AOH, AME and TA were obtained at 0·99 a W and 25°C, but high amounts of TA were also obtained at 0·96 a W and 15 or 30°C. Production of AOH and AME was favoured over TA at 25°C. TA levels were more sustained than AOH and AME. The optimum and marginal conditions for growth and mycotoxin production by A. alternata on a SN media similar to grape composition were in agreement, but certain stressful conditions for growth evaluated also promote mycotoxin production. Temperature and a W conditions that allows growth and mycotoxin production are those normally found during wine grape ripeness in the field. Therefore, efforts should be made to prevent Alternaria presence and mycotoxin production in wine grapes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. TeA is a key virulence factor for Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler infection of its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ye; Feng, Hongwei; Zhang, Jingxu; Chen, Shiguo; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    A toxin-deficient mutant strain, HP001 mutant of Alternaria alternata, whose mycelium is unable to infect its host, produces little tenuazonic acid (TeA) toxin. How TeA plays a role in initiating host infection by A. alternata remains unclear. In this research we use Imaging-PAM based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and transmission electron microscopy to explore the role of TeA toxin during the infection process of A. alternata. Photosystem II damage began even before wild type mycelium infected the leaves of its host, croftonweed (Ageratina adenophora). Compared with the wild type, HP001 mutant produces morphologically different colonies, hyphae with thinner cell walls, has higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and lower peroxidase activity, and fails to form appressoria on the host surface. Adding TeA toxin allows the mutant to partially recover these characters and more closely resemble the wild type. Additionally, we found that the mutant is able to elicit disease symptoms when its mycelium is placed on leaves whose epidermis has been manually removed, which indicates that TeA may be determinant in the fungus recognition of its plant host. Lack of TeA toxin appears responsible for the loss of pathogenicity of the HP001 mutant. As a key virulence factor, TeA toxin not only damages the host plant but also is involved in maintaining ROS content, host recognition, inducing appressoria to infect the host and for allowing completion of the infection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of taxadiene by engineering of mevalonate pathway in Escherichia coli and endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata TPF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Guangkai; Yuan, Yujie; Tao, Hui; Shi, Xiaofei; Zhong, Xiaofang; Han, Yichao; Fu, Shuai; Fang, Chengxiang; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-04-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) is a diterpenoid compound with significant and extensive applications in the treatment of cancer. The production of Taxol and relevant intermediates by engineered microbes is an attractive alternative to the semichemical synthesis of Taxol. In this study, based on a previously developed platform, the authors first established taxadiene production in mutant E. coli T2 and T4 by engineering of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The authors then developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method and verified the strength of heterologous promoters in Alternaria alternata TPF6. The authors next transformed the taxadiene-producing platform into A. alternata TPF6, and the MVA pathway was engineered, with introduction of the plant taxadiene-forming gene. Notably, by co-overexpression of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (Idi), a truncated version of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMG1), and taxadiene synthase (TS), the authors could detect 61.9 ± 6.3 μg/L taxadiene in the engineered strain GB127. This is the first demonstration of taxadiene production in filamentous fungi, and the approach presented in this study provides a new method for microbial production of Taxol. The well-established ATMT method and the known promoter strengths facilitated further engineering of taxaenes in this fungus. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A negatively regulates conidia formation by the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-02-01

    The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata causes brown spot diseases in many citrus cultivars. The FUS3 and SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to be required for conidiation. Exogenous application of cAMP to this fungal pathogen decreased conidia formation considerably. This study determined whether a cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) is required for conidiation. Using loss-of-function mutations in PKA catalytic and regulatory subunit-coding genes, we demonstrated that PKA negatively regulates conidiation. Fungal mutants lacking PKA catalytic subunit gene (PKA ( cat )) reduced growth, lacked detectable PKA activity, and produced higher amounts of conidia compared to wild-type. Introduction of a functional copy of PKA ( cat ) into a null mutant partially restored PKA activity and produced wild-type level of conidia. In contrast, fungi lacking PKA regulatory subunit gene (PKA ( reg )) produced detectable PKA activity, exhibited severe growth reduction, formed swelling hyphal segments, and produced no mature conidia. Introduction of the PKA ( reg ) gene to a regulatory subunit mutant restored all phenotypes to wild type. PKA ( reg )-null mutants induced fewer necrotic lesions on citrus compared to wild-type, whereas PKA ( cat ) mutant displayed wild-type virulence. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA and FUS3-mediated signaling pathways apparently have very different roles in the regulation of conidia production and A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus.

  5. Efecto antifúngico de extractos fenólicos y de carotenoides de chiltepín (Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum) en Alternaria alternata y Fusarium oxysporum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Maturino, Alfonso; Troncoso-Rojas, Rosalba; Sánchez-Estrada, Alberto; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Ceceña-Duran, Carlos; Grimaldo-Juarez, Onecimo; Aviles-Marin, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de extractos fenólicos y de carotenoides procedentes de frutos de chiltepín sobre el crecimiento micelial y la germinación de conidios de Alternaria alternata y Fusarium oxysporum, 2 importantes hongos causantes de podredumbres en frutas y hortalizas. Los extractos fenólicos presentaron una inhibición en el crecimiento micelial de A. alternata del 38,46 %, y redujeron significativamente la germinación de conidios al quinto día después del tratamiento...

  6. A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwagt, Bas F.; Mesbah, Laurent A.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Laurent, Pascal L.; Kneppers, Tarcies J. A.; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.

    2000-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells. PMID:10781105

  7. Influence of pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio on mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata in submerged cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Production of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata DSM 12633 was influenced by pH and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the growth medium both in shaking flasks and bioreactor cultivation. The impact of medium pH on mycotoxin production was studied in the range of pH 3.5 - 8. pH values above 5.5 led to a decreased mycotoxin production or inhibited mycotoxin formation completely whereas an acidic pH in the range of 4.0-4.5 was optimal for mycotoxin production. The influence of the C:N ratio was evaluated over the range of 24 to 96. Glucose was used as carbon source and its concentration was altered while nitrogen concentration was kept constant. Growth kinetics and mycotoxin production parameters were studied depending on different C:N ratios. With increasing initial glucose concentration fungal biomass did increase but the maximum specific growth rate was not influenced. The optimal initial C:N ratio for attaining highest mycotoxin concentrations was 72. A higher C:N ratio did not further enhance mycotoxin production. PMID:22608165

  8. Analysis of a suppressive subtractive hybridization library of Alternaria alternata resistant to 2-propenyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto García-Coronado

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The fungal response showed that natural compounds could induce tolerance/resistance mechanisms in organisms in the same manner as synthetic chemical products. The response of A. alternata to the toxicity of 2-pITC is a sophisticated phenomenon including the induction of signaling cascades targeting a broad set of cellular processes. Whole-transcriptome approaches are needed to elucidate completely the fungal response to 2-pITC.

  9. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria alternata, A-gaisen and A-longipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Correct identification of fungi to species level is important because a specific epithet embodies a set of characters that enables us to predict, for example, the mycotoxin production of a species. Many small-spored Alternaria isolates have been misidentified due to inappropriate growth conditions...... and the use of spore size as the only identifying character. In this study 39 Alternaria isolates were grown under standardised conditions and subjected to chemical, morphological and physiological analyses. All isolates were extracted and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Analysis showed that both A. gaisen and A...

  10. Regulation of gene expression for defensins and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata (Fr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrunyk Nataliya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off disease in pine seedling, caused by fungi and oomycetes (Fusarium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Phytophthora and other species, is one of the most dangerous diseases in conifer nurseries and greenhouses worldwide. Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic pathogen, which causes early blight in higher plants and results in massive economic losses in agro-industry as well as in forestry. Pine seedlings that lack strong lignificated and suberized cell walls at early stages of their growth are vulnerable to damping-off disease. So, triggering the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, anticipins and pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, is the main defense strategy to confine pathogens at early stages of pine ontogenesis. Defensins and lipid transfer proteins are members of two PR-protein families (PR-12 and PR-14 respectively and possess antimicrobial activities in vitro through contact toxicity, and the involvement in defense signalling. In this work, we describe the changes in the expression levels of four defensin genes and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings infected with A. alternata. The expression levels of PsDef1 and PsDef2 increased at 48 h.p.i. (hours post inoculation. The levels of PsDef4 transcripts have increased after 6 and 24 hours. Notably, at 48 h.p.i., the level of PsDef4 transcripts was decreased by 1.2 times compared to control. The level of PsDef3 transcripts was reduced at all three time points. On the other hand, the level of PsLTP1 transcripts increased at 6 h and 48 h.p.i.; while at 24 h.p.i., it decreased by 20% when compared to the control sample. Our results suggest that defensins and lipid transfer protein are involved in the defense response of young Scots pine to necrotrophic pathogen. Thus, those genes can be used as the molecular markers in forestry selection and development of the ecologically friendly remedies for coniferous seedlings cultivation in greenhouses and nurseries.

  11. Comparison of methodologies for conidia production by Alternaria alternata from citrus Comparação de metodologias para produção de conídios por Alternaria alternata do citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. C. Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates, Cravo lemon (1 isolate, Pêra orange (2 isolates and Murcott tangor (1 isolate. The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress followed by injury of mycelium and evaluation with 24 hours, using healthy vegetable tissue and the use of black fluorescent near ultraviolet (NUV lamp. Satisfactory result was obtained with A. alternata isolate from Murcott tangor, with the production of 2.8 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, when fungal mycelium was stressed (Petri dish with 66.66% of fungi growth and subsequently 24 h of growth. The use of white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp also induced expressive conidia production by one isolate of Ponkan tangerine, which produced 17.2 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1 and another of Murcott tangor, which produced 13.9 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, respectively. The remaining methodologies analyzed in this study were not able to induce conidia production in satisfactory quantity. The use of both mycelium stress technique and white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp allowed the production of enough quantities of conidia to be used in vitro (detection of fungitoxic substancesand in vivo (pathogenicity testassays, respectively.A produção de conídios consiste em problema no estudo de Alternaria alternata do citros. Assim, este estudo objetivou comparar metodologias existentes para a produção de conídios de A. alternata por dois isolados de tangerina Ponkan, um de limão Cravo, dois de laranja Pêra e um de tangor Murcott. As metodologias empregadas foram a produção de conídios com 12 e 24 horas sob luz branca, avaliação com 24 e 48

  12. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  13. ACTTS3 encoding a polyketide synthase is essential for the biosynthesis of ACT-toxin and pathogenicity in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y; Masunaka, A; Tsuge, T; Yamamoto, M; Ohtani, K; Fukumoto, T; Gomi, K; Peever, T L; Tada, Y; Ichimura, K; Akimitsu, K

    2010-04-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACT-toxin and causes Alternaria brown spot disease of tangerine and tangerine hybrids. Sequence analysis of a genomic BAC clone identified part of the ACT-toxin TOX (ACTT) gene cluster, and knockout experiments have implicated several open reading frames (ORF) contained within the cluster in the biosynthesis of ACT-toxin. One of the ORF, designated ACTTS3, encoding a putative polyketide synthase, was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genomic/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions using the specific primers designed from the BAC sequences. The 7,374-bp ORF encodes a polyketide synthase with putative beta-ketoacyl synthase, acyltransferase, methyltransferase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, and phosphopantetheine attachment site domains. Genomic Southern blots demonstrated that ACTTS3 is present on the smallest chromosome in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata, and the presence of ACTTS3 is highly correlated with ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity. Targeted gene disruption of two copies of ACTTS3 led to a complete loss of ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity. These results indicate that ACTTS3 is an essential gene for ACT-toxin biosynthesis in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata and is required for pathogenicity of this fungus.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana reveals a comprehensive signalling network in response to Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Kan

    Full Text Available The pear is an important temperate fruit worldwide that is produced by a group of species in the genus Pyrus. Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne is characterized by high resistance to multiple diseases, good adaptability, and high ornamental value, and is therefore widely planted in pear orchards for edible fruit production or as stock. Plant pathogens are a major threat to pear yield. Black spot disease, caused by the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious diseases in pear. Elucidation of resistant genes to black spot disease is extremely important for understanding the underlying mechanisms as well as for the development of resistant cultivars. In this study, high-throughput single-strand RNA-sequencing was used to compare the transcriptome profiles of Callery pear leaves before and after A. alternata incubation for 7 days. The analysis yielded 73.3 Gb of clean data that were mapped onto the reference genome of the Chinese pear, and differentially expressed gene(DEGs were identified with |log2FC| ≥ 1. Functional annotation demonstrated that black spot disease promoted great changes in the overall metabolism, and enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms showed that most of them are closely linked to signalling network and photosynthesis. Specifically, the genes included mainly transcription factors and genes involved in calcium signalling and ethylene and jasmonate pathways. Eight members of the ethylene response factor transcription factor gene family Group IX, including ERF1, ERF7, and ERF105, were up-regulated to 2.03-3.37-fold compared with CK, suggesting their role in the defence response to pathogen infection. Additionally, multiple transcription factors involved in biotic stresses, such as NAC78, NAC2, MYB44, and bHLH28, were up-regulated. Furthermore, we identified 144 long non-coding (lncRNAs, providing new insight into the involvement of lncRNAs in the response to black spot disease. Our study

  15. In vitro and in vivo control of Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato by essential oil from Laurus nobilis of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixiang; Yan, Fujie; Ni, Zhendan; Chen, Qianru; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Many essential oils were reported to be used as natural, environmental friendly antimicrobial agents. The antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo of an essential oil extracted from Chinese local Laurus nobilis leaves against Alternaria alternata has been studied. The main components of the essential oil were investigated by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 14 components were identified. The main ones were eugenol, caryophyllene and cinnamaldehyde. The antifungal test showed that at 800 μg mL−1 of L. nobilis oil completely inhibited the growth of A. alternata. In addition, the conidial germination of the pathogen was significantly inhibited at 200 μgmL−1, and the weight of mycelia efficiently decreased at 500 μgmL−1. The in vivo assay indicated that 500 μg mL−1 L. nobilis oil was effective in protecting cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum)from infection of A. alternata, with an inhibition ratio of 33.9%. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological alterations in the hyphae. This work suggested that L. nobilis oil could be used as a potential fungicide to control the post-harvest disease caused by A. alternata.

  16. Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan produces steroidal substances that are active against Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and that may bind to oxysterol-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviane Ac; Perina, Fabiano J; Alves, Eduardo; Sartorelli, Jaqueline; Moura, Amanda M; Oliveira, Denilson F

    2014-12-01

    In previous studies, the extract from Anadenanthera colubrina was active against Alternaria alternata in vitro and reduced the disease caused by this fungus on Murcott tangor fruits to levels that have been obtained using commercial fungicides. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to isolate and identify the active substances in this extract and identify in silico their protein target in the fungus. The bioguided fractionation of the methanol extract from the fruits of A. colubrina resulted in the isolation of β-sitosterol and β-sitosteryl linoleate, which had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250 and 500 µg mL(-1) , respectively, against A. alternata. Under the same conditions, the MICs for two commercial fungicides were 1250 and 19 µg mL(-1) . In silico studies showed that these steroidal substances bind well to oxysterol-binding proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. β-Sitosterol and β-sitosteryl linoleate, produced by A. colubrina, are active against A. alternata. In silico studies suggest that these substances may act by binding to oxysterol-binding proteins. Therefore, both substances and these proteins have potential use in the development of new steroidal structures and analogues to control the disease caused by A. alternata. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

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    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  18. Minor contribution of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and tenuazonic acid to the genotoxic properties of extracts from Alternaria alternata infested rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christoph; Kreutzer, Martin; Marko, Doris

    2012-10-02

    Alternaria spp. are known to form a spectrum of secondary metabolites with alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT) and tenuazonic acid (TA) as the major mycotoxins with respect to quantity. In the present study we investigated the contribution of these compounds for the DNA damaging properties of complex extracts of Alternaria spp. infested rice. Five different Alternaria strains were cultured on rice and analyzed for their production of AOH, AME, ALT and TA. The extracts of two strains with distinctly different toxin profiles were selected for further toxicological analysis. An extract from A. alternata DSM 1102 infested rice, found to contain predominantly TA, exhibited substantial DNA strand breaking properties in cultured human colon carcinoma cells in the comet assay, whereas TA as a single compound did not affect DNA integrity up to 200μM. An extract of A. alternata DSM 12633 infested rice, containing in comparable proportions AOH, AME and TA, exceeded by far the DNA damaging properties of the single compounds. In contrast to AOH, AME and TA, both selected extracts induced an increase of DNA modifications sensitive to the bacterial repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in the comet assay, indicative for oxidative DNA damage. Toxicity-guided fractionation of the DSM 12633 extract confirmed that these effects were not caused by AOH, AME or TA. Taken together, the mycotoxins AOH, AME and TA, representing the major mycotoxins with respect to quantity in A. alternata infested food, play only a subordinate role for the genotoxic properties of complex extracts and appear not to be involved in the induction of FPG sensitive sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in the leaf proteome profile of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal in response to Alternaria alternata infection.

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    Varinder Singh

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera is a high value medicinal plant which is used against large number of ailments. The medicinal properties of the plant attributes to a wide array of important secondary metabolites. The plant is predominantly infected with leaf spot pathogen Alternaria alternata, which leads to substantial biodeterioration of pharmaceutically important metabolites. To develop an effective strategy to combat this disease, proteomics based approach could be useful. Hence, in the present study, three different protein extraction methods tris-buffer based, phenol based and trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA-acetone based method were comparatively evaluated for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE analysis of W. somnifera. TCA-acetone method was found to be most effective and was further used to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to fungal infection. Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS. The known proteins were categorized into eight different groups based on their function and maximum proteins belonged to energy and metabolism, cell structure, stress and defense and RNA/DNA categories. Differential expression of some key proteins were also crosschecked at transcriptomic level by using qRT-PCR and were found to be consistent with the 2-DE data. These outcomes enable us to evaluate modifications that take place at the proteomic level during a compatible host pathogen interaction. The comparative proteome analysis conducted in this paper revealed the involvement of many key proteins in the process of pathogenesis and further investigation of these identified proteins could assist in the discovery of new strategies for the development of pathogen resistance in the plant.

  1. Changes in the leaf proteome profile of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in response to Alternaria alternata infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Singh, Baldev; Joshi, Robin; Jaju, Puneet; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a high value medicinal plant which is used against large number of ailments. The medicinal properties of the plant attributes to a wide array of important secondary metabolites. The plant is predominantly infected with leaf spot pathogen Alternaria alternata, which leads to substantial biodeterioration of pharmaceutically important metabolites. To develop an effective strategy to combat this disease, proteomics based approach could be useful. Hence, in the present study, three different protein extraction methods tris-buffer based, phenol based and trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA-acetone) based method were comparatively evaluated for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of W. somnifera. TCA-acetone method was found to be most effective and was further used to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to fungal infection. Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS). The known proteins were categorized into eight different groups based on their function and maximum proteins belonged to energy and metabolism, cell structure, stress and defense and RNA/DNA categories. Differential expression of some key proteins were also crosschecked at transcriptomic level by using qRT-PCR and were found to be consistent with the 2-DE data. These outcomes enable us to evaluate modifications that take place at the proteomic level during a compatible host pathogen interaction. The comparative proteome analysis conducted in this paper revealed the involvement of many key proteins in the process of pathogenesis and further investigation of these identified proteins could assist in the discovery of new strategies for the development of pathogen resistance in the plant.

  2. Detection of allergens from Alternaria alternata by gold-conjugated anti-human IgE and field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercombe, Jason K; Eduard, Wijnand; Romeo, Tony C; Green, Brett J; Tovey, Euan R

    2006-10-20

    Fungal allergens are present in viable and non-viable conidia, hyphae and fungal fragments. It has been shown that large quantities of allergen are released from conidia during germination. We used a gold immunolabelling technique and field emission scanning electron microscopy to examine the allergen release from Alternaria alternata conidia. Immunolabelling was associated with the hyphal tip and amorphous matter associated with the emerging hyphae. Non-specific antibody controls showed no labelling associated with germinating fungi. This suggests that material released from hyphae may be an additional source of fungal allergens.

  3. Alternaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Alternaria consists of approximately 250 species and has a worldwide distribution. As plant pathogens Alternaria spp. infect a diversity of plants. Several different cultivated crops are affected, causing severe damage and crop losses. Alternaria leaf blotch and associated premature leaf

  4. Role of the host-selective ACT-toxin synthesis gene ACTTS2 encoding an enoyl-reductase in pathogenicity of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Naoya; Miyamoto, Yoko; Masunaka, Akira; Tsuge, Takashi; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Ohtani, Kouhei; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Kenji; Peever, Tobin L; Izumi, Yuriko; Tada, Yasuomi; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2010-02-01

    ABSTRACT The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACT-toxin and causes Alternaria brown spot disease of tangerines and tangerine hybrids. Sequence analysis of a genomic BAC clone identified a previously uncharacterized portion of the ACT-toxin biosynthesis gene cluster (ACTT). A 1,034-bp gene encoding a putative enoyl-reductase was identified by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction and designated ACTTS2. Genomic Southern blots demonstrated that ACTTS2 is present only in ACT-toxin producers and is carried on a 1.9 Mb conditionally dispensable chromosome by the tangerine pathotype. Targeted gene disruption of ACTTS2 led to a reduction in ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity, and transcriptional knockdown of ACTTS2 using RNA silencing resulted in complete loss of ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity. These results indicate that ACTTS2 is an essential gene for ACT-toxin biosynthesis in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata and is required for pathogenicity of this fungus.

  5. Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thymol against Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler: effects on growth, viability, early infection and cellular mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Fabiano J; Amaral, Douglas C; Fernandes, Rafael S; Labory, Claudia Rg; Teixeira, Glauco A; Alves, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    In initial assays, Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) has demonstrated activity against several plant-pathogenic fungi and has reduced the fungal diseases to levels comparable with commercial fungicides. Thus, the goal of this work was to identify the mode of action in fungi of TEO and its major compound thymol (TOH) at the cellular level using an ultrastructure approach. TEO from leaves and TOH had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 500 and 250 µg mL(-1) respectively against A. alternata; under the same conditions, MIC for a commercial fungicide was 1250 µg mL(-1) . Ultrastructure analysis showed that TOH phenolic substance prevented fungal growth, reduced fungal viability and prevented the penetration in fruits by a cell wall/plasma membrane interference mode of action with organelles targeted for destruction in the cytoplasm. Such mode of action differs from protective and preventive-curative commercial fungicides used as pattern control. These findings suggest that TOH was responsible for the antifungal activity of TEO. Therefore, both the essential oil and its major substance have potential for use in the development of new phenolic structures and analogues to control Alternaria brown spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on the production of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghini, R; Sucupira, M; Rocha, L O; Reis, T A; Aquino, S; Corrêa, B

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different gamma radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on the production of toxins alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in sunflower seed samples. After irradiation with 2, 5 and 7 kGy, the spore mass was resuspended in sterile distilled water and the suspension was inoculated into sunflower seeds. The number of colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g) was determined after culture on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol and Dichloran Chloramphenicol Malt Extract Agar. The presence of AOH and AME was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of the number of A. alternata CFU/g and of AOH and AME levels when compared to the nonirradiated control group. Maximum reduction of the fungus (98.5%) and toxins (99.9%) was observed at a dose of 7 and 5 kGy, respectively. Under the present conditions, gamma radiation was found to be an alternative for the control of A. alternata and, consequently, of AOH and AME production in sunflower seeds.

  7. Modelling the effect of temperature, water activity and carbon dioxide on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata isolated from fresh date fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbahi, A; Leguerinel, I; Méot, J-M; Loiseau, G; Madani, K; Bohuon, P

    2016-12-01

    To quantify and model the combined effects of temperature (T) (10-40°C), water activity (aw ) (0·993-0·818) and CO2 concentration (9·4-55·1%, v/v) on the growth rate of Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata that cause spoilage during the storage and packaging of dates. The effects of environmental factors were studied using the γ-concept. Cardinal models were used to quantify the effect of studied environmental factors on the growth rates. Firstly, the cardinal parameters were estimated independently from experiments carried out on potato dextrose agar using a monofactorial design. Secondly, model performance evaluation was conducted on pasteurized date paste. The boundary between growth and no-growth was predicted using a deterministic approach. Aspergillus niger displayed a faster growth rate and higher tolerance to low aw than Al. alternata, which in turn proved more resistant to CO2 concentration. Minimal cardinal parameters of T and aw were lower than those reported in the literature. The combination of the aw and CO2 effects significantly affected As. niger and Al. alternata growth. The γ-concept model overestimated growth rates, however, it is optimistic and provides somewhat conservative predictions. The developed model provides a decision support tool for the choice of the date fruit conservation mode (refrigeration, drying, modified atmospheric packaging or their combination) using T, aw and CO2 as environmental factors. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Alternaria blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples;Efeitos da radiacao gama no fungo Alternaria alternata e nas micotoxinas Alternariol e Alternariol monometil eter em amostras de cereais artificialmente contaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  10. Efecto antifúngico de extractos fenólicos y de carotenoides de chiltepín (Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum en Alternaria alternata y Fusarium oxysporum

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    Alfonso Rodriguez-Maturino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de extractos fenólicos y de carotenoides procedentes de frutos de chiltepín sobre el crecimiento micelial y la germinación de conidios de Alternaria alternata y Fusarium oxysporum, 2 importantes hongos causantes de podredumbres en frutas y hortalizas. Los extractos fenólicos presentaron una inhibición en el crecimiento micelial de A. alternata del 38,46 %, y redujeron significativamente la germinación de conidios al quinto día después del tratamiento al 92 % en relación al control. No se observaron cambios significativos en el crecimiento micelial de F. oxysporum, pero sí se redujo significativamente al 85 % en relación al control, el número de conidios germinados a los 5 días de tratamiento. Los extractos de carotenoides mostraron una inhibición del 38,5 % en el crecimiento micelial y del 85,3 % en la germinación de conidios de A. alternata, 5 días después del tratamiento. Frente a F. oxysporum, dichos extractos presentaron menor inhibición del crecimiento micelial (20,3 %, mientras que hubo una mayor inhibición en la germinación de conidios (96 %. Los extractos fenólicos y de carotenoides de chiltepín pueden ser una alternativa promisoria de importancia agrícola como fungicidas naturales.

  11. Chilling Stress—The Key Predisposing Factor for Causing Alternaria alternata Infection and Leading to Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Leaf Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingqing; Li, Sha; Jiang, Tengfei; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenwei; Jian, Guiliang; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2–4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence. PMID:22558354

  12. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter-Mediated Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Fungicides Requires Yap1, Skn7, and MAP Kinases in the Citrus Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata.

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    Li-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS transporters play an important role in multidrug resistance in fungi. We report an AaMFS19 gene encoding a MFS transporter required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and fungicides in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. AaMFS19, containing 12 transmembrane domains, displays activity toward a broad range of substrates. Fungal mutants lacking AaMFS19 display profound hypersensitivities to cumyl hydroperoxide, potassium superoxide, many singlet oxygen-generating compounds (eosin Y, rose Bengal, hematoporphyrin, methylene blue, and cercosporin, and the cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor, Congo red. AaMFS19 mutants also increase sensitivity to copper ions, clotrimazole, fludioxonil, and kocide fungicides, 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA. AaMFS19 mutants induce smaller necrotic lesions on leaves of a susceptible citrus cultivar. All observed phenotypes in the mutant are restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of AaMFS19. The wild-type strain of A. alternata treated with either CHP or TIBA reduces radial growth and formation and germination of conidia, increases hyphal branching, and results in decreased expression of the AaMFS19 gene. The expression of AaMFS19 is regulated by the Yap1 transcription activator, the Hog1 and Fus3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, the 'two component' histidine kinase, and the Skn7 response regulator. Our results demonstrate that A. alternata confers resistance to different chemicals via a membrane-bound MFS transporter.

  13. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  15. EFICIÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA, AGENTE CAUSAL DA PODRIDÃO PÓS-COLHEITA EM FRUTOS DE MELOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSEMBERG FERREIRA SENHOR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The latent infections represent serious problems for exportation of the fruits. Nevertheless, the number of products registered for postharvest treatment of melon is reduced. In view of that, was evaluated the efficiency of three pesticides thiabendazole, azoxystrobin and imazalil utilized, in the commercial doses of 194g, 8g and 100g, a.i. /100 l, respectively, in storage conditions at ambient temperature in the control of faulness postharvest caused for Alternaria alternata. The effect of pesticides on the mycelial growth, sporulation and germination of the fungi was evaluated, as well as the efficiency of the pesticides in the control of the fungi in melons. After the immersion of fruits in the fungicidal solution, discs of 5mm of PDA medium with the fungi structures were inoculated. After, four fruits were put in each cartoon package and storaged for 36 hours in a humid chamber. After that, the fruits were taken out of the humid chamber and storaged at ambient temperature. The Imazalil has inhibited 100% of the mycelial growth and sporulation of A. alternata. Although the azoxystrobin only reduced 36% of the mycelial growth, when compared with the standard sample, it shows efficiency related to sporulation. The Thiabendazole was also efficient to reduce the mycelial growth. However, it had not the same efficiency related to sporulation. All pesticides researched were efficient in the control 'in vitro', but they did not show any efficiency in the control of fungi in fruits storaged at ambient temperature.

  16. Clinical relevance of IgE-mediated sensitization against the mould Alternaria alternata in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvia; Sprünken, Anja; Wagner, Norbert; Tenbrock, Klaus; Ott, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    Asthma in childhood has a prevalence of 5-10% in Germany and severe asthma accounts for about 5% in this patient group. Positive predictive values for severe asthma are atopy, a positive family history and sensitizations against inhalative allergens. Alternaria is an important inhalative allergen and sensitization is suspected to correlate with severe and lethal asthma. We investigated the prevalence and impact of Alternaria sensitization in paediatric asthma. We reviewed paediatric patients with a diagnosis of low-grade, moderate and severe asthma. Data collection included concomitant atopic diseases, sensitization profiles, family history and prior hospitalization for asthma exacerbation. A total of 207 paediatric patients (aged 1-17 years) were included in the study. Overall, 25% had low-grade asthma, 31% moderate and 44% severe asthma and 26% were formerly hospitalized. Alternaria sensitization was the most common in moulds, although without significant correlation with hospitalization and severe asthma. Alternaria sensitization increased with age and was significantly associated with co-sensitization against other moulds, grass pollen and cat epithelia. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with hospitalization, independent of Alternaria sensitization. Alternaria sensitization was common and increased with age. No significant correlation was found between asthma degree, hospitalization rates and sensitization profiles. Alternaria sensitization demonstrated no isolated risk factor for severe asthma and hospitalization.

  17. Efeito do meio de cultura, temperatura, fotoperíodo e fungicidas no crescimento micelial e no controle de Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, causador da mancha marrom do tangor murcote

    OpenAIRE

    Colturato, Adimara Bentivoglio

    2006-01-01

    A mancha marrom de alternaria, causada pela Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, afeta o tangor murcote causando lesões em folhas, ramos e frutos, acarretando em desfolha e manchas que depreciam o fruto comercialmente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar o efeito do meio de cultura no isolamento, da temperatura e do fotoperíodo no crescimento micelial do patógeno, avaliar a sensibilidade do patógeno à fungicidas in vitro e estabelecer o melhor produto e dose para o controle da doença no...

  18. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the development of black mold disease and its potential effect on alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether biosynthesis on tomatoes infected with Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2016-11-07

    Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (10(5)conidia/mL). Tomatoes were treated with 0.6μL/L of 1-MCP for 24h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6days at 10°C and one more week at 20°C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6days at 10°C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different treatments, which was corroborated with gene expression analysis of pksJ, a gene related to AOH and AME biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EFICIÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Alternaria alternata, AGENTE CAUSAL DA PODRIDÃO PÓS-COLHEITA EM FRUTOS DE MELOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg Ferreira Senhor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The melon, the main exportation product Potiguar, faces enormous phytosanitary problems in the phases of production and postharvest. The latent infections represent serious problems for exportation of the fruits. Nevertheless, the number of products registered for postharvest treatment of melon is reduced. In view of that, was evaluated the efficiency of three pesticides thiabendazole, azoxystrobin and imazalil utilized, in the commercial doses of 194g, 8g and 100g, a.i. /100 l, respectively, in storage conditions at ambient temperature in the control of faulness postharvest caused for Alternaria alternata. The effect of pesticides on the mycelial growth, sporulation and germination of the fungi was evaluated, as well as the efficiency of the pesticides in the control of the fungi in melons. After the immersion of fruits in the fungicidal solution, discs of 5mm of PDA medium with the fungi structures were inoculated. After, four fruits were put in each cartoon package and storaged for 36 hours in a humid chamber. After that, the fruits were taken out of the humid chamber and storaged at ambient temperature. The Imazalil has inhibited 100% of the mycelial growth and sporulation of A. alternata. Although the azoxystrobin only reduced 36% of the mycelial growth, when compared with the standard sample, it shows efficiency related tosporulation. The Thiabendazole was also efficient to reduce the mycelial growth. However, it had not the same efficiency related to sporulation. All pesticides researched were efficient in the control "in vitro", but they did not show any efficiency in the control of fungi in fruits storaged at ambient temperature.

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the apple ASR gene family in response to Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaihui; Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Zheng, Dan; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The ABA/water stress/ripening-induced (ASR) gene family exists universally in higher plants, and many ASR genes are up-regulated during periods of environmental stress and fruit ripening. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed investigating ASR gene response to abiotic stresses, relatively little is known about their roles in response to biotic stresses. In this report, we identified five ASR genes in apple (Malus × domestica) and explored their phylogenetic relationship, duplication events, and selective pressure. Five apple ASR genes (Md-ASR) were divided into two clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific duplication was detected in M. domestica ASR genes. Leaves of 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking' were infected with Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali, which causes apple blotch disease, and examined for the expression of the ASR genes in lesion areas during the first 72 h after inoculation. Md-ASR genes showed different expression patterns at different sampling times in 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking'. The activities of stress-related enzymes, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in different stages of disease development in two cultivars. The ASR gene expression patterns and theses physiological indexes for disease resistance suggested that Md-ASR genes are involved in biotic stress responses in apple.

  1. Resposta de diferentes genótipos de tangerinas e seus híbridos à inoculação in vitro e in vivo de Alternaria alternata Response of different tangerine varieties and hybrids to in vitro and in vivo inoculation of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves Azevedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A severidade da mancha-marrom de alternária nos pomares brasileiros de tangerinas tem causado sérias preocupações aos citricultores, devido aos prejuízos em plantios comerciais de variedades suscetíveis, como a tangerina Ponkan e o tangor Murcott. Para avaliar a resposta de diferentes genótipos ao fungo, foram realizadas inoculações de Alternaria alternata in vitro e in vivo, em 54 diferentes genótipos de tangerinas e seus híbridos, selecionados no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, do Instituto Agronômico, em Cordeirópolis-SP, visando a encontrar variedades resistentes. Para isso, inicialmente, testes de patogenicidade foram realizados com dez isolados de A. alternata para a seleção dos mais agressivos. Posteriormente, foram realizadas inoculações em folhas destacadas e em plântulas e, aos dois (in vitro e três (in vivo dias após, fez-se a contagem do número de lesões/folha e a estimativa da severidade da doença com auxílio de escala diagramática (in vivo. A maior parte dos genótipos apresentou sintomas da doença, porém com diferentes graus de suscetibilidade. Genótipos como a tangerina Sul da África e o tangelo Orlando foram os mais suscetíveis. Por outro lado, o grupo das satsumas e mexericas, assim como algumas tangerinas mostraram-se resistentes, indicando novas opções para a citricultura nacional.The confirmation of a new disease in the Brazilian tangerine orchards, the alternaria brown spot, has been concerning citrus growers because of the serious damages to commercial crops of susceptible varieties, such as Ponkan tangerine and Murcott tangor. In this research, in vitro and in vivo inoculations of Alternaria alternata fungus were held in 54 different varieties of the tangerine group selected from the Citrus Germoplasm Bank of Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronomico, Cordeirópolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to find varieties with more

  2. The SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling pathway governs conidiation, morphogenesis, fungal virulence and production of toxin and melanin in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Jonar Ingan; Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2011-09-01

    Fungi respond and adapt to different environmental stimuli via signal transduction systems. We determined the function of a yeast SLT2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue (AaSLT2) in Alternaria alternata, the fungal pathogen of citrus. Analysis of the loss-of-function mutant indicated that AaSLT2 is required for the production of a host-selective toxin, and is crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Moreover, the A. alternata slt2 mutants displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall-degrading enzymes and chemicals such as Calcofluor white and Congo red. This implicates an important role of AaSLT2 in the maintenance of cell wall integrity in A. alternata. The A. alternata slt2 mutants were also hypersensitive to a heteroaromatic compound, 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine, and a plant growth regulator, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. Developmentally, the AaSLT2 gene product was shown to be critical for conidial formation and hyphal elongation. Compared with the wild-type, the mutants produced fewer but slightly larger conidia with less transverse septae. The mutants also accumulated lower levels of melanin and chitin. Unlike the wild-type progenitor, the A. alternata slt2 mutants produced globose, swollen hyphae that did not elongate in a straight radial direction. All defective phenotypes in the mutant were restored by transformation and expression of a wild-type copy of AaSLT2 under the control of its endogenous promoter. This study highlights an important role of the AaSLT2 MAP kinase-mediated signalling pathway, regulating diverse physiological, developmental and pathological functions, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3′- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT

  4. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

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    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  5. Function of genes encoding acyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase for host-selective act-toxin biosynthesis in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y; Ishii, Y; Honda, A; Masunaka, A; Tsuge, T; Yamamoto, M; Ohtani, K; Fukumoto, T; Gomi, K; Peever, T L; Akimitsu, K

    2009-04-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACT-toxin and causes Alternaria brown spot disease. Sequence analysis of a genomic cosmid clone identified a part of the ACTT gene cluster and implicated two genes, ACTT5 encoding an acyl-CoA synthetase and ACTT6 encoding an enoyl-CoA hydratase, in the biosynthesis of ACT-toxin. Genomic Southern blots demonstrated that both genes were present in tangerine pathotype isolates producing ACT-toxin and also in Japanese pear pathotype isolates producing AK-toxin and strawberry pathotype isolates producing AF-toxin. ACT-, AK-, and AF-toxins from these three pathotypes share a common 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid moiety. Targeted gene disruption of two copies of ACTT5 significantly reduced ACT-toxin production and virulence. Targeted gene disruption of two copies of ACTT6 led to complete loss of ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity and a putative decatrienoic acid intermediate in ACT-toxin biosynthesis accumulated in mycelial mats. These results indicate that ACTT5 and ACTT6 are essential genes in ACT-toxin biosynthesis in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata and both are required for full virulence of this fungus.

  6. Comparative evaluation of biochemical changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected by Alternaria alternata and its toxic metabolites (TeA, AOH and AME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Meena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and tenuazonic acid (TeA. The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of H2O2 produced was reported in pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold, AOH (15.9-fold, and AME (14.1-fold in treated tissues. DAB staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death were measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and MDA content was higher (15.8-fold at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of pathogen, when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. SOD, activity was 5.9- fold higher at 72 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold, AOH (4.1-fold and AME (2.3-fold treated leaves than control. Catalase activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. APx and GR activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT activities after 48 h post inoculation demonstrate that the biochemical defense programming shown by the host against the pathogen is not well efficient

  7. Blocking the QB-binding site of photosystem II by tenuazonic acid, a non-host-specific toxin of Alternaria alternata, activates singlet oxygen-mediated and EXECUTER-dependent signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Kim, Chanhong; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Liangsheng; Apel, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Necrotrophic fungal pathogens produce toxic compounds that induce cell death in infected plants. Often, the primary targets of these toxins and the way a plant responds to them are not known. In the present work, the effect of tenuazonic acid (TeA), a non-host-specific toxin of Alternaria alternata, on Arabidopsis thaliana has been analysed. TeA blocks the QB -binding site at the acceptor side of photosystem II (PSII). As a result, charge recombination at the reaction centre (RC) of PSII is expected to enhance the formation of the excited triplet state of the RC chlorophyll that promotes generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O₂). (1)O₂ activates a signalling pathway that depends on the two EXECUTER (EX) proteins EX1 and EX2 and triggers a programmed cell death response. In seedlings treated with TeA at half-inhibition concentration (1)O₂-mediated and EX-dependent signalling is activated as indicated by the rapid and transient up-regulation of (1)O₂-responsive genes in wild type, and its suppression in ex1/ex2 mutants. Lesion formation occurs when seedlings are exposed to higher concentrations of TeA for a longer period of time. Under these conditions, the programmed cell death response triggered by (1)O₂-mediated and EX-dependent signalling is superimposed by other events that also contribute to lesion formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  9. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation between them is minimal. To investigate whether the described morphospecies within sect. Alternaria are supported by molecular data, whole-genome sequencing of nine Alternaria morphospecies supplemented with transcriptome sequencing of 12 Alternaria morphospecies as well as multi-gene sequencing of 168 Alternaria isolates was performed. The assembled genomes ranged in size from 33.3–35.2 Mb within sect. Alternaria and from 32.0–39.1 Mb for all Alternaria genomes. The number of repetitive sequences differed significantly between the different Alternaria genomes; ranging from 1.4–16.5 %. The repeat content within sect. Alternaria was relatively low with only 1.4–2.7 % of repeats. Whole-genome alignments revealed 96.7–98.2 % genome identity between sect. Alternaria isolates, compared to 85.1–89.3 % genome identity for isolates from other sections to the A. alternata reference genome. Similarly, 1.4–2.8 % and 0.8–1.8 % single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in genomic and transcriptomic sequences, respectively, between isolates from sect. Alternaria, while the percentage of SNPs found in isolates from different sections compared to the A. alternata reference genome was considerably higher; 8.0–10.3 % and 6.1–8.5 %. The topology of a phylogenetic tree based on the whole-genome and transcriptome reads was congruent with multi-gene phylogenies based on commonly used gene regions. Based on the genome and transcriptome data, a set of core

  10. Alternaria redefined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phylogenetic lineages within Alternaria and allied genera based on nucleotide sequence data of parts of the 18S nrDNA, 28S nrDNA, ITS, GAPDH, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha gene regions. Our data reveal a Pleospora/Stemphylium clade sister to Embellisia annulata, and a well-supported Alternaria clade. The Alternaria clade contains 24 internal clades and six monotypic lineages, the assemblage of which we recognise as Alternaria. This puts the genera Allewia, Brachycladium, Chalastospora, Chmelia, Crivellia, Embellisia, Lewia, Nimbya, Sinomyces, Teretispora, Ulocladium, Undifilum and Ybotromyces in synonymy with Alternaria. In this study, we treat the 24 internal clades in the Alternaria complex as sections, which is a continuation of a recent proposal for the taxonomic treatment of lineages in Alternaria. Embellisia annulata is synonymised with Dendryphiella salina, and together with Dendryphiella arenariae, are placed in the new genus Paradendryphiella. The sexual genera Clathrospora and Comoclathris, which were previously associated with Alternaria, cluster within the Pleosporaceae, outside Alternaria s. str., whereas Alternariaster, a genus formerly seen as part of Alternaria, clusters within the Leptosphaeriaceae. Paradendryphiella is newly described, the generic circumscription of Alternaria is emended, and 32 new combinations and 10 new names are proposed. A further 10 names are resurrected, while descriptions are provided for 16 new Alternaria sections. Taxonomic novelties: New

  11. Efficiency and cost of chemical control of alternaria brown spot

    OpenAIRE

    Colturato, Adimara Bentivoglio [UNESP; Paulossi, Tatiana; Venâncio, Wilson Story; Furtado, Edson Luiz [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    A mancha de alternaria, causada por Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, afeta tangelos Minneola, tangerinas Dancy, tangores Murcote e, menos freqüentemente, tangelos Orlando, tangerinas Novas, Lees e Sunburst. Esta doença causa desfolha grave, queda de frutos e manchas nas frutas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o melhor fungicida e a melhor dose para o controle da mancha marrom de alternaria. O delineamento experimental foi de parcelas subdivididas em blocos, com 10 tratamentos prin...

  12. Alternaria redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phy...

  13. Alternaria redefined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always

  14. Positive relationship between citrus leaf miner and alternaria brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria brown spot, or ABS (Alternaria alternata, is the most prevalent fungal disease of tangerines in the world. Field observations have revealed ABS lesions on leaves wounded by the citrus leaf miner (CLM. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the relationship between CLM and ABS. Leaves from young Murcott tangor plants and detached leaves from 16 different varieties of tangerines with and without lesions caused by CLM were inoculated with A. alternata. The symptoms of the plants were subsequently quantified by counting the number of lesions, and the lesion area was estimated using a diagrammatic scale. The presence of CLM damage aggravates the severity of Alternaria alternata fungus infections in susceptible tangerine varieties.

  15. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alternaria Toxins in Carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solfrizzo, M.; Girolamo, De A.; Vitti, C.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of Alternaria radicina and A. alternata toxins in carrots. Toxins were extracted from carrot with an acidified mixture of water¿methanol¿acetonitrile. The filtered extract was divided in 2 parts that were purified by

  16. Restyling Alternaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    The omnipresent dematiaceous hyphomycete genus Alternaria is associated with a wide variety of substrates including seeds, plants, agricultural products, humans, soil and even the atmosphere. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, among which multiple plant pathogens,

  17. Phenotypic and phylogenetic segregation of Alternaria infectoria from small-spored Alternaria species isolated from wheat in Germany and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, S M; Ulrich, A; Kirichenko, A A; Müller, M E H

    2015-12-01

    To identify the taxonomic differences between phytopathogenic small-spored Alternaria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Germany and Russia by a polyphasic approach. Ninety-five Alternaria (A.) strains were characterized by their colony colour, their three-dimensional sporulation patterns, mycotoxin production and phylogenetic relationships based on sequence variation in translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α). The examination of toxin profiles and the phylogenetic features via TEF1-α resulted in two distinct clusters, in each case containing Alternaria infectoria isolates (92 and 96% respectively) in the first and the Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima isolates (77 and 79% respectively) in the other combined cluster. The production of Alternariol, Altertoxin and Altenuene has not been reported previously in the A. infectoria species group. The isolates from Germany and Russia differ slightly in species composition and mycotoxin production capacity. We identified that the A. infectoria species group can be differentiated from the A. alternata, A. arborescens and A. tenuissima species group by colour, low mycotoxin production and by the sequence variation in TEF1-α gene. These results allow a reliable toxic risk assessment when detecting different Alternaria fungi on cereals. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  19. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  20. Automated and unbiased image analyses as tools in phenotypic classification of small-spored Alternaria species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    For more than 25 years, controversy has surrounded the characterization and differentiation of small-spored Alternaria spp. And, therefore, the application of names of several species that are involved in the pathology of diseases related to host-specific toxin production. The name A. alternata...... and application of the morphological species concept in Alternaria taxonomy. Host-specific toxin-producing Alternaria isolates assigned to five morpho-species were compared with representative isolates of morphologically distinct A. alternata. Combined results of growth rates at different temperatures, colony...... morphology, and metabolite profiles were found to be useful in characterization and differentiation of small-spored Alternaria spp. when standardized conditions are applied and representative isolates employed for comparison....

  1. Toxigenic Alternaria species from Argentinean blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V; Pose, G

    2012-03-15

    Blueberries are traditionally consumed in North America, some European countries and Japan. In Argentina, the blueberry crop is profitable because production starts in November, when the northern hemisphere lacks fresh fruit. Fungal contaminants can grow and produce mycotoxins in fresh fruit. The aims of this work were to identify the main genera of the mycobiota of blueberries grown in Argentina and to determine the toxicogenic potential, pathogenicity and host specificity of the species isolated. The genus Alternaria was the main component of the blueberry mycobiota (95%); minor proportions of Phoma spp. (4%) and Penicillium spp. (1%) were also isolated. According to their sporulation patterns, 127 Alternaria isolates belonged to the Alternaria tenuissima species-group, 5 to the Alternaria alternata species-group and 2 to the Alternaria arborescens species-group. The last mentioned species-group was not isolated at 5°C. Of the 134 isolates, 61% were toxicogenic in autoclaved rice; 97% of these produced alternariol (AOH) in a range from 0.14 to 119.18 mg/kg, 95% produced alternariol methylether (AME) in a range from 1.23 to 901.74 mg/kg and 65% produced tenuazonic acid (TA) in a range from 0.13 to 2778 mg/kg. Fifty two isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. According to the size of the lesion that they caused on blueberries, the isolates were classified as slightly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and very pathogenic. No significant differences in pathogenicity were found on different blueberry varieties. In this work, high incidence and toxicogenic potential of the Alternaria isolates from blueberries were demonstrated. Thus, more studies should be done to evaluate the health risk posed by the presence of the Alternaria toxins in blueberries and in the manufactured by-products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycosynthesis of iron nanoparticles by Alternaria alternata and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... properties of the synthesized iron nanoparticles. The element composition of the synthesized materials was identified by energy dispersive X ray microanalysis system (EDX) (Module Oxford 6587. INCA x-sigh) coupled to the SEM at 17 KV after gold coating using. SPI-Module sputter coater.

  3. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  4. Tenuazonic acid: a promising antitubercular principle from Alternaria alternate

    OpenAIRE

    Visalakchi Sonaimuthu; Swati Parihar; Jay Prakash Thakur; Suaib Luqman; Dharmendra Saikia; Chandan S. Chinotiya; Muthumary Jhonpaul; Arvind Singh Negi

    2011-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of dichloromethane extract of Alternaria alternata identified tenuazonic acid (1) as potentially active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, MIC at 250 μg/mL concentration. This active metabolite 1, was also evaluated for osmotic hemolysis using the erythrocyte as a model system. It was observed that this fungal metabolite showing antitubercular activity exhibited concentration dependent toxicity to human erythrocytes.

  5. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio; Sanzani, Simona Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1-3 and OPA 2-1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2-20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly dependent on

  6. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1–3 and OPA 2–1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2–20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly

  7. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... artificially inoculated with the thirty-two Alternaria isolates and the resulting lesion types were recorded. A data matrix was constructed using all these characters and subjected to cluster analysis to show the similarity between different isolates. Isolates classified as A. infectoria species-group based...

  8. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Vries, de M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  9. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M .; Stielow, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  10. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  11. [Determination of the profiles of secondary metabolites characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez Rozo, Martha Elizabeth; Patriarca, Andrea; Cabrera, Gabriela; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E

    2014-01-01

    Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tentoxin (TEN), some of which have toxic properties. The main food contaminant toxins are tenuazonic acid, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene, and altertoxins i, ii and iii. To determine the profiles of secondary metabolites characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from tomato for their chemotaxonomic classification. The profiles of secondary metabolites were determined by HPLC MS. The Alternaria isolates obtained from spoiled tomatoes belong, according to their morphological characteristics, to the species groups Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria arborescens, with A. tenuissima being the most frequent. The most frequent profiles of secondary metabolites belonging to the species groups A. alternata (AOH, AME, TEN), A. tenuissima (AOH, AME, TEN, tenuazonic acid) and A. arborescens (AOH, AME, TEN, tenuazonic acid) were determined, with some isolates of the latter being able to synthesize AAL toxins. Secondary metabolite profiles are a useful tool for the differentiation of small spored Alternaria isolates not easily identifiable by their morphological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.

  13. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  14. The Incidence of Alternaria Species Associated with Infected Sesamum indicum L. Seeds from Fields of the Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Brian Gagosh; Woodward, Steve; Mur, Luis A. J.; Akram, Abida; Arshad, Muhammad; Saqlan Naqvi, S. M.; Akhund, Shaista

    2017-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an important oil seed crop of Asia. Yields can be negatively impacted by various factors, including disease, particularly those caused by fungi which create problems in both production and storage. Foliar diseases of sesame such as Alternaria leaf blight may cause significant yield losses, with reductions in plant health and seed quality. The work reported here determined the incidence of Alternaria species infecting sesame seeds grown in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 428 Alternaria isolates were obtained from 105 seed samples and grouped into 36 distinct taxonomic groups based on growth pattern and morphological characters. Isolation frequency and relative density of surface sterilized and non-surface sterilized seeds showed that three isolates (A13, A47 and A215) were the most common morphological groups present. These isolates were further identified using sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the Alternaria major allergen gene (Alt a 1). Whilst ITS of rDNA did not resolve the isolates into Alternaria species, the Alt a 1 sequences exhibited > 99% homology with Alternaria alternata (KP123850.1) in GenBank accessions. The pathogenicity and virulence of these isolates of Alternaria alternata was confirmed in inoculations of sesame plants resulting in typical symptoms of leaf blight disease. This work confirms the identity of a major source of sesame leaf blight in Pakistan which will aid in formulating effective disease management strategies. PMID:29238277

  15. Alternaria in aardappel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    De laatste jaren komt een aantasting door Alternaria in aardappel steeds vaker voor. Door een aantasting sterft het gewas vervroegd af. Dit heeft opbrengstderving tot gevolg. Ook kunnen de geoogste knollen aangetast worden. De oorzaak, dat Alternaria de laatste jaren vaker voorkomt dan voorheen is,

  16. Hyperspectral and thermal imaging of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) response to fungal species of the genus Alternaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Piotr; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Wojciech; Babula-Skowronska, Danuta; Siedliska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm) and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola) and non-host (Alternaria dauci) pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm), significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs) appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5%) and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%).

  17. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation bet...

  18. Identification of A. arborescens, A. grandis, and A. protenta as new members of the European Alternaria population on potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landschoot, Sofie; Vandecasteele, Michiel; De Baets, Bernard; Höfte, Monica; Audenaert, Kris; Haesaert, Geert

    2017-02-01

    Alternaria species, primarily the small-spored Alternaria alternata and the large-spored Alternaria solani, are considered a serious threat to potato cultivation. To develop control strategies, it is important to gain insight into the Alternaria population. Based on the sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, the small-spored and large-spored Alternaria isolates could be separated from each other. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the RNA polymerase second largest subunit showed that besides A. solani also A. grandis and A. protenta were present in the large-spored Alternaria population. Sequence analyses of the Alternaria major allergen gene Alt a 1 and the elongation factor-α revealed that both A. alternata and species belonging to the Alternaria arborescens species complex were present in the small-spored Alternaria population. Furthermore, according to the histone h3 sequence the members of the A. arborescens species complex could be subdivided into two groups. Concerning the fitness, it was concluded that the mycelium growth rate of the large-spored isolates was significantly lower compared to the growth rate of the small-spored isolates. In contrast, the spore-germinating capacity and early growth of the large-spored isolates was greater compared to those of the small-spored isolates. Within the groups of small-spored and large-spored isolates there were no significant differences in fitness between the species. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific Antibodies for the Detection of Alternaria Allergens and the Identification of Cross-Reactive Antigens in Other Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaroch, Teresa E.; Curin, Mirela; Sterflinger, Katja; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is an important source of respiratory allergens. A. alternata extracts show great variations regarding allergenic potency. The aim of this study was to generate antibody probes specific for important Alternaria allergens and to use them to study allergen expression, depending on different culture conditions, as well as to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. Methods Synthetic peptides from antigenic regions of A. alternata allergens (Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 3, Alt a 6 and Alt a 8) were used to raise highly specific rabbit antibodies. These antibodies and IgE from allergic patients were used to detect allergens by immunoblotting in extracts of 4 A. alternata strains grown under varying culturing conditions, in commercial skin-prick extracts and in closely (Cladosporium herbarum and Aureobasidium pullulans) or distantly related (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum) mould species. Results There was a wide variation of expression of the individual A. Alternata allergens, depending on the strain and culture conditions, but the antibody probes allowed us to distinguish strains and culture conditions with low and high allergen expression. In the commercial skin-prick solutions, varying levels of Alt a 1 were found, but no other allergens were detectable. Alt a 1 was identified as species-specific A. Alternata allergen, whereas Alt a 3, 6- and Alt a 8-cross-reactive antigens were found in C. herbarum and/or A. pullulans. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Peptide-specific antibodies are useful to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic mould extracts, to study the presence of A. Alternata allergens in biological samples and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. PMID:27780168

  20. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent...... genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro......; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid...

  1. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-02

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Alternaria genomes database: a comprehensive resource for a fungal genus comprised of saprophytes, plant pathogens, and allergenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ha X; Pryor, Barry; Peever, Tobin; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2015-03-25

    Alternaria is considered one of the most common saprophytic fungal genera on the planet. It is comprised of many species that exhibit a necrotrophic phytopathogenic lifestyle. Several species are clinically associated with allergic respiratory disorders although rarely found to cause invasive infections in humans. Finally, Alternaria spp. are among the most well known producers of diverse fungal secondary metabolites, especially toxins. We have recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of 25 Alternaria spp. including but not limited to many necrotrophic plant pathogens such as A. brassicicola (a pathogen of Brassicaceous crops like cabbage and canola) and A. solani (a major pathogen of Solanaceous plants like potato and tomato), and several saprophytes that cause allergy in human such as A. alternata isolates. These genomes were annotated and compared. Multiple genetic differences were found in the context of plant and human pathogenicity, notably the pro-inflammatory potential of A. alternata. The Alternaria genomes database was built to provide a public platform to access the whole genome sequences, genome annotations, and comparative genomics data of these species. Genome annotation and comparison were performed using a pipeline that integrated multiple computational and comparative genomics tools. Alternaria genome sequences together with their annotation and comparison data were ported to Ensembl database schemas using a self-developed tool (EnsImport). Collectively, data are currently hosted using a customized installation of the Ensembl genome browser platform. Recent efforts in fungal genome sequencing have facilitated the studies of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity as a whole system. The Alternaria genomes database provides a comprehensive resource of genomics and comparative data of an important saprophytic and plant/human pathogenic fungal genus. The database will be updated regularly with new genomes when they become available. The

  3. Characterization and pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. strains associated with grape bunch rot during post-harvest withering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2014-09-01

    Alternaria is a fungal agent of grape bunch rot which occurs during withering, a process which produces passito style wines. Seven isolates of Alternaria spp. were characterized using morphological examination, genotypic analysis and pathogenicity. Six of these isolates produced conidiophores and conidia displaying sporulation patterns typical of the Alternaria alternata species-group. Variability in colony morphology and growth on different media was observed. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences clustered all isolates within a monophyletic clade, while intergenic spacer region (IGS)-RFLP profiles were congruent with those of A. alternata and Alternaria arborescens. RAPD-PCR proved helpful in discriminating between strains. To assay strain pathogenicity, grape berries were infected while undergoing withering conditions at different temperatures. Disease capacity was found to be strain dependent and varied consistently between the most and least aggressive strains. This study has provided interesting information on polymorphism within Alternaria spp. populations in withered grapes and on understanding the saprophytic role of this fungus during the post-harvest dehydrating process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beheersing van Alternaria in aardappel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    De laatste jaren komt Alternaria in aardappel meer voor. In 2004 waren er vooral problemen in het Zuidwesten van Nederland. Ook werden hier verschillende partijen waargenomen met knolaantasting. Voor 2004 was knolaantasting door Alternaria in Nederland uiterst zeldzaam. Omdat Alternaria zelden

  5. Beheersing Alternaria in de aardappelteelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, A.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Uit het onderzoek kwam naar voren dat de effectiviteit van beide referenties tegen Alternaria tegen viel. In hoeverre dit te maken heeft met resistentieontwikkeling binnen de Alternaria populatie is niet duidelijk. In elk geval is het wenselijk om bij de Alternaria bestrijding gebruik te maken van

  6. ATP release and Ca2+ signalling by human bronchial epithelial cells following Alternaria aeroallergen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Scott M; Patil, Nandadavi; Melkamu, Tamene; Maniak, Peter J; Lancto, Cheryl; Kita, Hirohito

    2013-09-15

      Exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from normal and asthmatic subjects to extracts from Alternaria alternata evoked a rapid and sustained release of ATP with greater efficacy observed in epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Previously, Alternaria allergens were shown to produce a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) that was dependent on the coordinated activation of specific purinergic receptor (P2Y2 and P2X7) subtypes. In the present study, pretreatment with a cell-permeable Ca2+-chelating compound (BAPTA-AM) significantly inhibited ATP release, indicating dependency on [Ca2+]i. Alternaria-evoked ATP release exhibited a greater peak response and a slightly lower EC50 value in cells obtained from asthmatic donors compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from Alternaria treatment was greater in cells from asthmatic patients compared to normal subjects. The vesicle transport inhibitor brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM significantly blocked Alternaria-stimulated incorporation of fluorescent lipid (FM1-43)-labelled vesicles into the plasma membrane and ATP release. In addition, inhibiting uptake of ATP into exocytotic vesicles with bafilomycin also reduced ATP release comparable to the effects of brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM. These results indicate that an important mechanism for Alternaria-induced ATP release is Ca2+ dependent and involves exocytosis of ATP. Serine and cysteine protease inhibitors also reduced Alternaria-induced ATP release; however, the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i typically observed following Alternaria exposure appeared to be independent of protease-activated receptor (PAR2) stimulation.

  7. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33-mediated asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Robert J; Gregory, Lisa G; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A; Walker, Simone A; Lloyd, Clare M

    2014-09-01

    The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2(-/-) mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease-IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33–mediated asthma exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Robert J.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. Methods IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2−/− mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Results Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Conclusion Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. PMID:24636086

  9. How the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola kills plant cells remains an enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yangrae

    2015-04-01

    Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi, but some are plant pathogens. Seven pathotypes of Alternaria alternata use secondary metabolites of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors. These toxins kill host cells prior to colonization. Genes associated with toxin synthesis reside on conditionally dispensable chromosomes, supporting the notion that pathogenicity might have been acquired several times by A. alternata. Alternaria brassicicola, however, seems to employ a different mechanism. Evidence on the use of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors remains tenuous, even after a diligent search aided by full-genome sequencing and efficient reverse-genetics approaches. Similarly, no individual genes encoding lipases or cell wall-degrading enzymes have been identified as strong virulence factors, although these enzymes have been considered important for fungal pathogenesis. This review describes our current understanding of toxins, lipases, and cell wall-degrading enzymes and their roles in the pathogenesis of A. brassicicola compared to those of other pathogenic fungi. It also describes a set of genes that affect pathogenesis in A. brassicicola. They are involved in various cellular functions that are likely important in most organisms and probably indirectly associated with pathogenesis. Deletion or disruption of these genes results in weakly virulent strains that appear to be sensitive to the defense mechanisms of host plants. Finally, this review discusses the implications of a recent discovery of three important transcription factors associated with pathogenesis and the putative downstream genes that they regulate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

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    Fen Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

  11. Association of IL-4RA single nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Luis A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma afflicts 6% to 8% of the United States population, and severe asthma represents approximately 10% of asthmatic patients. Several epidemiologic studies in the United States and Europe have linked Alternaria sensitivity to both persistence and severity of asthma. In order to begin to understand genetic risk factors underlying Alternaria sensitivity and asthma, in these studies we examined T cell responses to Alternaria antigens, HLA Class II restriction and HLA-DQ protection in children with severe asthma. Methods Sixty children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma were compared to 49 children with Alternaria-sensitive mild asthma. We examined HLA-DR and HLA-DQ frequencies in Alternaria-sensitive asthmatic by HLA typing. To determine ratios of Th1/Th2 Alternaria-specific T-cells, cultures were stimulated in media alone, Alternaria alternata extract and Alt a1. Sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation was measured by up-regulation of CD23 on B cells. Results Children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma trended to have increased sensitivities to Cladosporium (46% versus 35%, to Aspergillus (43% versus 28%, and significantly increased sensitivities to trees (78% versus 57% and to weeds (68% versus 48%. The IL-4RA ile75val polymorphism was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics, 83% (0.627 allele frequency compared to Alternaria-sensitive mild asthmatics, 57% (0.388 allele frequency. This was associated with increased sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation measured by significantly increased IL-4 stimulated CD23 expression on CD19+ and CD86+CD19+ B cells of Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics. IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics compared to mild asthmatics to Alternaria extract and Alt a1 stimulation. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 allele was significantly decreased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate

  12. Alternaria toxins in wheat from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Orčić, Dejan; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kos, Jovana; Mastilović, Jasna; Škrinjar, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially A. alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions A. alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during three years (2011-13). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat-growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins was analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among all the analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 and 92.4 µg kg(-1), 48.9 and 18.6 µg kg(-1), and 70.2 and 39.0 µg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples; a combination of two toxins was found in two samples; and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples, only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during the period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia.

  13. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection of Alternaria fungal contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, G; Hallerman, E M; Sharf, R; Kashi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Alternaria sp. are important fungal contaminants of vegetable, fruit, and grain products, including Alternaria alternata, a contaminant of tomato products. To date, the Howard method, based on microscopic observation of fungal filaments, has been the standard examination for inspection of tomato products. We report development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Alternaria DNA. PCR primers were designed to anneal to the internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Alternaria but not to other microbial or tomato DNA. We demonstrate use of the PCR assay to detect Alternaria DNA in experimentally infested and commercially obtained tomato sauce and tomato powder. Use of the PCR method offers a rapid and sensitive assay for the presence of Alternaria DNA in tomato products. The apparent breakdown of DNA in tomato sauce may limit the utility of the assay to freshly prepared products. The assay for tomato powder is not affected by storage time.

  14. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Patriarca, Andrea

    2016-11-07

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid and alternariols. A total 32 out of 48 spoiled pepper fruits were contaminated with at least one of these metabolites. Half of the samples were positive for tenuazonic acid (range 8-11,422μg/kg), while alternariol and its monomethyl ether were less frequently detected (21 and 29%, respectively) and at lower concentrations. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean sweet pepper, and highlights a consumer risk when mouldy fruits are used in industrialized products because these compounds are not destroyed by conventional heat treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of environmental parameters on mycotoxin production by Alternaria arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, V

    2016-02-16

    Alternaria arborescens has been reported as a common fungal species invading tomatoes and is capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants, fruits and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. This species can produce these toxic metabolites together with AAL toxins (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersicum toxins), which can act as inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.995, 0.975, 0.950) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) on mycotoxin production by A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. The optimum production of AOH and AME occurred at 0.975 aw after 40 days of incubation at 30 °C. The maximum TeA accumulation was observed at 0.975 aw and 25 °C and at 0.950 aw and 30 °C. AAL TA was produced in higher quantities at 0.995 aw and 30 °C. At 6 °C no quantifiable levels of AOH or AME were detected, but significant amounts of TeA were produced at 0.975 aw. In general, high aw levels and high temperatures were favorable for mycotoxin production. The greatest accumulation of all four toxins occurred at 0.975 aw and 30 °C. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of tomato fruits and tomato products contamination caused by these toxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Alternaria Keratitis

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    Ching-Hsi Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n=32, 14 (44% infections followed trauma, 10 (31% were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16% occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72% patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48% treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28% cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated.

  17. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

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    Zuzana Mašková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized grapeson the surface and inside with anisolation frequency (Fr of 100%. Moreover, 100% of the stum samples were positive for the presence of this genus. Their relative density (RD was 44.9% (unsterilized grapes, 57.9% (sterilized grapes and 6.35% (stum. In all the areas analysed we recorded 4 species-groups: A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria and A. tenuissima. With the highest Fr and RD occurredA. tenuissima species-group, followed by A. alternata and A. arborescens species-groups. All of them are potential producers of mycotoxins as alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, tenuazonic acid, altertoxin I, II and III.

  18. Effects of Propionibacterium on the growth and mycotoxin production by some species of Fusarium and Alternaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Filipiak, Marian; Gwiazdowski, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the antifungal properties of propionibacteria. Three fractions from cultures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 41 and ssp. freudenreichii 111 (i.e. culture containing viable bacteria, cell-free supernatant and bacteriocin preparation) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth and mycotoxin production of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. The growth of the fungi was monitored during cultivation using a plating method. The concentration of toxins produced was measured by HPLC on the 14th day of culture. Altenuene and tenuazonic acid were determined in cultures of A. alternata whilst concentration of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone was measured in Fusarium cultures. The strongest inhibition of growth and toxin production was observed in the presence of cultures containing viable cells and supernatants obtained from propionibacteria cultures. The bacteriocin extracts generally had a weak fungistatic effect on the growth of A. alternata, F. culmorum and F. graminearum. Despite the fact that growth was slower in the presence of bacteriocin extracts than in control trials, none of the preparations prepared from the propionibacteria significantly reduced the level of mycotoxin production. The ability of P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii 111 to remove zearalenone from liquid medium was also evaluated. It was shown that both viable and non-viable cells caused a decrease in zearalenone concentration in the medium.

  19. Eficiência e custo do controle químico da mancha de alternaria em tangor murcote Efficiency and cost of chemical control of alternaria brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimara Bentivoglio Colturato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de alternaria, causada por Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, afeta tangelos Minneola, tangerinas Dancy, tangores Murcote e, menos freqüentemente, tangelos Orlando, tangerinas Novas, Lees e Sunburst. Esta doença causa desfolha grave, queda de frutos e manchas nas frutas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o melhor fungicida e a melhor dose para o controle da mancha marrom de alternaria. O delineamento experimental foi de parcelas subdivididas em blocos, com 10 tratamentos principais e 3 doses (subparcelas, com 5 repetições. Foram feitas 5 aplicações, com intervalo de 15 dias. Os tratamentos foram: azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole (2 aplicações seguido de 3 aplicações de mancozeb, difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin + propiconazole, iprodione, trifloxystrobin + propineb (2 aplicações seguido de 3 aplicações de oxicloreto de cobre, oxicloreto de cobre + óleo e testemunha. Simultaneamente foram feitas avaliações de incidência e número de lesões por folha. Ao surgimento dos frutos foram avaliadas a incidência em frutos e a produtividade em Kg/ha. Todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha quanto a produtividade. Entre os produtos utilizados o tratamento com trifloxystrobin + propiconazole foi rentável comparando-se custo e produtividade.Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata sp. citri, attacks with more intensity the Tangelos Minneola, tangerine Dancy, and Murcotts, and with less intensity the tangelos Orlando and the tangerinas Novas, Lees and Sunburst. This disease causes severe defoliation and drop or necrotic spots in the fruits. The aim of this work was to evaluated the chemical control of brown spot, and to define the most appropriate dosage of fungicide to control it. The experimental design was split-spot, with ten treatments and 3 doses of fungicides, with five replicates, the fungicides were: azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin

  20. Superoxide dismutase reduces the inflammatory response to Aspergillus and Alternaria in human sinonasal epithelial cells derived from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lauren A; Mulligan, Jennifer K; Roach, Catherine; Pasquini, Whitney N; Soler, Zachary M; Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Karnezis, Tom T; Gudis, David A; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata are ubiquitous environmental fungal allergens that can exacerbate airway inflammation and contribute to the disease process in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). These antigens have been shown to induce human sinonasal epithelial cells (HSNECs) to promote a proinflammatory response, but what is unclear is a means by which to reduce these effects. Inhaled pathogens can induce HSNECs to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger cytokine production. This study aimed to determine whether the free radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) could reduce HSNEC-derived inflammation, as measured by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production, in response to Aspergillus or Alternaria exposure. Sinus tissue explants were collected at the time of surgery from control patients (n = 7) and patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (n = 9). HSNECs were cultured from the explants and treated with Aspergillus, Alternaria, and SOD for 24 hours. Cell supernatants and lysates were collected, and IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In control and CRSwNP HSNECs, Aspergillus and Alternaria both increased cytokine production (p Alternaria exposure and IL-8 after Aspergillus exposure (p Alternaria, SOD treatment decreases the fungal antigen-induced inflammatory response. The ability to attenuate inflammation induced by common fungal allergens with SOD treatment could provide a novel therapeutic or preventative approach for patients with CRS or other allergic inflammatory airway diseases.

  1. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  2. Characterization of small-spored Alternaria from Argentinean crops through a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Rodriguero, Marcela; Stenglein, Sebastián; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Patriarca, Andrea

    2017-09-18

    Small-spored Alternaria have been isolated from a wide variety of food crops, causing both economic losses and human health risk due to the metabolites produced. Their taxonomy has been discussed widely, but no scientific consensus has been established in this field to date. Argentina is a major exporter of agricultural products, so it is essential to thoroughly understand the physiological behaviour of this pathogen in a food safety context. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize small-spored Alternaria spp. obtained from tomato fruits, pepper fruits, wheat grains and blueberries from Argentina by a polyphasic approach involving metabolomic and phylogenetic analyses based on molecular and morphological characters. Morphological analysis divided the population studied into three groups; A. arborescens sp.-grp., A. tenuissima sp.-grp., and A. alternata sp.-grp. However, when these characters were simultaneously analysed with molecular data, no clearly separated groups were obtained. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analysis (both Bayesian and maximum parsimony) of a conserved region yielded the same result, suggesting that all isolates belong to the same species. Furthermore, no correlation could be established between morphological species-groups and a metabolite or group of metabolites synthesized. Thus, the whole set of analyses carried out in the present work supports the hypothesis that these small-spored Alternaria isolates from food belong to the same species. Identification at species level through classical morphology or modern molecular techniques does not seem to be a useful tool to predict toxicological risk in food matrices. The detection of any small-spored Alternaria from Section Alternaria (D.P. Lawr., Gannibal, Peever & B.M. Pryor 2013) in food implies a potential toxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternaria in het voetspoor van Phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Alternaria is een schimmelziekte die in opkomst is, zo bleek tijdens het Syngenta Alternaria symposium. De laatste jaren zijn de omstandigheden waaronder deze schimmel kan groeien verbeterd. Ingegaan wordt op de mogelijkheden om deze schimmel te bestrijden

  4. Alternaria in aardappel: een Europees alternatief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Evenhuis, A.

    2010-01-01

    Vroeger kwam Alternaria in Nederland op beperkte schaal voor, tegenwoordig komt Alternaria algemeen voor en kan het in sommige rassen en jaren flink schade veroorzaken. In dit artikel wordt daarom ingegaan op verschillende aspecten van Alternaria in aardappel: symptomen, factoren die aantasting

  5. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  6. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  7. The choice of preparation method for the determination of Alternaria toxins from wheat samples by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Janić Elizabet P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the primary source of human diet, wheat being the third most produced grain worldwide, and in Serbia second most produced grain, just behind corn. As a result of climate change and global warming, frequent occurrences of mycobiota on steep grains can produce a negative impact on the safety of food products and their quality, which inevitably leads to large economic losses. Although Fusarium spp. remains a main source of mycotoxins contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes affecting agricultural production, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been pointed out as important wheat contaminants. Among them are the fungi of the genus Alternaria, especially A. alternata, which under favourable conditions, produces mycotoxins such as alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, tenuazonic acid, and other Alternaria toxins. Taking into account the toxicity of metabolites produced by certain species of fungi of the genus Alternaria in the system from farm to table, it is necessary to develop specific and sensitive analytical methods in order to implement systematic controls of occurrence of Alternaria toxins. Liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has become the technique of choice for the detection and quantification of Alternaria toxins in food and feed. There are several limiting factors such as the efficiency of sample cleanup and the lack of reference materials for food and feed. The aim of this study was to choose the most suitable preparation method for the determination of Alternaria toxins from wheat samples by LC-MS/MS technique based on published sample preparation methods, with possible modifications, which are used in analysis of mycotoxins. Modified method of wheat samples preparation by extraction with ethyl acetate was selected as acceptable based on extraction efficiency of analytes of interest.

  8. Isolation and characterization of the grain mold fungi Cochliobolus and Alternaria spp. from sorghum using semiselective media and DNA sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Prom, Louis K; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2013-02-01

    Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus, and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp., and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and modified V8 juice (ModV8) agars, found to be useful, were compared with commonly used agar media, dichloran chloramphenicol peptone (DCPA) and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB). Radial growth, starting with mycelia or single-conidia and hyphal tips, demonstrated an effect of media. For isolation of grain fungi, DRBC and ModV8 were similar or superior to DCPA and PCNB. When seedlings were inoculated with conidia of C. lunata, Alternaria sp., F. thapsinum, or mixtures, the percentage of root infection ranged from 28% to 77%. For mixed inoculations, shoot weights, lesion lengths, and percentage of root infections were similar to F. thapsinum inoculations; most colonies recovered from roots were F. thapsinum. For Alternaria grain isolates, 5 morphological types, including Alternaria alternata, were distinguished by colony morphologies and conidial dimensions. Sequence analysis using a portion of the endo-polygalacturonase gene was able to further distinguish isolates. Cochliobolus isolates were identified morphologically as C. lunata, Curvularia sorghina, and Bipolaris sorghicola. Multiple molecular genotypes were apparent from rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences from Cochliobolus grain isolates.

  9. The effect of cytosolic extract of Alternaria aternata fungus on Monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and T-lymphocyte polarization in the presence of myelin basic protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghmanni A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with impairment in function of central nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in alleviating or progression of the disease. These cells can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin of nerve cells by realizing of harmful substances when these cells get matured. We studied the effect of Alternaria alternata extract on maturation of monocyte- derived dendritic cell (modc and T-cell responses in the presence of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP as a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of this study is suitable dendritic cells production for usage in MS immunotherapy.Methods: For this study plastic adherent monocytes were cultured with granulocyte/ macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin -4 for converting these cells to modc and pulsed with MBP and matured in the presence of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM in control group and MCM + Alternaria alternata extract in treatment groups. Anti-CD14, anti-CD83, anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (anti HLA-DR monoclonal antibody were carried out for phenotyping. Autologos T cell responses and cytokine production were evaluated.Results: The results showed that the expression of CD14 decreased and CD83, HLA-DR increased in treatment groups in comparison with control groups. The production amount of IL-10 overcame IL-12 and in T cell the production of cytokines, IL-17 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ decreased and IL-4 was increased (P<0.05. These effects escalated with increasing of dosage from 50 to 100 (mg/ml (P<0.001.Conclusion: Alternaria alternata extract can cause maturation of MBP-pulsed modc and skewing of T- lymphocyte toward Th2 and thereby can evolve into a new strategy in immunotherapy of MS.

  10. Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.

  11. Combination of UV-C treatment and Metschnikowia pulcherrimas for controlling Alternaria rot in postharvest winter jujube fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongqi; Zhu, Lixia; Hou, Xujie

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using antagonistic yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrimas alone or in combination with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment for controlling Alternaria rot of winter jujube, and its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. The results showed that spore germination of Alternaria alternata was significantly inhibited by each of the 3 doses (1, 5, and 10 kJ m(-2) ) in vitro. In vivo, UV-C treatment (5 kJ m(-2) ) or antagonist yeast was capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter in artificially inoculated jujube fruits, however, in fruit treated with combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima, the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter was only 16.0% and 0.60 cm, respectively. The decay incidence on winter jujube fruits treated with the combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima was 23% after storage at 0 ± 1 °C for 45 d followed by 22 °C for 7 d. None of the treatments impaired quality parameters of jujube fruit. Thus, the combination of UV-C radiation and M. pulcherrima could be an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest Alternaria rot of winter jujube. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Genome sequence of a novel victorivirus identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-06-01

    Strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. have been found to contain a variety of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements indicative of mycovirus infection. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, Alternaria arborescens victorivirus 1 (AaVV1), from A. arborescens, the tomato pathotype of A. alternata. Using next-generation sequencing of dsRNA purified from an A. arborescens strain from the United States of America, we found that the AaVV1 genome is 5203 bp in length and contains two open reading frames (ORF1 and 2) that overlap at the tetranucleotide AUGA. Proteins encoded by ORF1 and ORF2 showed significant similarities to the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively, of dsRNA mycoviruses of the genus Victorivirus. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of both CP and RdRp indicated that AaVV1 is a member of a distinct species of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae.

  13. Alternaria extract activates autophagy that induces IL-18 release from airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shintaro; Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Hosoki, Koa; Yasutomi, Motoko; Sur, Sanjiv; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-09-04

    Alternaria alternata is a major outdoor allergen that causes allergic airway diseases. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) has been shown to induce airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 and thereby initiate Th2-type responses. We investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in IL-18 release from ALT-E-stimulated airway epithelial cells. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were stimulated with ALT-E in the presence of different inhibitors of autophagy or caspases. IL-18 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The numbers of autophagosomes, an LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and p62 degradation were determined by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin, which inhibit the formation of preautophagosomal structures and autolysosomes, respectively, suppressed ALT-E-induced IL-18 release by cells, whereas caspase 1 and 8 inhibitors did not. ALT-E-stimulation increased autophagosome formation, LC-3 conversion, and p62 degradation in airway epithelial cells. LPS-stimulation induced the LC3 conversion in A549 cells, but did not induce IL-18 release or p62 degradation. Unlike LPS, ALT-E induced airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 via an autophagy dependent, caspase 1 and 8 independent pathway. Although autophagy has been shown to negatively regulate canonical inflammasome activity in TLR-stimulated macrophages, our data indicates that this process is an unconventional mechanism of IL-18 secretion by airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary ORMDL3 is critical for induction of Alternaria-induced allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Stephan; Gregory, Lisa G; Zhang, Youming; Schaefer, Katrein; Walker, Simone A; Buckley, James; Denney, Laura; Dean, Charlotte H; Cookson, William O C; Moffatt, Miriam F; Lloyd, Clare M

    2017-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified the ORM (yeast)-like protein isoform 3 (ORMDL3) gene locus on human chromosome 17q to be a highly significant risk factor for childhood-onset asthma. We sought to investigate in vivo the functional role of ORMDL3 in disease inception. An Ormdl3-deficient mouse was generated and the role of ORMDL3 in the generation of allergic airways disease to the fungal aeroallergen Alternaria alternata was determined. An adeno-associated viral vector was also used to reconstitute ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelial cells of Ormdl3 knockout mice. Ormdl3 knockout mice were found to be protected from developing allergic airways disease and showed a marked decrease in pathophysiology, including lung function and airway eosinophilia induced by Alternaria. Alternaria is a potent inducer of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response, and ORMDL3 was found to play a critical role in driving the activating transcription factor 6-mediated arm of this response through Xbp1 and downstream activation of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. In addition, ORMDL3 mediated uric acid release, another marker of cellular stress. In the knockout mice, reconstitution of Ormdl3 transcript levels specifically in the bronchial epithelium resulted in reinstatement of susceptibility to fungal allergen-induced allergic airways disease. This study demonstrates that ORMDL3, an asthma susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association studies, contributes to key pathways that promote changes in airway physiology during allergic immune responses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternaria Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Virginia Elena Fernández; Patriarca, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes more than 250 species. The traditional methods for identification of Alternaria species are based on morphological characteristics of the reproductive structures and sporulation patterns under controlled culture conditions. Cladistics analyses of "housekeeping genes" commonly used for other genera, failed to discriminate among the small-spored Alternaria species. The development of molecular methods achieving a better agreement with morphological differences is still needed. The production of secondary metabolites has also been used as a means of classification and identification. Alternaria spp. can produce a wide variety of toxic metabolites. These metabolites belong principally to three different structural groups: (1) the dibenzopyrone derivatives, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT); (2) the perylene derivative altertoxins (ATX-I, ATX-II, and ATX II); and (3) the tetramic acid derivative, tenuazonic acid (TeA). TeA, AOH, AME, ALT, and ATX-I are the main. Certain species in the genus Alternaria produce host-specific toxins (HSTs) that contribute to their pathogenicity and virulence. Alternaria species are plant pathogens that cause spoilage of agricultural commodities with consequent mycotoxin accumulation and economic losses. Vegetable foods infected by Alternaria rot could introduce high amounts of these toxins to the human diet. More investigations on the toxic potential of these toxins and their hazard for human consumption are needed to make a reliable risk assessment of dietary exposure.

  16. Comparison of Alternaria spp. collected in Italy from apple with A. mali and other AM-toxin producing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, F; Collina, M; Brunelli, A; Pryor, B M

    2012-12-01

    Since 1999, a disease of apple caused by an Alternaria sp. has been affecting orchards in northern Italy resulting in necrotic spots on leaves and on fruit. Forty-four single-spored isolates were obtained from diseased plant materials to investigate the diversity of this fungus in Italy and to compare these isolates to isolates of Alternaria associated with apple disease in previous studies, including A. mali, causal agent of apple blotch. All isolates, including the reference strains, were tested for pathogenicity utilizing in vitro bioassays on detached leaf or on fruit ('Golden Delicious'). In addition, morphological characterizations were conducted describing both the three-dimensional sporulation pattern and the colony morphology of each isolate. In order to assess the genetic diversity within the Italian Alternaria population, sequence characterization of specific loci and anonymous regions (endoPG, OPA1-3, OPA2-1, and OPA10-2) and genetic fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and inter simple sequence repeat markers were performed. The single spore isolates exhibited differential pathogenicity, which did not correlate with the morphological groupings or to groupings defined by molecular approaches. Moreover, 10 pathogenic isolates out of the 44 single-spored tested were positive for the host-specific AM-toxin gene based upon polymerase chain reaction amplification using specific primers for the AM-toxin gene. This suggests that the production of the AM-toxin may be involved in pathogenesis by some of the Italian isolates of A. alternata from apple. However, this research also suggests that a number of different Alternaria genotypes and morphotypes may be responsible for the apple disease in Italy and that a single taxon cannot be defined as the sole causal agent.

  17. Alternaria Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mekhla Naik; Mohd. Shahbaaz,; Jay Sheth; Sunderamoorthy, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to u...

  18. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on the whorled sunflower (Heilianthus verticillatus) in the southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant endemic to limited small tracts of land in west Tennessee, east Alabama, and west Georgia. In October 2015, plants from wild populations in Georgia and Alabama exhibited small, circular brown, necro...

  19. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant's resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants.

  20. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant’s resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants. PMID:25845360

  1. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance against rose aphids and olfactory response of aphids to toxin-induced volatiles of rose plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Li, Li; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation. However, the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated. Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study. At a concentration of 50.0 μg/ml, the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P≥0.079), and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P≤0.001). However, this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 μg/ml (P≥0.096). Therefore, the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids, demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Alternaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects. Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants. The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P≤0.014). This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants. PMID:22302426

  2. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens

  3. Alternaria keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Mekhla; Mohd Shahbaaz; Sheth, Jay; Sunderamoorthy, S K

    2014-01-01

    To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to undergo a repeat DALK as the keratitis did not resolve with medical therapy alone. Patient did not have a recurrence for 11 months following the regraft. This case report highlights the importance of considering the Alternaria species as a possibile cause of non-resolving fungal keratitis after DALK.

  4. COMPARISON OF OCCURRENCE AND TOXINOGENITY OF ALTERNARIA SPP. ISOLATED FROM SAMPLES OF CONVENTIONAL AND NEW CROSSBRED WHEAT OF SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the results of mycological and mycotoxicological analysis of two types of Slovak wheat samples, focusing on Alternaria genus. A total of 21 samples of conventional wheat grains and 3 samples of the new crossbred wheat were investigated for exogenous and endogenous mycobiota. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by using plate dilution method and the endogenous mycobiota by the method of direct placing of superficially sterilized grains on agar plates. Toxinogenity of selected isolates was analysed by means of thin layer chromatography. The obtained results of this study show a high isolation frequency of Alternaria isolates in samples of conventional as well as new crossbred wheat. A total of 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from conventional wheat (A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima and 3 species-groups from new crossbred wheat (A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima. A. tenuissima species-group was isolated within the endogenous mycobiota from all samples of conventional and new crossbred wheat. Species-group with the second highest isolation frequency in all tested samples was A. infectoria. The highest relative density in all samples belongs to A. infectoria and A. tenuissima species-groups. Selected strains isolated from both types of wheat were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins. The highest toxinogenity (100% was observed in strains of A. arborescens and A. tenuissima.

  5. Alternaria dauci in peen, projectjaar 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plentinger, M.C.; Wanten, P.J.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In het jaar 2001 werden twee veldproeven uitgevoerd waarin fungiciden werden beproefd tegen Alternaria dauci in peen. De proefvelden werden op het PPO-AGV in Lelystad en in Meterik aangelegd. Het doel van het project was na te gaan of fungiciden die toegelaten zijn in andere gewassen of nog niet in

  6. Infectopyrone, a potential mycotoxin from Alternaria infectoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Perry, N.B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    A new metabolite, infectopyrone (1), has been isolated from the filamentous fungus Alternaria infectoria. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is an alpha-pyrone resembling known toxins, and is a useful phenotaxonomic marker for the A. infectoria...

  7. Middelenonderzoek Alternaria dauci in peen, projectjaar 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plentinger, M.C.; Wilms, J.A.M.; Huisman-de Lange, M.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In het jaar 2000 werden twee veldproeven uitgevoerd waarin fungiciden werden beproefd tegen Alternaria dauci in peen. De proefvelden werden op het PAV in Lelystad en op het PAV-ZZO in Meterik aangelegd. Het doel van het project was na te gaan of fungiciden die toegelaten zijn in andere gewassen of

  8. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bosch, Lars; Pfohl, Katharina; Avramidis, Georg; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang; Karlovsky, Petr

    2017-03-10

    The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  9. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars ten Bosch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  10. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gul Shad; El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Patel, Jaimin S; Green, Kari B; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2015-10-30

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  12. The sections of Alternaria: formalizing species-group concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Daniel P; Gannibal, Philipp B; Peever, Tobin L; Pryor, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    The systematics of Alternaria and allied genera traditionally has been based on the characteristics of conidia and the sporulation apparatus. This emphasis on morphology in the reconstruction of organismal relationships has resulted in taxonomic uncertainty and flux for a number of taxa in Alternaria and the related genera Stemphylium, Embellisia, Nimbya and Ulocladium. The present study used a molecular phylogenetic approach for systematic resolution and incorporated extensive taxon sampling (n = 176 species) representing 10 genera and analyses of 10 protein-coding loci. Phylogenetic analyses based on five of these genes revealed eight distinct asexual lineages of Alternaria that cluster as the sister group to the asexual paraphyletic genus Ulocladium, while taxa with known teleomorphs currently circumscribed as Alternaria (the infectoria species-group) cluster among genera that also have representatives with known teleomorphs. This work proposes to elevate the eight well supported asexual lineages of Alternaria to the taxonomic rank of section. Evolutionary relationships among Alternaria and closely related genera are discussed.

  13. Targeting Conserved Genes in Alternaria Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón, Miguel Ángel; López-Calleja, Inés María; González, Isabel; Martín, Rosario; García, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular biology technique based on the detection of the fluorescence produced by a reporter molecule, which increases as the reaction proceeds proportionally to the accumulation of the PCR product within each amplification cycle. The fluorescent reporter molecules include dyes that bind to the double-stranded DNA (i.e., SYBR ® Green) or sequence-specific probes (i.e., Molecular Beacons or TaqMan ® Probes). Real-time PCR provides a tool for accurate and sensitive quantification of target fungal DNA. Here, we describe a TaqMan real-time PCR method for specific detection and quantification of Alternaria spp. The method uses Alternaria-specific primers and probe, targeting the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rRNA gene, and a positive amplification control based on 18S rRNA gene.

  14. Alternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Escrivá; Souheib Oueslati; Guillermina Font; Lara Manyes

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria is one of the major mycotoxigenic fungal genera with more than 70 reported metabolites. Alternaria mycotoxins showed notably toxicity, such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, induction of DNA strand break, sphingolipid metabolism disruption, or inhibition of enzymes activity and photophosphorylation. This review reports on the toxicity, stability, metabolism, current analytical methods, and prevalence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food and feed through the most recent published resear...

  15. Development and Validation of a LC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Alternaria Toxins Alternariol, Alternariol Methyl-Ether and Tentoxin in Tomato and Tomato-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria species are capable of producing several secondary toxic metabolites in infected plants and in agricultural commodities, which play important roles in food safety. Alternaria alternata turn out to be the most frequent fungal species invading tomatoes. Alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, and tentoxin (TEN are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food. In this work, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography (LC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS detection for the simultaneous quantification of AOH, AME, and TEN in tomato and tomato-based products was developed. Mycotoxin analysis was performed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Careful optimization of the MS/MS parameters was performed with an LC/MS system with the ESI interface in the positive ion mode. Mycotoxins were efficiently extracted from sample extract into a droplet of chloroform (100 µL by DLLME technique using acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. Method validation following the Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC was carried out by using tomato juice as a blank matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were, respectively, in the range 0.7 and 3.5 ng/g. Recovery rates were above 80%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr and intermediate reproducibility (RSDR were ≤ 9% and ≤ 15%, respectively, at levels of 25 and 50 ng/g. Five out of 30 analyzed samples resulted positive to at least one Alternaria toxin investigated. AOH was the most common Alternaria toxin found, but at levels close to LOQ (average content: 3.75 ng/g.

  16. Development and Validation of a LC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Alternaria Toxins Alternariol, Alternariol Methyl-Ether and Tentoxin in Tomato and Tomato-Based Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Juan, Cristina

    2016-11-11

    Alternaria species are capable of producing several secondary toxic metabolites in infected plants and in agricultural commodities, which play important roles in food safety. Alternaria alternata turn out to be the most frequent fungal species invading tomatoes. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tentoxin (TEN) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food. In this work, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of AOH, AME, and TEN in tomato and tomato-based products was developed. Mycotoxin analysis was performed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Careful optimization of the MS/MS parameters was performed with an LC/MS system with the ESI interface in the positive ion mode. Mycotoxins were efficiently extracted from sample extract into a droplet of chloroform (100 µL) by DLLME technique using acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. Method validation following the Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC was carried out by using tomato juice as a blank matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were, respectively, in the range 0.7 and 3.5 ng/g. Recovery rates were above 80%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD R ) were ≤ 9% and ≤ 15%, respectively, at levels of 25 and 50 ng/g. Five out of 30 analyzed samples resulted positive to at least one Alternaria toxin investigated. AOH was the most common Alternaria toxin found, but at levels close to LOQ (average content: 3.75 ng/g).

  17. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  18. Presence of adhesive vesicles in the mycoherbicide Alternaria helianthi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria helianthi conidia have been shown to cause disease on common cocklebur. Conidia were applied to slides made hydrophobic by coating with dimethyldicholorosilane (mimics leaf surface), then rinsed and treated with FITC-Con A to stain the adhesive material. Alternaria helianthi coni...

  19. Veel middelen fytoftora: ook aanbod middelen Alternaria voldoende.(interview)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    PPO-Lelystad heeft het middelenschema voor fytoftora en Alternaria geactualiseerd. Door het afnemende gebruik van mancozebhoudende middelen komt Alternaria vaker voor, wat lagere opbrengsten veroorzaakt. Om zijn sterke kant uit te buiten, moet een middel worden ingezet in het aangegeven

  20. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed.

  1. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  2. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  3. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  4. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  5. Alternaria spp.: from general saprophyte to specific parasite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi. However, some species have acquired pathogenic capacities collectively causing disease over a broad host range. This review summarizes the knowledge on pathogenic strategies employed by the fungus to plunder the host. Furthermore, strategies employed

  6. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  7. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  8. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  9. Vóór de bloei spuiten heeft geen zin (Alternaria in aardappel) (Interview)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Het algemene spuitadvies luidt: spuit tegen Alternaria ná de bloei. Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO) onderzocht of dit advies nog steeds opgaat. Voor de bloei starten met mancozeb tegen Alternaria heeft geen effect, blijkt uit dit onderzoek

  10. MULTIPLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES IN ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. LYCOPERSICI AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO MEDIUM COMPOSITION AND HOST-SPECIFIC TOXIN PRODUCTION. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  12. Microbial interaction ofAspergillus parasiticus andBacillus subtilis withalternaria alternata. production of alternariol, alternariol monomethylether and tenuazonic acid on sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, M; Cavaglieri, L; Chulze, S

    1998-03-01

    Production of alternariol, alternariol mono-methylether and tenuazonic acid byAlternaría alternata was studied in competition withAspergillus parasiticus andBacillus subtilis on irradiated sunflower seeds at 0.90 aw.In cultures co-inoculated withAlternaría alternata andAspergillus parasiticus alternariol production decreased by 64%. Similar results were observed in cultures co-inoculated withAlternaría alternata andBacillus subtilis.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1256 - Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used in or on all raw agricultural...

  14. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  15. A mitovirus isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Shang, Hong Hong; Yang, Hong Qi; Da Gao, Bi; Zhong, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is one of the causal agents of alternaria blackspot in rapeseed. In this study, a dsRNA segment was isolated and sequenced from the fungus. The complete nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA was 2506 bp in length and, using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code, was predicted to contain a single large open reading frame (ORF) in the positive strand. This ORF was predicted to encode a protein with 719 amino acids that contains characteristic conserved motifs of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). BLAST analysis revealed that this protein had significant sequence similarity to the RdRp from viruses of the genus Mitovirus. These results indicated that the dsRNA segment represents the replicative form of a mitovirus, which is tentatively designated "Alternaria brassicicola mitovirus 1" (AbMV1) and is a new member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae.

  16. Genetically Based Location from Triploid Populations and Gene Ontology of a 3.3-Mb Genome Region Linked to Alternaria Brown Spot Resistance in Citrus Reveal Clusters of Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids. PMID:24116149

  17. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  18. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cuenca

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  19. A method for the determination of two Alternaria toxins, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, in tomato products Um método para determinação de duas toxinas de Alternaria, alternariol monometil éter e alternariol, em produtos de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Motta

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes, as any soft skinned fruit, are easily susceptible to fungal rot. Alternaria is the genus most frequently encountered in tomatoes. A. alternata and other spp. have been shown to produce the toxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and alternariol (AOH in tomatoes. A method for determining AME and AOH in tomato products was developed and evaluated. The method involves extraction with methanol, clarification with ammonium sulfate, and partition to chloroform. Quantification was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (DAD. Average recoveries were 98.7% and 84.1% for AME and AOH, respectively. The quantification limits of the method, defined as the minimum amount that allowed quantification and confirmation by the DAD detector, were 2.0 ng/g for AME and 5.0 ng/g for AOH.Tomates são frutas de pele fina e assim facilmente susceptíveis a deterioração por fungos. Alternaria é o gênero que mais freqüentemente invade tomates. A. alternata e outras espécies deste gênero produzem as toxinas alternariol (AOH e alternariol monometil (AME. Um método analítico para determinação de AME e AOH em produtos de tomate foi desenvolvido e avaliado. O método consiste em uma extração com metanol, clarificação com sulfato de amônio e partição para clorofórmio. Quantificação foi executada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detetor de arranjo de diodos (DAD. Recuperações médias foram 98,7% e 84,1% para AME e AOH, respectivamente. Os limites de detecção do método, definidos como a menor quantidade das toxinas que permitiu quantificação e confirmação pelo DAD, foram 2,0 ng/g para AME e 5,0 ng/g para AOH.

  20. Chronic environmental exposure to Alternaria tenuis may manifest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... non-brain damaged functioning was observed. These findings seem to indicate that chronic exposures to Alternaria tenuis, Pullularia pullulans, and Epicoccum nigrum might have neuropsychological effects, and that most likely, only one abnormal antibody to toxigenic mold antigen could have the most dominant adverse ...

  1. Novel chemotaxonomic markers of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K.B.; Van Klink, J.W.; Weavers, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Two new structurally related metabolites, novae-zelandin A (1) and novae-zelandin B (2), as well as the novel metabolite 4Z-infectopyrone (3) were purified from extracts of filamentous fungi belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1 D...

  2. Biodecolorization of acid violet 19 by Alternaria solani | Ali | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current research work, the potential of a deuteromycete fungus, Alternaria solani for the removal of a dye, Acid Violet 19 from aqueous solution was studied. The fungus showed promising potential for the decolorization of the dye (88.6%) at a dye concentration of 30 mg/L within a relatively short period of time (four ...

  3. Alternaria-aantasting van aardappelknollen : evaluatie 2004/2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Remijn, J.F.A.; Goorden, P.

    2005-01-01

    In de eerste maanden van 2005 werden diverse aardappeltelers geconfronteerd met veel Alternaria in de knollen. Door zowel DLV Plant, PPO-AGV als Cebeco Agrochemie zijn met name in het Zuid Westen monsters van aardappelen met problemen opgestuurd naar diverse laboratoria waaronder Plant Research

  4. Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch ( Alternaria porri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five onion cultivars Red Creole, Kaharda, Koumassa, Sokoto local and ori were selected on the basis of diverse genetic backgrounds with respect to resistance to Alternaria porri (Ellis.) Cif. The cultivars were crossed in a complete diallel, the 25 F1s generated and their parents were evaluated in replicated yield trials at ...

  5. Occurrence of Alternaria toxins in food products in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Sánchez, P.; Venema, D.P.; Rijk, de T.C.; dr. Kok, A.; Scholten, J.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria toxins are mycotoxins that can contaminate cereals, oilseeds and various fruits and vegetables such as apples, tomatoes, citrus fruits and olives. The fungi can grow at low temperatures, thus causing spoilage even during transport and storage. Currently, there are relatively little

  6. Alternaria toxins and conjugates in selected foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Venema, Dini; Mol, Hans; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Pfeiffer, Erika; Nijs, de Monique

    2016-01-01

    A survey on Alternaria toxins in the food categories dried figs (n = 14), sunflower products (n = 24) and tomato products (n = 43) was carried out in the Netherlands on samples collected in retail stores in autumn 2014. The occurrence data from this survey confirmed the previously reported data

  7. In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of Trichoderma species. Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Abstract. The antifungal potential of five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma aureoviride, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and ...

  8. Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disease incidence recorded 31.20%, 30.58% and 5.42% as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability. ... Abubakar & Ado: Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri ) Disease of Onions ……………….. 110 .... Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS)(1996) computer package.

  9. Alternaria Toxins: Potential Virulence Factors and Genes Related to Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Gupta, Sanjay K.; Swapnil, Prashant; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria is an important fungus to study due to their different life style from saprophytes to endophytes and a very successful fungal pathogen that causes diseases to a number of economically important crops. Alternaria species have been well-characterized for the production of different host-specific toxins (HSTs) and non-host specific toxins (nHSTs) which depend upon their physiological and morphological stages. The pathogenicity of Alternaria species depends on host susceptibility or resistance as well as quantitative production of HSTs and nHSTs. These toxins are chemically low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs). The effects of toxins are mainly on different parts of cells like mitochondria, chloroplast, plasma membrane, Golgi complex, nucleus, etc. Alternaria species produce several nHSTs such as brefeldin A, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, and zinniol. HSTs that act in very low concentrations affect only certain plant varieties or genotype and play a role in determining the host range of specificity of plant pathogens. The commonly known HSTs are AAL-, AK-, AM-, AF-, ACR-, and ACT-toxins which are named by their host specificity and these toxins are classified into different family groups. The HSTs are differentiated on the basis of bio-statistical and other molecular analyses. All these toxins have different mode of action, biochemical reactions and signaling mechanisms to cause diseases. Different species of Alternaria produced toxins which reveal its biochemical and genetic effects on itself as well as on its host cells tissues. The genes responsible for the production of HSTs are found on the conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs) which have been well characterized. Different bio-statistical methods like basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) data analysis used for the annotation of gene prediction, pathogenicity-related genes may provide surprising knowledge in present and future. PMID:28848500

  10. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years ( C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  11. Alternaria Toxins: Potential Virulence Factors and Genes Related to Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Meena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is an important fungus to study due to their different life style from saprophytes to endophytes and a very successful fungal pathogen that causes diseases to a number of economically important crops. Alternaria species have been well-characterized for the production of different host-specific toxins (HSTs and non-host specific toxins (nHSTs which depend upon their physiological and morphological stages. The pathogenicity of Alternaria species depends on host susceptibility or resistance as well as quantitative production of HSTs and nHSTs. These toxins are chemically low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs. The effects of toxins are mainly on different parts of cells like mitochondria, chloroplast, plasma membrane, Golgi complex, nucleus, etc. Alternaria species produce several nHSTs such as brefeldin A, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, and zinniol. HSTs that act in very low concentrations affect only certain plant varieties or genotype and play a role in determining the host range of specificity of plant pathogens. The commonly known HSTs are AAL-, AK-, AM-, AF-, ACR-, and ACT-toxins which are named by their host specificity and these toxins are classified into different family groups. The HSTs are differentiated on the basis of bio-statistical and other molecular analyses. All these toxins have different mode of action, biochemical reactions and signaling mechanisms to cause diseases. Different species of Alternaria produced toxins which reveal its biochemical and genetic effects on itself as well as on its host cells tissues. The genes responsible for the production of HSTs are found on the conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs which have been well characterized. Different bio-statistical methods like basic local alignment search tool (BLAST data analysis used for the annotation of gene prediction, pathogenicity-related genes may provide surprising knowledge in present and future.

  12. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  13. Evaluation and Identification of Alternaria leaf spot resistant sunflower genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gopalakrishnan, N.Manivannan, P.Vindhiyavarman and K.Thiyagarajan

    2010-01-01

    All India coordinated sunflower entries belonging to advance hybrid trial were screened initially by infector rowtechnique under field conditions followed by green house conditions by artificial inoculation during 2007 and2008 for Alternaria leaf blight resistance. The study indicated that field screening alone is not dependable forassessing the disease resistance, especially when the disease pressure is less because of chances of diseaseescape. The present study clearly shows that green hous...

  14. Alternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Escrivá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is one of the major mycotoxigenic fungal genera with more than 70 reported metabolites. Alternaria mycotoxins showed notably toxicity, such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, induction of DNA strand break, sphingolipid metabolism disruption, or inhibition of enzymes activity and photophosphorylation. This review reports on the toxicity, stability, metabolism, current analytical methods, and prevalence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food and feed through the most recent published research. Half of the publications were focused on fruits, vegetables, and derived products—mainly tomato and apples—while cereals and cereal by-products represented 38%. The most studied compounds were alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tentoxin, and tenuazonic acid, but altenuene, altertoxins (I, II, and III, and macrosporin have been gaining importance in recent years. Solid-liquid extraction (50% with acetonitrile or ethyl acetate was the most common extraction methodology, followed by QuEChERS and dilution-direct injection (both 14%. High- and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was the predominant determination technique (80%. The highest levels of alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were found in lentils, oilseeds, tomatoes, carrots, juices, wines, and cereals. Tenuazonic acid highest levels were detected in cereals followed by beer, while alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tenuazonic acid, and tentoxin were found in legumes, nuts, and oilseeds.

  15. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croubels, Siska; Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well. PMID:28718805

  16. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range, higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well.

  17. Daily variations of Alternaria spores in the city of Murcia (semi-arid southeastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera Giner, M.; Carrión García, J. S.

    1995-12-01

    Annual variations in the abundance of Alternaria spores were related to the length of the spore period for data from Murcia (southeastern Spain). To understand the relationship between the number of spores and climatic factors, Alternaria spore counts for March 1993 to February 1994 were examined by means of correlation and regression analyses with fourteen different weather parameters. The results indicated that there was a tendency for Alternaria spore concentrations to increase with increases in temperature, wind speed and hours of sunshine. Negative correlations were observed with air pressure, wind direction and humidity. Theoretical curves for Alternaria spore counts are given in relation to temperatures during the period studied.

  18. Multiple Alternaria species groups are associated with leaf blotch and fruit spot diseases of apple in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harteveld, D. O. C; Akinsanmi, O. A; Drenth, A

    2013-01-01

    ... blotch and fruit spot of apples were identified. Sequences of Alternaria allergen a1 and endopolygalacturonase gene regions revealed that multiple Alternaria species groups are associated with both diseases...

  19. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  20. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... department with a history of increasing difficulty with breathing and ... ward and commenced on intravenous antibiotics and high flow oxygen. He made remarkable improvement with complete resolution of subcutaneous emphysema on the 4th day ... the left lateral decubitus position.18 Our patient met most.

  1. Pyrexial therapy in subcutaneous phycomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BSN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of subcutaneous phycomycosis occurring in a 2 ½ year old child is reported for its rarity, clinical interest and paucity of literature. The condition failed to resolve with conventional antimycotics but improved with the administration of concomitant pyrexial therapy.

  2. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... to trauma or pathological disease state3, with gastroin- testinal and respiratory diseases most commonly impli- cated.4,5. The respiratory disease commonly associated with pneu- momediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema is bronchial asthma.6 Pneumonia, though a very com- mon childhood ...

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.) Infected byAlternaria alternataand Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3'- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H 2 O 2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H 2 O 2 . The reduction in CAT

  4. Discovering novel Alternaria solani succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors by in silico modeling and virtual screening strategies to combat early blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Halim, Sobia A.; Wolters, Pieter J.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against

  5. Phylogenetic, morphological and pathogenic characterization of Alternaria species associated with fruit rots of blueberry in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruits. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed fruits of blueberry in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. The aims of this study wer...

  6. Differential gene expression in Alternaria gaisen exposed to dark and light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Character states observed during sporulation have been the basis for segregation and description of many of the small-spored species of Alternaria. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and housekeeping genes from small-spored Alternaria spp. do not support most of the currently defined morphological specie...

  7. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, fewstudies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary...... metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria...... strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation...

  8. Subconjunctival Injection of Fluconazole in the Treatment of Fungal Alternaria Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yen-Chun; Hsu, Huan-Chen; Chen, Yan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of Alternaria keratitis refractory to the conventional antifungal medical treatment successfully treated with subconjunctival fluconazole injection. Report of two cases. After subconjunctival injection of fluconazole (2 mg/mL) 0.5 mL twice a day for 5 days then once a day till 14 days, two cases of Alternaria keratitis refractory to the conventional antifungal medical treatment were successfully treated. No severe local and systemic side effects were found in these two patients. Alternaria keratitis has a varied clinical presentation and suspicion must be maintained for unusual causes of infectious keratitis. Alternaria keratitis can be difficult to eradicate even with traditional antifungals such as amphotericin B and natamycin. Subconjunctival injection of fluconazole could be effective for Alternaria keratitis unresponsive to conventional antifungal medical treatment.

  9. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.).

  12. Epidural, paraspinal, and subcutaneous lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R. Nuri [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    A unique case of idiopathic diffuse lipomatosis is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with diffuse lipomatosis in the epidural space, paraspinal muscles, and thoracolumbar subcutaneous regions. Epidural lipomatosis involved the entire thoracolumbar spine and was associated with filar thickening and lipoma. In addition, paraspinal muscles, especially the erector spinae group, had diffuse fatty infiltration. The ultimate clinical effect of this fatty tissue was urinary dysfunction, radicular pain and hypoesthesia in both legs and difficulty walking. (orig.)

  13. The biosynthesis of brassicicolin A in the phytopathogen Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Park, Myung Ryeol

    2016-12-01

    Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire is a phytopathogenic fungus that together with A. brassicae causes Alternaria black spot disease in Brassica species. Brassicicolin A is the major host-selective phytotoxin produced in cultures of A. brassicicola. Biosynthetic studies to establish the metabolic precursors of brassicicolin A were carried out with isotopically labeled compounds. Incorporation of D-[ 13 C 6 ]glucose, L-[ 15 N]valine, or L-[ 2 H 8 ]valine into brassicicolin A was established using 1 H, 13 C, 15 N NMR and INADEQUATE spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS spectrometry. Based on analyses of the spectroscopic data, the labeling patterns of brassicicolin A isolated from cultures incubated with the labeled precursors are found to be consistent with both the glycolytic and the valine pathways. That is, the carbons of mannitol and acetyl units and the isocyanide carbon atoms are derived from D-[ 13 C 6 ]glucose whereas the hydroxyisopentanoyl and isocyanoisopentanoyl units are derived from L-valine, including the nitrogen atoms of both isocyanide groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  15. A new species of Xorides Latreille (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Xoridinae parasitizing Pterolophia alternata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Robinia pseudoacacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Ling Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described, Xorides benxicus Sheng, sp. n., reared from the cerambycid twig-boring pest of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Pterolophia alternata Gressitt 1938, in Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China. A key is given to the species similar to Xorides benxicus Sheng, namely X. asiasius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009, X. cinnabarius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009 and X. sapporensis (Uchida 1928.

  16. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morp......The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species......-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix......-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic...

  17. Alternaria Inhibits Double-stranded RNA-Induced Cytokines Productions through TLR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kota; Kobayashi, Takao; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). PBMCs from CRS patients produce IL-5, IL-13 and INF-γ by Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Methods Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC Class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L. Production of IL-6, IP-10, I-TAC and IFN -β were measured by ELISA. TLR3 mRNA and protein expression were detected by quantitative Real time-PCR and Western blot. Results Alternaria and poly I:C enhanced cell surface expression of MHC Class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L, and IL-6 production in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Alternaria significantly inhibited IP-10, I-TAC and IFN-β production induced by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mimic poly I:C. TLR3 mRNA expression and protein production by poly I:C were significantly inhibited by Alternaria. These reactions are likely caused by heat-stable factor(s) in Alternaria extract with >100 kDa molecular mass. Conclusion These findings suggest that fungus, Alternaria may inhibit production of IFN-β and other cytokines by DCs by suppressing TLR3 expression. These results indicate that Alternaria may inhibit host innate immunity against virus infection. PMID:23711857

  18. Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kota; Kobayashi, Takao; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CRS patients produce interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the presence of Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L). Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and protein expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Alternaria and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) enhanced cell surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L, and IL-6 production in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Alternaria significantly inhibited production of IP-10, I-TAC and IFN-β, induced by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimic poly I:C. TLR3 mRNA expression and protein production by poly I:C were significantly inhibited by Alternaria. These reactions are likely caused by heat-stable factor(s) in Alternaria extract with >100 kDa molecular mass. These findings suggest that the fungus Alternaria may inhibit production of IFN-β and other cytokines by DCs by suppressing TLR3 expression. These results indicate that Alternaria may inhibit host innate immunity against virus infection. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Mold and Alternaria skin test reactivity and asthma in children in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2011-04-01

    Sensitivity to mold has been associated with asthma incidence, persistence, and severity. To examine the relationship between skin test reactivity (STR) to molds and specifically to Alternaria and asthma severity in a group of ethnically diverse children in Connecticut. Demographics and STR to 14 local allergens, including Alternaria, Penicillium, and mold mix, were obtained for 914 Puerto Rican, African American, and non-Hispanic white children. A total of 126 children (14%) had a positive skin test result to mold, and 58 (6%) demonstrated STR to Alternaria. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, there was no difference in the likelihood of being sensitized to Alternaria for Puerto Rican and African American children (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-1.5; and OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.2; respectively). In an adjusted analysis, Alternaria STR was associated with severe, persistent asthma (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-8.6) but did not predict increasing asthma severity. STR to cat (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.9) and dog (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.0) was also associated with severe persistent asthma. Alternaria STR was associated with severe persistent asthma independent of the total number of positive skin test results. Mold and Alternaria STR were uncommon among children in Connecticut. Alternaria STR was not associated with increasing asthma severity but was associated with severe, persistent asthma independent of the total number of positive skin test results. There was no association between ethnicity and Alternaria STR. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the Frenulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mendis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas of the penis are rare, with only 29 reported cases to date. We record the case of a patient who presented with a 2-year history of a seemingly indolent penile skin lesion. On histopathology of the local resection, a diagnosis of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma was made. Specifically, leiomyosarcoma of the penile frenulum has not been clearly reported previously. The patient underwent a further excision to ensure an adequate resection margin and has had no disease recurrence at subsequent follow-up. Our case was of a lesion that, although clinically benign, was malignant and this possibility should be borne in mind when assessing patients.

  1. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  2. [Subcutaneous teicoplanin for children with infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, E; Roméo, B; El Samad, Y; Geslin-Lichtenberger, L; Maingourd, Y; Tourneux, P

    2013-07-01

    Infectious endocarditis in children requires prolonged antibiotic therapy. In adults, antibiotics administrated subcutaneously such as teicoplanin are an alternative to intravenous treatment. We report the use of subcutaneous teicoplanin, after an initial antibiotic treatment administrated intravenously, for 2 children treated for infectious endocarditis following an initial cardiac surgery. Serum concentrations of teicoplanin were within the target range after the adaptation in the teicoplanin subcutaneous dosages. The treatment was effective for both cases. No specific side effects related to the treatment were reported. Subcutaneous administration could be used for prolonged antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infectious endocarditis in children, after an initial intravenous treatment. Variability of the bioavailability of antibiotics administrated subcutaneously requires regular testing. Prospective, randomized trials comparing intravenous and subcutaneous administration of teicoplanin should be conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitt...

  4. Alternaria toxins in South African sunflower seeds: cooperative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Hermes, Lena; Marques, Lucas Maciel Mauriz; Focke, Christine; Cramer, Benedikt; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Flett, Bradley; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Sunflower seed samples (N = 80) from different sunflower cultivars originating from different localities in South Africa were analyzed for 15 toxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria by means of a simple one-step extraction dilute-and-shoot HPLC-MS/MS approach. References for valine-tenuazonic acid (Val-TeA), altenusin (ALTS), and altenuisol (ALTSOH) were isolated from fungal culture extracts and spectroscopically characterized. Additionally, valine-tenuazonic acid was tested regarding its cytotoxicity in comparison with tenuazonic acid (TeA) and showed less activity on HT-29 cells. Furthermore, alternariol monomethyl ether-3-O-ß-D-glucoside (AME-3G) was produced by fermentation of alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae. The seed samples were analyzed both with and without hulls. The method covers the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2, altenuene (ALT) and iso-altenuene (iso-ALT), altenuisol, altenusin, altertoxin I (ATX-I) and altertoxin II (ATX-II), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether, alternariol monomethyl ether-3-O-ß-D-glucoside, tenuazonic acid, allo-tenuazonic acid (allo-TeA) and valine-tenuazonic acid, and tentoxin (TEN). More than 80% of the samples were positive for one or more analytes above the respective limit of detection (0.2-23 μg/kg). Alternariol, its monomethyl ether, tentoxin, tenuazonic acid, altenuisol, and valine-tenuazonic acid were found in quantifiable amounts. The highest prevalences were found for tentoxin (73% positive, mean content 13.2 μg/kg, maximum level 130 ± 0.9 μg/kg) followed by tenuazonic acid (51% positive, mean content 630 μg/kg, maximum level 6300 ± 560 μg/kg). The obtained data were further analyzed statistically to identify quantitative or qualitative relationships between the levels of Alternaria toxin in the samples.

  5. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  6. Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegian grains of reduced quality - a matched pair sample study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and geographic distribution of species belonging to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium in grains of reduced and of acceptable quality were studied post-harvest in 1997 and 1998. A total of 260 grain samples of wheat, barley and oats was analysed. The distribution of Alternaria...... and Fusarium spp. varied significantly in samples of reduced quality compared with acceptable samples. Alternaria spp. dominated in the acceptable samples with A. infectoria group as the most frequently isolated and most abundant species group of this genus while Fusarium spp. dominated in samples of reduced...... of reduced quality. The results indicated a negative interaction between E graminearum and Alternaria spp. as well as between F graminearum and other Fusarium spp....

  7. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species...

  8. [Inhibition effects of wood vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-guo; Han, Lian-hua; Wu, Song-quan; Piao, Ren-zhe; Liu, Hai-feng

    2014-09-01

    Less fungicides could be used to biocontrol Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea, this experiment can offer preliminary theory for wood vinegar as a botanic fungicide. The in vitro inhibition activities of wood vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea were tested by using mycelial growth rate method and spore germination method. Inhibition of mycelium growth rate to Alternaria panax was 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 3.0%, while the inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate were 70.68% and 84.47%, respectively, at concentration of wood vinegar 2.25%. Inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate to Botrytis cinerea were 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 2.25%. Wood vinegar concentration of no less than 2.25% can be used as a biocontrol agent of Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea, it is useful for the further field trial.

  9. STAT6 regulates natural helper cell proliferation during lung inflammation initiated by Alternaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, Naseem; Chang, Jinny E.; Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Rosenthal, Peter; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations can be caused by a number of factors, including the fungal allergen Alternaria, which is specifically associated with severe and near-fatal attacks. The mechanisms that trigger lung responses are unclear and might vary between allergens. A comparison between Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, and house dust mite, all allergens in humans, showed that only Alternaria promoted immediate innate airway eosinophilia within 12 h of inhalation in nonsensitized mice. Alternaria, but not the other allergens, induced a rapid increase in airway levels of IL-33, accompanied by IL-33 receptor (IL-33R)-positive natural helper cell (NHC) production of IL-5 and IL-13. NHCs in the lung and bone marrow constitutively expressed transcription factors [GATA-3 and E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (ETS-1)] that could allow for rapid induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines. Lung NHC numbers and proliferation (%Ki-67), but not IL-5 or GATA-3 expression, were significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient mice 3 days after one challenge with Alternaria. Alternaria induced NHC expression of the EGF receptor ligand amphiregulin (partially dependent on STAT6), as well as EGF receptor signaling in the airway epithelium. Finally, human peripheral blood NHCs (CRTH2+CD127+ lineage-negative lymphocytes) from allergic individuals highly expressed GATA-3 and ETS-1, similar to lung NHCs in mice. In summary, Alternaria-induced lung NHC proliferation and expression of amphiregulin are regulated by STAT6. In addition, NHCs in mouse and humans are primed to express Th2 cytokines through constitutive expression of GATA-3 and ETS-1. Thus several transcription factor pathways (STAT6, GATA-3, and ETS-1) may contribute to NHC proliferation and Th2-type responses in Alternaria-induced asthma. PMID:22865552

  10. Alternaria and Cladosporium calendar of Western Thrace: Relationship with allergic rhinitis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katotomichelakis, Michael; Nikolaidis, Christos; Makris, Michael; Proimos, Efklidis; Aggelides, Xenophon; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Papadakis, Chariton E; Danielides, Vassilios

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium are the most important outdoor moulds. The aim of this study was to present fungal spore monitoring data, investigate the relationship of fungal counts with climate conditions, and to explore the clinical significance of Alternaria and Cladosporium species monitoring in allergic rhinitis (AR). Analytic observational study. A 7-day volumetric trap was used to collect circulating Alternaria and Cladosporium fungi. Sixty-nine AR patients were studied and recorded their symptoms by Total 5 Symptoms Score (T5SS). Sensitization prevalence to fungi species was detected by skin prick tests. Monitoring data were correlated to climate conditions and patients symptoms score. Alternaria and Cladosporium were detected throughout the calendar year in ranges of 0 to 217 spores/m(3) and 6.5 to 1,600 spores/m(3) per day, respectively. Highest daily concentrations of both fungi were detected during the summer (73.9 ± 34.4 spores/m(3) for Alternaria and 595.8 ± 288.0 spores/m(3) for Cladosporium) and lowest during the winter (2.4 ± 3.0 spores/m(3) for Alternaria and 24.3 ± 15.7 spores/m(3) for Cladosporium). Both were positively correlated to mean daily temperature and negatively to relative humidity (all P Alternaria (r = 0.822, P = 0.001) and Cladosporium (r = 0.787, P = 0.002) species was observed. We found Cladosporium to be the most frequently detected airborne mould, whereas Alternaria was the most prevalent with regard to sensitization rate. Patients' symptoms score was significantly correlated to spore concentrations. Both fungi were clearly affected by climate factors, such as temperature and relative humidity. These findings are important in AR management. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Potencial de pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes para biocontrole de alternaria ricini em mamoneira Potential of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. For biological control of alternaria ricini on castorbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to control Alternaria leaf spot on castorbean, caused by Alternaria ricini, was studied under greenhouse conditions. Two periods for antagonist applications were tested: 48h before and simultaneously to the pathogen inoculation. Among the antagonists tested JA4 and BJ22 were the most effectives showing disease severity reduction of 20.9% and 17.8% respectively, when applied simultaneously. The effect of Pseudomonas spp. on the micelial growth and sporulation was also studied throughout three different methods (funel, streak and celophane. Inhibition of micelial growth and sporulation was observed. There was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Antibiosis was showed as a mode of action for Pseudomonas spp. in relation to Alternaria ricini. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the inhibition of spore germination by the bacteria.

  12. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid screening of Alternaria mycotoxins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Komatsu, Emy; Rampitsch, Christoph; Perreault, Hélène; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Alternaria genus produce various toxins whose occurrence in agricultural commodities is a major concern for humans and the environment. The present study developed a simple and efficient matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method for the rapid detection of Alternaria toxins. A new method for the detection of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) by MALDI-TOF MS was developed. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up methods were tried to optimize the purification of wheat matrix, and an optimal extraction method was designed to recover the three Alternaria toxins. In addition, various MALDI matrices were examined and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix gave good repeatability for all three Alternaria toxins. This is the first study to report the detection of three important Alternaria toxins concurrently using MALDI-TOF MS and opens up the possibility of rapid screening of Alternaria toxins in several other cereals and food products. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Induction of mutant resistant to alternaria blotch of apple by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toji [Hokuriku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Joetsu, Niigata (Japan); Ito, Yuji [National Inst. of Agrobiological Resources, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuo [National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Apple cultivars resistant to Alternaria blotch disease have been produced by cross-breeding, but it is difficult to produce resistance by crossing without changing the properties of cultivar because the gene composition of the cultivar tree is almost heterozygous. This study aimed to investigate the resistant mutation in Alternaria blotch susceptible and semiresistant cultivars. The resistance to Alternaria blotch pathogen or AM toxin is classified into the following three groups: 1) highly sensitive group including Indo, Redgold and Starking delicious, 2) semi-resistant group including Fuji, Orin and Golden delicious and 3) resistant group including Gala and Tsugaru. After gamma ray exposure of 80 Gy (at 5 Gy/hour), AM-toxin insensitive clones were selected in the VM{sub 6} generation. These selected mutants could be rooted and habituated under field conditions. The degree of disease resistance was assessed by AM toxin treatment and Alternaria blotch fungi spore inoculation test. The leaves of these mutants were changed to variegated at high temperature, suggesting that some mutation related to chloroplast might have occurred. Alternaria blotch resistant strains could be produced by exposing to {gamma}ray and selecting with AM toxin in shoot-tip culture system, but the functional effects of the AM toxin in Alternaria blotch and also the mechanism in the mutant lines were still unclear. (M.N.)

  15. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Curvularia lunata in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-del-Mercado, Elsa; Lammoglia, Lorena; Arenas, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is defined as an infection caused by melanized fungi. It predominates in tropical climate and is currently classified as superficial, allergic, central nervous system or lung infections, and disseminated. Curvularia is one of the many genres which can cause this disease. Phialophora, Alternaria and Exophiala are more commonly isolated from subcutaneous lesions. A 25-year-old male, renal transplant recipient presents with an ulcer on his left leg. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Curvularia lunata was diagnosed based on mycological examination and histopathological findings. He was successfully treated with systemic itraconazole and surgical resection. The incidence of phaeohyphomycosis has increased in the last decades, especially in immunosuppressed individuals; nevertheless the number of cases does not allow for therapeutic controlled trials to be performed. Hence, we consider that it is important to communicate individual cases and reviews of the literature, to increase awareness of the disease, its clinical presentation and response to treatment. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming...

  17. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  18. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  19. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin in hu...... the presence of sufficient concentrations in the adipose tissue to be effective against common bacteria....

  20. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24680136

  1. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian F; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2015-03-02

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, few studies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the chemical potential. Four strains belonged to the Alternaria infectoria sp.-grp., 6 to the Alternaria arborescens sp.-grp., 6 showed a sporulation pattern similar to that of "M" according to Simmons, 1 to that of Alternaria vaccinii, and the remaining 70 constituted a diverse group belonging to morphological groups "G" and "H". The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A. infectoria sp.-grp. had no metabolites in common with the rest of the strains. Several secondary metabolites isolated from large-spored Alternaria species or other fungal genera were detected, such as dehydrocurvularin, pyrenochaetic acid and alternarienonic acid. The strains isolated from tomato produced lower amounts of metabolites than strains from blueberries, walnut and wheat, although individual strains from tomato produced the highest amount of some metabolites. The A

  2. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert; Andersen, Birgitte; Marinach-Patrice, Carine; Mazier, Dominique; De Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and A. porri, but these three species formed a clade separate from strains of A. dauci. The resolution improved in trees based on gpd and Alt a 1, which distinguished strains of the four species as separate clades. However, none provided significant bootstrap support for all four species, which could only be achieved when results for the three loci were combined. MALDI-TOF-based dendrograms showed three major clusters. The first comprised all A. dauci strains, the second included five strains of A. porri and one of A. solani, and the third included all strains of A. tomatophila, as well as all but one strain of A. solani, and one strain of A. porri. Thus, this study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a promising tool for identification of these four species of Alternaria which are closely-related plant pathogens. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Lim, Sung-Ryoun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Myung, Dae-Seong; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Yong-Wook

    2008-06-01

    Generalized subcutaneous edema is an uncommon manifestation of inflammatory myopathy. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with severe generalized edema, an erythematous skin rash, dysphagia and proximal muscle weakness. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis from the clinical signs, increased muscle enzymes, electromyographic findings and a muscle biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased signal intensity in the muscular and subcutaneous layers. The conditions causing generalized edema were excluded. It was concluded that the generalized edema was secondary to dermatomyositis. Aggressive treatments with high-dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents were used to control the severe subcutaneous edema.

  5. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-10-26

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied ( p Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required.

  6. Alternaria toxins in wheat during the 2004 to 2005 Argentinean harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, M P; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V

    2008-06-01

    The natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean wheat from the zone 5 South during the 2004 to 2005 harvest was investigated in 64 wheat samples. All samples were highly contaminated with a wide range of fungal species. Alternaria was found as the main component of the mycota, with an infection percentage of 100%. Three mycotoxins produced by species of Alternaria were determined in wheat: alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid. Alternariol was detected in 4 (6%) of 64 samples, with a range of 645 to 1,388 microg/kg (mean of 1,054 microg/kg); alternariol monomethyl ether, with a range of 566 to 7,451 microg/kg (mean of 2,118 microg/kg) in 15 (23%) of 64 samples; and tenuazonic acid in 12 (19%) of 64 samples, with a range of 1,001 to 8,814 microg/kg (mean, 2,313 microg/kg). Alternariol monomethyl ether was the predominant toxin, but tenuazonic acid was detected in higher concentrations. Alternariol was present in fewer samples and in lower levels than were the other toxins. Tenuazonic acid and alternariol monomethyl ether occurred together in four samples, while tenuazonic acid and alternariol co-occurred in one sample. This the first report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean wheat. Toxin levels were high, probably due to the heavy infection with Alternaria species found in the samples.

  7. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA, tentoxin (TEN, alternariol (AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS. TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05. Furthermore, 95% (352/370 of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required.

  8. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 95% (352/370) of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required. PMID:27792182

  9. Massive Subcutaneous Emphysema in Robotic Sacrocolpopexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hatice; Cremins, Angela; Jones, Keisha A.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of robotic surgery has increased the popularity of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy, may rarely cause massive subcutaneous emphysema, which may be coincident with life-threatening situations such as hypercarbia, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Although the literature contains several reports of massive subcutaneous emphysema after a variety of laparoscopic procedures, we were not able to identify any report of this complication associated with laparoscopic or robotic sacrocolpopexy. Massive subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 3 women after robotic sacrocolpopexy in our practice. The patients had remarkable but reversible physical deformities lasting up to 1 week. A valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure system was used in all 3 of our cases. Our objective is to define the risk of massive subcutaneous emphysema during robotic sacrocolpopexy in light of these cases and discuss probable predisposing factors including the use of valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure trocars. PMID:23925018

  10. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  11. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined...... subjected to cluster analysis. The metabolites extracted from the 20 Alternaria endophytes were analyzed by a HPLC and the resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistic analyses. In comparison with reference 'small-spored' Alternaria species, the 20 strains were segregated into two...... morphological groups: one belonging to the A. arborescens species-group and a second to the A. tenuissima species-group. RAPD analysis also showed that grapevine endophytes belonged to either the A. arborescens or the A. tenuissima species-group and that they were molecularly distinct from strains belonging...

  12. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  13. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly.

  14. Synergistic estrogenic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Hahn, Kathrin; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Marko, Doris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites formed by various fungal species that are found as natural contaminants in food. This very heterogeneous group of compounds triggers multiple toxic mechanisms, including endocrine disruptive potential. Current risk assessment of mycotoxins, as for most chemical substances, is based on the effects of single compounds. However, concern on a potential enhancement of risks by interactions of single substances in naturally occurring mixtures has greatly increased recently. In this study, the combinatory effects of three mycoestrogens were investigated in detail. This includes the endocrine disruptors zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) produced by Fusarium fungi and alternariol (AOH), a cytotoxic and estrogenic mycotoxin formed by Alternaria species. For evaluation of effects, estrogen-dependent activation of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and cell proliferation were tested in the adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. The estrogenic potential varied among the single substances. Half maximum effect concentrations (EC50) for AlP activation were evaluated for α-ZEL, ZEN and AOH as 37 pM, 562 pM and 995 nM, respectively. All three mycotoxins were found to act as partial agonists. The majority of binary combinations, even at very low concentrations in the case of α-ZEL, showed strong synergism in the AlP assay. These potentiating phenomena of mycotoxin mixtures highlight the urgent need to incorporate combinatory effects into future risk assessment, especially when endocrine disruptors are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first investigation on synergistic effects of mycoestrogens.

  15. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA. WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly.

  16. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  17. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  18. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  19. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs nebulized salbutamol in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Madan, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the subcutaneous epinephrine with nebulized salbutamol. Fifty asthmatic children in the age range of 6-14 years were divided into two equal groups. Group I children were given subcutaneous epinephrine and Group II were nebulized with salbutamol. Patients were observed at 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minute intervals. Both the groups had comparable mean increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR %) (Group I 27.7 +/- 0.7; Group II 28.8 +/- 0.06, p >0.05). In Group I there was significant increase in systolic blood pressure, 30 minutes after the start of treatment, however it settled on its own by 60 minutes. Both the groups had satisfactory improvement in clinical parameters which continued upto 4 hours after start of treatment. Subcutaneous epinephrine can be safely used if nebulizers are not available.

  20. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  1. Mycotoxin production of Alternaria strains isolated from Korean barley grains determined by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T T; Kim, Jueun; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Chul Won; Magan, Naresh; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2018-03-02

    Twenty-four Alternaria strains were isolated from barley grain samples. These strains were screened for the production of mycotoxins on rice medium using thin layer chromatography. All 24 strains produced at least one of the five mycotoxins (ALT, AOH, ATX-I, AME, and TeA). Three representative strains, namely EML-BLDF1-4, EML-BLDF1-14, and EML-BLDF1-18, were further analyzed using a new LC-MS/MS-based mycotoxin quantification method. This method was used to detect and quantify Alternaria mycotoxins. We used positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction mode (MRM) for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria mycotoxins produced by these strains. Five Alternaria toxins (ALT, ATX-I, AOH, AME, and TeA) were detected and quantified. Sample preparation included methanol extraction, concentration, and injection into LC-MS/MS. Limit of detection ranged from 0.13 to 4μg/mL and limit of quantification ranged from 0.25 to 8μg/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  3. Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish the potential of crude plant extracts of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Solanum nigrum L., Cleome gynandra L. and Acocanthera schimperi (ADC) Schweinf for the control of Alternaria porri the causal agent of onion purple blotch and other onion fungal pathogens. The effect of three ...

  4. Characterization of a novel botybirnavirus isolated from a phytopathogenic Alternaria fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Fu, Min; Hong, Ni; Zhai, Lifeng; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Guoping

    2017-12-01

    Alternaria fungi are important pathogens infecting a wide variety of organisms. Here, we report a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus named Alternaria botybirnavirus 1 (ABRV1) isolated from a phytopathogenic Alternaria sp. strain (SCFS-3) infecting a pear tree in China. ABRV1 has two dsRNA components (dsRNAs 1 and 2) with the sizes of 6,188 and 5,903 bp, containing two putative open reading frames encoding two polyproteins (202 and 192 kDa, respectively). The polyprotein encoded by ABRV1 dsRNA1 shares 41% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with the one encoded by dsRNA2 (instead of dsRNA1) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 1 (SsBRV1). Conversely, the polyprotein encoded by ABRV1 dsRNA2 shares 46% aa sequence identity with the one (i.e., cap-pol fusion protein) encoded by SsBRV1 dsRNA1. ABRV1 has isometric spherical virus particles (~40 nm in diameter), putatively composed of the 60-, 70- and 80-kDa structural proteins. The genomic organization and phylogenetic analyses revealed that ABRV1 belongs to a newly proposed family "Botybirnaviridae", and to our knowledge, this is the first report of a botybirnavirus infecting an Alternaria sp. strain.

  5. Seed isolates of Alternaria and Aspergillus fungi increase germination of Astragalus utahensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean D. Eldredge; Brad Geary; Scott L. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus utahensis (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray (Fabaceae) (Utah milkvetch) is native lo the arid Great Basin and has desirable attributes that make it a good candidate for restoration in arid, noncompetitive situations. Seed dormancy is a significant barrier to consistent establishment for this species. Species of Alternaria and Aspergillus fungi have...

  6. Genome sequence of a novel mitovirus identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. contains a variety of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements of different sizes. Detailed analysis of next-generation sequencing data obtained using dsRNA purified from Alternaria arborescens, from which we had previously found Alternaria arborescens victorivirus 1, revealed the presence of another mycoviral-like dsRNA of approximately 2.5 kbp in length. When using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code, this dsRNA has a single open reading frame that potentially encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with significant to sequence similarity to those of viruses of the genus Mitovirus. Moreover, both the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions have the potential to fold into stable stem-loop structures, which is characteristic of mitoviruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of RdRp indicated that the virus we identified in A. arborescens is a distinct member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae, designated as "Alternaria arborescens mitovirus 1" (AaMV1).

  7. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  8. Climate impact on Alternaria moulds and their mycotoxins in fresh produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, Van de Evelien; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Liu, Cheng; Devlieghere, Frank; Meulenaer, De Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will affect the presence and concentration of mycotoxin in various foods. Recently, a concern arised on the presence of Alternaria mycotoxins in tomatoes and derived tomato products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on their growth and

  9. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  10. A polyphasic approach to the taxonomy of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Different taxa in the species-group of Alternaria infectoria (teleomorph Lewia spp.) are often isolated from various cereals including barley, maize and wheat grain, ornamental plants and skin lesions from animals and humans. In the present study we made a polyphasic characterization of 39 strain...

  11. Tomato early blight (Alternaria solani): the pathogen, genetics and breeding for resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaerani, R.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Alternaria solani causes diseases on foliage (early blight), basal stems of seedlings (collar rot), stems of adult plants (stem lesions), and fruits (fruit rot) of tomato. Early blight is the most destructive of these diseases and hence receives considerable attention in breeding. For over 60 years,

  12. Characterization of Alternaria isolates and reaction of potato genotypes to early blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayssa Vilela Miguel Alvarenga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Early blight is one of the most important fungal diseases of potato. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro reaction of potato genotypes to the severity of early blight and compare the species Alternaria solani and Alternaria grandis , etiologic agents of disease, through the evaluation of physiological characteristics. Twenty-two genotypes of the Potato Breeding Program at UFLA, two cultivars, Aracy and Bintje, patterns of resistance and susceptibility, respectively were evaluated. For inoculation, three isolates of A. grandis and two isolates of A. solani were used. Plantlets obtained in vitro were inoculated with a 5mm diameter mycelial disk of isolates Alternaria spp. of. These were incubated in severity and classified according to the rating scale. Isolates of Alternaria spp. were evaluated for mycelial growth index (MGI and for formation of mycelial compatibility groups (MCG. The methodology for evaluating the in vitro reaction of genotypes to severity of early blight was efficient for both isolates. The isolates of A. solani and A. grandis were similar in their aggressiveness. The isolates of A. grandis MGI's had higher, and therefore mycelium grew faster when compared to those isolated from A. solani . The occurrence of mycelial compatibility among isolates of A. solani and A. grandis indicated the possible occurrence of parasexual cycle.

  13. Alternaria induces STAT-6 dependent acute airway eosinophila and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Taylor A.; Khorram, Naseem; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Sheppard, Dean; Rosenthal, Peter; Youn Cho, Jae; Pham, Alexa; Miller, Marina; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The fungal allergen, Alternaria, is specifically associated with severe asthma, including life-threatening exacerbations. To better understand the acute innate airway response to Alternaria, naïve WT mice were challenged once intranasally with Alternaria. Naïve WT mice developed significant BAL eosinophila following Alternaria challenge when analyzed 24 hours later. In contrast to Alternaria, neither Aspergillus nor Candida induced BAL eosinophilia. Gene microarray analysis of airway epithelial cell brushings demonstrated that Alternaria-challenged naïve WT mice had an over 20 fold increase level of expression of “Found in Inflammatory Zone 1” (FIZZ1/Retnla), a resistin-like molecule. Lung immunostaining confirmed strong airway epithelial FIZZ1 expression present as early as 3 hours after a single Alternaria challenge that persisted for at least 5 days and was significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient, but not PAR-2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimera studies revealed that STAT6 expressed in lung cells was required for epithelial FIZZ1 expression, while in contrast, STAT6 present in bone marrow derived cells contributed to airway eosinophilia. Studies investigating which cells in the non-challenged lung bind FIZZ1 demonstrated that CD45+CD11c+ (macrophages and dendritic cells) as well as collagen-1 producing CD45 negative cells (fibroblasts) can bind to FIZZ1. Importantly, direct administration of recombinant FIZZ1 to naïve WT mice led to airway eosinophilia, peribronchial fibrosis, and increased thickness of the airway epithelium. Thus, Alternaria induces STAT-6 dependent acute airway eosinophila and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness. This may provide some insight into the uniquely pathogenic aspects of Alternaria-associated asthma. PMID:22327070

  14. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  15. Identification of six new Alternaria sulfoconjugated metabolites by high-resolution neutral loss filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Megan J; Renaud, Justin B; Seifert, Keith A; Mack, Jonathan; Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Yeung, Ken K-C; Sumarah, Mark W

    2015-10-15

    Many species of Alternaria damage important agricultural crops, including small grains and tomatoes. These fungi can produce a variety of secondary metabolites, some of which are toxic to humans and animals. Interest in screening for conjugated or 'modified' mycotoxins has increased because of their tendency to evade traditional analytical screening methods. Two sulfoconjugated Alternaria toxins have been reported and the potential exists for many more. One hundred and forty-eight Canadian strains of Alternaria spp., about half of them isolated from grain, were grown on Potato Dextrose Agar in Petri dishes for 7 days. Plugs of each strain were removed, extracted and screened by a rapid liquid chromatography (LC)/data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) method in negative electrospray ionization mode. Data generated on an Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometer was processed by post-acquisition neutral loss filtering (NLF). Seven isolates that produced sulfoconjugates of known Alternaria toxins were selected for growth on three additional types of fermentation media. Collision-induced dissociation of sulfoconjugated ions displayed a distinctive neutral loss of SO3 (79.957 Da) that was detected in the MS(2) datasets using post-acquisition NLF. A total of 108 of the 148 isolates screened produced sulfoconjugated metabolites on agar plates. Analysis of the seven isolates grown in liquid culture, on rice and Cheerios, led to the discovery of six new, two previously reported and 30 unidentified sulfoconjugated compounds. NLF of HRMS(2) data from an Orbitrap Q-Exactive is a powerful tool for the rapid discovery of sulfoconjugated fungal metabolites. This technique could also be applied to the detection of other important conjugated mycotoxins such as glucosides. The majority of the Canadian isolates of Alternaria spp. studied produced sulfoconjugated metabolites, some of which had no known 'free' Alternaria precursor metabolite, indicating that they are possibly new

  16. Artificial neural network models of relationships between Alternaria spores and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2008-11-01

    Alternaria is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we constructed predictive models for the fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland. Monthly forecasting models were developed for the airborne spore concentrations of Alternaria, which is one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2007, using a Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation; maximum and average wind speed; relative humidity; and maximum, minimum, average, and dew point temperature. The original factors as well as with lags (up to 3 days) were used as the explaining variables. Due to non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the modelling technique applied was the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The final model was a split model with classification (spore presence or absence) followed by regression for spore seasons and log(x+1) transformed Alternaria spore concentration. All variables except maximum wind speed and precipitation were important factors in the overall classification model. In the regression model for spore seasons, close relationships were noted between Alternaria spore concentration and average and maximum temperature (on the same day and 3 days previously), humidity (with lag 1) and maximum wind speed 2 days previously. The most important variable was humidity recorded on the same day. Our study illustrates a novel approach to modelling of time series with short spore seasons, and indicates that the ANN method provides the possibility of forecasting Alternaria spore concentration with high accuracy.

  17. Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five year old entire mixed breed dog was admitted to the University of Nairobi's small animal clinic with a 5-months history of subcutaneous masses. Physical examination revealed firm and mobile masses in the subcuticular tissues, on the mandible and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Visual inspection ...

  18. Radiological case: subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, J.; Gomes, M.; Moreira, C.; Macedo, F.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the case of a 5 year old asmathic girl admitted to the hospital for acute non traumatic edema and crepitus of the face, neck and upper thorax. Thoracic x-ray (not shown) and thoracic and neck CT were performed, showing extensive subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema. These are rare complications of asthma. The imaging features are described.

  19. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheezing and neck pain. He was diagnosed asthmatic at the age of eleven and had been admitted on a few occasions for acute exacerbations in the prior ten years. He had salbutamol tablets regularly. At this index presentation, he was noted to have subcutaneous swelling and crepitus over the neck and upper anterior ...

  20. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via ...

  1. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  2. Case Report: Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema as complications of childhood pneumonia is very unusual. They results most often from respiratory manoeuvres that produce high intrathoracic pressure. Although they are largely benign, pneumomediastinum can cause compression of major ...

  3. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus, closely related to fusariviruses, infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Shang, Hong Hong; Zhu, Chuan Xia; Zhu, Jun Zi; Zhu, Hong Jian; Hu, Yan; Gao, Bi Da

    2016-06-02

    The alternaria blackspot of rapeseed is one of the most prominent diseases of rapeseed. It is caused by three species of the genus Alternaria: Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria raphanin. Here we report a novel positive-sense RNA virus from an A. brassicicola strain 817-14. The virus has a 6639 nucleotide (nt) long genome, excluding a poly (A)-tail, and was predicted to contain three putative open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3). The large ORF1 encoded a 174-kDa polyprotein (composed of 1522 amino acid residues) containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and a helicase domain. The other two smaller ORFs encoded polypeptides with unknown function. Homology search and phylogenetic analysis, based on the RdRp and helicase domains, suggest that this virus is related to and grouped with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum fusarivirus 1 (SsFV1), Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1), Fusarium graminearum virus-DK21 (FgV1), and Penicillium roqueforti RNA mycovirus 1 (PrRV1), all of which belong to a newly proposed family Fusariviridae. For this study, we designed the virus as "Alternaria brassicicola fusarivirus 1" (AbFV1). Virus elimination revealed that AbFV1 has no conspicuous impact on the biological properties of its host. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: State-of-the art 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Akerström, Finn; Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Puchol, Alberto; Jiménez-López, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has recently been approved for commercial use in Europe, New Zealand and the United States. It is comprised of a pulse generator, placed subcutaneously in a left lateral position, and a parasternal subcutaneous lead-electrode with two sensing electrodes separated by a shocking coil. Being an entirely subcutaneous system it avoids important periprocedural and long-term complications associated with transvenous implantable cardiove...

  5. Subcutaneous filariasis: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valand Arvindbhai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti presented in subcutaneous nodule is a very rare presentation. Wuchereria bancrofti first reported by Bancrofti in Brisbane in 1876 and the name filaria Bancrofti was given in 1877 and the generic name was given in 1878. A 15-year-old male patient′s known case of pulmonary Koch′s with incidentally detected subcutaneous nodule on right arm pit, cytology from the nodule shows many sheathed microfilaria along with segment of an adult female worm. Wet mount peripheral blood smear shows nocturnal motile microfilaria. The Wuchereria bancrofti is known to be associated with pulmonary Koch′s. Nocturnal motility and cytomorphological features differentiate Wuchereria bancrofti from Wuchereria loa loa . After giving diethyl carbamazine (DEC 6 mg/kg for 21 days without disturbing anti Koch′s treatment schedule and microfilaria disappeared from peripheral blood.

  6. Primary Sonographic Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Shivu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a small diffuse swelling on the left side of her face. She was diagnosed with intramuscular cysticercosis in the masseter muscle (case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the muscular system and subcutaneous tissues with surrounding phlegmon on high-resolution ultrasound and managed conservatively. To our knowledge, the imaging findings of disseminated muscular cysUcercosis have been reported before only a few numbers of times. In this case, the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of high-resolution sonography of the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. It showed multiple oval to circular, predominantly anechoic lesions, which were around 1 cm in diameter. Most of these cystic lesions showed a hyperechoic focus within suggestive of a scolex. There was no increased vascularity surrounding the lesions. Thus, sonography can primarily make the correct diagnosis of disseminated muscular cysticercosis if such lesions are seen. In endemic areas, cysticercosis should be considered one of the differential diagnosis of the subcutaneous swellings.

  7. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants.

  8. Successful Posaconazole Therapy of Disseminated Alternariosis due to Alternaria infectoria in a Heart Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Kubanek, Milos; Hubka, Vit; Sticova, Eva; Voska, Ludek; Kautznerova, Dana; Kolarik, Miroslav; Hamal, Petr; Vasakova, Martina

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria in a 61-year-old heart transplant recipient with multiple skin lesions and pulmonary infiltrates. The infection spread via the haematogenous route from the primary cutaneous lesions into the lungs. The diagnosis was based on the histopathological examination, direct microscopy, skin lesion cultures and detection of Alternaria DNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using molecular methods. The treatment consisted of a combination of surgical excision and systemic antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the first agent used but had a weak effect. Posaconazole was subsequently used to achieve a successful response. The isolate was identified as A. infectoria by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region and the partial β-tubulin gene.

  9. Genome sequence of a novel endornavirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong-Hong; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Ru-Jia; Chen, Chuan-Yuan; Gao, Bi-Da; Zhu, Hong-Jian

    2015-07-01

    In an effort to discover new mycoviruses from phytopathogenic fungi, a dsRNA molecule of 10,290 nt, resembling those associated with the viruses belonging to the family Endornaviridae, was isolated from Alternaria brassicicola, one of the causal agents of rapeseed black spot disease. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a single open reading frame coding for a polyprotein of 3400 aa containing conserved viral methyltransferase (MTR), viral RNA helicase 1 (Hel-1), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, a cysteine-rich region (CRR) with conserved CXCC motifs, shared among several endornaviruses, was also identified between the MTR and Hel-1 domains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp sequence strongly suggested that the virus infecting A. brassicicola should be considered a representative of a novel endornavirus species, and this virus was designated as Alternaria brassicicola endornavirus 1 (AbEV1).

  10. Characterization of small-spored Alternaria from Argentinean crops through a polyphasic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Rodriguero, Marcela; Stenglein, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Small-spored Alternaria have been isolated from a wide variety of food crops, causing both economic losses and human health risk due to the metabolites produced. Their taxonomy has been discussed widely, but no scientific consensus has been established in this field to date. Argentina is a major...... exporter of agricultural products, so it is essential to thoroughly understand the physiological behaviour of this pathogen in a food safety context. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize small-spored Alternaria spp. obtained from tomato fruits, pepper fruits, wheat grains and blueberries...... these characters were simultaneously analysed with molecular data, no clearly separated groups were obtained. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analysis (both Bayesian and maximum parsimony) of a conserved region yielded the same result, suggesting that all isolates belong to the same species. Furthermore...

  11. Genetic architecture of factors underlying partial resistance to Alternaria leaf blight in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clerc, Valérie; Pawelec, Anna; Birolleau-Touchard, Christelle; Suel, Anita; Briard, Mathilde

    2009-05-01

    In most production areas, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) is recognized as the most common and destructive foliage disease in carrot. To assess the genetic architecture of carrot ALB resistance, two parental coupling maps were developed with similar number of dominant markers (around 70), sizes (around 650 cM), densities (around 9.5 cM), and marker composition. The F(2:3) progenies were evaluated in field and tunnel for two scoring dates. The continuous distribution of the disease severity value indicated that ALB resistance is under polygenic control. Three QTLs regions were found on three linkage groups. Two of them were tunnel or field specific and were detected only at the second screening date suggesting that the expression of these two QTLs regions involved in resistance to Alternaria dauci might depend on environment and delay after infection.

  12. Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dizhe Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA, patulin (PAT and trichothecenes by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%. The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%, and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%. The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg−1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%, and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%. Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2–4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2% samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China.

  13. Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dizhe; Wang, Yao; Jiang, Dongmei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jun; Wang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg−1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2–4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China. PMID:28672847

  14. Simplified Assays for Evaluation of Resistance to Alternaria brassicicola and Turnip Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Maruta, Natsumi; Botella, Jose R

    2016-01-01

    Studying the natural defense mechanisms developed by model plants such as Arabidopsis is an important approach towards the improvement of crop species. The availability of mutants as well as the relative easiness to silence any gene in Arabidopsis provides an invaluable source of genotypes that can be used to discover new elements involved in the defense response. Here we describe simple and reliable methods to evaluate susceptibility/resistance to the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the viral pathogen Turnip mosaic virus.

  15. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  16. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of meteorological factors on the levels of Alternaria spores on a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuredo, Olga; Seijo, Maria Carmen; Fernández-González, Maria; Iglesias, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Alternaria solani Soraeur produces early blight in Solanum tuberosum L., leading to significant agricultural losses. The current study was carried out on the extensive potato crop situated in north-western of Spain during 2007, 2008 and 2009. In this area potato crops are the most important source of income. In this work we used a Hirst-type volumetric spore-trap for the aerobiological monitoring of Alternaria spores. The highest spore concentrations were recorded during the 2009 cycle (10,555 spores), and the lowest concentrations were recorded during the 2008 cycle (5,471 spores). Over the 3 years of study, the highest concentrations were registered during the last stage of the crop. The aim of the study was to observe the influence of meteorological factors on the concentration of Alternaria spores, which can lead to serious infection and early blight. Prediction of the stages during which a crop is particularly vulnerable to infection allows for adjustment of the application of fungicide and is of environmental and agricultural importance. For this reason, we tested three models (P-Days, DD and IWP) to predict the first treatment and decrease the negative effect that these spores have on potato crops. The parameter that showed the most significant correlation with spore concentrations was minimum temperature. We used ARIMA (autoregressive integrated model of running mean) time-series models to determine the forecast. We considered weather data as predictor variables and the concentration of spores on the previous day as the fixed variable.

  18. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte

    2009-03-15

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when grown at 25 degrees C with an alternating light/dark cycle consisting of 8 h of cool-white daylight followed by 16 h darkness. Addition of 1.5% MnCl(2) 4 H(2)O (w/v) inhibited most other fungi than Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma species when tested on pure cultures. The mycobiota of two soil samples and eight grain samples were examined using PCA-Mn and three commonly used isolation media, DRYES, DG18 and V8. On the three conventional media growth of several genera was observed with the predominant being Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Of these only F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides were able to grow on PCA-Mn. Alternaria infectoria and Epicoccum nigrum were present in three cereal grain samples, but emerged to a far lower degree on the three conventional media compared to PCA-Mn. Three black spored fungi, identified as Phoma eupyrena, Paraconiothyrium minitan and one unknown species, were isolated from the two soil samples when incubated on PCA-Mn but were absent on the three conventional media.

  19. Sonographic Appearance of Dermal and Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Bae, Young A; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Kwon, Kye Won [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that mainly involves lung and skin, but rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. While some studies have reported on CT or MR imaging findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, there is only one report on sonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, recently published in the US. Familiarity with ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis might be helpful for the early diagnosis in patient with palpable nodules and image follow-up for subcutaneous sarcoidosis. Here we report on the sonographic appearance of subcutaneous sarcoidosis involving dermal and subcutaneous tissue over axilla and sole, a case diagnosed as sarcoidosis and improved by steroid treatment, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  20. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy and outdoor counts of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Sevim; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Ceter, Talip; Mungan, Dilşad; Ozer, Faruk; Pinar, Münevver; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2006-08-01

    Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium has been reported to be 3% to 30% in European countries. However, in Turkey, there is limited data about the prevalence of sensitization to these molds and the intensity of the two mold spores in Ankara atmosphere. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy in Ankara and also the concentration of the two molds in Ankara atmosphere. Allergic rhinitis and asthma patients living in Ankara were included in the study. Demographic and diagnostic data of the patients were recorded. A skin prick test with extracts supplied by three different laboratories was used to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Mold spores were measured using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in Ankara atmosphere during a year. Overall sensitization to the two molds was found to be 14.8%, and isolated Alternaria or Cladosporiumsensitization was 3%. Considering the positive reaction to at least one of the three suppliers, the sensitization rate was 11.9% and 8.1% for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. Cochran's Q homogenization test demonstrated that the positive and negative reaction were not homogeneous among three laboratories. The total number of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere was 429,264 spores/m3 of which 75.5% and 6% were constituted by Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively. The prevalence of Cladosporium and Alternaria sensitization in respiratory allergy patients is quite similar to European countries; however, our data indicate that commercial mold extracts should be standardized to establish the real sensitization rates. Additionally, considering the great numbers of these mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between the mold load and sensitization patterns.

  1. Dual effectiveness of Alternaria but not Fusarium mycotoxins against human topoisomerase II and bacterial gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolim, Katharina; Del Favero, Giorgia; Ellmer, Doris; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Sulyok, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Marko, Doris

    2017-04-01

    Type II DNA-topoisomerases (topo II) play a crucial role in the maintenance of DNA topology. Previously, fungi of the Alternaria genus were found to produce mycotoxins that target human topo II. These results implied the question why a fungus should produce secondary metabolites that target a human enzyme. In the current work, the homology between human topo II and its bacterial equivalent, gyrase, served as basis to study a potential dual inhibition of both enzymes by mycotoxins. A total of 15 secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the genera Alternaria and Fusarium were assessed for their impact on topo II of human and bacterial origin in the decatenation and the supercoiling assay, respectively. In line with the theory of dual topo II inhibition, six of the tested Alternaria mycotoxins were active against both enzymes, the dibenzo-α-pyrones alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), as well as the perylene-quinones altertoxin I (ATX I) and II (ATX II), alterperylenol (ALP) and stemphyltoxin III (STTX III). The Alternaria metabolites altersetin (ALN), macrosporin (MAC), altenusine (ALS) and pyrenophorol (PYR) impaired the function of human topo II, but did not show any effect on gyrase. The potency to inhibit topo II activity declined in the row STTX III (initial inhibitory concentration 10 µM) > AOH (25 µM) = AME (25 µM) = ALS (25 µM) = ATX II (25 µM) > ALN (50 µM) = ATX I (50 µM) > ALP (75 µM) = PYR (75 µM) > MAC (150 µM). Inhibition of gyrase activity was most pronounced for AOH and AME (initial inhibitory concentration 10 µM) followed by ATX II (25 µM) > ATX I = ALP = STTX III (50 µM). In contrast, none of the investigated Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1, fusarin C and moniliformin, as well as the Alternaria metabolite tentoxin, had any impact on the activity of neither human nor bacterial topo II.

  2. Surgical management of subcutaneous Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, David R; Parvez, Najma; Ranganath, Sangeetha; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient with a history of sarcoidosis and over 10 years of chronic low-dose glucocorticoid use, cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with two painful, enlarging subcutaneous nodules ultimately identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Two attempts at needle aspiration of the larger nodule resulted in rapid reaccumulation. Complete surgical excision of both nodules resulted in complete resolution without the use of any concomitant antifungals. Patient had no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25737220

  3. Subcutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, J; Beović, B; Triller, C; Rakovec, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous myiasis caused by the larvae of the Dermatobia hominis fly is described, involving the ankle region of a 25-y-old man who had returned from Peru. After removal of 4 larvae from the affected sites, the lesions healed in 2 weeks without further treatment. Because of the increasing number of people travelling to tropical America, physicians in Slovenia will have to consider Dermatobia myiasis in the differential diagnosis of furuncular lesions in patients with a relevant travel history.

  4. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (safety signals for trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...... that switching from IV to SC trastuzumab (hand-held syringe or SID) or vice versa did not impact the known safety profile of trastuzumab....

  5. Hourly predictive artificial neural network and multivariate regression tree models of Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in Szczecin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2009-11-01

    A study was made of the link between time of day, weather variables and the hourly content of certain fungal spores in the atmosphere of the city of Szczecin, Poland, in 2004-2007. Sampling was carried out with a Lanzoni 7-day-recording spore trap. The spores analysed belonged to the taxa Alternaria and Cladosporium. These spores were selected both for their allergenic capacity and for their high level presence in the atmosphere, particularly during summer. Spearman correlation coefficients between spore concentrations, meteorological parameters and time of day showed different indices depending on the taxon being analysed. Relative humidity (RH), air temperature, air pressure and clouds most strongly and significantly influenced the concentration of Alternaria spores. Cladosporium spores correlated less strongly and significantly than Alternaria. Multivariate regression tree analysis revealed that, at air pressures lower than 1,011 hPa the concentration of Alternaria spores was low. Under higher air pressure spore concentrations were higher, particularly when RH was lower than 36.5%. In the case of Cladosporium, under higher air pressure (>1,008 hPa), the spores analysed were more abundant, particularly after 0330 hours. In artificial neural networks, RH, air pressure and air temperature were the most important variables in the model for Alternaria spore concentration. For Cladosporium, clouds, time of day, air pressure, wind speed and dew point temperature were highly significant factors influencing spore concentration. The maximum abundance of Cladosporium spores in air fell between 1200 and 1700 hours.

  6. Conidia of Alternaria, allergy risk factor in Castilla-La Mancha Conidios de 'alternaria', factor de riesgo de alegria en Castilla-La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sabariego Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work study the seasonal behaviour of the conidia of Alternaria, as well as the main locations in the Castilla-La Mancha region where the levels of these conidia in the air may pose a risk of allergy for people who are sensitised to them. The study was conducted in 5 sampling stations belonging to the Castilla-La Mancha Aerobiological Network (Red Aerocam: Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara and Toledo, in 2008. The pollen traps and the sampling methodology used follow the guidelines of the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA. Alternaria conidia are detected in the atmosphere of Castilla-La Mancha all year round, although the highest concentrations are obtained in May, June and July. The greatest annual concentrations are detected in the cities of Ciudad Real, Toledo y Guadalajara with 5.624 conidia, 4.527 conidia and 4.173 conidia respectively, followed by Albacete and Cuenca. Some locations sampled showed high maximum daily values on a considerable number of days: examples include the levels recorded in Ciudad Real on 20 March (722 conidia/m3, Toledo on 18 June (324 conidia/m3, and Guadalajara on 26 June (220 conidia/m3.En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento estacional de los conidios de Alternaria en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha, cuyo inte- rés se basa en que los niveles en el aire de estos conidios suponen un riesgo de alergia para las personas sensibilizadas a los mismos. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo en cinco estaciones de muestreo pertenecientes a la Red de Aerobiología de Castilla-La Mancha (Red Aerocam: Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara y Toledo, durante el año 2008. Los captadores utilizados y la metodología de muestreo siguen las directrices de la Red Española de Aerobiología (REA. Los conidios de Alternaria se detectan en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha durante todo el año, aunque los meses de mayores concentraciones se obtienen en mayo, junio y julio. Ciudad Real, Toledo y Guadalajara

  7. RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum AO PATÓGENO Alternaria solani RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum TO Alternaria solani PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de resistência de variedades comerciais de tomateiro ao patógeno Alternaria solani. Os genótipos são pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma do CNPH-Embrapa, compreendendo híbridos F1, que foram avaliados em condições de campo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia-GO, a uma altitude de 730 m, latitude de 16° 41'S e longitude de 49° 17'W. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 e 85 dias após o transplantio, combinando-se escala diagramática e de notas. As variedades Ohio 4013 e CNPH 738 foram as mais resistentes entre os materiais tutorados. Entre os materiais rasteiros os mais resistentes foram o híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense e Rotam 4. O genótipo Ohio 4013 e híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense foram os que mais se destacaram para resistência a este patógeno, podendo ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomateiro; resistência; Alternaria solani.

    The main objective of this study was to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the germoplasm bank of CNPH-Embrapa and hibrids F1 of tomat to Alternaria solani, in field condition. The trials were conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brasil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41'S and longitude of 49° 17'W. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting, combining diagramatic scale and grades. Among indeterminate cultivars Ohio 4013 and CNPH 738 were the most resistants. Among determined ones the most

  8. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  9. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  10. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  11. Discovering Novel Alternaria solani Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors by in Silico Modeling and Virtual Screening Strategies to Combat Early Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Iftikhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against A. solani. We employed computational methodologies to design new SDH inhibitors using homology modeling; pharmacophore modeling and structure based virtual screening. The three dimensional SDH model showed good stereo-chemical and structural properties. Based on virtual screening results twelve commercially available compounds were purchased and tested in vitro and in vivo. The compounds were found to inhibit mycelial growth of A. solani. Moreover in vitro trials showed that inhibitory effects were enhanced with increase in concentrations. Similarly increased disease control was observed in pre-treated potato tubers. Hence the applied in silico strategy led us to identify novel fungicides.

  12. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition and fungicidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris against Alternaria citri

    OpenAIRE

    Erica A. Soto Mendívil; Juan F. Moreno Rodríguez; Mirna Estarrón Espinosa; Jorge A. García Fajardo; Eva N. Obledo Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Se analizó químicamente el aceite esencial de tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L.) por Cromatografía de Gases/Espectroscopia de Masas y se evaluó su actividad fungicida. Los principales constituyentes fueron borneol (28.4%), timol (16.6%), carvacrol metil eter (9.6%), camfeno (6.9%), α-humulene (6.4%) y carvacrol (5.0%). Las pruebas de actividad fungicida (in vitro) indicaron que la concentración de 1000ppm del aceite esencial de tomillo fue efectivo para inhibir a Alternaria citri, ...

  14. Chemical composition and fungicidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris against Alternaria citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica A. Soto Mendívil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó químicamente el aceite esencial de tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L. por Cromatografía de Gases/Espectroscopia de Masas y se evaluó su actividad fungicida. Los principales constituyentes fueron borneol (28.4%, timol (16.6%, carvacrol metil eter (9.6%, camfeno (6.9%, α-humulene (6.4% y carvacrol (5.0%. Las pruebas de actividad fungicida (in vitro indicaron que la concentración de 1000ppm del aceite esencial de tomillo fue efectivo para inhibir a Alternaria citri, cuando se adicionó al medio de cultivo agar papa dextrosa

  15. Specific PCR-based detection of Alternaria helianthi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Archana, B.

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria helianthi is an important seed-borne pathogenic fungus responsible for blight disease in sunflower. The current detection methods, which are based on culture and morphological identification, are time-consuming, laborious and are not always reliable. A PCR-based diagnostic method...... tested. The detection limit of the PCR method was of 10 pg from template DNA. The primers could also detect the pathogen in infected sunflower seed. This species-specific PCR method provides a quick, simple, powerful and reliable alternative to conventional methods in the detection and identification...

  16. A new Secondary metabolites of the crinoid (Comanthina schlegeli) associated fungus Alternaria brassicae 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Jia-Yi; Li, Jing; Liu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Fungus Alternaria brassicae 93 isolated from crinoid (Comanthina schlegeli), which was collected from the South China Sea. Six compounds were isolated from A. brassicae 93, including one new compound (1), along with five known compounds, ochratoxin A methyl ester (2), cis-4-hydroxym-ellein (3), (R)-7-hydroxymellein (4), trans-2-anhydromevalonic (5) and protocatechuic acid (6). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with reported data. Cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity against twelve aquatic bacteria of compound 1 were also tested.

  17. First Record of Alternaria simsimi Causing Leaf Spot on Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Phil; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2014-12-01

    Leaf spot disease was observed in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) during 2009 and 2010 in Korea. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria simsimi based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The morphological identification was well supported by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer region. A. simsimi isolates caused spot symptoms on leaves and stems of sesame plants 2 wk after artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed in the field. This is the first record of leaf spot disease in Korea caused by A. simsimi.

  18. [ANSYS simulation of subcutaneous pustule electrical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Wang, Xuan; Zhu, Honglian; Wang, Guoyong

    2011-12-01

    With the growing number of clinical surgery, post-operative surgical wound infection has become a very difficult clinical problem. In the treatments of it, non-invasive test of wound infection and healing status has a significance in clinical medicine practice. In this paper, beginning with the electrical properties of skin tissue structure and on the basis of the electromagnetism and the human anatomy, using the finite element analysis software, we applied safe voltage on the 3D skin model, performed the subcutaneous pustule simulation study and gained the relational curve between depth and radius of the pustule model. The simulation results suggested that the method we put forward could be feasible, and it could provide basis for non-invasive detection of wound healing and wound infection status.

  19. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria arborescens, A-infectoria and A-tenuissima species-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Correct morphological identification of Alternaria is important and demands a combination of modern standardised methods and up-to-date literature. The production of secondary metabolites has previously been used as a means of identification and classification. In this study, 153 fungal isolates...... belonging to the genus Alternaria were examined. They were grown under standardised conditions and subjected to morphological and chemical examination. All isolates were grouped according to their three-dimensional sporulation pattern on potato carrot agar and their colony colour on dichloran rose bengal...

  20. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  1. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... Guidelines: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. 15. 2013 Volume 18 No 1. JEMDSA. Introduction. The first external insulin pump device to deliver continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or “insulin pump”) therapy was used more than 30 years ago.

  2. The comparison of the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Insulin has been reported to have positive effects on intestinal adaptation after short bowel syndrome when applicated oral or subcutaneously. The purpose of this study is to compare the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous and oral routes of insulin in rats with short bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  3. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  4. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a four weeks-old girl with subcutaneous fat necrosis and associated hypercalcemia is presented. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the New born (SCFN) is an uncommon disorder which is rarely complicated with life threatening hypercalcemia. Though it is reported from many parts of the world this is the first case ...

  5. Altering Conidial Dispersal of Alternaria solani by Modifying Microclimate in Tomato Crop Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01 involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH displayed significant (P < 0.05 but negative correlation with conidial dispersal. The objective of the study was to modify microclimatic conditions of tomato crop canopy which may hamper conidial dispersal and reduce disease severity. We evaluated effect of marigold intercropping and plastic mulching singly and in consortia on A. solani conidial density, tomato leaf damage and microclimatic parameters as compar to tomato alone (T. Tomato-marigold intercropping–plastic mulching treatment (T + M + P showed 35–39% reduction in disease intensity as compared to tomato alone. When intercropped with tomato, marigold served as barrier to conidial movement and plastic mulching prevented evapotranspiration and reduced the canopy RH that resulted in less germination of A. solani spores. Marigold intercropping and plastic mulching served successfully as physical barrier against conidial dissemination to diminish significantly the tomato foliar damage produced by A. solani.

  6. [Research of chemotaxis response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax on total ginsenosides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kun; Xu, Yong-hua; Lei, Feng-jie; Yin, Min-jing; Wang, Zhuang; Zhang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, three kinds of chemotactic parameters (concentration, temperature and pH) were determined by plate assay and spore germination method to research the chemotactic response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax, and their spores on total ginsenosides. The results showed that Botrytis cinerea had strong chemotactic response at the mid-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 20 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.293 0, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.476 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 53%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.452 6 g x L(-1); however, Alternaria panax had strong chemotactic response at the low-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 25 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.235 4, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.537 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 67%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.494 8 g x L(-1). The results indicated that the low and middle concentration (2, 20 mg x L(-1)) of total ginsenosides had significant promoting effect on chemotactic response of these two pathogens, and the spore germination, mycelial growth rate, dry weight of mycelial of them were also significantly improved by this chemotactic response, whereas it decreased as the increase of total ginsenosides concentration.

  7. Possibility of Alternaria toxins reduction by extrusion processing of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Čolović, Radmilo; Pezo, Lato; Orčić, Dejan; Vukmirović, Đuro; Mastilović, Jasna

    2016-12-15

    This study represents the first report about possibility of reduction of Alternaria toxins in wheat using the extrusion process. Effects of extrusion processing parameters - moisture content (w=16, 20, 24g/100g), feeding rate (q=15, 20, 25kg/h), and screw speed (v=300, 390, 480rpm), on reduction rate of tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), in whole wheat flour were investigated. Temperature ranged between 111.1 and 160.8°C, while the absolute pressure was from 0.17 to 0.23MPa. The simultaneous influence of w and v was the most important for TeA reduction (pAlternaria toxins were as follows: w=24g/100g, q=25kg/h, v=390rpm, with a reduction of 65.6% for TeA, 87.9% for AOH and 94.5% for AME. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  10. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L.This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The research used non factorial Block Randomized Design (BRD and four replications.The treatment consisted of six levels of Azadirachta indica which is dissolved in one litre of water each treatment. The number of replication are four each treatment. Treatment applied were 0 g plot-1 (control; 100 g plot-1; ; 150 g plot-1 ; 200 g plot-1 ; 250 g plot-1 ; 300 g plot-1 . The results showed that mimba leaf extract significantly affect the intensity of the purple spot disease and onion production.

  11. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Roberts, S.J.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina.

  12. Characterization of Alternaria isolates from the infectoria species-group and a new taxon from Arrhenatherum, Pseudoalternaria arrhenatheria sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectoria species-group within the genus Alternaria was originally conceived by Simmons in 1993 and was based upon common morphological characteristics that included the development of conidial chains with primary, secondary, and tertiary branching resulting in substantial three-dimensional com...

  13. Survey of Alternaria toxin contamination in food from the German market, using a rapid HPLC-MS/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Bergmann, Marian; Ersen, Seyma; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS-based method for the quantification of nine mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria in various food matrices was developed. The method relies on a single-step extraction, followed by dilution of the raw extract and direct analysis. In combination with an analysis time per sample of 12 min, the sample preparation is cost-effective and easy to handle. The method covers alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (isoALT), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), and the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2. Some Alternaria toxins which are either not commercially available or very expensive, namely AOH, AME, ALT, isoALT, and ATX-I, were isolated as reference compounds from fungal cultures. The method was extensively validated for tomato products, bakery products, sunflower seeds, fruit juices, and vegetable oils. AOH, AME, TeA, and TEN were found in quantifiable amounts and 92.1% of all analyzed samples (n = 96) showed low level contamination with one or more Alternaria toxins. Based on the obtained results, the average daily exposure to Alternaria toxins in Germany was calculated.

  14. Tomato susceptibility to Alternaria stem canker : Parameters involved in host-specific toxin-induced leaf necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenboer, Hanneke M.A.; Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Hateboer, Guus; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    AAL-toxin causes severe necrosis in leaves of susceptible tomato cultivars at nanomolar concentrations. In resistant tomato cultivars harbouring the semi-dominant Alternaria stem canker resistance locus necrosis is also observed, however at much higher toxin concentrations, in both lines the

  15. Safety of subcutaneous microinjections (mesotherapy) in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarte, Danik Arana; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume

    2011-06-01

    Determine the safety and tolerance of mesotherapy as a technique for the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. 67 patients (55.2% women) were subjected to a total of 267 mesotherapy sessions. A mesotherapy needle or normal needle was used randomly. The drugs employed were thiocolchicoside and diazepam as muscular relaxants, pentoxifylline or buflomedil as vasodilators, and piroxicam as an anti-inflammatory, as directed. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify the pain produced by the microinjections as well as the degree of immediate and midterm side effects as reported on a standard questionnaire. A mean of 155.5 microinjections were performed per session, of which 45.6% were perceived as painful by the patient with a mean severity of 4.3 out of 10. The pain reduced to 0.5 out of 10 after 24 hours. The most sensitive areas were the levator scapulae and splenius muscles. Systemic symptoms were reported by 5.99% of the musicians after the mesotherapy sessions (muscular weakness 1.5%, rash 1.5%, drowsiness 1.1% and itching 1.1%, being the most frequent). The mean severity of these symptoms was 2.77 out of 10. In all cases the symptoms had completely disappeared after 24 hours. No patient referred to signs of local or systemic infection. The application of drugs by means of subcutaneous injections (mesotherapy) in musicians is a technique that is safe, well tolerated, and without any severe complications.

  16. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: practical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshi D Saboo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus has prompted new way of treating these patients, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or insulin pump therapy is an increasingly form of intensive insulin therapy. An increasing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus individuals of all ages have started using insulin pump therapy. Not everyone is a good candidate for insulin pump therapy, and the clinician needs to be able to determine which patients are able to master the techniques required and to watch for the adverse reactions that may develop. Insulin pump increases quality of life of patient with diabetes mellitus with increasing satisfaction with treatment and decrease impact of diabetes mellitus. Manual errors by insulin pump users may lead to hypo or hyperglycemia, resulting into diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA sometimes. Some of practical aspect is associated with insulin pump therapy such as selection of candidates, handling of pump and selection of site, and pump setting, henceforth this review is prepared to explore and solve the practical problems or issues associated with pump therapy.

  17. Isolation and detection of the fungi Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves et Skolk and Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler et Eddy from carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is among the most important vegetable crops because of its composition and vitamin content. The fungi belonging to genus Alternaria, especially A. dauci (Kühn Groves et Skolk, causal agent of leaf spot and blight of carrots, and A. radicina Meier, Drechsler et Eddy, the agent of black root rot, can jeopardize the entire production of carrots. Both types can be found in a high percentage of seeds, carrots, parsley and celery. The method of detection filter paper (blotter method and the method of isolation on malt agar were recommended by ISTA Rules. The presence of A. dauci (causal agent of leaf spot and blight of carrots and A. radicina was performed on 12 samples of potentially infected carrot seeds originating from France, as part of laboratory ring tests. The presence of A. dauci and A. radicina using the filter paper method in 12 tested samples ranged from 0% to 21% and from 1% to 30% respectively. On MA medium the respective percentages ranged from 0% to 23% and from 1% to 31%.

  18. A Nodular Type of Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu Ho; Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Byoung Suck; Joo, Jong Eun; Jung, Yoon Young; Cho, Young Kwon; An, Jin Kyung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Woo, Jung Joo [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystemic disorder that rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. We describe the MR imaging findings of a subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient that presented with a nontender, palpable soft tissue mass on the left buttock, which was confirmed after surgical excision. The MR images showed the presence of a subcutaneous mass that breached the adjacent fascia with an irregular outline and homogeneous, slightly higher signal intensity than the surrounding muscle as seen on a T2-weighted image and with homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. The lesion could not be differentiated from a sarcoma or a malignancy.

  19. Iatrogenic subcutaneous cervicofacial emphysema with pneumomediastinum after class V restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cha, Min-Sang

    2017-02-01

    Subcutaneous facial emphysema after dental treatment is an uncommon complication caused by the invasion of high-pressure air; in severe cases, it can spread to the neck, mediastinum, and thorax, resulting in cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax. The present case showed subcutaneous cervicofacial emphysema with pneumomediastinum after class V restoration. The patient was fully recovered after eight days of conservative treatment. The cause of this case was the penetration of high-pressure air through the gingival sulcus, which had a weakened gingival attachment. This case indicated that dentists should be careful to prevent subcutaneous emphysema during common dental treatments using a high-speed hand piece and gingival retraction cord.

  20. Metastatic breast cancer 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, M B; Roberts, E; Nixon, J; Probert, J C; Braatvedt, G D

    1997-01-01

    Subcutaneous mastectomy has a possible role as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of developing breast cancer. A case history is presented of a woman who developed metastatic breast carcinoma 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies for non-malignant disease. This case is presented to draw attention to the persistent risk of developing breast cancer even decades after subcutaneous mastectomy and to point out that the role of such surgery in preventing breast cancer has still not been clarified. The appropriateness of prophylactic mastectomy for an individual is better assessed on the absolute risk of breast cancer developing over a defined period rather than the relative risk.

  1. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were the analysis of the secondary metabolites and evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Alternaria alternata. Twenty six bioactive compounds were identified in methanolic extract of Alternaria alternata. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, ...

  2. Etiology, effect of soil pH and sweetpotato varietal reaction to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kabete, Kakamega, Busia (Alupe), and Kabondo isolates were identified as Alternaria bataticola while the Kisii isolate was identified as Alternaria alternata. Pathogenicity and virulence of different isolates of A. bataticola and A. alternata were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Within 4 - 6 days following ...

  3. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: Initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pedro; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Costa, Francisco; Carmo, Pedro; Morgado, Francisco; Bernardo, Ricardo; Nunes, Manuela; Abecasis, Miguel; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are important tools in the prevention of sudden death, but implantation requires transvenous access, which is associated with complications. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (S-ICDs) may prevent some of these complications. To evaluate the therapeutics and complications associated with S-ICD systems. S-ICD implantation was planned in 23 patients, for whom the indications were vascular access problems, increased risk of infection or young patients with long predicted follow-up. The population consisted of four patients with ischemic heart disease, three of them on hemodialysis (two with subclavian vein thrombosis), five with left ventricular noncompaction, four with Brugada syndrome, three with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, one with transposition of the great vessels, two with dilated cardiomyopathy and four with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. S-ICDs were implanted in 21 patients, two having failed to fulfil the initial screening criteria. Mean implantation time was 77 minutes, with no complications. Defibrillation tests were performed, and in one patient the generator had to be repositioned to obtain an acceptable threshold. In a mean follow-up of 14 months, 10 patients had S-ICD shocks, which were appropriate in half of them; one developed infection, one needed early replacement due to loss of telemetry and one patient died of noncardiac cause. S-ICD implantation can be performed by cardiologists with a high success rate. Initial experience appears favorable, but further studies are needed with longer follow-up times to assess the safety and efficacy of this strategy compared to conventional devices. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  5. Two New Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. A744 Derived from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xin; Chen, Yu-Chan; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Hao-Hua; Li, Sai-Ni; Yan, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-05-08

    Two new compounds isobenzofuranone A ( 1 ) and indandione B ( 2 ), together with eleven known compounds ( 3 - 13 ) were isolated from liquid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., which was obtained from the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis . Among them, the indandione ( 2 ) showed a rarely occurring indanone skeleton in natural products. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. All of the compounds were evaluated with cytotoxic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assays. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant inhibitory activities against four tumor cell lines; MCF-7, HepG-2, NCI-H460 and SF-268, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.91-9.67 μM, and compounds 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 12 and 13 showed excellent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values in the range of 12.05-166.13 μM.

  6. Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2009-11-01

    From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi.

  7. Conidios de 'alternaria', factor de riesgo de alegria en Castilla-La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sabariego Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento estacional de los conidios de Alternaria en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha, cuyo inte- rés se basa en que los niveles en el aire de estos conidios suponen un riesgo de alergia para las personas sensibilizadas a los mismos. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo en cinco estaciones de muestreo pertenecientes a la Red de Aerobiología de Castilla-La Mancha (Red Aerocam: Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara y Toledo, durante el año 2008. Los captadores utilizados y la metodología de muestreo siguen las directrices de la Red Española de Aerobiología (REA. Los conidios de Alternaria se detectan en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha durante todo el año, aunque los meses de mayores concentraciones se obtienen en mayo, junio y julio. Ciudad Real, Toledo y Guadalajara son las ciudades en las que se detecta una mayor concentración anual, con 5.624 conidios, 4.527 conidios y 4.173 conidios, respectivamente, seguidas de Albacete y de Cuenca. En algunas de las localidades muestreadas, los valores máximos diarios han sido elevados en un importante número de días, destacamos los registrados en Ciudad Real el 20 de marzo (722 conidios/m3, en Toledo el 18 de junio (324 conidios/m3 y en Guadalajara el 26 de junio (220 conidios/m3.

  8. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms...... compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. Two hours after onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms, subcutaneous blood flow was still significantly decreased compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. In normal subjects local nerve blockade had no effect on blood flow changes during hypoglycaemia, whereas local alpha......-receptor blockade abolished the vasoconstrictor response. We suggest that circulating catecholamines stimulating vascular alpha-receptors are probably responsible for flow reduction in the subcutaneous tissue during hypoglycaemia....

  9. Severe subcutaneous generalized edema in a patient with dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinaga; Kawabata, Daisuke; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Usui, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2007-01-01

    Subcutaneous generalized edema associated with dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM) is extremely rare. Herein we report a case of severe subcutaneous generalized edema complicating DM. A 78-year-old woman was hospitalized in our department because of massive edema in the four limbs. Elevated muscle enzymes, heliotrope rash, results of electromyography, and muscle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of DM. The absence of other diseases that could cause the symptoms indicated that massive edema was correlated with the pathophysiology of DM. Although myopathy and edema responded well to oral prednisolone, dysphagia persisted. We conclude that subcutaneous generalized edema can occur during the course of DM/PM, and subcutaneous vasculopathy may be involved in the pathogenesis of DM/PM.

  10. Pharmaceutical amyloidosis associated with subcutaneous insulin and enfuvirtide administration

    OpenAIRE

    D’Souza, Anita; Theis, Jason D.; Vrana, Julie A; Dogan, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Protein and peptide drugs administered subcutaneously, such as insulin can be amyloidogenic and result in localized amyloid deposits at the sites of medication injections. These iatrogenic amyloidoses typically present as a localized subcutaneous nodule or skin reaction at the site of administration, and often pose diagnostic challenges. We have analyzed the amyloid proteome in 52 cases of insulin and enfuvirtide associated amyloidosis using laser microdissection/tandem mass spectrometry. We ...

  11. Diurnal variations in subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Aakash A; Grammer, Leslie C; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Rychlik, Karen; Kumar, Rajesh; Zee, Phyllis; Greenberger, Paul A; Fishbein, Anna B

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms underlie many immune responses and allergic diseases. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) can result in adverse reactions; however, it is unclear whether such reactions have a diurnal pattern. To assess whether the timing of SCIT affects the rate of adverse reactions. This study was a retrospective medical record review of adult patients (n = 289) who received SCIT at the Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, during a 10-year period (2004-2014). Injections were given in the outpatient setting. There were a total of 17,457 injections with 574 reactions. Covariates included age, sex, median income, asthma status, vial contents, number of injections, and previous immunotherapy reactions. Logistical regression was used to calculate the odds of having a reaction with time of SCIT administration as the primary determinate. Immunotherapy reactions occurred more frequently after afternoon or evening (pm) injections (328/8721 = 3.8%) vs morning (am) injections (246/8736 = 2.8%), (χ2 = 12.26, P < .01). Systemic reactions, defined as World Allergy Organization grade 1 or higher, did not have diurnal variation (59/8721 = 0.67% for pm vs am 56/8736 = 0.64% for morning; χ2 = 0.08; P = .77). pm injections resulted in higher odds of reaction compared with am injection in a fully adjusted logistic regression model (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.70; P < .01). When considering time as 4 categories, the highest odds of reaction were noted for the period from 15:01 to 17:30 (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.00; P < .01). pm injections of SCIT are associated with increased cutaneous reaction rates when compared with am injections. In patients experiencing bothersome local reactions, it may be beneficial to administer SCIT in the morning. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin G replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Francisco A

    2016-11-01

    Human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for therapeutic use has been available for decades. This drug was developed for treatment of antibody deficiency (replacement therapy), although its use has expanded into many anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory applications in recent years. This review focuses on IgG prescribing for replacement therapy. IgG for replacement is most often administered via the intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) routes. IVIG is usually administered every 34 weeks, and SCIG is usually administered weekly, although variations may be considered in all cases. Recently, a new product became available that uses hyaluronidase to facilitate absorption of large doses of SCIG less frequently (every 34 weeks, as with IVIG). There are important differences between the pharmacokinetics of these three routes of administration. IVIG therapy leads to high peaks and low troughs between infusions. IgG concentration fluctuates much less over time with SCIG. Hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIG is intermediate. SCIG may have lower bioavailability in comparison with IVIG and may require higher doses over time; this is not true for hyaluronidase SCIG. However, there are large variations in IgG half-life among individuals and with different products. Therefore, individualization of therapy is essential. Mild systemic flu-like adverse effects may affect up to 2025% of patients who receive IVIG, smaller fractions may experience more-severe symptoms, whereas anaphylaxis is exceedingly rare. General flu-like systemic adverse effects are minimal with SCIG (intermediate with hyaluronidase SCIG), but transient (24 hours), mild, local inflammatory symptoms at infusion sites are relatively common with both forms. Additional rare but important complications of IgG therapy include thrombotic events and hemolysis that can be seen at high doses with any route of administration. Renal adverse effects may occur with IVIG as well. The variety of IgG products and routes of

  13. Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Vasant Godse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a felt need for trying newer therapeutic modalities in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially in the subset of patients classified as non-responders to antihistamines. Autologous serum therapy is an upcoming modality of treatment, and we decided to study its efficacy by subcutaneous route. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous autologous serum therapy (AST in CSU. Methods: This was a single blind, placebo-controlled parallel group, randomized, controlled study. Twenty-four patients with CSU (11M: 13 F were given subcutaneous AST and seventeen patients (7 M: 10F patients were given subcutaneous injection normal saline (placebo, along with levocetirizine in an on-demand basis in both groups. Results: Urticaria activity score (UAS came down from 35.74 to 7 at the end of 9 weeks and the patients' requirement of antihistamines also reduced remarkably from 5.8 to 1.7 per week in the serum group. Sub-cutaneous saline group did not show statistically significant fall in UAS. Saline group showed UAS 32.8 at zero week to 22.1 at the end of 9 weeks. DLQI showed significant fall in serum group, from 14.26 to 4 at the end of 9 weeks. Conclusion: Subcutaneous autoserum therapy is effective in treatment of CSU.

  14. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  15. Development of sequence characterized amplified genomic regions (SCAR) for fungal systematics: proof of principle using Alternaria, Ascochyta and Tilletia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E; Andrew, Marion; Bao, Xiaodong; Chilvers, Martin I; Carris, Lori M; Peever, Tobin L

    2013-01-01

    SCARs were developed by cloning RAPD-PCR amplicons into commercially available vectors, sequencing them and designing specific primers for PCR, direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Eighteen to seventy percent of cloned RAPD-PCR amplicons were phylogenetically informative among closely related small-spored Alternaria spp., Ascochyta spp. and Tilletia spp., taxa that have been resistant to phylogenetic analysis with universally primed, protein-coding sequence data. Selected SCARs were sequenced for larger, population-scale samples of each taxon and demonstrated to be useful for phylogenetic inference. Variation observed in the cloned SCARs generally was higher than variation in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and several protein-coding sequences commonly used in lower level fungal systematics. Sequence data derived from SCARs will provide sufficient resolution to address lower level phylogenetic hypotheses in Alternaria, Ascochyta, Tilletia and possibly many other fungal groups and organisms.

  16. Culture characteristics and histological changes in leaf tissues of cultivated and wild sunflowers infected with Alternaria helianthi

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi K.J.; Sujatha M; Reddy Ram Raja D.; Rao Chander S.

    2005-01-01

    The cultural characteristics and histochemical variations following infection with Alternaria helianthi was studied In six wild Helianthus species of threeploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid) possessing different degrees of resistance to the pathogen and in cultivated sunflower (H. annuus cv. CO-4. susceptible check). Of these, the species II. occidentals and H. tuberosus were found to be highly resistant while H. hlrsutus was moderately resistant. Media supplemented with leaf ex...

  17. Toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid in the chicken embryo assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G F; Chu, F S

    1983-01-01

    The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either l...

  18. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

  19. Specific PCR-based detection of Alternaria helianthi: the cause of blight and leaf spot in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, A C; Chandra Nayaka, S; Archana, B; Anjana, G; Niranjana, S R; Mortensen, C N; Lund, Ole S; Prakash, H S

    2012-11-01

    Alternaria helianthi is an important seed-borne pathogenic fungus responsible for blight disease in sunflower. The current detection methods, which are based on culture and morphological identification, are time-consuming, laborious and are not always reliable. A PCR-based diagnostic method was developed with species-specific primers designed based on the sequence data of a region consisting of the 5.8S RNA gene and internal transcribed spacers-ITS 1 and ITS 2 of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) repeats of A. helianthi. The specificity of the primer pairs AhN1F and AhN1R designed was verified by PCR analysis of DNA from 18 Alternaria helianthi strains isolated from India, 14 non-target Alternaria spp. and 11 fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 357-bp was detected from DNA of A. helianthi isolates. No cross-reaction was observed with any of the other isolates tested. The detection limit of the PCR method was of 10 pg from template DNA. The primers could also detect the pathogen in infected sunflower seed. This species-specific PCR method provides a quick, simple, powerful and reliable alternative to conventional methods in the detection and identification of A. helianthi. This is the first report of an A. helianthi-specific primer set.

  20. Analysis of the predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations of two airborne fungal spores: Alternaria and Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Marta; del Mar Trigo, María; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2012-11-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy.

  1. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  2. Spotlight on the Underdogs—An Analysis of Underrepresented Alternaria Mycotoxins Formed Depending on Varying Substrate, Time and Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Theresa; Kahl, Sandra M.; Klaffke, Horst; Rychlik, Michael; Müller, Marina E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria (A.) is a genus of widespread fungi capable of producing numerous, possibly health-endangering Alternaria toxins (ATs), which are usually not the focus of attention. The formation of ATs depends on the species and complex interactions of various environmental factors and is not fully understood. In this study the influence of temperature (7 °C, 25 °C), substrate (rice, wheat kernels) and incubation time (4, 7, and 14 days) on the production of thirteen ATs and three sulfoconjugated ATs by three different Alternaria isolates from the species groups A. tenuissima and A. infectoria was determined. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification. Under nearly all conditions, tenuazonic acid was the most extensively produced toxin. At 25 °C and with increasing incubation time all toxins were formed in high amounts by the two A. tenuissima strains on both substrates with comparable mycotoxin profiles. However, for some of the toxins, stagnation or a decrease in production was observed from day 7 to 14. As opposed to the A. tenuissima strains, the A. infectoria strain only produced low amounts of ATs, but high concentrations of stemphyltoxin III. The results provide an essential insight into the quantitative in vitro AT formation under different environmental conditions, potentially transferable to different field and storage conditions. PMID:27869760

  3. Spotlight on the Underdogs-An Analysis of Underrepresented Alternaria Mycotoxins Formed Depending on Varying Substrate, Time and Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Theresa; Kahl, Sandra M; Klaffke, Horst; Rychlik, Michael; Müller, Marina E H

    2016-11-19

    Alternaria (A.) is a genus of widespread fungi capable of producing numerous, possibly health-endangering Alternaria toxins (ATs), which are usually not the focus of attention. The formation of ATs depends on the species and complex interactions of various environmental factors and is not fully understood. In this study the influence of temperature (7 °C, 25 °C), substrate (rice, wheat kernels) and incubation time (4, 7, and 14 days) on the production of thirteen ATs and three sulfoconjugated ATs by three different Alternaria isolates from the species groups A. tenuissima and A. infectoria was determined. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification. Under nearly all conditions, tenuazonic acid was the most extensively produced toxin. At 25 °C and with increasing incubation time all toxins were formed in high amounts by the two A. tenuissima strains on both substrates with comparable mycotoxin profiles. However, for some of the toxins, stagnation or a decrease in production was observed from day 7 to 14. As opposed to the A. tenuissima strains, the A. infectoria strain only produced low amounts of ATs, but high concentrations of stemphyltoxin III. The results provide an essential insight into the quantitative in vitro AT formation under different environmental conditions, potentially transferable to different field and storage conditions.

  4. Spotlight on the Underdogs—An Analysis of Underrepresented Alternaria Mycotoxins Formed Depending on Varying Substrate, Time and Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Zwickel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria (A. is a genus of widespread fungi capable of producing numerous, possibly health-endangering Alternaria toxins (ATs, which are usually not the focus of attention. The formation of ATs depends on the species and complex interactions of various environmental factors and is not fully understood. In this study the influence of temperature (7 °C, 25 °C, substrate (rice, wheat kernels and incubation time (4, 7, and 14 days on the production of thirteen ATs and three sulfoconjugated ATs by three different Alternaria isolates from the species groups A. tenuissima and A. infectoria was determined. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification. Under nearly all conditions, tenuazonic acid was the most extensively produced toxin. At 25 °C and with increasing incubation time all toxins were formed in high amounts by the two A. tenuissima strains on both substrates with comparable mycotoxin profiles. However, for some of the toxins, stagnation or a decrease in production was observed from day 7 to 14. As opposed to the A. tenuissima strains, the A. infectoria strain only produced low amounts of ATs, but high concentrations of stemphyltoxin III. The results provide an essential insight into the quantitative in vitro AT formation under different environmental conditions, potentially transferable to different field and storage conditions.

  5. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2%) at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1%) samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH) and in 165 (91.2%) samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME). AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC), with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China.

  6. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2%) at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1%) samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH) and in 165 (91.2%) samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME). AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC), with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China. PMID:26121047

  7. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, tentoxin (TEN and tenuazonic acid (TeA by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2% at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1% samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH and in 165 (91.2% samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME. AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC, with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China.

  8. Subcutaneous mercury injection by a child: A histopathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sukheeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional subcutaneous injection of mercury by mentally healthy children is rare. Usually, it is seen as a part of suicidal attempt in severely depressed patients or by athletes to enhance their performance. We report a case of a 15-year-old child, inspired by a movie, who deliberately self-injected mercury subcutaneously into his forearm that led to the formation of a non-healing ulcer. Histopathology of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A surgical procedure was thereby performed to treat the ulcer and reduce the blood and urinary levels of mercury. However, the patient did not develop clinical signs of chronic poisoning, proving that subcutaneous mercury injection has a low risk of systemic toxicity, and that histopathology plays an important role in diagnosis.

  9. Subcutaneous steroid injection as treatment for chalazion: prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, J S M

    2002-02-01

    To study the efficacy of subcutaneous steroid injection in the treatment of chalazion. Prospective consecutive case series. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chalazion presenting to the out-patient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Prince of Wales Hospital from January to June 1998. Size of the chalazion after steroid injection treatment. Forty-eight consecutive patients with chalazion were treated with injection of triamcinolone into the subcutaneous tissue around the lesion. In 43 (89.6%) patients, the lesion subsided completely. Twenty-six (54.2%) patients had lesions that subsided with one injection. The size and duration of the chalazion at presentation did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment. Two patients developed depigmentation of the skin at the site of injection. No other major complications were encountered. Subcutaneous injection of the steroid triamcinolone acetonide appears to be a simple and effective treatment for chalazion. Further comparative clinical trials are indicated.

  10. Munchausen syndrome revealed by subcutaneous limb emphysema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufagued, Kaldadak; Chafry, Bouchaib; Benyass, Youssef; Abissegue, Yves; Benchebba, Driss; Bouabid, Salim; Belkacem, Chagar

    2015-08-18

    Limb subcutaneous emphysema secondary to a Munchausen syndrome represents a rare and severe entity because it involves the functional prognosis of the limb and vital prognosis of the patient. We report the case of an 18-year-old Moroccan woman patient who presented to our hospital with a subcutaneous emphysema of the shoulder girdle and the right arm, caused by our patient. Treatment was aggressive, with a wide surgical debridement, parenteral antibiotic therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The results have been favorable. The correlation of anamnestic data and clinical and para-clinical exams were essential for the diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome in this case. In this regard, we report a rare case of subcutaneous limb emphysema secondary to Munchausen syndrome.

  11. Dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema and Evans syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu Dong; Kim, Pyoung Su; Park, Hae Young; Kim, Cho Rok; Byun, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Youn; Lee, Joo Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Eil-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Although periorbital edema is a common manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM), generalized subcutaneous edema associated with DM is extremely rare. Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's antibodies attack one's own red blood cells and platelets. Evans syndrome is rarely a presenting feature of DM. DM has been rarely reported to be associated with either generalized edema or Evans syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old Korean woman who presented with generalized subcutaneous edema, an erythematous rash, dysphagia, and proximal muscle weakness, and subsequently developed features of Evans syndrome. Treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and an immunosuppressive agent controlled the DM, the generalized subcutaneous edema, and the Evans syndrome. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supramicrosurgical lymphatic-venous anastomosis for postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentileschi, Stefano; Servillo, Maria; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-10-01

    Postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele is caused by accidental lesion of a lymphatic vessel that keeps on flowing lymph under the scar. Traditional treatments include aspiration and compression, with probable recurrence, and sclerotherapy which destroys both lymphatic cyst and vessel, creating risk of lymphedema. We describe the case of a postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele of the left leg that was treated by supramicrosurgical lympatic-venous anastomosis. A single anastomosis was performed end-to-end, between one lymphatic vessel, individuated through indocyanine green lymphography, and one subcutaneous vein, distally to the lymphocele, under sedation and local anesthesia. Postoperative course was uneventful; the lymphocele completely resolved and never recurred during the nine months followup. This technique may heal the lymphocele with no impairing of lymph drainage function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Skin temperature and subcutaneous adipose blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured bilaterally by the 133Xe washout method. At one side of the skin (epicutaneous) temperature was varied with a temperature blanket, the other side served as control. There was a significant (P less than 0.001) positive...... correlation between skin temperature and ATBF. In the range from 25 to 37 degrees CATBF increased 9% of the control flow on average per centigrade increase in skin temperature. ATBF at the control side was uninfluenced by the contralateral variations in skin temperature. Although no better correlation could...... be demonstrated between ATBF and subcutaneous temperature than between ATBF and skin temperature, arguments are presented in favour of the hypothesis that ATBF is influenced by the subcutaneous temperature rather than via reflexes from the skin. Infiltration of the 133Xe depots with 20 microgram histamine...

  14. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  15. Subcutaneous Implants of Buprenorphine-Cholesterol-Triglyceride Powder in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    L. DeTolla; R. Sanchez; E. Khan; B. Tyler; M. Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous drug implants are convenient systems for the long-term delivery of drugs in animals. Lipid carriers are logical tools because they generally allow for higher doses and low toxicity. The present study used an US Food and Drug Administration Target Animal Safety test system to evaluate the safety of a subcutaneous implant of a cholesterol-triglyceride-buprenorphine powder in 120 BALB/c mice. Mice were evaluated in 4- and 12-day trials with 1- and 5-fold doses of the intended 3 mg/k...

  16. Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

    2012-02-01

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region.

  17. PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CHERRY TOMATO GENOTYPE GROUP BEFORE INFECTION BY Alternaria tomatophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.

  18. Effects of ozone on growth, lipid metabolism, and sporulation of fungi. [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; Alternaria oleraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M.; Harner, F.M.; Price, H.E.; Kormelink, J.R.

    1969-09-01

    Fumigations with ozone at concentrations of 10 pphm or more for 4 hr repeated daily for 4 days suppressed radial growth and spore production of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the most sensitive species studied. Neither radial nor mass growth of Alternaria oleraceae, a more tolerant species, was inhibited by 60 pphm ozone, although spore production was significantly accelerated. Since ozone did not affect spore viability, the inoculum potential was greatly enhanced. Histological effects of ozone included loss of pigmentation in C. lindemuthianum and abundant formation of light-refractive globules in the hyphae. Chemical analyses of mycelial mats showed an average 28% decrease in neutral lipid content of ozone-fumigated cultures. No differences were detectable in fatty acid composition of fumigated cultures. While some lipids may have leaked into the substrate, it was suspected that ozone penetrated into vital sites within the cell-oxidizing sulfhydryl groups, thereby suppressing lipid synthesis. The actual degree of suppression in fumigated hyphae may have been greater than indicated, since much of the mycelia analyzed grew within the substrate and was not directly subjected to ozone. 14 references.

  19. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  20. Simultaneous determination of five Alternaria toxins in cereals using QuEChERS-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Huang, Bai-Fen; Jin, Mi-Cong; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2017-11-15

    Two analytical approaches, including ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph linked with photo-diode array/fluorescence detector, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, have been proposed for simultaneous determination of five Alternaria toxins in cereals, which both based on QuEChERS strategy. After QuEChERS extraction and salting out, the collected supernatant was subjected to an extra dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step prior to quantitative analysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was employed to optimize the micro-extraction conditions. During photo-diode array/fluorescence detector method validation, satisfactory analytical characteristics, in terms of selectivity, recovery (72.7%-109.1%), precision (inter-day RSDs <9.6%), sensitivity (limits of quantification ranged from 2.1μgkg -1 to 120.0μgkg -1 ) and linearity (R 2 all higher than 0.9984), were achieved. Mass spectrometry method was employed as a certified method for accuracy. The two methodologies were successfully applied to 71 samples including three different matrices and the quantitative results were compared. As the result of non-parametric test shown, the established two analytical approach exhibited comparable quantitative accuracy to each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.

  2. Non-synergistic cytotoxic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria toxin combinations in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-22

    Exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins via food and feed generally involves a conglomeration of compounds contaminating the consumed products. Investigations on combinatory effects of mycotoxins are therefore of great importance. In this study, cytotoxic effects of binary mixtures of the Fusarium toxins enniatin B, aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, and tenuazonic acid produced by Alternaria spp., were evaluated by the WST-1 assay in the colorectal carcinoma cell-line Caco-2 after 24h of incubation. The selection of these mycotoxins was based on typically occurring natural contamination patterns in grains. Aurofusarin, which can be found abundantly in contaminated foodstuff and has not been toxicologically characterized properly so far, showed pronounced cytotoxicity, decreasing the mitochondrial activity at 10μM to 51% compared to a solvent control. Combinations of other mycotoxins with aurofusarin showed additive effects. In contrast, binary mixtures of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone at cytotoxic concentrations, predominantly resulted in antagonistic effects. Binary combinations of these four Fusarium toxins with tenuazonic acid also revealed interacting effects leading to a decrease in cytotoxicity, compared to expected combinatory effects. Especially in combination with deoxynivalenol, tenuazonic acid was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of this mycotoxin in Caco-2 cells. Synergistic effects were not observed for any toxin combination under the chosen conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation kinetics of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Merkel, Stefan; Bremser, Wolfram; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-05-01

    The degradation kinetics of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (l-TA) in aqueous buffer were studied over a period of 4 months at different pH levels (3.5 and 7.0) and temperatures (4, 25 and 40 degrees C). l-TA and its degradation products were quantified by newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography methods with UV or electrospray multistage mass spectrometry detection. At pH 3.5, significant degradation occurred at 25 and 40 degrees C, the respective l-TA half-lives being 73.8 +/- 0.4 and 14.0 +/- 0.1 days. Two degradation processes, epimerization and hydrolysis, were evaluated kinetically. The hydrolytically formed iso-deacetyl TA (iso-DTA, epimeric mixture) was found to be the stable end product of l-TA degradation under the conditions of this study. This indicates that iso-DTA as well as the l-TA epimer u-TA are formed in aqueous beverage matrices.

  4. Natural occurrence of four Alternaria mycotoxins in tomato- and citrus-based foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin

    2015-01-14

    A total of 70 tomato-based and 86 citrus-based products collected in China were analyzed for alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, tentoxin, and tenuazonic acid by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. No toxins were found in any fresh tomato or citrus fruit samples. Tenuazonic acid was the predominant toxin detected in all tomato ketchup (10.2–1787 μg/kg) and tomato juice samples (7.4–278 μg/kg). Alternariol was quantitated at higher level than alternariol monomethyl ether with the ratio of alternariol/alternariol monomethyl ether ranging from 0.37 to 104 in 14 alternariol-positive tomato ketchup samples. Tentoxin was detected at much lower levels in all samples analyzed. Some citrus juice samples were positive for tenuazonic acid and alternariol monomethyl ether. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of dietary exposure to these toxins in Chinese populations.

  5. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles.

  6. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd). Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behavior were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle. PMID:23717316

  7. A flavoprotein supports cell wall properties in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigné, Sandrine; Zykwinska, Agata; Janod, Etienne; Cuenot, Stéphane; Kerkoud, Mohammed; Raulo, Roxane; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Marchi, Muriel; Kwasiborski, Anthony; N'Guyen, Guillaume; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Simoneau, Philippe; Guillemette, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases are involved in key biological processes as they catalyze a wide variety of chemo-, regio- and enantioselective oxygenation reactions. Flavoprotein monooxygenases are frequently encountered in micro-organisms, most of which require further functional and biocatalytic assessment. Here we investigated the function of the AbMak1 gene, which encodes a group A flavin monooxygenase in the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, by generating a deficient mutant and examining its phenotype. Functional analysis indicates that the AbMak1 protein is involved in cell wall biogenesis and influences the melanization process. We documented a significant decrease in melanin content in the Δabmak1 strain compared to the wild-type and complemented strains. We investigated the cell wall morphology and physical properties in the wild-type and transformants using electron and atomic force microscopy. These approaches confirmed the aberrant morphology of the conidial wall structure in the Δabmak1 strain which had an impact on hydrophilic adhesion and conidial surface stiffness. However, there was no significant impairment in growth, conidia formation, pathogenicity or susceptibility to various environmental stresses in the Δabmak1 strain. This study sheds new light on the function of a fungal flavin-dependent monooxygenase, which plays an important role in melanization.

  8. Role of Liposuction Combined with Subcutaneous Mastectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gynecomastia is one of the common benign male breast diseases, surgical treatment of which remains a controversial issue. Here, we describe successful combined use of liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy in the treatment of gynecomastia. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the liposuction ...

  9. combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data) found that an ave rage of ,10 mg rcmainccl aftcr the sponge had been insertcd for 15 davs. Thc possibilitv the refore arises of efficicnt synchronization of estrus and reproduction in Karakul ewes using lowcr doscs of pro- gestogen and Pregnant Mare Serum Gonackttrophin. (PMSG). Either intravenous or subcutaneous ...

  10. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat remains an important quality determinant of meat. Although ... Nutritional influences on the fatty acid composition and the associated effect on flavour have been found in beef (Westerling &. Hedrick, 1979; Brown, Melton, .... Effect of maize meal in diet on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF)and kidney fat (KF).

  11. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Wallemia sebi in an Immunocompetent Host▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Josep; Gugnani, Harish C.; Sood, Neelam; Batra, Rashmi; Mayayo, Emilio; Gené, Josepa; Kakkar, Shalini

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Wallemia sebi in a 43-year-old-female, the first case reported since 1950. The lesion presented as a nonhealing ulcer on the dorsum of the left foot. Diagnosis was based on histological demonstration of the fungus and its recovery in culture. PMID:18174296

  12. Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) output from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue was studied in nine healthy subjects before, during and for 3 h after 1 h two-legged bicycle exercise at 60 % maximal oxygen consumption. Seven subjects were studied in control experiments without exercise. The adipose...

  13. Late hematogenous infection of subcutaneous implants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottenbos, B; Klatter, F; Van Der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Nieuwenhuis, P

    Late biomaterial-centered infection is a major complication associated with the use of biomaterial implants. In this study biomaterials that had been implanted subcutaneously in rats were hematogenously challenged with bacteria 4 weeks after implantation. Bacteria were spread either by intravenous

  14. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD: Incidence, predictors and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A. M. J.; Boersma, Lucas V. A.; Johansen, Jens B.; Neuzil, Petr; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Carter, Nathan; Husby, Michael; Lambiase, Pier D.; Knops, Reinoud E.

    2015-01-01

    The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) eliminates the need for transvenous leads, and therefore has the potential to improve lead-longevity and reduce lead-related complications. The S-ICD has a morphology-based sensing algorithm of which inappropriate shocks have

  15. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave...

  16. Early clinical experience with subcutaneous GR43175 in acute migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P; Brand, J; Dano, P

    1989-01-01

    In six European clinics 111 migraine patients were treated in a series of open dose-ranging studies with subcutaneous injections of 1 to 4 mg GR43175, a novel 5-HT 1-like receptor agonist. Response rates after 20-30 min were dose related and rose from 33% with 1 mg to 96% with 4 mg GR43175. Side ...

  17. Reversible Crystallization of Argatroban after Subcutaneous Application in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Argatroban is a thrombin inhibitor used as anticoagulant in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. It is usually administered as an intravenous bolus followed by infusion. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of two different formulations of argatroban in pigs after subcutaneous administration. Antithrombotic activity in plasma was determined by ecarin chromogenic assay. To visualize the formation of crystals, argatroban was administered to rats into the subcutaneous tissue exposed after removing the skin, and the injection site was photographed at different times. After subcutaneous administration of a sorbitol/ethanol formulation of argatroban in pigs was observed a slow absorption phase was followed by long-lasting levels of this inhibitor. Cmax and AUC(0-24 showed dose-dependent increases, while elimination half-life and tmax value did not change significantly with dose. In contrast, saline-dissolved argatroban showed a faster absorption phase followed by a shorter elimination half-life. Argatroban dissolved in sorbitol/ethanol leads to long-lasting plasma levels due to the formation and permanent dissolution of a crystalline depot at the injection place. This represents a simple way to deliver argatroban continuously over an extended period which can be beneficial for prophylaxis or treatment of chronic coagulations disorders.

  18. Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis in a Nigerian female | Yakubu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has not been any report of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis from our center. We present a patient who was reviewed with an isolated ganglion-like subcutaneous swelling on the ankle region. Excision biopsy revealed a non caseating granulomatous lesion. Systemic evaluation was not remarkable and the lesion was ...

  19. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambiase, Pier D; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large international...

  20. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  1. Subcutaneous fascial bands--a qualitative and morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part.

  2. Subcutaneous fascial bands--a qualitative and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. METHODS: In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. RESULTS: Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm. CONCLUSION: Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part.

  3. Effect of equation pro and kema zed fungicides on cellulase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two fungicides (equation pro and kema zed) were added to the medium in five doses (50,100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm active ingredient) to investigate the chemical control of cellulase and pectinase enzymes produced by some plant pathogens of broad bean. Alternaria alternata, Alternaria citri, Alternaria and Cochliobolus ...

  4. Contrasting Codon Usage Patterns and Purifying Selection at the Mating Locus in Putatively Asexual Alternaria Fungal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E.; Kawabe, Masato; Abdo, Zaid; Arie, Tsutomu; Peever, Tobin L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in heterothallic ascomycete fungi is controlled by a single mating-type locus called MAT1 with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2. These alleles lack sequence similarity and encode different transcriptional regulators. A large number of phytopathogenic fungi including Alternaria spp. are considered asexual, yet still carry expressed MAT1 genes. The molecular evolution of Alternaria MAT1 was explored using nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous vs. synonymous substitution (dn/ds) ratios and codon usage statistics. Likelihood ratio tests of site-branch models failed to detect positive selection on MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1. Codon-site models demonstrated that both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are under purifying selection and significant differences in codon usage were observed between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. Mean GC content at the third position (GC3) and effective codon usage (ENC) were significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 with values of 0.57 and 48 for MAT1-1-1 and 0.62 and 46 for MAT1-2-1, respectively. In contrast, codon usage of Pleospora spp. (anamorph Stemphylium), a closely related Dothideomycete genus, was not significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. The purifying selection and biased codon usage detected at the MAT1 locus in Alternaria spp. suggest a recent sexual past, cryptic sexual present and/or that MAT1 plays important cellular role(s) in addition to mating. PMID:21625561

  5. In Silico Identification of Mimicking Molecules as Defense Inducers Triggering Jasmonic Acid Mediated Immunity against Alternaria Blight Disease in Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Pandey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola are two major phytopathogenic fungi which cause Alternaria blight, a recalcitrant disease on Brassica crops throughout the world, which is highly destructive and responsible for significant yield losses. Since no resistant source is available against Alternaria blight, therefore, efforts have been made in the present study to identify defense inducer molecules which can induce jasmonic acid (JA mediated defense against the disease. It is believed that JA triggered defense response will prevent necrotrophic mode of colonization of Alternaria brassicae fungus. The JA receptor, COI1 is one of the potential targets for triggering JA mediated immunity through interaction with JA signal. In the present study, few mimicking compounds more efficient than naturally occurring JA in terms of interaction with COI1 were identified through virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation studies. A high quality structural model of COI1 was developed using the protein sequence of Brassica rapa. This was followed by virtual screening of 767 analogs of JA from ZINC database for interaction with COI1. Two analogs viz. ZINC27640214 and ZINC43772052 showed more binding affinity with COI1 as compared to naturally occurring JA. Molecular dynamics simulation of COI1 and COI1-JA complex, as well as best screened interacting structural analogs of JA with COI1 was done for 50 ns to validate the stability of system. It was found that ZINC27640214 possesses efficient, stable, and good cell permeability properties. Based on the obtained results and its physicochemical properties, it is capable of mimicking JA signaling and may be used as defense inducers for triggering JA mediated resistance against Alternaria blight, only after further validation through field trials.

  6. In Silico Identification of Mimicking Molecules as Defense Inducers Triggering Jasmonic Acid Mediated Immunity against Alternaria Blight Disease in Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajesh K; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Shukla, Rohit; Pandey, Dinesh; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola are two major phytopathogenic fungi which cause Alternaria blight, a recalcitrant disease on Brassica crops throughout the world, which is highly destructive and responsible for significant yield losses. Since no resistant source is available against Alternaria blight, therefore, efforts have been made in the present study to identify defense inducer molecules which can induce jasmonic acid (JA) mediated defense against the disease. It is believed that JA triggered defense response will prevent necrotrophic mode of colonization of Alternaria brassicae fungus. The JA receptor, COI1 is one of the potential targets for triggering JA mediated immunity through interaction with JA signal. In the present study, few mimicking compounds more efficient than naturally occurring JA in terms of interaction with COI1 were identified through virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation studies. A high quality structural model of COI1 was developed using the protein sequence of Brassica rapa. This was followed by virtual screening of 767 analogs of JA from ZINC database for interaction with COI1. Two analogs viz. ZINC27640214 and ZINC43772052 showed more binding affinity with COI1 as compared to naturally occurring JA. Molecular dynamics simulation of COI1 and COI1-JA complex, as well as best screened interacting structural analogs of JA with COI1 was done for 50 ns to validate the stability of system. It was found that ZINC27640214 possesses efficient, stable, and good cell permeability properties. Based on the obtained results and its physicochemical properties, it is capable of mimicking JA signaling and may be used as defense inducers for triggering JA mediated resistance against Alternaria blight, only after further validation through field trials.

  7. Production of paclitaxel with anticancer activity by two local fungal endophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Ahmed, Ashraf S; Hassan, Ismail A; El-Sayed, El-Sayed R; Karam El-Din, Al-Zahraa A

    2017-07-01

    Among 60 fungal endophytes isolated from twigs, bark, and mature leaves of different plant species, two fungal isolates named TXD105 and TER995 were capable of producing paclitaxel in amounts of up to 84.41 and 37.92 μg L -1 , respectively. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristic analysis, the two respective isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima. In the effort to increase paclitaxel magnitude by the two fungal strains, several fermentation conditions including selection of the proper fermentation medium, agitation rate, incubation temperature, fermentation period, medium pH, medium volume, and inoculum nature (size and age of inoculum) were tried. Fermentation process carried out in M1D medium (pH 6.0) and maintained at 120 rpm for 10 days and at 25 °C using 4% (v/v) inoculum of 5-day-old culture stimulated the highest paclitaxel production to attain 307.03 μg L -1 by the A. fumigatus strain. In the case of the A. tenuissima strain, fermentation conditions conducted in flask basal medium (pH 6.0) and maintained at 120 rpm for 14 days and at 25 °C using 8% (v/v) inoculum of 7-day-old culture were found the most favorable to attain the highest paclitaxel production of 124.32 μg L -1 . Using the MTT-based assay, fungal paclitaxel significantly inhibited the proliferation of five different cancer cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration values varied from 3.04 to 14.8 μg mL -1 . Hence, these findings offer new and alternate sources with excellent biotechnological potential for paclitaxel production by fungal fermentation.

  8. Transcription factor Amr1 induces melanin biosynthesis and suppresses virulence in Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A; Lawrence, Christopher B; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of Δamr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The Δamr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  9. Transcription factor Amr1 induces melanin biosynthesis and suppresses virulence in Alternaria brassicicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangrae Cho

    Full Text Available Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8 caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of Δamr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The Δamr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  10. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-05-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  11. Expression analysis of chitinase upon challenge inoculation to Alternaria wounding and defense inducers in Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Rawat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which belong to the pathogenesis-related (PR protein family and play an important role not only in plant defense but also in various abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of chitinase genes have been characterised in B. juncea. In this study, we have characterised B. juncea class IV chitinase gene (accession no EF586206 in response to fungal infection, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA treatments and wounding. Gene expression studies revealed that the transcript levels of Bjchitinase (BjChp gene increases significantly both in local and distal tissues after Alternaria infection. Bjchitinase gene was also induced by jasmonic acid and wounding but moderately by salicylic acid. A 2.5 kb class IV chitinase promoter of this gene was isolated from B. juncea by Genome walking (accession no KF055403.1. In-silico analysis of this promoter revealed a number of conserved cis-regulatory elements related to defense, wounding and signalling molecules like SA, and JA. For validation, chitinase promoter was fused to the GUS gene, and the resultant construct was then introduced into Arabidopsis plants. Histochemical analysis of T2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed that higher GUS activity in leaves after fungal infection, wounding and JA treatment but weakly by SA. GUS activity was seen in meristematic tissues, young leaves, seeds and siliques. Finally investigation has led to the identification of a pathogen-inducible, developmentally regulated and organ-specific promoter. Present study revealed that Bjchitinase (BjChp promoter is induced during biotic and environmental stress and it can be used in developing finely tuned transgenics.

  12. Characterization of glutathione transferases involved in the pathogenicity of Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Benoit; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Gelhaye, Eric; Guillemette, Thomas; Simoneau, Philippe

    2015-06-18

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent an extended family of multifunctional proteins involved in detoxification processes and tolerance to oxidative stress. We thus anticipated that some GSTs could play an essential role in the protection of fungal necrotrophs against plant-derived toxic metabolites and reactive oxygen species that accumulate at the host-pathogen interface during infection. Mining the genome of the necrotrophic Brassica pathogen Alternaria brassicicola for glutathione transferase revealed 23 sequences, 17 of which could be clustered into the main classes previously defined for fungal GSTs and six were 'orphans'. Five isothiocyanate-inducible GSTs from five different classes were more thoroughly investigated. Analysis of their catalytic properties revealed that two GSTs, belonging to the GSTFuA and GTT1 classes, exhibited GSH transferase activity with isothiocyanates (ITC) and peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide, respectively. Mutant deficient for these two GSTs were however neither more susceptible to ITC nor less aggressive than the wild-type parental strain. By contrast mutants deficient for two other GSTs, belonging to the Ure2pB and GSTO classes, were distinguished by their hyper-susceptibility to ITC and low aggressiveness against Brassica oleracea. In particular AbGSTO1 could participate in cell tolerance to ITC due to its glutathione-dependent thioltransferase activity. The fifth ITC-inducible GST belonged to the MAPEG class and although it was not possible to produce the soluble active form of this protein in a bacterial expression system, the corresponding deficient mutant failed to develop normal symptoms on host plant tissues. Among the five ITC-inducible GSTs analyzed in this study, three were found essential for full aggressiveness of A. brassicicola on host plant. This, to our knowledge is the first evidence that GSTs might be essential virulence factors for fungal necrotrophs.

  13. Toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid in the chicken embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G F; Chu, F S

    1983-12-01

    The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either lethal or sublethal doses.

  14. Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, T; Andersen, Henning; Hess, A

    2009-01-01

    strength of affected muscles and (ii) the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: The two treatments were equally effective, the mean change in muscle strength after SCIG being 3.6% (95% CI -3.6% to 10.9%) vs. 4.3% (-1.3% to 10.0%) after IVIG (P = 0.86). One patient had sustained erythema and oedema......Background and purpose: For treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we hypothesized that (i) infusion of equivalent dosages of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is as effective as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and that (ii) subcutaneous infusion at home is associated with a better...... quality of life. Methods: In a randomized single-blinded cross-over study, nine IVIG responsive patients were allocated to receive either SCIG or IVIG for a period equivalent to three IVIG treatment intervals and, subsequently, crossed over to the other treatment. Primary end-points were (i) dynamometric...

  15. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.

  16. Localized Subcutaneous Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Schoellhorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented with a five-day history of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and fever. On physical examination, the dog was lethargic and clinically dehydrated. The skin of the entire ventral abdomen extending to both flanks was erythematous, swollen and painful on palpation. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a severe diffuse neutrophilic dermatitis and panniculitis, resembling the subcutaneous form of Sweet’s syndrome in humans. A large part of the skin lesion developed full-thickness necrosis. After intensive care, three surgical wound debridements and wound adaptations, the wound healed by secondary intention within ten weeks. In the absence of infection of the skin or neoplasia, a diagnosis of neutrophilic dermatosis and panniculitis, resembling the subcutaneous form of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, was made.

  17. Late Hematogenous Infection of Subcutaneous Implants in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottenbos, B.; Klatter, F.; Van Der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Late biomaterial-centered infection is a major complication associated with the use of biomaterial implants. In this study biomaterials that had been implanted subcutaneously in rats were hematogenously challenged with bacteria 4 weeks after implantation. Bacteria were spread either by intravenous injection or by stimulation of bacterial translocation. It was found that none of the biomaterials was infected by hematogenous spread, whereas 5% of the implants were infected by perioperative contamination. We conclude that late hematogenous infection of subcutaneous biomaterials does not occur in the rat. For humans as well, there are growing doubts whether implants actually become infected through hematogenous routes; it is thought that late infections may be caused by delayed appearance of perioperatively introduced bacteria. PMID:11527814

  18. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  19. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  20. Protein 53 expression in a mixed Labrador subcutaneous lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annahita Rezaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An 11 year – old mixed female Labrador was presented with two masses in trunk and neck. The tumoral masses were excised and sent for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of masses revealed diffuse infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells in subcutaneous tissue which were intense around the blood vessels. More than 10% lymphoid cells were CD3 positive in the immunohistochemical staining and most of them were accumulated around vessels. Protein 53 (p53 expression was detected by brown nuclei in immunohistochemical staining. Subcutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed according to histopathological results. After 6 months the case was referred with multicentric lymphoma and based on the owner request euthanasia was performed. These findings emphasize on poor prognosis for tumors with p53 mutation.

  1. A case of severe subcutaneous emphysema in the post-operative period following cleft lip surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijayakumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is not an unknown complication following cleft lip surgery. We describe a case of severe subcutaneous emphysema that developed six hours after surgery. The laryngoscopic intubation was smooth. Following subcutaneous emphysema the patient was treated conservatively with mask oxygen and spontaneous resolution occurred within 48 hours.

  2. 21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion... Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5965 Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification. A subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and...

  3. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp Actividad antifúngica de extractos de plantas medicinales contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 10 plant species used in traditional Uruguayan medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses. Aqueous, saline buffer and acid extracts of different plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Alternaria spp. For the antifungal evaluation we used a microspectrophotometric assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the extracts were determined. Three solvents were assayed on different tissues of the plants and among the 29 evaluated extracts, 31% of the extracts inhibited growth, similar to the effects of a chemical fungicide. Acid extracts of the plants were more effective than the aqueous or buffer extracts against Alternaria spp. The MIC values of the extracts were determined ranging between 1.25 and 25 µg mL-1. The MFC values of the extracts ranged between 1.25 µg mL-1 (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and 10 µg mL-1 (Cynara scolymus L.. MICs and MFCs values obtained from leaves (Salvia officinalis L. and R. officinalis and seeds extracts (Salvia sclarea L. were quite comparable to values obtained with the conventional fungicide captan (2.5 µg mL-1. The extracts of Salvia sclarea, S. officinalis and R. officinalis could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating diseases in plants. These extracts showed maximum activity, even at very low concentrations, and the same fungicide effects as chemical fungicide. We conclude from this that these extracts exhibit amazing fungicidal properties that support their traditional use as antiseptics.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica de extractos vegetales de 10 especies utilizadas en la medicina tradicional uruguaya contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp. Las plantas fueron seleccionadas en base a usos

  4. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  5. Optimizing the Bioavailability of Subcutaneously Administered Biotherapeutics Through Mechanochemical Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D. S.; Kourtis, L. C.; Thyagarajapuram, N. R.; Sirkar, R.; Kapur, S.; Harrison, M W; Bryan, D. J.; Jones, G B; Wright, J M

    2017-01-01

    The subcutaneous route offers myriad benefits for the administration of biotherapeutics in both acute and chronic diseases, including convenience, cost effectiveness and the potential for automation through closed-loop systems. Recent advances in parenteral administration devices and the use of additives which enhance drug dispersion have generated substantial additional interest in IV to SQ switching studies. Designing pre-clinical and clinical studies using SQ mediated delivery however requ...

  6. combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of whole and halved intravaginal sponges combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of PMSG on synchronization of the estrous cycle of Karakul ewes. A.S. Faure, D.A. Boshoff and F.J.L. Burger. K a r a k u l R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n , U p i n g t o n. The estrous cycles of Karakul ewes were ...

  7. Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute silicosis complicating as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema is described in a 35-year-old male engaged in stone crusher unit. Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis.

  8. Effect of microgravity on forearm subcutaneous vascular resistance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, A; Norsk, P; Videbæk, R

    1995-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the subcutaneous vascular constrictor response to an orthostatic stress in humans is augmented after exposure to microgravity, the following experiment was performed. Four male astronauts underwent a standardized stepwise lower body negative pressure (LBNP) profile 5 m...... after 1-2 days after exposure to 10 days of microgravity and could act as a defense mechanism to alleviate decreased orthostatic tolerance...

  9. Immunoglobulin response to bluetongue virus soluble antigen in subcutaneous chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, I; Jochim, M M; Lauerman, L H

    1977-06-01

    Group-specific antibodies were produced by inoculation of bluetongue virus soluble antigen into polyethylene chambers implanted subcutaneously in 8 rabbits and 2 sheep. For comparison, 5 rabbits and 1 sheep were inoculated intramuscularly with the soluble antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Antibodies present in the serum and chamber fluids were detected by the agar gel precipitin or serum-neutralization tests, qualitatively examined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescence, and quantitated by electroimmunodiffusion.

  10. Severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis successfully treated with subcutaneous omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Timothy A; Sharma, Vibha; Arkwright, Peter D; Biswas, Susmito

    2013-06-01

    A 12-year-old boy with severe mixed limbal and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis experienced persistent ocular symptoms despite treatment with topical corticosteroids or cyclosporine. Signs and symptoms resolved completely with monthly subcutaneous omalizumab, an immunomodulating biologic agent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its use as a monotherapy agent to treat vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous bupivacaine for treatment of spasticity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B S; Jann, B B; Haddox, J D; Denson, D

    1995-02-01

    In a previous report, we described heretofore undiscovered possibilities that neuropathic pain and spasticity may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Currently, systemically delivered local anesthetics are being used for the evaluation and treatment of neuropathic pain. We present a case describing the treatment of spasticity of spinal origin with continuous subcutaneous infusion of 0.75% bupivacaine in a patient who did not respond to traditional treatments and has become tolerant to intrathecal baclofen.

  12. Subcutaneous pedicle propeller flap: An old technique revisited and modified!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Karki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-burn axillary and elbow scar contracture is a challenging problem to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the wide range of abduction and extension that should be achieved, respectively, while treating either of the joint. The aim of this paper is to highlight the use of subcutaneous pedicle propeller flap for the management of post-burn axillary and elbow contractures. Methodology: This is a prospective case study of axillary and elbow contractures managed at a tertiary care hospital using propeller flap based on subcutaneous pedicle from 2009 to 2014. Surgical treatment comprised of subcutaneous-based pedicle propeller flap from the normal tissue within the contracture based on central axis pedicle. The flap was rotated axially to break the contracture. The technique further encompassed a modification, a Zig-Zag incision of the flap, which was seen to prevent hypertrophy along the incision line. There was a mean period of 12 months of follow-up. Results: Thirty-eight patients consisting of 22 males and 16 females were included in this study among which 23 patients had Type II axillary contractures and 15 had moderate flexion contractures at elbow joint. The post-operative abduction achieved at shoulder joint had a mean of 168° whereas extension achieved at elbow had a mean of 175°. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The choice of surgical procedure for reconstruction of post-burn upper extremity contractures should be made according to the pattern of scar contracture and the state of surrounding skin. The choice of subcutaneous pedicle propeller flap should be emphasised because of the superior functional results of flap as well as ease to learn it. Moreover, the modification of propeller flap described achieves better results in terms of scar healing. There is an inter-positioning of healthy skin in between the graft, so it prevents scar band formation all around the flap.

  13. Nursing knowledge and practices regarding subcutaneous fluid administration

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nathália Silva; Silva, Andrea Mara Bernardes da; Zago, Luana Barbosa; Silva, Érica Carneiro de Lima e; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the evidence in the literature regarding the knowledge and practices of the nursing team about subcutaneous administration of drugs and fluids in adults. Method: Integrative review of the literature using the descriptors “nursing”, “hypodermoclysis”, “drug administration routes”, “adult health,” and “knowledge,” in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no publication deadline. Of the 569 articles found, eight made up the sample. Results: A predominance of i...

  14. Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, D.A. [KEM Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parel, Mumbai (India); Purandare, N.C. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Bio Imaging Unit, Parel, Mumbai (India); Jambhekar, N.A.; Agarwal, A. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Parel, Mumbai (India); Agarwal, M.G. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Bone and Soft Tissue Unit, Parel, Mumbai (India)

    2007-04-15

    Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers. The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. These lesions were initially regarded as inflammatory or reactive processes, but since the identification of clonal abnormalities in these patients, and in view of their capacity for autonomous growth, they are now widely considered to represent benign neoplasms. (orig.)

  15. Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum, and Pneumorrhachis after Cocaine Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Atmaca Temrel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most prominent complications of cocaine use are adverse effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Free air in the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue may be observed less frequently, whereas free air in the spinal canal (pneumorrhachis is a very rare complication of cocaine abuse. In this report we present a case of pneumorrhachis that developed after cocaine use. Case. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with shortness of breath, chest pain, and swelling in the neck and face which started four hours after he had sniffed cocaine. On physical examination, subcutaneous crepitations were felt with palpation of the jaw, neck, and upper chest area. Diffuse subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumorrhachis were detected in the computed tomography imaging. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged uneventfully. Discussion. Complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum that are associated with cocaine use may be seen due to increased intrathoracic pressure. The air then may flow into the spinal canal resulting in pneumorrhachis. Emergency physicians should know the possible complications of cocaine use and be prepared for rare complications such as pneumorrhachis.

  16. Isolation and identification of an antifungal compound from endophytic Streptomyces sp. CEN26 active against Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuakjaiphaeo, C; Chang, C I; Ruangwong, O; Kunasakdakul, K

    2016-07-01

    2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan monoacetate (BHMF-OAc) compound was isolated from the culture filtrate secreted by Streptomyces sp. CEN26, an endophytic actinomycete found in the root nodes of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. The compound was purified using various chromatographic techniques and bioassay-guided fractionation. The compound was then identified through a structural characterization using (1) H, (13) C-NMR and MS analysis. After the purification and identification process, a series of experiments were conducted in order to test whether the compound affected conidial germination of Alternaria brassicicola. Findings show that the compound inhibited and deformed the conidial germination of A. brassicicola. Its minimal inhibitory concentrations of MIC90 and MIC50 were found to be 100 and 25 ppm respectively. Further experimentation show that the aforementioned concentrations of MIC90 and MIC50 completely suppressed the appressorium formation of the fungal pathogen. Therefore, the BHMF-OAc compound does have antifungal properties that help protect plants from infection by A. brassicicola. Endophytic Streptomyces sp. CEN26 produces 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan monoacetate (BHMF-OAc), which is a compound that inhibits the infection process of Alternaria brassicicola in cabbage. Such an antifungal property would allow for the use of the BHMF-OAc as an alternative to chemical fungicides. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Treatment of frozen shoulder with subcutaneous TNF-alpha blockade compared with local glucocorticoid injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schydlowsky, Pierre; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of subcutaneous adalimumab injections with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections on frozen shoulder of 18 patients with unilateral joint involvement. Ten patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections with adalimumab and eight to intraarticular glucocorticoid inject...... injections administered every other week for a total of three administrations. The evaluation included validated scores. No effect of subcutaneous injections of adalimumab on frozen shoulder symptoms was demonstrated.......We compared the effect of subcutaneous adalimumab injections with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections on frozen shoulder of 18 patients with unilateral joint involvement. Ten patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections with adalimumab and eight to intraarticular glucocorticoid...

  18. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  19. Characterization of Alternaria and Penicillium species from similar substrata based on growth at different temperature, pH and water activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-eight Alternaria isolates representing 10 species or species-groups and 66 Penicillium isolates representing 18 species were examined for their growth response to the combined effects of water activity, temperature and pH in an extended Central Composite Design. Growth responses were recorded...

  20. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço, Edmir Américo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0, meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3, for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions.