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Sample records for subcutaneous abdominal adipose

  1. Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) output from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue was studied in nine healthy subjects before, during and for 3 h after 1 h two-legged bicycle exercise at 60 % maximal oxygen consumption. Seven subjects were studied in control experiments without exercise. The adipose...

  2. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... found for the remaining adipokines (P>0.05). Adiponectin and leptin concentrations were higher in plasma than subcutaneous adipose tissue (approximately 25-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively, P... investigated adipokines as well as of ATBF were substantial (coefficient of variation: 4-177%). In conclusion, interstitial leptin concentrations are approximately 2.5-fold higher in subcutaneous, femoral than abdominal adipose tissue, which might be a potential mechanism behind the health-benefits of "pear...

  3. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  4. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  5. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted......Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...

  6. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...

  7. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI......OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... be enhanced or blunted during a GIP, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic (HI-HG) clamp in obese subjects with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN: Sixteen obese (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) subjects were divided into two groups, based on their plasma glucose response...

  8. Does measurement site for visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue alter associations with the metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and the metabolic syndrome are altered depending on measurement site for VAT and ASAT and the definition used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Total VAT and ASAT volume was derived using approximately 37 contiguous computed tomography (CT) images from T10-T11 to L5-S1 in 85 men. CT images obtained at eight intervertebral locations (e.g., L4-L5, L3-L4, etc.) were used to determine the associations between partial volumes (single images) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in adipose tissue. For total and all partial volumes, VAT was more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than ASAT independent of metabolic syndrome criteria. The OR (per SD) for NCEP metabolic syndrome was higher for total VAT volume (OR = 7.26) and for the partial volumes at T12-L1 (7.46) and L1-L2 (8.77) than those at the L4-L5 level (3.94). The OR for metabolic syndrome ( approximately 2.6) was not substantially different among the ASAT measures. A similar pattern of association was observed using the IDF metabolic syndrome criteria. The measurement site for VAT, but not for ASAT, has a substantial influence on the magnitude of the association with both metabolic syndrome definitions. However, because VAT remained significantly associated with metabolic syndrome regardless of measurement site, the clinical interpretation was unaltered by measurement protocol or metabolic syndrome definition.

  9. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...... with a 4% coefficient of variation in both tissues. Blood flow and the change in signal intensity as a measure of the microvascular volume increased significantly and simultaneously in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue after glucose intake. The forearm blood flow and muscle signal intensity remained...

  10. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M.; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P.; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ong, Ken K.

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  11. Ultrasound measurements of isceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lucia, Rolfe E.; Sleigh, A.; Finucane, F.M.; Brage, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Cooper, C.; Sharp, S.J.; Wareham, N.J.; Ong, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  12. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  13. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism....

  14. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine......-1 and increased to 0.586 +/- 0.445 and 0.760 +/- 0.534 mumol.100 g-1 x min-1 (P subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen was equal to the arterial concentration in the basal period but did not increase as much during infusion of epinephrine......, indicating glucose uptake in adipose tissue in this condition. If it is assumed that forearm skeletal muscle is representative for the average skeletal muscle, it can be calculated that on average 40% of the enhanced whole body oxygen uptake induced by infusion of epinephrine is taking place in skeletal...

  15. Association between obesity and asthma in the elderly population: potential roles of abdominal subcutaneous adiposity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Young-Joo; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, Seok-Bum; Kim, Ki-Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for asthma; however, the association of asthma with obesity has rarely been studied in the elderly population. The role of central obesity has been suggested as a link between the 2 entities but has not been comprehensively studied in elderly populations. To investigate the mechanisms of association between obesity and asthma in the elderly population. This cross-sectional analysis included 994 participants (aged ≥65 years) in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Asthma was defined by using questionnaires. Spirometry and chest radiography were performed to exclude asthma-mimicking conditions. Measurements of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat were calculated by computed tomography of the abdomen, and regional body compositions were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical parameters were also measured. The prevalence of asthma was 5.4%. The study population had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.0. Multivariate logistic regression tests revealed that the risk of asthma increased in proportion to an increase in BMI or abdominal subcutaneous adiposity. However, no association was found with visceral adiposity, serum adiponectin levels, or serum vitamin D levels. The dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-measured appendicular fat-free mass index was inversely related to asthma among patients with a BMI of 25.0 or greater. Our findings suggest that the relationships between obesity and asthma in the elderly population may be mediated by factors such as abdominal subcutaneous adiposity and sarcopenia. These associations warrant further investigations to identify their potential roles. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ong, Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are restricted in large-scale studies due to practical and ethical issues. We aimed to establish whether ultrasound is a valid alternative method to MRI for the quantitative assessment of abdominal fat depots in older individuals. The study population comprised 74 white individuals (41 men and 33 women, aged 67-76 years) participating in the Hertfordshire Birth Cohort Physical Activity trial. Anthropometry included height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Abdominal fat was measured by ultrasound in two compartments: visceral fat defined as the depth from the peritoneum to the lumbar spine; and subcutaneous fat defined as the depth from the skin to the abdominal muscles and compared to reference measures by MRI (10-mm single-slice image). Ultrasound measures were positively correlated with MRI measures of visceral and subcutaneous fat (visceral: r = 0.82 and r = 0.80 in men and women, respectively; subcutaneous: r = 0.63 and 0.68 in men and women, respectively). In multiple regression models, the addition of ultrasound measures significantly improved the prediction of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat in both men and women over and above the contribution of standard anthropometric variables. In conclusion, ultrasound is a valid method to estimate visceral fat in epidemiological studies of older men and women when MRI and computed tomography are not feasible.

  17. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P exchange ratio was 0.80 +/- 0......Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  18. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  19. Effects of additional exercise training on epicardial, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in major depressive disorder: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, K G; Kerling, A; Tegtbur, U; Gützlaff, E; Herrmann, J; Borchert, L; Ates, Zeynep; Westhoff-Bleck, M; Hueper, K; Hartung, D

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased amounts of intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue, risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic disorders. Exercise has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat in different conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, thereby reducing cardio-metabolic risks. Therefore we examined the effects of exercise on adipose tissue compartments in patients with MDD. Of thirty depressed patients included, twenty received supervised exercise training, and ten received no specific training. Volumes of subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue were measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and factors constituting the metabolic syndrome were determined. Significant effects of the training condition were observed on the amount of epicardial adipose tissue (P=0.017), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P=0.023), weight (P=0.047), body-mass index (P=0.04), high density lipoproteins (P=0.021) and the number of metabolic syndrome factors (P=0.018). The amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue decreased slightly, although not significantly, in the exercise group. Exercise training reduces the amount of visceral, in particular epicardial adipose tissue, in patients with MDD, and ameliorates factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. Given the high prevalence of cardio-metabolic disorders in major depression, exercise training may be recommended as an additional treatment component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    .... Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects...

  1. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Miljkovic, I.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Launer, L.; Garcia, M.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Posthuma, D.; Carr, J.J.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Cupples, L.A.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants

  2. Distinct Secretory Activity and Clinical Impact of Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Skalska, Urszula; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2017-02-01

    In the general population, low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue accompanies obesity and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, but the implication of this tissue in rheumatic disease pathology is unclear. Therefore, we characterized the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) of females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and searched for its relationship with intensity of systemic inflammation, body composition and comorbidity. The secretion of classical adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, i.e. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and MIF but less leptin than respective osteoarthritis tissues. In RA patients, TNF secretion correlated with cachectic body composition, HGF release was linked to secondary amyloidosis and visceral fat rating was an independent risk factor for CVD. In OA, secretion of leptin and HGF positively, while adiponectin inversely, correlated with systemic inflammation markers, and the release of MIF was an independent risk factor for CVD. This study reveals differences between RA and OA patients in SAAT secretory activity and suggests its different clinical impact in these diseases, characterized by high- and low-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. In RA, SAAT may directly or via an effect on body composition contribute to amyloidosis, cachexia or CVD co-occurring, while in OA SAAT-derived adipocytokines may rather regulate intensity of systemic inflammation and redound to CVD emergence.

  3. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  4. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    -clearance method. Nine subjects were studied during 1-h basal rest, and then during continuous octreotide infusion during 1-h rest, 1-h exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption and 4-h post-exercise rest. A control study on seven subjects was performed under similar conditions but without octreotide infusion.......c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe...

  5. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose...... tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio......-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI...

  6. Chick subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots respond differently in lipolytic and adipogenic activity to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-07-01

    In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h. Plasma α-MSH was 3.06±0.57ng/ml. In subcutaneous tissue, melanocortin receptor 5 (MC5R) mRNA was increased in 10μg, MC2R and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) mRNAs increased in 50μg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and C/EBPα decreased in 5, 10 and 50μg, and Ki67 mRNA decreased in 50μg α-MSH-injected chicks, compared to vehicle-injected chicks. In abdominal tissue, adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA was greater in 10μg α-MSH- than vehicle-treated chicks. Cells isolated from abdominal fat that were treated with 10 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h expressed more MC5R and perilipin-1 than control cells (n=6). Cells that received 100nM α-MSH expressed more fatty acid binding protein 4 and comparative gene identification-58 mRNA than control cells. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity was greater in cells at 9days post-differentiation that were treated with 1 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h than in control cells (n=3). Results suggest that α-MSH increases lipolysis and reduces adipogenesis in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis - association with clinical and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor - TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients' age. We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may contribute to maintenance of normal body composition and mass, (ii

  8. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may enhance fatty acid re-esterification in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metab...

  9. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis – association with clinical and laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kontny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21 and OA (n = 13, and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods: Basal and interleukin (IL-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Results : Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β(1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor – TNF and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI and visceral fat rating (FVSC. In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients’ age. Conclusions : We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i adiponectin and TNF

  10. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2010-01-01

    abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples...

  11. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  12. Skin temperature and subcutaneous adipose blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured bilaterally by the 133Xe washout method. At one side of the skin (epicutaneous) temperature was varied with a temperature blanket, the other side served as control. There was a significant (P less than 0.001) positive...... correlation between skin temperature and ATBF. In the range from 25 to 37 degrees CATBF increased 9% of the control flow on average per centigrade increase in skin temperature. ATBF at the control side was uninfluenced by the contralateral variations in skin temperature. Although no better correlation could...... be demonstrated between ATBF and subcutaneous temperature than between ATBF and skin temperature, arguments are presented in favour of the hypothesis that ATBF is influenced by the subcutaneous temperature rather than via reflexes from the skin. Infiltration of the 133Xe depots with 20 microgram histamine...

  13. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  14. Measuring abdominal adiposity in 6 to 7-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, E. T.; Rolfe, E. de Lucia; L'Abee, C.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Ong, K. K.; Stolk, R. P.

    Background/Objectives: Both intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, even in childhood. Currently, the gold standard in assessing IAAT and SAAT is computed tomography (CT), which is not widely applicable.

  15. Role of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burden of obesity has increased significantly in the United States over last few decades. Association of obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic problems is well established. Traditionally, adipose tissue in visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in development of insulin resistance. However, growing body of the literature has suggested that adipose tissue in subcutaneous fat depot, not only due to larger volume but also due to inherent functional characteristics, can have significant impact on development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal versus gluteofemoral depots. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger vicious cycle of inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue and subsequent ectopic fat deposition. It is important to shift focus from fat content to functional heterogeneity in adipose tissue depots to better understand the relative role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolic complications of obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice at any level of increased adiposity. Future pharmaceutical interventions aimed at improving adipose tissue function in various subcutaneous depots have potential to help maintain adequate insulin sensitivity and reduce risk for development of insulin resistance complications.

  16. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression...... by elevated levels of plasma visfatin. Recombinant human IL-6 infusion to mimic the exercise-induced IL-6 response (n = 6) had no effect on visfatin mRNA expression in adipose tissue compared with the effect of placebo infusion (n = 6). The finding that exercise enhances subcutaneous adipose tissue visfatin mRNA...... in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4...

  17. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue...... (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m(2...

  18. Effect of insulin catheter wear-time on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and insulin absorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insertion of an insulin catheter for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion into the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) causes a tissue trauma that may have consequences for insulin absorption. We evaluated the importance of insulin catheter wear-time on subcutaneous adipose tissue...... blood flow (ATBF) and absorption of the rapid-acting insulin analog insulin aspart over a period of 4 days. METHODS: Teflon insulin catheters (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) were inserted into the abdominal SAT of 10 healthy men without diabetes (mean +/- SEM age, 23.0 +/- 1.1 years; body mass index, 22...

  19. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  20. Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permana, Paska A; Nair, Saraswathy; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Expansion of adipose tissue mass results from increased number and size of adipocyte cells. We hypothesized that subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes in obese individuals might have an intrinsically higher propensity to differentiate into adipocytes. Thus we investigated the relationship between...... obesity and the level of in vitro preadipocyte differentiation in Pima Indians. Subcutaneous abdominal stromal vascular fractions containing preadipocytes were cultured from 58 nondiabetic subjects [31 M/27 F, 30 +/- 6 yr, body fat 34 +/- 8% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (means +/- SD)]. The average...... not (IGF-IR, r = 0.003, P = 1.0; PPARgamma, r = -0.1, P = 0.5; GATA-3, r = 0.02, P = 0.9; CUP/AP-2alpha, r = -0.2, P = 0.1; ECSM2, r = 0.04, P = 0.7). Contrary to our hypothesis, the results may indicate a blunted in vitro differentiation potential of preadipocytes in centrally obese individuals. The lower...

  1. Automated segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous (deep and superficial) adipose tissues in normal and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Prakash, Bhanu; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Chin Meng; Chou, Hong; Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lee, Yung Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Tai, E Shyong; Velan, S Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm to classify abdominal adipose tissues into visceral fat (VAT), deep (DSAT), and superficial (SSAT) subcutaneous fat compartments and evaluate its performance against manual segmentation. Data were acquired from 44 normal (BMI 18.0-22.9 kg/m(2) ) and 38 overweight (BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ) subjects at 3T using a two-point Dixon sequence. A fully automatic segmentation algorithm was developed to segment the fat depots. The first part of the segmentation used graph cuts to separate the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and the second step employed a modified level sets approach to classify deep and superficial subcutaneous tissues. The algorithmic results of segmentation were validated against the ground truth generated by manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm showed good performance with Dice similarity indices of VAT/DSAT/SSAT: 0.92/0.82/0.88 against the ground truth. The study of the fat distribution showed that there is a steady increase in the proportion of DSAT and a decrease in the proportion of SSAT with increasing obesity. The presented technique provides an accurate approach for the segmentation and quantification of abdominal fat depots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Makar, Karen W; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals. Ten overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal women were recruited. Two subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained per individual (i.e., right and left lower abdominal regions) using two distinct methods (method A: 14-gauge needle with incision, versus method B: 16-gauge needle without incision). Gene expression was examined at the mRNA level for leptin, adiponectin, aromatase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in flash-frozen tissue, and at the protein level for leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha following short-term culture. Participants preferred biopsy method A and few participants reported any of the usual minor side effects. Gene expression was detectable for leptin, adiponectin, and aromatase, but was below detectable limits for IL-6 and TNF-alpha. For detectable genes, relative gene expression in adipose tissue obtained by methods A and B was similar for adiponectin (r = 0.64, P = 0.06) and leptin (r = 0.80, P = 0.01), but not for aromatase (r = 0.37,P = 0.34). Protein levels in tissue culture supernatant exhibited good intra-assay agreement [coefficient of variation (CV), 1-10%], with less agreement for intraindividual agreement (CV, 17-29%) and reproducibility, following one freeze-thaw cycle (CV, >14%). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from healthy, overweight individuals provide adequate amounts for RNA extraction, gene expression, and other assays of relevance to cancer prevention research.

  3. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  4. Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Jennifer K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity has been described in obese states, with an increased desaturation index (DI suggesting enhanced lipogenesis. Differences in the DI among various phenotypes of abnormal adiposity have not been studied. Abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurs in rare adipose disorders (RADs including Dercum's disease (DD, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL, and familial multiple lipomatosis (FML. Examining the DI in subcutaneous fat of people with DD, MSL and FML may provide information on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in these disorders. The aims of this pilot study were: 1 to determine if differences in adipose tissue DIs are present among RADs, and 2 to determine if the DIs correlate to clinical or biochemical parameters. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from human participants with DD (n = 6, MSL (n = 5, FML (n = 8 and obese Controls (n = 6. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The DIs (palmitoleic/palmitic, oleic/stearic, vaccenic/stearic ratios were calculated from the gas chromatogram peak intensities. SCD1 gene expression was determined. Spearman's correlations between the DIs and available clinical or biochemical data were performed. Results In DD subjects, the vaccenic/stearic index was lower (p p Conclusions The positive associations between the DIs and measures of adiposity (BMI and percent body fat support increased desaturase activity in obesity. The lower vaccenic/stearic DI in DD SAT compared with Controls suggests presence of other factors involved in fat accumulation in addition to lifestyle. Other mechanisms driving fat accumulation in DD such as inflammation or lymphatic dysfunction should be investigated.

  5. Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Brooks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous research suggests a relationship between chronic low back pain (cLBP and adiposity, this relationship is poorly understood. No research has explored the relationship between abdominal-specific subcutaneous and visceral adiposity with pain and disability in cLBP individuals. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationship of regional and total body adiposity to pain and disability in cLBP individuals. Methods A preliminary explorative study design of seventy (n = 70 adult men and women with cLBP was employed. Anthropometric and adiposity measures were collected, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, total body adiposity and specific ultrasound-based abdominal adiposity measurements. Self-reported pain and disability were measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI questionnaires respectively. Relationships between anthropometric and adiposity measures with pain and disability were assessed using correlation and regression analyses. Results Significant correlations between abdominal to lumbar adiposity ratio (A-L variables and the waist-to-hip ratio with self-reported pain were observed. A-L variables were found to predict pain, with 9.1–30.5 % of the variance in pain across the three analysis models explained by these variables. No relationships between anthropometric or adiposity variables to self-reported disability were identified. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that regional distribution of adiposity via the A-L is associated with cLBP, providing a rationale for future research on adiposity and cLBP.

  6. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengle Shao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient homeostasis in obesity. Importantly, these data reveal the distinct phenotypes that can occur when adiponectin driven transgenes are activated in fetal vs. adult adipose tissue.

  7. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass in...

  8. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lohmann, Tobias [Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt, Dresden (Germany); Schön, Michael R. [Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dietrich, Arne [Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan [Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB AdiposityDiseases, Junior Research Group 2 “Animal Models of Obesity”, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  9. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  10. Changes in the relative thickness of individual subcutaneous adipose tissue layers in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Madsen, Mads T.

    2007-01-01

    in thickness per unit change in body weight was greatest for L2, followed by L1 and L3. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose layers grow at different rates These results demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose layers grow at different rates relative to each other and to change in body...... weight and indicate that ultrasound can be used to track these differences....

  11. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcutaneous AT, and we also studied the effect of physical training. Moreover, we studied the effect of physical training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in muscle in vivo. Female rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 8) or sedentary (n = 7). Under anesthesia......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P

  12. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the clear benefits that resistance training might have in weight management the effects of resistance training on adiposity in sedentary individuals are unsubstantiated. As such, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of resistance training on anthropometric measures of total, central and abdominal adiposity.

  13. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese and lean adults does not release hepcidin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Frayn, Keith N; Smith, Steven R; Westerman, Mark; Dennis, A Louise; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Thomson, Jessica; Pusatcioglu, Cenk

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT) releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n = 18), mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin) = 4.9 ± 9.6 ng/mL, P = 0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  14. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Obese and Lean Adults Does Not Release Hepcidin In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Tussing-Humphreys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n=18, mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin = 4.9±9.6 ng/mL, P=0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  15. Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, K; Gauthier, M-S; Garneau, P Y; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda ). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (Psurgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (Psurgery. Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  17. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  18. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Stienstra, R; van Diepen, J A; Hijmans, A; van der Laak, J A; Vervoort, G M M; Tack, C J

    2013-12-01

    Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the insulin-associated increase in fat mass would also result in changes in the morphology of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and in increased inflammation, especially when weight gain was excessive. We investigated the effects of weight gain on adipocyte size, macrophage influx, and mRNA expression and protein levels of key inflammatory markers within the adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 6 months after starting insulin therapy. As expected, insulin therapy significantly increased body weight. At the level of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin treatment led to an influx of macrophages. When comparing patients gaining no or little weight with patients gaining >4% body weight after 6 months of insulin therapy, both subgroups displayed an increase in macrophage influx. However, individuals who had gained weight had higher protein levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, TNF-α and IL-1β after 6 months of insulin therapy compared with those who had not gained weight. We conclude that insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycaemic control but also induced body weight gain and an influx of macrophages into the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In patients characterised by a pronounced insulin-associated weight gain, the influx of macrophages into the adipose tissue was accompanied by a more pronounced inflammatory status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00781495. The study was funded by European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes and the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation.

  19. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the fore......The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations......: the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  20. Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. ... All patients were cholesterol‑lowering oral medication naïve. Demographic and clinical data and anthropometric measurements were documented. Fasting lipid profiles were ...

  1. The magnitude of abdominal adiposity and atherogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal obesity was defined as WC .102 cm and .88 cm for men and women, respectively. Dyslipidemia was defined using the third report of National Cholesterol Education Panel in adult (ATP III). The data collected included basic demographic variables, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and ...

  2. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Cheol Hong

    Full Text Available Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored.We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR, the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP, whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001, whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003.This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles.

  3. Intra-abdominal Adiposity In Preterm Infants: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the total body fat mass and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue between preterm infants assessed at term corrected age and full-term newborns. Methods: An observational explorative study was conducted. 25 preterm and 10 full term infants were evaluated at 0-1 month of corrected and postnatal age, respectively. The total body fat mass was assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system (Pea Pod COSMED, USA and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue by means of magnetic resonance imaging (software program SliceOMatic, Version 4.3,Tomovision, Canada. Results: Total body fat mass (g of preterm and term infants was 633 (±183 and 538 (±203 respectively while intra-abdominal fat mass (g was 14.2 (±4.9 and 19.9 (±11.4. Conclusions: Preterm infants, although exhibiting a total body fat mass higher than full term infants, do not show an increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue.

  4. Subcutaneous adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Janakova, Zuzana; Kurdiova, Timea; Surova, Martina; Imrich, Richard; Majercikova, Zuzana; Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Kiss, Alexander; Belan, Vitazoslav; Klimes, Iwar; Olejnik, Juraj; Gasperikova, Daniela; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    To examine the regulatory aspects of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) association with obesity-related insulin resistance. ZAG mRNA and protein were analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and circulation of lean, obese, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic men; both subcutaneous and visceral AT were explored in lean and extremely obese. Clinical and ex vivo findings were corroborated by results of in vitro ZAG silencing experiment. Subcutaneous AT ZAG was reduced in obesity, with a trend to further decrease with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. ZAG was 3.3-fold higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT of lean individuals. All differences were lost in extreme obesity. Obesity-associated changes in AT were not paralleled by alterations of circulating ZAG. Subcutaneous AT ZAG correlated with adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial content, expression of GLUT4, PGC1α, and adiponectin. Subcutaneous AT ZAG and adipocyte size were the only predictors of insulin sensitivity, independent on age and BMI. Silencing ZAG resulted in reduced adiponectin, IRS1, GLUT4, and PGC1α gene expression in primary human adipocytes. ZAG in subcutaneous, but not in visceral AT, was markedly reduced in obesity. Clinical, cellular, and molecular evidence indicate that ZAG plays an important role in modulating whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Continuous assessment of oxygen saturation and subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Ullstad, T; Larsen, P N

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients undergoing abdominal operations had oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous (PtcO2) and subcutaneous (PscO2) oxygen tensions monitored continuously during the second and third postoperative nights from 11 pm to 7 am. At the end of the second postoperative night an oxygen stimulat...... near the surgical wound in the late postoperative period. The results suggest that pulmonary oxygenation is the most important determinant of mean subcutaneous oxygen tension after uncomplicated elective abdominal operations....

  6. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  7. Paragonimiasis in the Abdominal Cavity and Subcutaneous Tissue: Report of 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasi...

  8. Paragonimiasis in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasis does not easily bring up clinical suspicion, due to its rarity. We herein report 2 cases of abdominal paragonimiasis and 1 case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis in Korea.

  9. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous...... adipose tissue (AT) was removed either immediately after, 4h or 10h after exercise as well as from mice not running acutely. Moreover, AT was sampled at resting conditions after 5 weeks of exercise training. Results: AT leptin mRNA decreased immediately after a single running exercise bout in both...

  10. Are overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity separate or redundant determinants of blood viscosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In line with recent literature showing that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are independently associated with the risk of death, we recently reported that body mass index (BMI) and waist-to hip ratio (WHR) were independent predictors of blood viscosity, related to different determinants of viscosity (for BMI: plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation; for WHR: hematocrit). Since this report was challenged by a study showing that abdominal adiposity (as measured with waist circumference WC and not WHR) is the only independent determinant of viscosity, we re-assessed on our previous database correlations among viscosity factors, BMI, WHR and WC. Blood viscosity was correlated to BMI (r = 0.155 p = 0.004), WHR (r = 0.364; p = 0.027) and WC (r = 0.094; p = 0.05). Hematocrit was correlated to WHR (r = 0.524) but neither to BMI (r =-0.021) nor waist circumference (r = 0.053). WC was correlated with plasma viscosity (r = 0.154; p = 0.002) while WHR was not (r =-0.0102 NS). A stepwise regression analysis selected two determinants of whole blood viscosity at high shear rate: BMI (p = 0.0167) and WC (p = 0.0003) excluding WHR. Therefore, in this sample, abdominal fatness expressed by WC and whole body adiposity remain independent determinants of blood viscosity. WHR and WC have not the same meaning, WC measuring the size of abdominal fat while WHR measuring the shape of body distribution regardless the degree of fat excess. Interestingly, hematocrit is rather related to shape (even within a normal range of body size) than the extent of abdominal fatness, and is not related to whole body adiposity.

  11. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... was quantified. Results: In the subjects given vitamin D-3, the median concentrations of serum 25(OH)D-3, fat vitamin D-3, and fat 25(OH)D-3 were 99 nmol/l, 209 ng/g, and 3.8 ng/g, respectively; and correspondingly in the placebo group 62 nmol/l, 32 ng/g, and 2.5 ng/g. If assuming an equal amount of vitamin D-3...

  12. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man: effect of beta-adrenoceptor inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations...

  13. An ER? agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-fei Miao; Wen Su; Yu-bing Dai; Wan-fu Wu; Bo Huang; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Hao Nguyen; Laure Maneix; You-fei Guan; Margaret Warner; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ER? influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with ...

  14. Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mengle; Hepler, Chelsea; Vishvanath, Lavanya; MacPherson, Karen A; Busbuso, Napoleon C; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-01-01

    Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified. Here, we utilize two models that confer adipose-specific Zfp423 inactivation during fetal adipose development (Adiponectin-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP and Adiponectin-rtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP). We assess the impact of fetal adipose Zfp423 deletion on the initial formation of adipose tissue and evaluate the metabolic consequences of challenging these animals with high-fat diet feeding. Deletion of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in a different phenotype than is observed when deleting Zfp423 in adipocytes of adult mice. Inactivation of Zfp423 during fetal adipose development results in arrested differentiation, specifically of inguinal white adipocytes, rather than a white-to-beige phenotypic switch that occurs when Zfp423 is inactivated in adult mice. This is likely explained by the observation that adiponectin driven Cre expression is active at an earlier stage of the adipocyte life cycle during fetal subcutaneous adipose development than in adult mice. Upon high-fat diet feeding, obese adipose Zfp423-deficient animals undergo a pathological adipose tissue expansion, associated with ectopic lipid deposition and systemic insulin resistance. Our results reveal that Zfp423 is essential for the terminal differentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes during fetal adipose tissue development. Moreover, our data highlight the striking adverse effects of pathological subcutaneous adipose tissue remodeling on visceral adipose function and systemic nutrient

  15. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  16. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  18. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m(2)). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow-up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension for 1 SD increase in VAT and SAT was 1.27 (1.08-1.50, P=0.004) and 0.97 (0.81-1.15, P=0.70), respectively. Adjusting for body mass index instead of SAT attenuated the association between VAT and incident hypertension, but it was still significant (odds ratio, 1.22 [1.01-1.48, P=0.041] for each SD increase in VAT). In conclusion, ultrasound-determined VAT, but not SAT, was associated with incident hypertension in a random sample of Danish adults. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Healthy behaviours and abdominal adiposity in adolescents from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino Idelson, Paola; Scalfi, Luca; Vaino, Nicola; Mobilia, Sara; Montagnese, Concetta; Franzese, Adriana; Valerio, Giuliana

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of meeting health recommendations on diet and physical activity (having breakfast, eating fruit and vegetables, consumption of milk/yoghurt, performing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, limiting television watching) and to assess junk snack food consumption in adolescents from southern Italy. The association between healthy behaviours and abdominal adiposity was also examined. In a cross-sectional protocol, anthropometric data were measured by trained operators while other data were collected through a structured interview. Three high schools in Naples, Italy. A sample of 478 students, aged 14-17 years, was studied. The proportion of adolescents who met each of the health recommendations varied: 55·4% had breakfast on ≥6 d/week; 2·9% ate ≥5 servings of fruit and vegetables/d; 1·9% had ≥3 servings of milk/yoghurt daily; 13·6% performed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for ≥60 min/d; and 46·3% watched television for junk snack foods/d. Only 5% fulfilled at least three recommendations. Healthy habits tended to correlate with each other. As the number of health recommendations met decreased, the percentage of adolescents with high abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0·5) increased. The trend was not significant when the proportion of overweight/obese adolescents was considered. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender and watching television for ≥2 h/d were independently associated with a higher waist-to-height ratio. Most adolescents failed to meet the five health recommendations considered. Male gender and excessive television watching were associated with abdominal adiposity.

  20. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa

    2009-01-01

    and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X......OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous......-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue areas using abdominal computed tomography at 18 to 20 years of age. RESULTS: The main finding in the present study was that subjects with increases in BMI Z score of more than 1 SD during adolescence had, independent of prepubertal BMI, both larger subcutaneous (+138%; P

  1. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; de Martino Lee, Maria Lucia; de Castro Monteiro, Carlos Manoel; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; Geloneze, Bruno; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated) with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (Padiposity-associated vascular disease might be attenuated by SAT. Changes in body fat must be evaluated in this group of patients in the early course of survivorship in order to avoid premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, further research as regards the possible protective effect of SAT on vascular disease is warranted.

  3. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  4. Lipid Metabolism, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cerebral Health in the Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Meghann; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Fieremans, Els; Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S; Du, Xiaoming; Adhikari, Bhim; Fisseha, Feven; Bruce, Heather; Chiappelli, Joshua; Sampath, Hemalatha; Ament, Seth; O'Connell, Jeffrey; Shuldiner, Alan R; Hong, L Elliot

    2017-11-01

    To assess the association between peripheral lipid/fat profiles and cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in healthy Old Order Amish (OOA). Blood lipids, abdominal adiposity, liver lipid contents, and cerebral microstructure were assessed in OOA (N = 64, 31 males/33 females, ages 18-77). Orthogonal factors were extracted from lipid and imaging adiposity measures. GM assessment used the Human Connectome Project protocol to measure whole-brain average cortical thickness. Diffusion-weighted imaging was used to derive WM fractional anisotropy and kurtosis anisotropy measurements. Lipid/fat measures were captured by three orthogonal factors explaining 80% of the variance. Factor one loaded on cholesterol and/or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measurements; factor two loaded on triglyceride/liver measurements; and factor three loaded on abdominal fat measurements. A two-stage regression including age/sex (first stage) and the three factors (second stage) examined the peripheral lipid/fat effects. Factors two and three significantly contributed to WM measures after Bonferroni corrections (P < 0.007). No factor significantly contributed to GM. Blood pressure (BP) inclusion did not meaningfully alter the lipid/fat-WM relationship. Peripheral lipid/fat indicators were significantly and negatively associated with cerebral WM rather than with GM, independent of age and BP level. Dissecting the fat/lipid components contributing to different brain imaging parameters may open a new understanding of the body-brain connection through lipid metabolism. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Stephens, N A; Gao, D; Bao, Y; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-02-01

    Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss 5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG concentrations were quantified. In the second cohort, ZAG release by SAT was determined in 18 weight-stable and 15 cachectic cancer patients. The effect of ZAG on lipolysis was evaluated in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue remodelling in cancer cachexia was evident through shrunken adipocytes with increased fibrosis. In cachectic cancer patients, ZAG mRNA was upregulated (2.7-fold, P=0.028) while leptin mRNA decreased (2.2-fold, P=0.018); serum ZAG levels were found to be unaffected. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA correlated positively with weight loss (r=0.51, P=0.01) and serum glycerol levels (r=0.57, P=0.003). Zinc-α2-glycoprotein release by SAT was also elevated in cachectic patients (1.5-fold, P=0.024) and correlated with weight loss (r=0.50, P=0.003). Recombinant ZAG stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression and secretion by adipose tissue is enhanced in cachectic cancer patients. Given its lipid-mobilising effect, ZAG may contribute to adipose atrophy associated with cancer cachexia in human beings.

  6. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, J Atilio; Lochrie, Amanda; McGowan, Amy Galena; Hossain, Jobayer; Schettino, Christopher; Balagopal, P Babu

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) versus placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 90%], a mean age (± standard deviation) of 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and Tanner stage I to V were enrolled; 17 participants completed the trial. MCS (which contains β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin, and γ-tocopherol) or placebo was administered daily. Primary outcomes were change in β-carotene, abdominal fat accrual (according to magnetic resonance imaging), and BMI z-score; secondary outcomes were adipokines and markers of insulin resistance. Cross-sectional analysis of β-carotene showed inverse correlation with BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at baseline. MCS increased β-carotene, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin compared with placebo. MCS led to a greater reduction in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT compared with placebo. The percentage change in β-carotene directly correlated with the percentage change in SAT. The decrease in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT and the concomitant increase in the concentration of β-carotene and high-molecular-weight adiponectin by MCS suggest the putative beneficial role of MCS in children with obesity.

  7. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    .0005). Administration of GH induced an increase in interstitial glycerol in both abdominal and femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: abdominal, P = 0. 04; femoral, P = 0.03). There was no overall difference in the response to GH in the two regions during the study period as a whole (ANOVA: P = 0.5), but during peak...... stimulation of lipolysis abdominal adipose tissue was, in absolute but not in relative terms, stimulated more markedly than femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: P = 0. 03 from 45 to 225 min). Peak interstitial glycerol values of 253 +/- 37 and 336 +/- 74 micromol/l were seen after 135 and 165 min in femoral...... and abdominal adipose tissue, respectively. ATBF was not statistically different in the two situations (ANOVA: P = 0.7). In conclusion, we have shown that a physiological pulse of GH increases interstitial glycerol concentrations in both femoral and abdominal adipose tissue, indicating activated lipolysis...

  8. The relationship between the regional abdominal adipose tissue distribution and the serum uric acid levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperuricemia is associated with obesity. The visceral adiposity and subcutaneous adiposity may be associated with the differential metabolic risk, and the distribution of abdominal adipose tissue was significantly altered in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM compared to healthy people. Our study was performed to determine to the association between the regional abdominal adipose tissue distribution and serum uric acid levels in people with type 2 DM. Methods A total of 699 people with type 2 DM and who had undergone abdominal computed tomography assessment of the visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area were included. The serum uric acid levels were measured by the uricase method. Hyperuricemia was defined by cut-off value of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. Results The visceral fat area was positively associated with the serum uric acid levels after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum high-density lipoprotein, serum triglyceride and hemoglobin A1c (β-coefficient = 0.117, p p = 0.255. Conclusions our data shows that the visceral fat area was positively associated with the serum uric acid levels, but the subcutaneous fat area was not in people with type 2 DM.

  9. A subcutaneous adipose tissue-liver signalling axis controls hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Shannon M; Ahmadian, Maryam; Zamarron, Brian F; Chang, Louise; Uhm, Maeran; Poirier, BreAnne; Peng, Xiaoling; Krause, Danielle M; Korytnaya, Evgenia; Neidert, Adam; Liddle, Christopher; Yu, Ruth T; Lumeng, Carey N; Oral, Elif A; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; Saltiel, Alan R

    2015-01-12

    The search for effective treatments for obesity and its comorbidities is of prime importance. We previously identified IKK-ε and TBK1 as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here we show that acute inhibition of IKK-ε and TBK1 with amlexanox treatment increases cAMP levels in subcutaneous adipose depots of obese mice, promoting the synthesis and secretion of the cytokine IL-6 from adipocytes and preadipocytes, but not from macrophages. IL-6, in turn, stimulates the phosphorylation of hepatic Stat3 to suppress expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, in the process improving glucose handling in obese mice. Preliminary data in a small cohort of obese patients show a similar association. These data support an important role for a subcutaneous adipose tissue-liver axis in mediating the acute metabolic benefits of amlexanox on glucose metabolism, and point to a new therapeutic pathway for type 2 diabetes.

  10. Patent abdominal subcutaneous veins caused by congenital absence of the inferior vena cava: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipp Rainer W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patent paraumbilical and abdominal subcutaneous veins are found frequently as collaterals in patients due to portal hypertension mainly in liver cirrhosis. Case presentation For evaluation of portal hypertension in a 72-year-old Caucasian man without liver cirrhosis, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium contrast-enhancement was performed and demonstrated a missing inferior vena cava. A blood return from the lower extremities was shown through enlarged collateral veins of the abdominal wall, vena azygos and hemiazygos continuation, and multiple liver veins emptying into the right cardiac atrium. We describe a rare case of abdominal subcutaneous wall veins as collaterals caused by a congenitally absent infrarenal inferior vena cava with preservation of a hypoplastic suprarenal segment. Conclusion Knowledge of these congenital variations can be of clinical importance and it is imperative for the reporting radiologist to identify these anomalies as they can have a significant impact on the clinical management of the patient.

  11. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviero-Miachon AA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon,1,2 Angela Maria Spinola-Castro,1,2 Maria Lucia de Martino Lee,2 Carlos Manoel de Castro Monteiro,3 Antonio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho,4 Antonio Ramos Calixto,5 Bruno Geloneze,5 Gil Guerra-Junior6 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 2Pediatric Oncology Institute – IOP/GRAACC, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 3Private Office, Castro Monteiro, Sao Paulo, 4Division of Cardiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 5Laboratory of Investigation on Metabolism and Diabetes (LIMED, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, 6Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP, adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Results: Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT (P<0.050. In a multiple linear regression model, cIMT positively correlated with exposure to CRT (P=0.029, diastolic BP (P=0.016, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P=0.048, while negatively related to SAT (P=0.007. Conclusion: In young survivors of childhood ALL

  12. Establishment and molecular characterization of mesenchymal stem cell lines derived from human visceral & subcutaneous adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pd; Sutar, Jp

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively) samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD 13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  13. Establishment and Molecular Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines Derived From Human Visceral & Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Sutar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  14. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

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    Chae Jeong Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo-vascular system (PVS is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  15. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate...... assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (P... distribution (PPolycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol...

  16. Associations of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and Secretion Differ Between Men and Women: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin; Widya, Ralph; de Koning, Eelco; Jazet, Ingrid; Lamb, Hildo; le Cessie, Saskia; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Jan; Rosendaal, Frits; den Heijer, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women). With linear regression analysis, we examined associations of abdominal SAT and VAT with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women, while adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, menopausal state and hormone use in women, and models with VAT additionally for total body fat. Participants had a mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 56 (6) years, body mass index: 25.9 (3.9) kg/m2, VAT: 89 (55) cm2, and SAT: 235 (95) cm2. In the multivariate models in men, per SD of VAT the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 20% (95% CI: 14-26) higher, and per SD SAT 21% (15-27) higher. In women, per SD of VAT the HOMA-IR was 40% (29-52) higher, and per SD SAT 12% (6-19) higher. Associations with measures of insulin secretion were weaker than with insulin resistance. In men, abdominal SAT and VAT were associated with insulin resistance to a similar extent, whereas in women particularly VAT was associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Future studies need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the metabolic effects of visceral fat in women. Simple and less expensive measures that can distinct abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat are needed for an improved metabolic risk stratification.

  17. A Combined Transcriptomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Subcutaneous, Epididymal and Mesenteric Adipose Tissue Reveals Marked Functional Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.R.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  18. A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caesar, R.; Manieri, M.; Kelder, T.; Boekschoten, M.; Evelo, C.; Müller, M.; Kooistra, T.; Cinti, S.; Kleemann, R.; Drevon, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat

  19. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter; Pedersen, Per Elgård; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-05-01

    Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in SCAAT continuously. A significant increase in ATBF was observed with wear time for Teflon but not for steel catheters. Mean infusion pressure during the bolus phase increased significantly from 0 to 48 h for Teflon but not for steel catheters. ATBF and infusion counter pressure was similar between Teflon and steel catheters after acute catheter implantation and after wear time of 48 h. The maximum value of pressure during the bolus phase increased with wear time of a catheter. ATBF and bolus mean infusion pressure increased significantly with a wear time of 48 h in Teflon but not in steel catheters. The maximal pressure required to deliver a bolus infusion increased with wear time of a catheter. A higher maximal pressure was required to deliver a bolus infusion through a Teflon than through a steel catheter. We propose that the difference in infusion counter pressure and ATBF between Teflon and steel catheters with wear time may be explained by better biocompatibility of steel than Teflon.

  20. Effect of epidural blockade and oxygen therapy on changes in subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, U; Erichsen, C J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of oxygen therapy (37% by face mask) and epidural local anesthetic blockade (9 ml 0.5% bupivacaine at Th9-11 level) on wound oxygenation was evaluated in eight otherwise healthy patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. The patients were monitored continuously for subcutaneous...... any of the measured values. Oxygen therapy before epidural blockade increased median subcutaneous oxygen tension from 60 to 71 mmHg (P oxygen tension with oxygen therapy was 30 (15-55) min...... without epidural blockade and 15 (10-20) min with blockade (P oxygen tension with or without oxygen therapy after elective uncomplicated major abdominal surgery....

  1. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcuta......Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric......) and in subcutaneous AT and also studied the effect of training. Rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 9) or sedentary (n = 16). While the rats were under anesthesia, a hyperinsulinemic ( approximately 900 pM), euglycemic clamp was carried out and local glucose uptake was measured by both the 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H...... hyperinsulinemia, in part, reflecting an effect in muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, interstitial glucose concentrations were lower, glucose uptake per 100 g of tissue was higher in AT in trained compared with sedentary rats, and training influenced glucose uptake identically in all ATs. In conclusion, differences...

  2. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  3. Subcutaneous Splenosis of the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Evangelia; Kalles, Vasileios; Papapanagiotou, Ioannis; Piperos, Theodoros; Karakaxas, Dimitrios; Bonatsos, Vasileios; Tsoumakas, Konstantinos; Orfanos, Filotheos; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Splenosis is a common benign condition that occurs after splenic rupture via trauma or surgery. The mechanism behind splenic cell autotransplantation begins with the splenic rupture, either from trauma or surgical removal. Splenosis is usually found incidentally and, unless symptomatic, surgical therapy is not indicated. Subcutaneous splenosis is an extremely rare form of splenosis, mostly observed in abdominal surgical scars. We report a case of subcutaneous splenosis, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. In our case, a 43-year-old woman who had splenectomy after traumatic splenic rupture at the age of 7 years old presented for plastic reconstruction of her postoperative scar. Upon surgery, two asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules were incidentally discovered. The presence of splenic tissue was confirmed by the histological study. The nodules were not excised, as the patient was not symptomatic. PMID:23401837

  4. Subcutaneous Splenosis of the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Papakonstantinou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenosis is a common benign condition that occurs after splenic rupture via trauma or surgery. The mechanism behind splenic cell autotransplantation begins with the splenic rupture, either from trauma or surgical removal. Splenosis is usually found incidentally and, unless symptomatic, surgical therapy is not indicated. Subcutaneous splenosis is an extremely rare form of splenosis, mostly observed in abdominal surgical scars. We report a case of subcutaneous splenosis, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. In our case, a 43-year-old woman who had splenectomy after traumatic splenic rupture at the age of 7 years old presented for plastic reconstruction of her postoperative scar. Upon surgery, two asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules were incidentally discovered. The presence of splenic tissue was confirmed by the histological study. The nodules were not excised, as the patient was not symptomatic.

  5. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    . Abdominal subcutaneous ATBF was measured using (133) Xenon washout technique, and forearm skeletal muscle blood flow was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. In the healthy, overweight subjects, ATBF increased and concomitantly capillary recruitment took place after glucose ingestion...

  6. The short-term and long-term effects of bariatric/metabolic surgery on subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Derek K; Larson, Ilona; Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Makar, Karen; Rubinow, Katya B; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; van Yserloo, Brian; Billing, Peter S; Landerholm, Robert W; Crouthamel, Matthew; Flum, David R; Cummings, David E; Kratz, Mario

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms mediating the short- and long-term improvements in glucose homeostasis following bariatric/metabolic surgery remain incompletely understood. To investigate whether a reduction in adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the metabolic improvements seen after bariatric/metabolic surgery, both in the short-term and longer-term. Fasting blood and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained before (n=14), at one month (n=9), and 6-12months (n=14) after bariatric/metabolic surgery from individuals with obesity who were not on insulin or anti-diabetes medication. Adipose tissue inflammation was assessed by a combination of whole-tissue gene expression and flow cytometry-based quantification of tissue leukocytes. One month after surgery, body weight was reduced by 13.5±4.4kg (pinflammation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue remained unchanged, the number of neutrophils increased in adipose tissue 15-20 fold (pinflammation were reflected by reductions in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP; -2.0±5.3mg/dL; p=0.002), and increased serum adiponectin (+1358±1406pg/mL; p=0.003). However, leukocyte infiltration of adipose tissue remained elevated relative to baseline, with pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression unchanged, while adiponectin mRNA expression trended downward (p=0.069). Both the short- and longer-term metabolic improvements following bariatric/metabolic surgery occur without significant reductions in measures of adipose tissue inflammation, as assessed by measuring the expression of genes encoding key mediators of inflammation and by flow cytometric immunophenotyping and quantification of adipose tissue leukocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  8. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  9. The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, E Louise; Parkinson, James R; Frost, Gary S; Goldstone, Anthony P; Doré, Caroline J; McCarthy, John P; Collins, Adam L; Fitzpatrick, Julie A; Durighel, Giuliana; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Bell, Jimmy D

    2012-01-01

    .... Subjects with greater intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and hepatic fat than predicted by clinical indices of obesity may be at increased risk of metabolic diseases despite their "normal" size...

  10. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  11. Autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue transplants improve adipose tissue metabolism and reduce insulin resistance and fatty liver in diet?induced obesity rats

    OpenAIRE

    Torres?Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan?P?rez, Nashla; D?az?Villase?or, Andrea; Tovar, Armando R.; Torre?Villalvazo, Ivan; Ordaz?Nava, Guillermo; Mor?n?Ramos, Sof?a; Noriega, Lilia G.; Mart?nez?Ben?tez, Braulio; L?pez?Garibay, Alejandro; Torres?Landa, Samuel; Ceballos?Cant?, Juan C.; Tovar?Palacio, Claudia; Figueroa?Ju?rez, Elizabeth; Hiriart, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long?term dietary and pharmacological treatments for obesity have been questioned, particularly in individuals with severe obesity, so a new approach may involve adipose tissue transplants, particularly autologous transplants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transplants into two specific intraabdominal cavity sites (omental and retroperitoneal) after 90?days. The study was performed using two different ...

  12. Assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue using ultrasound in highly trained junior rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Anne; Trájer, Emese; Machus, Katja; Treff, Gunnar; Müller, Wolfram; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2017-06-01

    There is a large variety of body fat (BF) measurements, which differ in validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) using ultrasound (US) in highly trained junior rowers in a field setting, establish fat patterning profiles, and compare the profiles between male and female athletes. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements were also taken and compared to US measurements. Sixteen athletes participated. US measurements were taken at eight sites and reported as a sum of SAT (D): DExcl (without embedded structures) and DIncl (including embedded structures). SKF was measured at three sites and reported as a sum of adipose tissue thickness (SUMSKF). Mean SAT thickness (DIncl) was 27.6 ± 12.4 mm for males and 65.5 ± 11.8 mm for females. Females had significantly more embedded structures than males (P = .016). Significant correlations were found (P < .001, r = 0.92) comparing SUMSKF to DIncl and between SKF and US measurements at the thigh site (P < .001, r = 0.86). US is a suitable tool to measure BF in the field testing of athletes and enables measurements of SAT with an accuracy and reliability not reached before. The sum of thicknesses (DIncl or DExcl) can be used to represent subcutaneous fat based on accurate measurements of uncompressed SAT thicknesses.

  13. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, ploss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (ploss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. MiRNA expression profile of human subcutaneous adipose and during adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potential regulators of adipogenesis include microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that have been recently shown related to adiposity and differentially expressed in fat depots. However, to date no study is available, to our knowledge, regarding miRNAs expression profile during human adipogenesis. Thereby, the aim of this study was to investigate whether miRNA pattern in human fat cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated to obesity and co-morbidities and whether miRNA expression profile in adipocytes is linked to adipogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a global miRNA expression microarray of 723 human and 76 viral mature miRNAs in human adipocytes during differentiation and in subcutaneous fat samples from non-obese (n = 6 and obese with (n = 9 and without (n = 13 Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-2 women. Changes in adipogenesis-related miRNAs were then validated by RT-PCR. Fifty of 799 miRNAs (6.2% significantly differed between fat cells from lean and obese subjects. Seventy miRNAs (8.8% were highly and significantly up or down-regulated in mature adipocytes as compared to pre-adipocytes. Otherwise, 17 of these 799 miRNAs (2.1% were correlated with anthropometrical (BMI and/or metabolic (fasting glucose and/or triglycerides parameters. We identified 11 miRNAs (1.4% significantly deregulated in subcutaneous fat from obese subjects with and without DM-2. Interestingly, most of these changes were associated with miRNAs also significantly deregulated during adipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The remarkable inverse miRNA profile revealed for human pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes hints at a closely crosstalk between miRNAs and adipogenesis. Such candidates may represent biomarkers and therapeutic targets for obesity and obesity-related complications.

  16. The Lipid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranković, Lana; Delaš, Ivančica; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Klobučar, Karla; Krivić, Gabriela; Stojević, Zvonko; Aladrović, Jasna

    The composition of adipose tissue in brown bears (Ursus arctos) is highly variable and depends on an individual's feeding habits. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may provide insight into brown bear feeding habits, for which data are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the lipid composition of SAT and variations in the composition of fatty substances with regard to gender and to assess SAT relative to season and body mass (BM) of brown bears in Croatia. Seventy-six tissue samples of brown bear SAT were analyzed in this study. We found that gender, season, and BM significantly affected the lipid composition of SAT. Both females and males had higher percentages of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in SAT in spring than in autumn, while the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was higher in autumn. The prevalence of MUFAs in SAT and the greater presence of PUFAs in autumn, together with the presence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids, indicate the importance of these fatty acids in brown bear physiology. We suggest that the lipid content of adipose tissue may provide valuable information on changes in brown bear condition in response to feeding habits and the effects of supplemental feeding.

  17. Combined Intrathoracic and Subcutaneous Splenosis Discovered 51 Years after Abdominal Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, James Benjamin; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Schroeder, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Splenosis is a rare condition that results from the autotransplantation of splenic parenchyma into unexpected locations such as the abdomen or subcutaneous tissue. In the presence of coexisting injury to the diaphragm intrathoracic transplantation can occur emerging as single or multiple pleural-based masses. This occurs after traumatic rupture of the spleen and is usually asymptomatic, only to be discovered incidentally on routine thoracic or abdominal imaging. To our knowledge this is the third documented case of combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis found in English literature. This occurred in a 71-year-old male involved in a motor vehicle accident at age 19 requiring urgent splenectomy. He has a significant cigarette smoking history and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of an abnormality seen on shoulder X-ray. PMID:26236530

  18. Combined Intrathoracic and Subcutaneous Splenosis Discovered 51 Years after Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenosis is a rare condition that results from the autotransplantation of splenic parenchyma into unexpected locations such as the abdomen or subcutaneous tissue. In the presence of coexisting injury to the diaphragm intrathoracic transplantation can occur emerging as single or multiple pleural-based masses. This occurs after traumatic rupture of the spleen and is usually asymptomatic, only to be discovered incidentally on routine thoracic or abdominal imaging. To our knowledge this is the third documented case of combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis found in English literature. This occurred in a 71-year-old male involved in a motor vehicle accident at age 19 requiring urgent splenectomy. He has a significant cigarette smoking history and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of an abnormality seen on shoulder X-ray.

  19. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  20. Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by having low abdominal adiposity, low inflammation level and low risk of developing metabolic comorbidity. In this study, we hypothesize that cardiorespiratory...... to be inversely associated with both abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI. These data suggest that, in spite of BMI, high fitness levels lead to a reduction in abdominal fat mass and low-grade inflammation....... fitness (fitness) is a determinant factor for the MHO individuals and aim to investigate the associations between fitness, abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation within different BMI categories. METHOD: Data from 10,976 individuals from the general population, DANHES 2007-2008, on waist...

  1. Venous thrombosis after abdominal surgery. A comparison between subcutaneous heparin and antithrombotic stockings, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A; Hansen, P T; Lindholt, J

    1988-01-01

    In an open controlled study, 248 consecutive patients (age more than 40 yrs) admitted for major abdominal surgery were randomized to one of three prophylactic antithrombotic treatments. Eighty-five patients received subcutaneous heparin, 74 patients had graduated compression stockings to the knee...... of the lower limbs as a test for deep vein thrombosis. There were 29.7% positive tests in the stocking group, 29.4% in the group with heparin prophylaxis, and 25.8% in the combined group. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant....

  2. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  3. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  4. Effects of a hyperbaric environment on subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-top).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Tafeit, Erwin; Fraidl, Michaela; Dietmaier, Gabriele; Anegg, Udo; Klemen, Huberta; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The physiological reactions of the body in scuba diving situation can be simulated in a pressure chamber by increasing the ambient pressure. In this study the influence of a hyperbaric environment of 6 bar on the changes of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thicknesses on different body sites in 68 voluntary men with undersea diving experience was investigated. Measurements of SAT-topography (SAT-Top) were performed with the optical device Lipometer before and after hyperbaric exposure. We observed a significant increase of the SAT-layers of the upper body zones, upper abdomen (+24.5%), lower abdomen (+21%) and front chest (+19%) after hyperbaric exposure. This increase of volume can be assumed to the nitrogen accumulation in fat cells at increased ambient pressures. In conclusion we describe for the first time in detail the influence of a hyperbaric environment on quantitative and topographic changes of SAT.

  5. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  6. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsouris, David; Qi, Peter; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Stanojcic, Mile; Chen, Peter; Parousis, Alexandra; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-11-24

    Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism.

  8. Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Altabas, Karmela; Gaeta, Elio; Altabas, Velimir

    2011-04-01

    Cellulite, which appears as orange peel-type or cottage cheese-like dimpling of the skin on the thighs and buttocks, is a complex, multifactorial, cosmetic disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone mainly produced by subcutaneous fat that shows important protective anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. We hypothesized that adiponectin expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of cellulite. We reasoned that a reduction in the expression of adiponectin - a humoral vasodilator - in the SAT of cellulite areas might contribute to the altered microcirculation frequently found in these regions. A total of 15 lean (body mass index [BMI] cellulite and 15 age- and BMI-matched women without cellulite participated in this study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess adiponectin gene expression. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Adiponectin mRNA expression in the SAT of the gluteal region was significantly lower in areas with cellulite compared with those without (12.6 ± 3.1 AU versus 16.6 ± 4.1 AU; P=0.006). However, plasma adiponectin levels did not differ between women with (20.3 ± 7.3 μg/ml) and without (19.3 ± 6.1 μg/ml) cellulite (P=0.69). Adiponectin expression is significantly reduced in the SAT in areas affected by cellulite. Our findings provide novel insights into the nature of cellulite and may give clues to the treatment of this cosmetic issue. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Induction of circadian gene expression in human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiying; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Kilroy, Gail; Goh, Brian C; Hernandez, Teri L; Eckel, Robert H; Mynatt, Randall L; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2007-11-01

    Genes encoding the circadian transcriptional apparatus exhibit robust oscillatory expression in murine adipose tissues. This study tests the hypothesis that human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) provide an in vitro model in which to monitor the activity of the core circadian transcriptional apparatus. Primary cultures of undifferentiated or adipocyte-differentiated ASCs were treated with dexamethasone, rosiglitazone, or 30% fetal bovine serum. The response of undifferentiated ASCs to dexamethasone was further evaluated in the presence of lithium chloride. Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3, a key component of the circadian apparatus. Total RNA was harvested at 4-hour intervals over 48 hours and examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Adipocyte-differentiated cells responded more rapidly to treatments than their donor-matched undifferentiated controls; however, the period of the circadian gene oscillation was longer in the adipocyte-differentiated cells. Dexamethasone generated circadian gene expression patterns with mean periods of 25.4 and 26.7 hours in undifferentiated and adipocyte-differentiated ASCs, respectively. Both rosiglitazone and serum shock generated a significantly longer period in adipocyte-differentiated ASCs relative to undifferentiated ASCs. The Bmal1 profile was phase-shifted by approximately 8 to 12 hours relative to Per1, Per3, and Cry2, consistent with their expression in vivo. Lithium chloride inhibited adipogenesis and significantly lengthened the period of Per3 and Rev-erbalpha gene expression profiles by >5 hours in dexamethasone-activated undifferentiated ASCs. These results support the initial hypothesis and validate ASCs as an in vitro model for the analysis of circadian biology in human adipose tissue.

  10. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Siersema, Peter D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. Methods: We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in

  11. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Sun

    Full Text Available Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  12. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identifi cation of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more diffi cult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fl uid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that refl ect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower refl ection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fl uid collections. The features that facilitate proper identifi cation of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infi ltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identifi cation of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always

  13. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Stienstra, R.; Diepen, J.A. van; Hijmans, A.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the

  14. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Stienstra, R.; Diepen, van J.A.; Hijmans, A.; Laak, van der J.A.; Vervoort, G.M.; Tack, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the

  15. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gollisch, Katja S. C.; Brandauer, Josef; Jessen, Niels; Toyoda, Taro; Nayer, Ali; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity improves glucose tolerance and decreases adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the effects of exercise training on subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (parametrial) adipose tissue in rats that were fed a chow diet (13% fat) or made insulin resistant by a high-fat diet (60% fat). Sprague-Dawley rats performed 4 wk of voluntary wheel running or were kept as sedentary controls. The training groups fed chow and the high-fat diet achieved similar running distances (8.8 ±...

  16. An automated segmentation for direct assessment of adipose tissue distribution from thoracic and abdominal Dixon-technique MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason E.; Fernandez-Del-Valle, Maria; Hayden, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) together have become the gold standard in the precise quantification of body fat. The study of the quantification of fat in the human body has matured in recent years from a simplistic interest in the whole-body fat content to detailing regional fat distributions. The realization that body-fat, or adipose tissue (AT) is far from being a mere aggregate mass or deposit but a biologically active organ in and of itself, may play a role in the association between obesity and the various pathologies that are the biggest health issues of our time. Furthermore, a major bottleneck in most medical image assessments of adipose tissue content and distribution is the lack of automated image analysis. This motivated us to develop a proper and at least partially automated methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution in the human body, which is to be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The AT considered here is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous) as well as around the internal organs and between muscles (visceral and inter-muscular). There are also special fat depots on and around the heart (pericardial) as well as around the aorta (peri-aortic). Our methods focus on measuring and classifying these various AT deposits in the human body in an intervention study that involves the acquisition of thoracic and abdominal MR images via a Dixon technique.

  17. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity) have a fetal origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Hou, Lei; Johnsen, Lærke

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fetal life malnutrition affects preferences for fat deposition in the body thereby predisposing for visceral adipocity and associated disorders in glucose-insulin regulation. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that late-gestation undernutrition 1) has ...... long-term differential impacts on development, expandability and metabolic features in subcutaneous as compared to perirenal and mesenteric adipose tissues, which 2) will predispose for visceral obesity upon exposure to an obesogenic diet in early postnatal life....

  18. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle......) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO...... expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle...

  19. Slip points of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipids do not predict beef marbling score or percent intramuscular lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victor V; Smith, Stephen B

    2018-02-07

    We hypothesized that slip points of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue lipids would predict USDA beef marbling scores or percent intramuscular lipid (%IML). M. longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and s.c. adipose tissue from 79 feedlot-finished Angus steers were analyzed for lipid slip point, %IML, and fatty acid composition. The s.c. monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA:SFA) ratio and s.c. lipid slip points were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.557; P  0.05). These data indicate s.c. adipose tissue lipid slip point did not predict USDA marbling scores or %IML in the conventionally fed Angus steers of this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  1. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  2. Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gupta

    Full Text Available The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women.Women (n = 140, 21-69 years, BMI 19.5-79 kg/m2 were evaluated for anthropometric and blood parameters, and adipose tissue gene expression.Subjects were separated into groups (n = 34-36 according to obesity: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2, obese I (≤45 kg/m2, obese II (≤51 kg/m2, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2. Overall, while omental expression remained unchanged, subcutaneous C3 and C3aR gene expression decreased with increasing adiposity (2-way ANOVA, p<0.01, with a concomitant decrease in SC/OM ratio (p<0.001. In subcutaneous adipose, both C3 and C3aR expression correlated with apoB, and apoA1 and inversely with waist circumference and blood pressure, while C3aR also correlated with glucose (p<0.05-0.0001. While omental C3aR expression did not correlate with any factor, omental C3 correlated with waist circumference, glucose and apoB (all p<0.05. Further, while plasma C3a/C3adesArg increased and adiponectin decreased with increasing BMI, both correlated (C3a negatively and adiponectin positively with subcutaneous C3 and C3aR expression (p<0.05-0.001 or less.The obesity-induced down-regulation of complement C3 and C3aR which is specific to subcutaneous adipose tissue, coupled to the strong correlations with multiple anthropometric, plasma and adipokine variables support a potential role for complement in immunometabolism.

  3. Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Brown and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Significance with Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose

  4. Microarray based gene expression analysis of murine brown and subcutaneous adipose tissue: significance with human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh K Baboota

    Full Text Available Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT and brown (BAT are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models.The present study was designed to: (a investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1 and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1 or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1 and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74. Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets (a which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human.Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose tissue to another using murine model with focus

  5. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass index (BMI). The association of BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR with stroke was assessed in 31,201 men and 23,516 women, free of vascular disease at baseline, from the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1130 strokes were recorded. Relative risks (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression after stratification for center and adjustment for age, smoking, educational level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI and model fit was assessed using log-likelihoods. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke in men. After full adjustment including BMI, the relative risks for stroke remained significant for WC (1.19 [1.02 to 1.34] per 1 SD increase in WC), WHR (1.14 [1.03 to 1.26]), and WHtR (1.50 [1.28 to 1.77]). Among women, the extent of the associations with stroke risk was similar for WHtR (1.31 [1.04 to 1.65]), WC (1.19 [0.96 to 1.47]), and WHR (1.08 [0.97 to 1.22]). Further analyses by World Health Organization obesity categories showed that WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke also in lean men and women (BMIimportance of measuring abdominal adiposity, especially in lean subjects.

  6. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  7. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  8. Associations between gestational weight gain and BMI, abdominal adiposity, and traditional measures of cardiometabolic risk in mothers 8 y postpartum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClure, Candace K; Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    ...) to maternal metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. The objective was to determine the extent to which GWG was associated with abdominal adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of women 4-12 y after delivery...

  9. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Fan; Cai, Yin; Cai, Yu; Wang, Yu; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT. The expression of fat-specific protein (FSP)-27, a protein that promotes fusion of triglycerides and formation of unilocular lipid droplets were diminished, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, the upstream regulator of FSP27, was enhanced in EP4-deficient mice. The present study showed that EP4 acts as a negative regulator of WAT remodeling, it tightly coordinates rates of triglyceride storage in lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiratory function in subcutaneous white adipocytes through the phosphorylated AMPK-FSP27 signaling axis. Thus, deletion of EP4 increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in WAT, and fat mass loss ensues in mice.-Ying, F., Cai, Y., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Tang, E. H. C. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  10. Genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and adiposity and risk of intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, F.N. van 't; Vaucher, J.; Holmes, M.V.; Wilde, A. de; Baas, A.F.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Hofman, A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Rinkel, G.J.; Bakker, P.I. de; Ruigrok, Y.M.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inversely associated with intracranial aneurysms (IA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Although adiposity has not been considered a risk factor for IA, there have been inconsistent reports relating adiposity to AAA risk. We assessed

  11. Toward reconstruction of the subcutaneous fat layer with the use of adipose-derived stromal cell-seeded collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Katharina; Jakubietz, Michael G; Jakubietz, Rafael G; Schmidt, Karsten; Muhr, Christian; Bauer-Kreisel, Petra; Blunk, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Complex injuries of the upper and lower extremities often result in scarring and subsequent adhesion formation, which may cause severe pain and distinctly reduce range of motion. In revision surgery, replacement of the missing subcutaneous tissue is desirable to prevent new adhesions, to cushion scarred tendons and nerves and to regain tissue elasticity. Therefore, the objective of this study was the in vitro evaluation of cell-seeded collagen matrices to serve as the basis for the reconstruction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer. Five commercially available acellular dermal collagen matrices were seeded with human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASC). Size and shape stability of cell-matrix constructs were assessed and cell adhesion onto the matrix surface was evaluated histologically. Adipogenic differentiation of hASC on matrices was evaluated by means of histological staining, triglyceride quantification, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis. The collagen matrix Permacol was the only cell-seeded material that exhibited excellent size and shape stability. For Permacol and Strattice, successful seeding with continuous cell layers on top of the matrices was observed. For both matrices, histological staining, triglyceride quantification and messenger RNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors indicated substantial adipogenic differentiation of hASC after long-term induction as well as after short-term induction of only 4 days. Of all matrices investigated, only Permacol exhibited adequate handling stability and the development of a thin adipose tissue layer on top of the matrix. Thus, this matrix appears promising to be used in the development of a subcutaneous cushioning layer after complex injuries involving large scar formation. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incisional subcutaneous endometrioma of the abdominal wall: report of two cases; Endometriose sous cutanee sur cicatrice de la paroi abdominale anterieure. A propos de deux observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merran, S.; Karila-Cohen, P. [Federation Mutualiste Parisienne, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-04-01

    Endometriosis occurs in up to 15% of menstruating women. Abdominal wall involvement is rare and always secondary to an invasive procedure. The authors report the imaging and clinical findings of two patients with subcutaneous endometrioma following cesarean section. (author)

  13. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cycle...... glycerol concentrations in the phentolamine-containing probe while no difference in lipolytic response was found in the aminophylline-containing probe. The results suggest that insulin antilipolytic action plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise in lean as well as in obese subjects...

  14. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...

  15. Autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue transplants improve adipose tissue metabolism and reduce insulin resistance and fatty liver in diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Tovar, Armando R; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Noriega, Lilia G; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; López-Garibay, Alejandro; Torres-Landa, Samuel; Ceballos-Cantú, Juan C; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Figueroa-Juárez, Elizabeth; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernández, Carmen; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-09-01

    Long-term dietary and pharmacological treatments for obesity have been questioned, particularly in individuals with severe obesity, so a new approach may involve adipose tissue transplants, particularly autologous transplants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transplants into two specific intraabdominal cavity sites (omental and retroperitoneal) after 90 days. The study was performed using two different diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat models: one using a high-fat diet (HFD) and the other using a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD). Autologous SAT transplant reduced hypertrophic adipocytes, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic lipid content, and fasting serum-free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in the two DIO models. In addition, the reductions in FFAs and glycerol were accompanied by a greater reduction in lipolysis, assessed via the phosphorylation status of HSL, in the transplanted adipose tissue localized in the omentum compared with that localized in the retroperitoneal compartment. Therefore, the improvement in hepatic lipid content after autologous SAT transplant may be partially attributed to a reduction in lipolysis in the transplanted adipose tissue in the omentum due to the direct drainage of FFAs into the liver. The HCHD resulted in elevated fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels, which were dramatically reduced by the autologous SAT transplant. In conclusion, the specific intraabdominal localization of the autologous SAT transplant improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of adipose tissue in obese rats and selectively corrected the metabolic parameters that are dependent on the type of diet used to generate the DIO model. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. An Adipose Segmentation and Quantification Scheme for the Abdominal Region in Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleks; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between...... retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes.1 However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs....... The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the “ground truth” segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists...

  17. Alcohol drinking patterns differentially affect central adiposity as measured by abdominal height in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Joan M; Hovey, Kathleen; Muti, Paola; Freudenheim, Jo L; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2003-08-01

    Alcohol drinking in light-to-moderate amounts has been associated with reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, there is evidence that the way people consume alcohol (drinking pattern) may affect risk. Central adiposity, a known CHD risk factor may be one mechanism in the pathway between alcohol consumption and CHD risk. Our study examined whether various drinking patterns differentially affect fat distribution, particularly abdominal fat in women and men. In a randomly selected population-based cohort (n = 2343), 35-79 y old, we assessed drinking pattern as reported for the past 30 d, including beverage type and amount, frequency of consumption, percentage of time drinking while eating and number of drinks consumed/drinking day. Central adiposity was determined using an abdominal caliper to measure supine height of the abdomen. Current drinkers tended to have smaller abdominal heights than nondrinkers (women, P < 0.0001; men, P = 0.0559). For drinking pattern, frequency was inversely associated, but drinking intensity (drinks/drinking day) was positively associated with central adiposity in women (P trend for frequency, 0.0007; intensity, 0.0010) and men (P trend for frequency, 0.0005; intensity, 0.0004), even when age, education, physical activity, smoking status and amount of alcohol (g) were included in the models. When frequency and intensity were considered together, daily drinkers of <1 drink/drinking day had the smallest mean abdominal height measures with the largest measures in less than weekly drinkers who consumed 4 or more drinks/drinking day. These results support the hypothesis that drinking pattern affects the distribution of body fat, an important CHD risk factor.

  18. Establishment and Characterization of a Nude Mouse Model of Subcutaneously Implanted Tumors and Abdominal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouse gastric cancer model is an important tool for studying the mechanisms of gastric cancer. To establish subcutaneously implanted tumors, MKN-45 cell suspensions and tumor tissues were implanted into the middle of the right armpit of nude mice. To generate an abdominal metastasis model, MKN-45 cell suspensions and tumor tissue homogenates were implanted into the middle of the lower abdomen. We measured the weights of the nude mice and the longest dimension, shortest dimension, thickness, and volume of the tumor. We also analyzed the rate of tumor formation, the time required for tumor formation, and the number and size of abdominal tumors in the mice. The rates of formation of the subcutaneously implanted tumors were 100%, 0%, and 100% in the nude mice inoculated with 2 × 107 cells/mL or 1 × 107 cells/mL of the MKN-45 cell suspension or the tumor tissue homogenate (2 × 107 cells/mL, respectively. The rates of metastatic abdominal tumor formation were 100%, 50%, and 75% in mice inoculated with 5 × 107 cells/mL or 1 × 107 cells/mL of the tumor tissue homogenate or the MKN-45 cell suspension (5 × 107 cells/mL, respectively. We derived tumor tissues and tumor tissue homogenates from nude mice prior to establishing the subcutaneous model of implanted tumors and the abdominal metastasis model of gastric cancer, respectively.

  19. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  20. BMP4 Gene Therapy in Mature Mice Reduces BAT Activation but Protects from Obesity by Browning Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

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    Jenny M. Hoffmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1. These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. On a control diet, they show unchanged body weight but improved insulin sensitivity. In contrast, AAV-BMP4-treated mice showed beiging of BAT with reduced UCP1, increased lipids, and reduced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Thus, BMP4 exerts different effects on WAT and BAT, but the overall effect is to enhance insulin sensitivity and whole-body energy expenditure by browning subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  1. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  3. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi; de Mello, Vanessa; Schwab, Ursula; Carlberg, Carsten; Myhrstad, Mari; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Dungner, Elisabeth; Sjölin, Eva; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Akesson, Björn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Hukkanen, Janne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dragsted, Lars O; Savolainen, Markku J; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Thorsdottir, Inga; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Uusitupa, Matti; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased...

  6. The Ratio Between Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat Assessed by Computed Tomography Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Cardiac Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Bettencourt, Nuno; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Nuno; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Gama, Vasco

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients consisted of those without known heart disease referred to cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We included all patients with available information on VAT and SAT areas and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We assessed the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure at least 1 month after cardiac CT. The final population consisted of 713 participants (61% male; mean age, 57.7±10.2 years) followed up for a median of 1.3 years. The combined endpoint occurred in 66 patients; these patients showed a higher VAT/SAT ratio (1.06±0.74 vs 0.80±0.52, P=.0001). The VAT/SAT ratio was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (HR = 1.43; 95%CI, 1.03-1.99), irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. The ratio between abdominal VAT/SAT was an independent predictor of death and coronary events, irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. This ratio is a CT-derived metric that may help to better identify patients with increased risk of death or cardiac events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a good model for cold-induced browning of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhu, Tengteng; Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans.

  8. Intrinsic features in microRNA transcriptomes link porcine visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissues to metabolic risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jideng Ma

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNA ∼22 nucleotides in length that can regulate the expression of a wide range of coding genes at the post-transcriptional level. Visceral adipose tissues (VATs and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATs, the two main fat compartments in mammals, are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and clinically distinct. Various studies of adipose tissues have focused mainly on DNA methylation, and mRNA and protein expression, nonetheless little research sheds directly light on the miRNA transcriptome differences between these two distinct adipose tissue types. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of miRNA transcriptomes across six variant porcine adipose tissues by small RNA-sequencing. We identified 219 known porcine miRNAs, 97 novel miRNA*s, and 124 miRNAs that are conserved to other mammals. A set of universally abundant miRNAs (i.e., miR-148a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-let-7a-1-5p, and miR-let-7f-5p across the distinct adipose tissues was found. This set of miRNAs may play important housekeeping roles that are involved in adipogenesis. Clustering analysis indicated significant variations in miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs, and highlighted the role of the greater omentum in responding to potential metabolic risk because of the observed enrichment in this tissue of the immune- and inflammation-related miRNAs, such as the members of miR-17-92 cluster and miR-181 family. Differential expression of the miRNAs between the VATs and SATs, and miRNA target prediction analysis revealed that the VATs-specific enriched miRNAs were associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. In summary, the differences of miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs revealed some of their intrinsic differences and indicated that the VATs might be closely associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.

  9. Measuring Temperature Induced Phase Change Kinetics in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy, MR Imaging and Spectroscopy and OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Amir Y; Manstein, Dieter; Carp, Stefan A

    2017-12-19

    Monitoring phase transition in adipose tissue and formation of lipid crystals is important in Cryo-procedures such as Selective Cryolipolysis (SC). We exploited a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) method to monitor the onset of fat phase transition (freezing/melting) in human abdominal adipose tissue. The changes in optical scattering were compared to Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements as the gold standard method for measuring phase transition. For some samples, concurrent in vitro measurements of optical scattering using NIRS and the MR signal parameters (T2*) as well as spectral parameters using MR Spectroscopy were performed in a 3 T MR scanner during a cooling/heating cycle. To further investigate phase-transition in adipose tissue in microscopic level, an identical cooling/heating procedure was replicated on a small piece of fat harvested from the same tissue while being imaged under Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For all methods, their relationship with temperature shows inflexions in a narrow range, characteristic of lipid phase transition. In particular, the good agreement between DSC and Optical measurements suggests that such NIRS methods can be used to improve dosimetry and to minimize variations of clinical outcome for cryo-procedures.

  10. Effect of severe maternal dietary restriction on growth and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mikiko; Shibanuma, Mayumi; Kimura, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the number of low weight birth babies is increasing. The increase in the number of slim young women is considered to be associated with the rising number of low birth weight babies in Japan. In 1993, Barker et al. published highly influential findings indicating a relationship between low birth weight and increased risk of developing symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Here, we report on results that occur when dietary restriction is applied during all periods of pregnancy. It was shown that, at 5 d, the mean weight of pups in the dietary restriction group was lower than the mean weight of pups in the control group. Catch-up growth began when milk yields of the dietary restriction group pups attained the same levels as those of the control group pups. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights of the dietary restricted group were significantly higher than those of the control group in males at 280 d after birth. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights of the dietary restricted group had a tendency to be higher than those of the control group for female rats. In male rats, it is considered that increase in intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to lean body mass but it is not related to the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT). In female rats, it is considered that the increase in intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to the function of BAT and lean body mass.

  11. Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein independent of BMI in healthy nonobese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapice, Emanuela; Maione, Simona; Patti, Lidia; Cipriano, Paola; Rivellese, Angela A; Riccardi, Gabriele; Vaccaro, Olga

    2009-09-01

    There is debate over the most appropriate adiposity markers of obesity-associated health risks. We evaluated the relationship between fat distribution and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), independent of total adiposity. We studied 350 people with abdominal adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] > or =0.9 in male and > or =0.85 in female subjects) and 199 control subjects (WHR BMI and age. We measured hs-CRP and major cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with abdominal adiposity had BMI similar to that in control subjects (24.8 +/- 2.5 vs. 24.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively), but significantly higher waist circumference (96.4 +/- 6.0 vs. 83.3 +/- 6.7 cm; P adiposity had an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile, significantly higher hs-CRP (1.96 +/- 2.60 vs. 1.53 +/- 1.74 mg/dl; P 3 mg/dl). In nonobese people, moderate abdominal adiposity is associated with markers of subclinical inflammation independent of BMI.

  12. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M

    2009-01-01

    for age and physical fitness performed 60 min exercise bouts at 50% of their maximal oxygen consumption on two occasions: (1) during i.v. infusion of octreotide, and (2) during placebo infusion. Lipolysis and local blood flow changes in SCAT were evaluated using in situ microdialysis. Infusion......The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...

  13. Pneumoscrotum With Extensive Penile and Abdominal Subcutaneous Emphysema: A Case Report of Uncertain Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Raffin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumoscrotum and subcutaneous emphysema make for impressive findings on examination and imaging. With ranging etiologies, thorough investigation into the source is essential to rule out potentially life threatening situations. We present a 31-year-old man with pneumoscrotum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema of his penis, abdomen, and perineum. History and physical exam didn't reveal a clear cause and he subsequently underwent surgical exploration showing no soft tissue infection. On post-operative day 1, he remained clinically stable and was discharged. Despite the usual benign nature of pneumoscrotum, full assessment is necessary to identify possible underlying conditions of significant morbidity and mortality.

  14. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 microCi 133-Xen...

  15. Comprehensive assessment of expression of insulin signaling pathway components in subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Differential expression of core insulin signaling pathway components in subcutaneous adipose tissue is not a major contributor to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Correlation between clinical phenotypes and expression of several genes in the mitogenic limb of the insulin signaling pathway suggests mitogenic signaling by insulin may regulate steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis.

  16. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  17. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  18. Fenofibrate (PPARalpha agonist) induces beige cell formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue from diet-induced male obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Bringhenti, Isabele; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-02-15

    Browning is characterized by the formation of beige/brite fat depots in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). This study aimed to examine whether the chronic activation of PPARalpha by fenofibrate could induce beige cell depots in the sWAT of diet-induced obese mice. High-fat fed animals presented overweight, insulin resistance and displayed adverse sWAT remodeling. Fenofibrate significantly attenuated these parameters. Treated groups demonstrated active UCP-1 beige cell clusters within sWAT, confirmed through higher gene expression of PPARalpha, PPARbeta, PGC1alpha, BMP8B, UCP-1, PRDM16 and irisin in treated groups. PPARalpha activation seems to be pivotal to trigger browning through irisin induction and UCP-1 transcription, indicating that fenofibrate increased the expression of genes typical of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the sWAT, characterizing the formation of beige cells. These findings put forward a possible role of PPARalpha as a promising therapeutic for metabolic diseases via beige cell induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sea cucumbers with an anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells and subcutaneous but not on epicardial adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bueno, Sara; Atanasova, Miroslava; Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Bravo, Susana B; Álvarez, Ezequiel; Fernández, Ángel L; Carrera, Iván; González-Juanatey, José R; Eiras, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) contains higher levels of inflammatory proteins and lower adiponectin levels than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), enhancing the progression of atherosclerosis. Since products from sea cucumber have anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated its effect on EAT, SAT and endothelial cells. stromal cells or explants from EAT and SAT were obtained from patients with cardiovascular disease. Extracts were obtained after hydrolysis by food-grade enzymes at different times. Proteins were identified by LC-MALDI mass spectrometry. Adipogenesis and adiponectin induction were determined on stromal cells in the presence/absence of extracts. The bioavailability of the extracts was tested on a Caco-2 cell culture model in vitro. The bioavailable fraction was probed on endothelial cells and EAT or SAT explants. Vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), IL-6 and adiponectin were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). our results showed that H. forskali and P. tremulus extracts contained compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The bioavailable fraction of P. tremulus reduced VCAM-1 (p effect was observed on EAT. these results suggest that sea cucumber extracts might be used for the prevention of endothelial cells and SAT inflammation.

  20. Epicardial and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids Profiles in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have recently shown that in high cholesterol-fed rabbits, the sensitivity of epicardial adipose tissue to changes in dietary fat is higher than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although the effects of diabetes on epicardial adipose tissue thickness have been studied, the influence of diabetes on profile of epicardial free fatty acids (FFAs has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes on the FFAs composition in serum and in the subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissues in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Methods: Forty non-diabetic and twenty eight diabetic patients candidate for CABG with > 75% stenosis participated in this study.Fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles were assayed by auto analyzer. Phospholipids and non-estrified FFA of serum and the fatty acids profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined using gas chromatography method. Results: In the phospholipid fraction of diabetic patients’ serum, the percentage of 16:0, 18:3n-9, 18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs was lower than the corresponding values of the non-diabetics; whereas, 18:0 value was higher. A 100% increase in the amount of 18:0 and 35% decrease in the level of 18:1n-11 was observed in the diabetic patients’ subcutaneous adipose tissue. In epicardial adipose tissue, the increase of 18:0 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA and decrease of 18:1n-11, ω3 (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significant; but, the contents of arachidonic acid and its precursor linoleic acid were not affected by diabetes. Conclusion: The fatty acids’ profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues is not equally affected by diabetes. The significant decrease of 16:0 and ω3 fatty acids and increase of trans and conjugated fatty acids in epicardial adipose tissue in the diabetic patients may worsen the formation of atheroma in the related arteries.

  1. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario [Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Bergman, Richard N. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McTernan, Philip G. [Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M.S. [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jacobson, Peter, E-mail: peter.jacobson@medfak.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  2. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was studied in vivo by Fick's arteriovenous (a-v) principle using either calculated (microdialysis) or directly measured (catheterization) adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. We compared results during steady-state (rest and prolonged continuous...... exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...

  3. Abdominal Adiposity Change in White and Black Midlife Women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. Methods A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. The subjects’ total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4–L5) annually over up to 4 years. Results Total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1±8.2%) compared to white women (41.3±8.7%, p<0.001), and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (4.4±0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. Conclusions During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. This data informs future research aimed to prevent intra-abdominal adipose tissue gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. PMID:26523609

  4. Coexpression network analysis in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue reveals regulatory genetic loci for metabolic syndrome and related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Halgrimsdottir, Ingileif

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, ...

  5. High fat diets are associated with higher abdominal adiposity regardless of physical activity in adolescents; the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Huybrechts, Inge; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Roccaldo, Romana; Nova, Esther; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénés; Androutsos, Odysseas; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-10-01

    Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity. A total of 224 Spanish adolescents (51% females, 14.9 ± 1.2 years) were included in the study. Abdominal adiposity in three regions, truncal and total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and thereafter FM index (FMI = FM/height(2)) and FMI/LMI ratio were calculated. The energy derived from fat intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Total physical activity (PA) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA were objectively measured by accelerometry. We observed that the percent of energy derived from fat intake was significantly associated with FMI and FMI/LMI ratio (Ps = 0.001) and greater amounts of truncal (P = 0.001) and abdominal adiposity in the three regions regardless of age, sex and height (all P ≤ 0.005). The strength of the relationships was not substantially altered by further adjustment for PA, vigorous PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA (Ps ≤ 0.005). The percent of energy derived from dietary fat intake is strongly and linearly associated with total, truncal and abdominal adiposity independently of PA in adolescents. These observations implicate the amount of dietary fat intake as a specific risk factor in the excess of abdominal adiposity in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bohannon-Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA. The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1 FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2 COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3 mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4 mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5 changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different.

  7. Breastfeeding shows a protective trend toward adolescents with higher abdominal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Turck, Dominique; Molnar, Denes; Salleron, Julia; Artero, Enrique Garcia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Dietrich, Sabine; Manios, Yannis; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis Aznar; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition. The HELENA study is a cross-sectional study involving 3,528 adolescents from 10 European cities. The outcome measures were body weight and height, subscapular skinfolds as well as waist circumferences. Breastfeeding, smoking status, and parental socioeconomic status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Dietary intake was recorded using two 24-hour recall surveys. Two adjustment approaches were used: i) covariance analysis adjusted for confounding factors (propensity score adjustment) and ii) multivariate quantile regression. After adjustment, no significant associations were observed between breastfeeding and body composition parameters (BMI Z-score; sum of skinfolds; waist-to-height ratio). An adjusted quantile regression analysis showed a non-significant trend for a protective effect of breastfeeding toward the highest percentiles of adiposity in boys but not in girls. This is of particular interest with respect to the superiority of the waist-to-height ratio over waist circumference and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors. This first European study, including a large set of factors influencing adolescents' body composition, showed a non-significant trend toward a protective effect of breastfeeding on highest percentiles of adolescent's abdominal adiposity. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Breastfeeding Shows a Protective Trend toward Adolescents with Higher Abdominal Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rousseaux

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition. Methods: The HELENA study is a cross-sectional study involving 3,528 adolescents from 10 European cities. The outcome measures were body weight and height, subscapular skinfolds as well as waist circumferences. Breastfeeding, smoking status, and parental socioeconomic status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Dietary intake was recorded using two 24-hour recall surveys. Two adjustment approaches were used: i covariance analysis adjusted for confounding factors (propensity score adjustment and ii multivariate quantile regression. Results: After adjustment, no significant associations were observed between breastfeeding and body composition parameters (BMI Z-score; sum of skinfolds; waist-to-height ratio. An adjusted quantile regression analysis showed a non-significant trend for a protective effect of breastfeeding toward the highest percentiles of adiposity in boys but not in girls. This is of particular interest with respect to the superiority of the waist-to-height ratio over waist circumference and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: This first European study, including a large set of factors influencing adolescents' body composition, showed a non-significant trend toward a protective effect of breastfeeding on highest percentiles of adolescent's abdominal adiposity.

  9. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Karin B; Smit, Johannes W A; den Heijer, Martin; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rippe, Ralph C A; le Cessie, Saskia; de Koning, Eelco J P; Jukema, J W; Rabelink, Ton J; de Roos, Albert; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée

    2013-08-01

    The relative importance of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Furthermore, adiposity may be responsible for observed associations. Our aim was to study the relative contributions of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to subclinical atherosclerosis. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a cohort of persons of 45-65 years, BMI, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FPG), HbA1c and insulin concentrations were measured and the revised HOMA-IR was calculated. The carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) was measured by ultrasound. We performed linear regression analyses between standardized values of FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, BMI, WC with cIMT, and subsequently included age, sex, ethnicity, education and smoking, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and FPG, BMI and WC in the models. After exclusion of participants with glucose lowering therapy (n = 356) or missing data (n = 252), this analysis included 6065 participants, 43% men, and mean (SD) cIMT of 616 (92) μm. Differences in cIMT (95% CI) per SD were: FPG: 16 (10,21); HbA1c: 12 (7,16); HOMA-IR: 11 (6,16) μm. These associations attenuated after adjustments, and attenuated most strongly after adjustment for WC. Differences in cIMT (95% CI) per SD in the full model were: FPG: 4 (0,7); HbA1c: 2 (-1,5); HOMA-IR: 0 (-3,3); BMI 16 (13,19); WC: 18 (14,21) μm. In middle-aged individuals, we observed similar contributions of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to subclinical atherosclerosis. These contributions were largely explained by abdominal adiposity, emphasizing the importance of weight management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p2). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor ChIP-sequencing of primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat reveals modulation of inflammatory pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Brock, Clifton O.; Volden, Paul A.; Hernandez, Kyle; Skor, Maxwell; Kocherginsky, Masha; Park, Julie E.; Brady, Matthew J.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated chromatin sequences and target genes in primary human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Methods GR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing methodology in subcutaneous human adipocytes treated ex-vivo with dexamethasone (dex) was optimized to identify genome-wide dex-dependent GR binding regions (GBRs). Gene expression analyses were performed in parallel ± dex treatment. Results Fat was obtained from four non-obese female surgical patients with a median age of 50.5 years. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 219 dex-associated GBRs. Of these, 136 GBRs were located within 100 kb of the transcriptional start site and associated with 123 genes. Combining these data with dex-induced gene expression, 70 of the 123 putative direct target genes were significantly up- or downregulated following four hours of dex treatment. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the top 10 pathways reflected regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was identified as a potential direct GR target gene. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genome-wide GR ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis in human fat. The results implicate regulation of key GR target genes that are involved in dampening inflammation and promoting cellular metabolism. PMID:26408078

  12. Expression of Genes Related to Prostaglandin Synthesis or Signaling in Human Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue: Depot Differences and Modulation by Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréanne Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2α release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2 to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3 to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements. Methods. Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2α release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments (P≤0.01 for all. Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements. Conclusion. Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts.

  13. Relevance of omental pericellular adipose tissue collagen in the pathophysiology of human abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, A; Tordjman, J; Pelletier, M; Liu, Y; Laforest, S; Noël, S; Le Naour, G; Bouchard, C; Clément, K; Tchernof, A

    2016-12-01

    Adipose tissue fibrosis is a relatively new notion and its relationship with visceral obesity and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear, particularly in moderate obesity. Our objective was to examine if total and pericellular collagen accumulation are relevant for the pathophysiology of visceral obesity and related cardiometabolic risk. Surgical omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat samples were obtained in 56 women (age: 47.2±5.8 years; body mass index (BMI): 27.1±4.4 kg/m2). Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. Total and pericellular collagen were measured using picrosirius red staining. CD68+ cells (total macrophages) and CD163+ cells (M2-macrophages) were identified using immunohistochemistry. We found that only pericellular collagen percentage, especially in OM fat, was associated with higher BMI, body fat mass and adipose tissue areas as well as lower radiologic attenuation of visceral adipose tissue and altered cardiometabolic risk variables. Strong correlations between peri-adipocyte collagen percentage and total or M2-macrophage percentages were observed in both depots. Total collagen percentage in either compartment was not related to adiposity, fat distribution or cardiometabolic risk. As opposed to whole tissue-based assessments of adipose tissue fibrosis, collagen deposition around the adipocyte, especially in the OM fat compartment is related to total and regional adiposity as well as altered cardiometabolic risk profile.

  14. Quantifying Biochemical Alterations in Brown and Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissues of Mice Using Fourier Transform Infrared Widefield Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Aboualizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment, and label-free imaging techniques with the potential to quantify stimulation-associated biochemical changes to the adipose tissue are highly sought after. In this study, we used spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR imaging to quantify biochemical changes caused by cold exposure in the brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and s-WAT of 6 week-old C57BL6 mice exposed to 30°C (N = 5, 24°C (N = 5, and 10°C (N = 5 conditions for 10 days. Fat exposed to colder temperatures demonstrated greater thermogenic activity as indicated by increased messenger RNA expression levels of a panel of thermogenic marker genes including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1 and Dio2. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1,600 to 1,700 cm−1 (amide I to the integrated area from 2,830 to 2,980 cm−1 (saturated lipids, was elevated in 10°C BAT and s-WAT compared to 24°C (p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001 and 30°C (p = 0.0033 and p < 0.0001. Greater protein to lipid ratio was associated with greater UCP-1 expression level in the BAT (p = 0.021 and s-WAT (p = 0.032 and greater Dio2 expression in s-WAT (p = 0.033. The degree of unsaturation, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 2,992 to 3,020 cm−1 (unsaturated lipids to the integrated area from 2,830 to 2,980 cm−1 (saturated lipids, showed stepwise decreases going from colder-exposed to warmer-exposed BAT. Complementary 1H NMR measurements confirmed the findings from this ratio in BAT. Principal component analysis applied to FTIR spectra revealed pronounced differences in overall spectral characteristics between 30, 24, and 10°C BAT and s-WAT. Spatially resolved FTIR imaging is a promising technique to quantify cold-induced biochemical changes in BAT and s-WAT in a label-free manner.

  15. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  16. Microbial growth and biochemical changes on naturally contaminated chilled-beef subcutaneous adipose tissue stored aerobically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasta, J A; Pensel, N; Masana, M; Rodríguez, H R; García, P T

    1995-01-01

    Naturally contaminated beef-brisket fat showed a psychrotroph count of 4 × 10(9) CFU/cm(2) after 14 days of aerobic refrigerated storage (5°C ± 1°C). Pseudomonas was the predominating genus. Other micro-organisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta, grew up to 2·5 × 10(8) cfu/cm(2) and 1·6 × 10(8) cfu/cm(2), respectively. Concentrations of different substrates that could support microbial growth were measured. Glucose concentration dropped to approximately one-third of the initial level during the first week of storage. Lactic acid also declined. Free fatty acids increased significantly (P < 0·05) during refrigeration. However, other lipid-deterioration indices, such as the thiobarbituric acid number and the peroxide value, remained unchanged. Beef subcutaneous fat had a high initial microbial load and a capacity to support extensive bacterial growth. It may therefore constitute an important source of contamination for meat and manufactured meat products.

  17. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...... diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). RESULTS: Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased...

  18. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja; Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario; Bergman, Richard N; McTernan, Philip G; Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M S; Jacobson, Peter

    2014-04-18

    Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot study: whole body manual subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) therapy improved pain and SAT structure in women with lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna

    2017-09-20

    Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.

  20. ROC analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) in female coronary heart disease patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Sandra Johanna; Horejsi, Renate; Zweiker, Robert; Watzinger, Norbert; Möller, Reinhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang Johann; Schauenstein, Konrad; Tafeit, Erwin

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) is different in female CHD patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=36) matched to age, body size, weight, and BMI. The thicknesses of SAT layers were measured by LIPOMETER at 15 specified body sites. To calculate the power of the different body sites to discriminate between CHD women and healthy controls, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. For each parameter, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at different cutoff points. CHD women showed a significant decrease to 78.36% (p=0.012) at body site 11-front thigh, 73.10% (p=0.012) at 12-lateral thigh, 72.20% (p=0.009) at 13-rear thigh, 66.43% (pSAT thickness at each measured body site is able to discriminate between the two subject groups. The good discrimination results obtained for the present dataset are encouraging enough to recommend applying LIPOMETER SAT-Top measurements in further studies to investigate individual risks for CHD.

  1. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Age-related changes of body composition and abdominal adipose tissue assessed by bio-electrical impedance analysis and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva-Asiova, Zhivka; Boyanov, Mihail

    2011-11-01

    Only scarce information is available on body composition changes with age measured simultaneously by electrical impedance and computed tomography. We aimed to describe the age-related changes of the body composition and adipose tissue distribution in Bulgarians. This cross-sectional study included 130 participants (mean age 53±9.8 years, range 35-65), divided according to their body mass index (BMI): BMI tomography on a CT/L scanner (GE Medical Systems, USA). Increasing age was associated with a mean decrease in body weight by 268 g per year in the normal weight subjects and by 390 g in the overweight ones as well as with a fat-free mass decrease of 321 g and of 291 g per year respectively (p<0.001). One year of increasing age was associated with a mean increase of visceral adipose tissue by 2.43 cm(2) in the overweight group and by 2.68 cm(2) in the normal weight subjects and with a decrease of the subcutaneous adipose tissue by 2.30 cm(2) per year in the latter group (p<0.001). The association of fat mass and fat-free mass with age in men and women was best described by quadratic equations (both increased until the age of 45-50 and decreased thereafter). Our data showed a significant association between age and decreasing fat-free mass, increasing fat mass and abdominal fat accumulation. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative assessment of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat as a potential cell source for knee osteoarthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Pan, Zhang-Yi; Zou, Ying; He, Yi; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Yin, Feng

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is a novel potential therapy for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the efficacy of ASCs from different regions of the body remains unknown. This study investigated whether ASCs from subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue provide the same improvement of OA. Mouse and human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were excised for ASC isolation. Morphology, proliferation, surface markers and adipocyte differentiation of subcutaneous ASCs (S-ASCs) and visceral ASCs (V-ASCs) were analysed. A surgically induced rat model of OA was established, and 4 weeks after the operation, S-ASCs, V-ASCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, control) were injected into the articular cavity. Histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses were performed 6 weeks after ASC injection. The ability of ASCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed by in vitro chondrogenesis, and the immunosuppressive activity of ASCs was evaluated by co-culturing with macrophages. The proliferation of V-ASCs was significantly greater than that of S-ASCs, but S-ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V-ASCs. In addition, the infracted cartilage treated with S-ASCs showed significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V-ASCs. Moreover, S-ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an effective cell source for cell therapy of OA as it promotes stem cell differentiation into chondrocytes and inhibits immunological reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Accumulation and Changes in Composition of Collagens in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuejun; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Marcelin, Geneviève; Genser, Laurent; Le Naour, Gilles; Torcivia, Adriana; Bauvois, Brigitte; Bouchet, Sandrine; Pelloux, Véronique; Sasso, Magali; Miette, Véronique; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) in sc adipose tissue (scAT) undergoes pathological remodeling during obesity. However, its evolution during weight loss remains poorly explored. The objective of the investigation was to study the histological, transcriptomic, and physical characteristics of scAT ECM remodeling during the first year of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss and their relationships with metabolic and bioclinical improvements. A total of 118 morbidly obese candidates for BS were recruited and followed up during 1 year after BS. scAT surgical biopsy and needle aspiration as well as scAT stiffness measurement were performed in three subgroups before and after BS. Fourteen nonobese, nondiabetic subjects served as controls. Significantly increased picrosirius-red-stained collagen accumulation in scAT after BS was observed along with fat mass loss, despite metabolic and inflammatory improvements and undetectable changes of scAT stiffness. Collagen accumulation positively associated with M2-macrophages (CD163(+) cells) before BS but negatively afterward. Expression levels of genes encoding ECM components (eg, COL3A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, ELN), cross-linking enzymes (eg, lysyl oxidase [LOX], LOXL4, transglutaminase), metalloproteinases, and their inhibitors were modified 1 year after BS. LOX expression and protein were significantly decreased and associated with decreased fat mass as well as other cross-linking enzymes. Although total collagen I and VI staining decreased 1 year after BS, we found increased degraded collagen I and III in scAT, suggesting increased degradation. After BS-induced weight loss and related metabolic improvements, scAT displays major collagen remodeling with an increased picrosirius-red staining that relates to increased collagen degradation and importantly decreased cross-linking. These features are in agreement with adequate ECM adaptation during fat mass loss.

  5. Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor (The 5A Study: Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rubi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas Ramos1, Roopa Mehta1, Julieta De La Luz Castro2, Rutila Castañeda Limones3, Ernesto García Rubí4, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas11Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" (INCMNSZ; 2Cardiodiabetes Unit, Sanofi-Aventis de México; 3Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital General Regional No 1 Dr Carlos Mac Gregor Sánchez Navarro; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Angeles Metropolitano, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: The Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Study assesses the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women and evaluates how physicians manage these patients.Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists contributed patients to the study. A standardized questionnaire was completed and registered demographics, anthropometric measurements, lab results from the medical files, and any treatment utilized to manage dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.Results: A total of 1312 patients was included. The mean age was 49.3 ± 14.6 years and 834 (63.6% were female. The primary reason for the physician consultation was treatment of obesity (47.5%, followed by management of arterial hypertension (27.7%, diabetes (18.3%, dyslipidemia (14.2%, and cardiovascular disease (7.1%. The majority of patients identified excess body weight as a health problem (81.4%. However, patients had lost a mean of 4.3 ± 3.5 kg. Only 63.4% of patients with arterial hypertension were on drug therapy. Few of them had reached target values for diastolic (24.1% and systolic/diastolic (13.3% pressure. Less than half of the patients with dyslipidemia were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Only 32.2% were at their target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with

  6. Association Between Body Weight at Weaning and Remodeling in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adult Mice With Undernourishment In Utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yukiko Kobayashi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Muramatsu, Keiko; Tamura, Naoaki; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 μm in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero. PMID:23296035

  7. General and abdominal adiposity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults: dependency of measures and socio-demographic factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara

    2016-01-14

    The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country.

  8. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xianghua; Cheng, Shuiqin; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Guisheng; Chen, Wencui; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens. Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group. Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in almost all

  9. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  10. Upregulation of Early and Downregulation of Terminal Pathway Complement Genes in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes in Acquired Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI [n = 26, within-pair difference (Δ in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m2] with as much as 18 kg mean Δweight. Additionally, 14 BMI-concordant (BMI <3 kg/m2 served as a reference group. The detailed measurements included body composition (DEXA, fat distribution (MRI, glucose, insulin, adipokines, C3a and SC5b-9 levels, and the expression of complement and insulin signaling pathway-related genes in AT and adipocytes. In both AT and isolated adipocytes, the classical and alternative pathway genes were upregulated, and the terminal pathway genes downregulated in the heavier co-twins of the BMI-discordant pairs. The upregulated genes included C1q, C1s, C2, ficolin-1, factor H, receptors for C3a and C5a (C5aR1, and the iC3b receptor (CR3. While the terminal pathway components C5 and C6 were downregulated, its inhibitor clusterin was upregulated. Complement gene upregulation in AT and adipocytes correlated positively with adiposity and hyperinsulinemia and negatively with the expression of insulin signaling-related genes. Plasma C3a, but not SC5b-9, levels were elevated in the heavier co-twins. There were no differences between the co-twins in BMI-concordant pairs. Obesity is associated with increased expression of the early, but not late, complement pathway components and of key receptors. The twins with acquired obesity have therefore an inflated inflammatory activity in the AT. The results suggest that complement is likely involved in orchestrating clearance of apoptotic debris

  11. Transcript profiles in longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue: a comparison of pigs with different postweaning growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Jones, C K; Schroyen, M; Severin, A J; Patience, J F; Tuggle, C K; Koltes, J E

    2015-05-01

    Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the 3-wk period postweaning. Nine pigs from both the lowest 10th percentile (low tADG) and the 60th to 70th percentile (high tADG) were harvested at 3 wk postweaning. Differential expression analysis was conducted in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue using RNA-Seq methodology. In LM, 768 transcripts were differentially expressed (DE), 327 with higher expression in low tADG and 441 with higher expression in high tADG pigs (q muscle metabolism and physiology, functional annotation analysis of the DE transcripts was conducted using DAVID and Pathway Studio analytic tools. The group of DE genes with lower expression in LM of low tADG pigs was enriched in genes with functions related to muscle contraction, glucose metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, muscle development, and response to hormone stimulus (enrichment score > 1.3). The list of DE genes with higher expression in low tADG LM was enriched in genes with functions related to protein catabolism (enrichment score > 1.3). Analysis of known gene-gene interactions identified possible regulators of these differences in gene expression in LM of high and low tADG pigs; these include forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), growth hormone (GH1), and the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Differences in gene expression between poor transitioning pigs and

  12. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  13. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...

  14. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E

    1997-01-01

    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans dur...

  15. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  16. The increase in abdominal subcutaneous fat depot is an independent factor to determine the glycemic control after rosiglitazone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Hur, Kyu-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Jin; Shim, Wan-Sub; Ahn, Chul-Woo; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook; Lim, Sung-Kil; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2007-08-01

    The goal was to investigate the interrelationships between the hypoglycemic effects of rosiglitazone and the changes in the regional adiposity of type 2 diabetic patients. We added rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) to 173 diabetic patients (111 males and 62 females) already taking a stable dose of conventional antidiabetic medications except for thiazolidinediones. The abdominal fat distribution was assessed by ultrasonography at baseline and 12 weeks later. Using ultrasonographic images, the s.c. and visceral fat thickness (SFT and VFT respectively) were measured. Rosiglitazone treatment for 3 months improved the glycemic control. However, the response to rosiglitazone was no more than 36.4%; the deterioration of the glycemic control was found in 16.8% of subjects. In addition, rosiglitazone treatment significantly increased the body fat mass, especially the s.c. fat. However that did not alter the visceral fat content. The percentage changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations after treatment were inversely correlated with the increase in SFT (r=-0.327 and -0.353, Pfat depot after rosiglitazone treatment may be an independent factor that determines the hypoglycemic efficacy.

  17. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  18. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Kelstrup, Louise; Broholm, Christa; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Clausen, Tine D; Damm, Peter; Vaag, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased RETN expression in O-T1DM, and increased LEP and ADIPOQ methylation in O-GDM. In multivariate regression analysis, O-GDM remained associated with increased ADIPOQ methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression and O-T1DM remained associated with decreased RETN expression after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. In conclusion, offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy exhibit increased ADIPOQ DNA methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression in SAT. However, altered methylation and expression levels were not reflected in plasma protein levels, and the functional implications of these findings remain uncertain.

  19. Abdominal and General Adiposity and Level of Asthma Control in Adults with Uncontrolled Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Buist, A. Sonia; Strub, Peg; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Abdominal adiposity may be an important risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in adults, controlling for general obesity. Whether the relationship, if present, is explained by other factors (e.g., asthma onset age, sex, and/or coexisting conditions) is unclear. Objectives: To examine whether clinically applicable anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity—waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)—are related to poorer asthma control in adults with uncontrolled asthma controlling for body mass index (BMI), and whether the relationship (if present) is explained by gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD), sleep quality, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or differs by age of asthma onset or sex. Methods: Patients aged 18 to 70 years with uncontrolled asthma (n = 90) participated in a 6-month randomized clinical trial. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline measures included sociodemographics, standardized anthropometrics, Asthma Control Test (ACT), GERD Symptom Assessment Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Berlin Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea. Participants (mean [SD] age, 52 [12] yr) were racially and ethnically diverse, 67% women, and 69% overweight or obese, and 71% reported their age of asthma onset was 12 years or older. Participants had uncontrolled asthma (mean [SD] ACT score, 14.9 [3.7]) and low GERD symptoms score (0.6 [0.4]); 67% reported poor sleep quality, and 42% had a high OSA risk. General linear regression results showed that worse ACT scores were significantly associated with every SD increase in waist circumference (β= −1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.96 to −0.16; P = 0.02) and waist-to-height ratio (β= −1.16; 95% CI, −2.00 to −0.33; P = 0.008), controlling for sociodemographics. Waist-to-height ratio remained correlated with ACT (β= −2.30; 95% CI, −4.16 to −0.45; P = 0.02) after further adjusting for BMI. The BMI-controlled relationship between WHtR and ACT did not differ by age of asthma

  20. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, K.B.; Smit, J.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Middeldorp, S.; Rippe, R.C.; Cessie, S. le; Koning, E.J. de; Jukema, J.W.; Rabelink, T.J.; Roos, A. de; Rosendaal, F.R.; Mutsert, R. de; Assendelft, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relative importance of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Furthermore, adiposity may be responsible for observed associations. Our aim was to study the relative contributions of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to

  1. The magnitude of abdominal adiposity and atherogenic dyslipidemia among geriatric Nigerians with arterial hypertension in a rural hospital in South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloh, Gup; Amadi, A N; Njoku, P U; Ofoedu, J N; Awa-Madu, J

    2012-01-01

    As the case detection rate of arterial hypertension increases daily in rural Nigeria, screening for its associated abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia is an important healthcare challenge. Of great concern in rural Nigeria is that most geriatric hypertensives with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia are not routinely diagnosed and therefore do not receive appropriate management. This study was aimed at describing the magnitude (prevalence and pattern) of abdominal adiposity using waist circumference (WC) index and dyslipidemia among geriatric Nigerians with arterial hypertension in a rural hospital in South-eastern Nigeria. A descriptive hospital-based study was carried out from June 2008 to June 2011 on 122 consecutive geriatric patients with systemic hypertension who met the selection criteria at St. Vincent De Paul Hospital, Amurie-Omanze, a rural Mission General Hospital in Imo state. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm for men and women, respectively. Dyslipidemia was defined using the third report of National Cholesterol Education Panel in adult (ATP III). The data collected included basic demographic variables, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 50.8% and was the most common pattern of abdominal adiposity. Fifty-four (44.3%) out of 122 patients had at least one dyslipidemia with the most frequent being low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 38.5%). There was statistically significant difference between male and female gender based on abdominal adiposity (X 2 = 5.406, P value = 0.04) while their mean lipid differentials were not statistically significant. This study has shown that abdominal adiposity and dyslipidemia exist among geriatric hypertensives in the study area with abdominal obesity being the most common abdominal adiposity and low HDL-C being the most frequent lipid abnormality. This study therefore urges the necessity to consider

  2. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein...... before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than...... in men (P independent positive arterio-subcutaneous abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentration differences (a-v(abd)), indicating a net uptake of NH(3) from blood to adipose tissue. However, the fractional extraction (a...

  3. Effects of dietary level of pantothenic acid and sex on carcass, meat quality traits and fatty acid composition of thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Minelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of i supranutritional doses of pantothenic acid (PA and ii sex on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pig. In trial 1, 59 Duroc x (LxLW pigs were fed the same diet containing either 10 [in the control (C group] or 110 ppm [in the treatment (T group] PA, from 107 to 168 kg live weight. At slaughtering, forty carcasses were sampled randomly. The T carcasses had lower backfat thickness (P<0.05, lower incidence of adipose cuts (P<0.05, higher lean cuts percentage (63.09 vs 60.64%; P<0.01 and lean meat yield (P<0.07. In trial 2, 42 pigs [Dumeco Cofok x (LxLW], evenly divided into three groups, were fed the same feed containing respectively 10 (C, 60 (T1 and 110 ppm (T2 PA, from 95 to 165 kg live weight. The treatment lowered total adipose cuts yield (P<0.05 and increased lean/adipose cuts ratio (P<0.07. In the outer layer of thighs subcutaneous adipose tissue, the treatment raised polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01, unsaturation coefficient (P<0.01 and polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S FA ratio (P<0.05. In the inner layer, the treatment led to a lower saturated FA (P<0.05 and higher polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01. In both trials, females generally provided leaner carcasses. In neither trials, vitamin level affected meat quality. Thus, feeding high levels of PA to heavy pigs can yield more valuable carcasses without affecting meat quality. However, effects on FA composition suggest caution in adopting this practice in the Italian heavy pig production.

  4. A comparative study of software programmes for cross-sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J; Burger, Jacobus W A; Willemsen, Sten P; de Bruin, Ron W F; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2017-04-01

    The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single-slice computed tomography (CT)-based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter-software, intra-observer, and inter-observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Bland-Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979-1.000, P software programmes were found. Accordingly, excellent Jaccard similarity coefficients were found for all comparisons (mean ≥ 0.964). FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic showed an excellent agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements on abdominal CT scans. Furthermore, excellent inter-observer and intra-observer agreement were achieved. Therefore, results of studies using these different software programmes can reliably be compared. © 2016 The Authors. Journal

  5. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  6. Abdominal adiposity and obstructive airway disease: testing insulin resistance and sleep disordered breathing mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haren Matthew T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined associations of abdominal adiposity with lung function, asthma symptoms and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and mediation by insulin resistance (IR and sleep disordered breathing (SDB. Methods A random sample of 2500 households was drawn from the community of Whyalla, South Australia (The Whyalla Intergenerational Study of Health, WISH February 2008 - July 2009. Seven-hundred twenty-two randomly selected adults (≥18 years completed clinical protocols (32.2% response rate. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was used to measure airway obstruction and reversibility of FEV1 was calculated. Current asthma was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosis and evidence of currently active asthma. Symptom scores for asthma (CASS and SDB were calculated. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. IR was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results The prevalence of current doctor-diagnosed asthma was 19.9% (95% CI 16.7 – 23.5%. The ratio of observed to expected cases given the age and sex distribution of the population was 2.4 (95%CI 2.1, 2.9. IAF was not associated with current doctor-diagnosed asthma, FEV1/FVC or FEV1 reversibility in men or women but was positively associated with CASS independent of IR and SDB in women. A 1% increase in IAF was associated with decreases of 12 mL and 20 mL in FEV1 and FVC respectively in men, and 4 mL and 7 mL respectively in women. SDB mediated 12% and 26% of these associations respectively in men but had minimal effects in women. Conclusions In this population with an excess of doctor-diagnosed asthma, IAF was not a major factor in airway obstruction or doctor-diagnosed asthma, although women with higher IAF perceived more severe asthma symptoms which did not correlate with lower FEV1. Higher IAF was significantly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and in men SDB

  7. Visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic risks: epidemic of abdominal obesity in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalawansa SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunil J WimalawansaRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: Over the past 40 years, the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled in the United States. Approximately 67% of American adults older than 20 years of age are either obese or overweight. Obesity has now become a critically important issue facing more than 40% of Americans and has become a major burden on the American health care system. Today, obesity cannot be considered a simple lifestyle issue; it is a disease with major public health and economic consequences that requires serious attention by all stakeholders. Each individual has different causes and risk factors that lead to obesity and its associated complications. In addition to preventing becoming overweight, focusing on identifying the causes of obesity and then individualizing care and treatment plans to targeting weight loss, particularly intra-abdominal fat, could potentially generate huge cost savings. Excess intra-abdominal fat (visceral adiposity is linked to excess morbidity and mortality, and positively correlates with the risks of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and premature death. Therefore, overweight and obese patients should be offered healthy lifestyle changes including education about causes leading to excess weight, weight-reducing diets, physical activity regimens, and monitoring for progress. Medications and bariatric surgery are effective but are the last options and should be complementary to lifestyle and behavioral changes. The costs associated with managing obesity-related disorders and their complications are astounding; unless we intervene now, these are likely to triple over the next 2 decades. Thus, policymakers must pay serious attention to this progressive, insidious epidemic and determine the right paths for tackling obesity, which requires a paradigm shift in thinking

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Abdominal and Thigh Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Attenuation in Overweight Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the effects of exercise intensity on abdominal and mid-thigh adipose tissue, attenuation of skeletal muscle, and insulin sensitivity in overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsTwenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to control (CG, n=12, moderate intensity exercise (MEG, n=8, or vigorous intensity exercise (VEG, n=8 group. Subjects in both exercise groups completed a 12-week exercise program (MEG, 3.6 to 5.2 METs; VEG, ≥5.2 METs that was monitored by accelerometers. We assessed body mass index (BMI, total fat area (TFA, visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, mid-thigh intramuscular adipose tissue (TIMAT, total skeletal muscle (TTM, low density skeletal muscle (TLDM, and normal density skeletal muscle (TNDM using computed tomography, and measured insulin sensitivity with an insulin tolerance test (KITT, before and after the intervention.ResultsAt baseline, the mean age was 53.8±7.9 years, duration of diabetes was 3.8±2.3 years, and BMI was 26.6±2.6 kg/m2. After 12 weeks, the percent change (%C in BMI, TIMAT, and TLDM were not different among three groups. However, %C in TFA and VFA were significantly reduced in MEG compared to CG (P=0.026 and P=0.008, respectively. %C SFA was significantly reduced in VEG compared to CG (P=0.038 and %C TTM, TNDM, and KITT were significantly increased in VEG compared to the CG (P=0.044, P=0.007, and P=0.016, respectively.ConclusionAlthough there was no difference in the change in BMI among groups, TFA and VFA were more reduced in MEG, and only VEG increased TTM, TNDM, and insulin sensitivity compared to CG.

  9. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Petri

    Full Text Available Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH or red clover silage (RC, and either sunflower-seed (SS or flaxseed (FS, providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05 subcutaneous trans (t-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05 for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.

  10. Visceral Abdominal and Subfascial Femoral Adipose Tissue Have Opposite Associations with Liver Fat in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity has been associated with liver fat storage. However, the relationships between other body composition depots and metabolic syndrome features with hepatic fat are still unclear. We examined abdominal and thigh adipose tissue (AT compartments associations with liver fat in 140 overweight and obese premenopausal Caucasian women. Blood lipids and, proinflammatory and atherothrombotic markers associations with hepatic fat were also analyzed. A larger visceral AT (VAT was related with liver fat (P<0.05. Contrarily, thigh subfascial AT was inversely related to liver fat (P<0.05. Increased fasting insulin, triglycerides, PAI-1 concentrations, and a higher total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio were also associated with hepatic fat, even after adjustment for VAT (P<0.05. Thigh subfascial adiposity was inversely associated with liver fat, suggesting a potential preventive role against ectopic fat storage in overweight and obese women. These results reinforce the contribution of an abdominal obesity phenotype associated with a diabetogenic and atherothrombotic profile to liver lipotoxicity.

  11. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    inflammation, detoxification and coagulation pathways, as well as regulation of body fat mobilization in dairy animals. These findings are of particular interest in farm animals where health and production traits are important for animal welfare and for economic gains. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...... protein and gene expression patterns. In ruminants, fat tissues play important biological roles not only for animal health, but also for quality and gain in meat and milk production. Yet very few studies have explored the ruminant adipose tissue proteomes. The aim of our study was to compare subcutaneous...

  12. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  13. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  14. Abdominal adiposity contributes to adverse glycemic control and albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Ying; Sun, Wanwan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Xu, Min; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Yu; Ning, Guang

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, few data have suggested its role in the prognosis of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between waist-hip ratio (WHR), glycemic control, and early nephropathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1709 previously- and newly-diagnosed diabetic patients nested in a cohort study consisting of 10 375 participants aged ≥40 years in Shanghai, China. General characteristics through questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and biochemical results were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS v20.0. Each quartile increase in WHR was significantly associated with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl [OR (95% CI):1.18 (1.06-1.30)], an HbA1c ≥ 7.0% [1.21 (1.08-1.35)], and a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 [1.30 (1.16-1.46)] after multivariable adjustments. WHR was not associated with a 2h PG ≥ 200mg/dl [1.13 (0.97-1.31)]. The risk for increased albuminuria (UACR ≥10.18mg/g) was also significantly associated with higher WHR after adjustment for HbA1c [1.14 (1.02-1.27)]. However, no significant relationship was seen between WHR and an estimated glomerular filtration rate albuminuria were found (P values for interaction <0.05). These data demonstrated an independent role of abdominal adipose tissue in glycemic control and renal complications of type 2 diabetes. Interventions aiming to reduce abdominal adipose tissue may have additional benefits. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Siersema, Peter D; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large prospective cohort of approximately half a million men and women from ten European countries. Overall obesity and abdominal obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, BMI, and smoking status. During an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, 131 incident cases of SIC (including 41 adenocarcinomas, 44 malignant carcinoid tumors, 15 sarcomas and 10 lymphomas, and 21 unknown histology) were identified. WC was positively associated with SIC in a crude model that also included BMI (HR per 5-cm increase = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.39), but this association attenuated in the multivariable model (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.42). However, the association between WC and SIC was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (multivariable HR adjusted for BMI = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.17). There were no other significant associations. WC, rather than BMI, may be positively associated with adenocarcinomas but not carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Abdominal obesity is a potential risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the small intestine.

  17. Associations between gestational weight gain and BMI, abdominal adiposity, and traditional measures of cardiometabolic risk in mothers 8 y postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Candace K; Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have proposed biologically plausible mechanisms linking excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to maternal metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. The objective was to determine the extent to which GWG was associated with abdominal adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of women 4-12 y after delivery. We used data from The Women's and Infants' Study of Healthy Hearts, a cohort of women who gave birth between 1997 and 2002 at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA. By design, women with small-for-gestational-age and preterm births were oversampled. Women with preeclampsia, prepregnancy hypertension, or diabetes were excluded. GWG was ascertained from prenatal records, and GWG adequacy was assessed according to 2009 Institute of Medicine/National Research Council guidelines. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (WC) >88 cm and weight change as current weight - prepregnancy weight. The prevalence of inadequate, adequate, and excessive GWG was 22% (107/478), 30% (145/478), and 47% (226/478), respectively. The analyses were adjusted for age at outcome assessment, prepregnancy BMI, marital status and insurance at delivery, race, smoking during target pregnancy, and current education, parity, and smoking. Associations between excessive GWG and blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin, and metabolic syndrome were null. However, women with excessive GWG had a 3.6-kg (1.5, 5.6) greater weight change, a 3.2-cm (1.2, 5.2) greater WC, and 3-fold greater odds of abdominal obesity (2.9; 1.6, 5.1) compared with women who gained weight as recommended. Excessive GWG is associated with long-term maternal abdominal adiposity, which may increase a woman's risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

  18. A novel transcutaneous, non-focused ultrasound energy delivering device is able to induce subcutaneous adipose tissue destruction in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding that adipocytes are greatly influenced by thermal changes combined with the advancement of non-invasive ultrasound technologies have led to the application of ultrasound as an energy source to induce thermal fat destruction. While application of high intensity focused, ultrasound energy have been widely explored, there is far less information regarding the effects of non-focused ultrasound on adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of a novel transcutaneous, multi-elements, non-focused ultrasound energy regimen in an animal model, as a proof-of-concept of its potential to treat non-invasive subcutaneous benign tumors. The non-invasive transcutaneous ultrasound system prototype (LUMENIS, Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) was applied to thermally induce adipocytes' death. During treatment, the ultrasound energy was transmitted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 12 domestic adult female pigs. Two modes of operation (long and short), which differ in both the acoustic energy applied to the tissue and in their time durations (i.e., differ in their power settings), were used in this study. Efficacy and safety assessments included: Temperature measurement of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) visual inspection and ultrasound imaging of the thermally affected areas, histopathological assessment of tissue samples using hematoxylin & eosin, and Masson's trichrome stains and in situ cell death detection kit for apoptosis assessment. The long and short treatment modes led to a 13.2°C and 17.8°C rise from baseline, respectively, in the SAT, whereas skin surface temperature was practically unaffected. Visual, ultrasonographic, and histopathological evaluation of the treated area showed SAT ablation. No treatment-related changes were observed in the epidermis, dermis subcutaneous muscle and nerves, or in livers and kidneys of treated animals. Additionally, no significant changes from baseline in blood- and urine

  19. Subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2009-01-01

    regression analysis, adiponectin correlated negatively with CFM (r = -0.27; P multiple linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR (dependent variable......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...

  20. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol of Ishige okamurae and Caffeine Modified the Expression of Extracellular Fibrillars during Adipogenesis of Mouse Subcutaneous Adipose Derived Stem Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younmi; Song, Siyoung; Kim, Hagju; Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2013-01-01

    Although, one of the etiologies of localized lipodystrophy of the subcutaneous connective tissue (cellulite) is the histological alternation of adipose tissue, the characteristics of expression of the components of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during adipogenesis are not uncovered. In this study, the effects of caffeine and Ishige okamurae originated diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) on the expression of extracellualr fibers was analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR during differentiation induction of mouse subcutaneous adipose derived stem cells (msADSC) into adipocyte. The expression levels of Col1a, Col3a1, and Col61a were decreased by the adipogenci induction in a time-dependent manners. However, Col2a mRNA and Col4a1 mRNA expressions were oposit to them. Caffeine and DPHC stimulated the changes of the expression of these collagens. Eln mRNA expression was increased by induction. DPHC stimulated the expression of it. Mfap5 mRNA expression was deceased in both adipogenic cell and matured adipocytes. Caffeine suppressed the expression of Mfap5 but the effect of DPHC was different by the concentration. The expression of bioglycan, decorin, and lumican were also modified by caffeine and DPHC in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on this study, we revealed firstly the effects of caffeine and DPHC on the expression of collagens, elastin, and glycoproteins during adipogenesis of msADSCs. Those results suggest that DPHC may have antiadipogenic effect and has more positive effets on normal adipose tissue generation and work as suppressor the abnormality of ECM structure. Such results indicate that DPHC can be applied in keeping the stability of the ECM of adipogenic tissues. PMID:25949143

  1. Abdominal adiposity change in white and black midlife women: The study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A; Avery, Elizabeth F; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2015-12-01

    The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning Study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. The subjects' total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4 -L5 ) annually over up to 4 years. The total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1% ± 8.2%) when compared with white women (41.3% ± 8.7%, P < 0.001) and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow-up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of IAAT (4.4% ± 0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. These data inform future research aimed to prevent IAAT gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Therapeutic Prospect of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for the Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvizi, Mojtaba; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysm refers to the dilation of the vessel wall for more than 50%. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) refers to the dilation and weakening of all three layers of the abdominal aorta, which mostly occur infrarenally. The population aged above 50 years is at risk of AAA development, while a familiar

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao; Ogawa, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Masaya; Uenishi, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hitomi; Ikuyama, Ken; Kagoshima, Masatoyo; Tsuchida, Takashi

    2013-11-14

    Consumption of fermented milk (FM) containing a probiotic, Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), previously showed a reduction in abdominal adiposity in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using FM with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of LG2055/g. However, whether the effectiveness is observed at lower concentrations, the recommended minimum or intermediate levels of probiotics (10(6) or 10(7) cfu/g, respectively), remains to be examined. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas (80·2 - 187·8 cm(2)). They were balanced for their baseline characteristics and randomly assigned to three groups receiving FM containing 10(7), 10(6) or 0 (control) cfu LG2055/g of FM, and were asked to consume 200 g FM/d for 12 weeks. Abdominal visceral fat areas, which were determined by computed tomography, at week 12, changed from baseline by an average of -8·5 % (95 % CI -11·9, -5·1; P< 0·01) in the 10(7) dose group, and by -8·2 % (95 % CI -10·8, -5·7; P< 0·01) in the 10(6) dose group. Other measures including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat mass were also significantly decreased from baseline at week 12 in both groups; interestingly, the cessation of taking FM for 4 weeks attenuated these effects. In the control group, none of these parameters significantly decreased from baseline. These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 10(8) cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect.

  4. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice.

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    Laura J den Hartigh

    Full Text Available Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance.We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%, an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism.Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured.By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation.These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter promoting a healthier form of weight loss.

  5. Comparison between subcutaneous injection of basic fibroblast growth factor-hydrogel and intracavernous injection of adipose-derived stem cells in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang Ho; Shrestha, Kshitiz Raj; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, In Gul; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Ae Ryang; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Ji Youl

    2014-11-01

    To compare the effects of subcutaneous penile injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-hydrogel and intracavernous injection of human adipose-derived stem cells (h-ADSCs) on improving erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 per group): age-matched control (normal group), bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI group), penile subcutaneous injection of hydrogel after BCNI (hydrogel group), penile subcutaneous injection of bFGF-hydrogel after BCNI (bFGF-hydrogel group) and intracavernous injection of h-ADSCs after BCNI (ADSC group). Four weeks after the treatment, all rats underwent an erectile function test. Then, penile tissue was harvested for immunohistological analysis of bFGF, phalloidin, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 31. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level of the corpus cavernosum was quantified by cGMP assay. From the functional test and immunohistological result, we observed that bFGF-hydrogel and h-ADSCs injection significantly elevated intracavernous pressure. The evaluation of filamentous actin content, CD31 expression, and cGMP concentration in the corpus cavernosum were meaningfully increased in the bFGF-hydrogel and ADSC groups compared with BCNI group. The bFGF released from bFGF-hydrogel prevented smooth muscle atrophy. Moreover, bFGF expression was significantly increased in bFGF-hydrogel group. The subcutaneous injection of bFGF-hydrogel prevented smooth muscle atrophy, increased the intracavernous pressure, and improved erectile function like an intracavernous injection of h-ADSCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Adult adiposity susceptibility loci, early growth and general and abdominal fatness in childhood: the Generation R Study.

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    Vogelezang, S; Monnereau, C; Gaillard, R; Renders, C M; Hofman, A; Jaddoe, V W V; Felix, J F

    2015-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified genetic loci associated with adiposity measures. Little is known about the effects of these loci on growth and body fat distribution from early childhood onwards. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4144 children, we examined the associations of weighted risk scores combining 29 known genetic markers of adult body mass index (BMI) and 14 known genetic markers of adult waist-hip ratio (WHR) with peak weight velocity, peak height velocity, age at adiposity peak and BMI at adiposity peak in early infancy and additionally with BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area at the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7, 7.8). A higher adult BMI genetic risk score was associated with a higher age at adiposity peak in infancy and a higher BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area in childhood (P=0.05, 1.5 × 10(-24), 3.6 × 10(-18), 4.0 × 10(-11) and 1.3 × 10(-5), respectively), with the strongest association for childhood BMI with a 0.04 higher s.d. score BMI (95% confidence interval 0.03, 0.05) per additional risk allele. A higher adult WHR genetic risk score was not associated with infant growth measures or childhood BMI and total fat mass, but was associated with childhood android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area (PBMI and WHR in adults influence growth patterns and general and abdominal fat development from early childhood onwards.

  7. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  8. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

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    Irkulla Sashidhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91 p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31 p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for

  9. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  10. The relation of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with dyslipidemia in 27 general populations of the WHO MONICA Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietlisbach, V; Marques-Vidal, P; Kuulasmaa, K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between adiposity measures and dyslipidemia has seldom been assessed in a multipopulational setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: 27 populations from Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Canada (WHO MONICA project) using health surveys conducted between 1990 and 1997...... in adults aged 35-64 years (n = 40,480). Dyslipidemia was defined as the total/HDL cholesterol ratio >6 (men) and >5 (women). Overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25% in men and 23% in women. Logistic regression showed that dyslipidemia was strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) in men......, do not lead to optimal risk stratification for dyslipidemia in middle-age adults. Sex-specific adaptations are necessary, in particular by taking into account abdominal obesity in normal-weight men, post-menopausal age in women and regular smoking in both sexes....

  11. The ominous link between obesity and abdominal adiposity with diabetes and diabetic dyslipidemia in diabetic population of developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhla, Manisha; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Gahlot, Sushila; Rathor, Jai Singh; Vardey, Satish Kumar; Sinha, Maheep; Kaushik, G G; Gadhok, Amita K; Ghalaut, Veena Singh; Mathur, Keerti; Singh, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obesity and abdominal adiposity are at higher risk for hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the association of both generalized and regional obesity with metabolic variables and biochemical indices. 200 confirmed patients of type-2diabetes of either gender were studied. A statistically significant degree of dyslipidemia was depicted in obese class-II subjects; however, females had a lower degree of dyslipidemia as compared to male subjects with statistically significant results only for HDL-C. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that BMI is a stronger predictor of FPG and HbA1c as compared to WHR. Higher plasma glucose levels were depicted at a lower BMI, which turned out to be stronger predictor of glycemic control as compared to WHR. Moreover, BMI, WHR and male gender was significantly correlated with the metabolic parameters and even much more pronounced association with BMI.

  12. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  13. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution in obese children. US versus CT measurements; Valutazione della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo addominale nei bambini obesi. Confronto tra ecografia e Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrozzi, F.; Zuccoli, G.; Tognini, G.; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A.; Bacchini, E. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Bernasconi, S. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Clinica Pediatrica; Campani, R. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and, more recently, ultrasound (US), have proved excellent tools for quantifying adipose tissue distribution. Body fat distribution is an important factor in the treatment of obesity and its complications. In this work it is investigated the correlation between CT and US measurements in pediatric obesity. Forty obese children and adolescents aged 4.1-14.8 years were submitted to CT and US. Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous and total body fat were calculated (in cm{sup 2}), with the CT image analysis software. The rectus muscle-spine and rectus muscle-aorta distances, as indicative of visceral fat thickness, were measured on US images with(out) compression. The distance between skin fat and fat-rectus muscle interfaces was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness. US-CT findings have been compared with other morphometric variables-i.e., patient's (ideal) body weight and skin fold measures. A statistically significant correlation was found between the CT measurement of visceral fat and the aorta-rectus muscle and rectus muscle-spine distances (r=0.80 and 0.74, respectively). The US measurements of subcutaneous fat were correlated with CT subcutaneous fat area (r=0.82). No correlation was found between overweight, as calculated by body mass index, and CT or US fat. In conclusions, the findings indicate that US is as useful as CT in evaluating body fat distribution in pediatric obesity. [Italian] La TC e piu' recentemente l'ecografia si sono dimostrate eccellenti tecniche di valutazione della quantita' e della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo corporeo. La compartimentazione del grasso corporeo ha, infatti, importanti implicazioni per il trattamento dell'obesita' e delle sue complicanze. Scopo dello studio e' stato quello di correlare i risultati ottenuti con la TC con quelli ecografici nella valutazione dell'obesita' del paziente pediatrico. Quaranta bambini obesi con eta' compresa tra 4,1 e 14

  14. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga Bondo, Patrick; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut ...

  15. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  16. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  17. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  18. Parental history of diabetes modifies the association between abdominal adiposity and hyperglycemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association between abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia differs according to the presence of a parental history of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,068 men and women, aged 20-65 years, without known diabetes who were

  19. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  20. Comparing the Effect of Topical and Subcutaneous Bupivacaine Infiltration with Cutaneous Ketamin on Postoperative Pain in Patients Candidating Abdominal Hysterectomy under General Anedthesia

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    Maryam Maktabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures. Only after cesarian section, hysterectomys considered as second major surgical procedure. Problems such as severe pelvic pain, irregular or heavy bleeding and uterine cancer are cases that hysterectomy is used to care them. Abdominal pain after abdominal hysterectomy is one of the most common complaints of patients undergoing this type of surgery. This study aimed to compare the effects of bupivacaine into the subcutaneous tissue and skin ketamine to control pain after surgery in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial involving 99 women candidating for TAH referred to Taleghani center in Arak who were divided into three groups. The average duration of analgesia and pain and pain score were recorded. Results: The average duration of analgesia in ketamine group, in the bupivacaine group and in the placebo group was 65.1±8.8, 65.4±8.7, and 57.6±5.5, respectively. According to p≤0.01, there was a significant difference between the three groups. The duration of analgesia in the placebo group was significantly lower than ketamine and bupivacaine groups, while that between ketamine and bupivacaine in terms of the average duration of analgesia, no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that the use of bupivacaine and cutaneous ketamine is effective in reducing postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy and further doses of ketamine and bupivacaine single dose resulted in a significant reduction of postoperative pain in patients compared to the placebo group.

  1. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involved......) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was evaluated in biopsies from SCAAT. Lipolysis in SCAAT was substantially higher in IUGR than in CON subjects despite markedly lower mRNA expression of lipases. Blood flow was higher in IUGR compared with CON in both SCAAT and SCFAT...

  2. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal...... with overall and abdominal fat distribution. CONCLUSION: Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive...

  3. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  4. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  5. Diet-induced weight loss decreases adipose tissue oxygen tension with parallel changes in adipose tissue phenotype and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R.G.; Roumans, N.J.; Čajlaković, M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Vogel, M.A.A.; Blaak, E.E.; Mariman, E.C.; Baak, van M.A.; Goossens, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO 2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary

  6. Coexpression network analysis in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue reveals regulatory genetic loci for metabolic syndrome and related phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine L Min

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD and gluteal (GLU adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB, from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS-associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6% were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6% in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (D(ABD-GLU = 0.89, seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin, was associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 6.0×10(-4; and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10(-4 and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10(-4. Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and coexpression networks across multiple tissues relevant to clinical traits is an efficient strategy to identify novel associations.

  7. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gericke, Martin [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Berger, Claudia [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kunath, Anne [German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  8. Adipose Stromal Cells from Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Facilitate Migration of Ovarian Cancer Cells via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyun; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Soochi; Haegeman, Guy; Tsang, Benjamin K; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-04-01

    Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) play an important regulatory role in cancer progression and metastasis by regulating systemic inflammation and tissue metabolism. This study examined whether visceral and subcutaneous ASCs (V- and S-ASCs) facilitate the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. CD45(-) and CD31(-) double-negative ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous and visceral fat using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Ovarian cancer cells were cultured in conditioned media (CM) obtained from ASCs to determine the cancer-promoting effects of ASCs. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Boyden chamber assay, and western blotting were performed to determine the proliferative activity, migration ability, and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, respectively. CM from ASCs enhanced the migration of the ovarian cancer line, SKOV3, via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Interestingly, in response to ASC-CM, the ascites cells derived from an ovarian cancer patient showed an increase in growth and migration. The migration of ovarian cancer cells was suppressed by blocking the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 using a neutralizing antibody against interleukin 6, small molecular inhibitors (e.g., WP1066 and TG101348), and silencing of STAT3 using siRNA. Anatomical differences between S- and V-ASCs did not affect the growth and migration of the ovarian cancer cell line and ascites cells from the ovarian cancer patients. ASCs may regulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and possibly provide a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  9. Ultrasonography modifications of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue after pioglitazone or glibenclamide therapy combined with rosuvastatin in type 2 diabetic patients not well controlled by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Pamela; Fogari, Elena; D'Angelo, Angela; Perrone, Tiziano; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To compare pioglitazone or glibenclamide alone and in combination with rosuvastatin on hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic patients. After 3 months of metformin, patients were randomized to add pioglitazone 15 mg twice a day or glibenclamide 5 mg twice a day for 6 months, and then rosuvastatin 5 mg was added for other 6 months. Patients underwent an ultrasound examination for evaluation of steatosis degree, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and visceral adipose tissue diameter, an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and blood sample collection for evaluation of glycemic control, fasting plasma insulin, lipid profile, adipocytokines at randomization, and after 6 and 12 months. Both pioglitazone and glibenclamide improved glycemic control. Pioglitazone reduced fasting plasma insulin, whereas glibenclamide increased it. Pioglitazone increased the glucose infusion rate compared with glibenclamide. Pioglitazone, but not glibenclamide, improved the lipid profile, and, when rosuvastatin was added, there was a greater improvement with pioglitazone and rosuvastatin. Adiponectin was increased by pioglitazone (+0.5 μg/ml), with a further increase (+0.4 μg/ml) when rosuvastatin was added. A significant decrease in leptin (-3.1 ng/ml) and interleukin-6 (-0.4 pg/ml) was found only with pioglitazone; a similar trend (-2.5 ng/ml and -0.3 pg/ml, respectively) was maintained after the addition of rosuvastatin.Rosuvastatin+pioglitazone decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (-0.3 ng/ml) and were superior to glibenclamide+rosuvastatin in reducing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-0.4 mg/l).Pioglitazone decreased ultrasound parameters, and the addition of rosuvastatin further decreased them both compared with randomization and glibenclamide. Pioglitazone was more effective than glibenclamide in improving inflammation and hepatic steatosis indices.

  10. Colour of bovine subcutaneous adipose tissue: A review of contributory factors, associations with carcass and meat quality and its potential utility in authentication of dietary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, P G; Monahan, F J; O'Mara, F P; Moloney, A P

    2009-01-01

    The colour of bovine subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (carcass fat) depends on the age, gender and breed of cattle. Diet is the most important extrinsic factor but its influence depends on the duration of feeding. Cattle produced under extensive grass-based production systems generally have carcass fat which is more yellow than their intensively-reared, concentrate-fed counterparts and this is caused by carotenoids from green forage. Although yellow carcass fat is negatively regarded in many countries, evidence suggests it may be associated with a healthier fatty acid profile and antioxidant content in beef, synonymous with grass feeding. Nonetheless, management strategies to reduce fat colour of grass-fed cattle are sought after. Current research suggests that yellow colour of this tissue is reduced if pasture-fed cattle are converted to a grain-based diet, which results in accretion of adipose tissue and dilution of carotenoids. Colour changes may depend on the initial yellow colour, the carotene and utilisable energy in the finishing diet, the duration of finishing, the amount of fat accumulated during finishing and the rate of utilisation of carotene from body fat. Differences in nutritional strategies which cause differences in fatty acid composition may be reflected by differences in fat colour and carotenoid concentration. Fat colour and carotenoids are prominent among a panoply of measurements which can aid the authentication of the dietary history and thus to some extent, the origin of beef, although this potential utility is complicated by the simultaneous rather than discrete use of forages and concentrates in real production systems.

  11. The effects of 3-month atorvastatin therapy on arterial inflammation, calcification, abdominal adipose tissue and circulating biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yen-Wen [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Hsian-Li; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lin, Lian-Yu.; Wang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Hung-Ju; Huang, Por-Jau [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chi-Lun [Tao-Yuan General Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Tao-Yuan (China); Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Yu-Chiao [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Yang, Wei-Shiung [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has the potential to track vascular inflammation and monitor therapeutic response. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between arterial inflammation, calcification and serological biomarkers in subjects with atherosclerosis, and to assess their therapeutic response to 12-week atorvastatin treatment. Forty-three statin-naive subjects with atherosclerosis received atorvastatin (40 mg/day) for 12 weeks and underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, coronary calcification and abdominal adipose tissue volume measurements. A panel of serological biomarkers was analysed. Arterial inflammation was measured at seven arterial segments and normalized to venous FDG activity to produce target to background ratios (TBR). Thirty-four subjects without cardiovascular disease who repeated PET 1-4 years apart for routine health check-ups were retrospectively evaluated for comparison. The baseline mean TBR values in atherosclerotic patients were positively correlated with age (R = 0.36), body mass index (R = 0.54), abdominal visceral adipose tissue volume (R = 0.65), coronary calcification score (R = 0.40), levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R = 0.54), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (R = 0.46) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) (R = 0.67, all p < 0.05). The TBR as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectin, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, FABP4 and follistatin values were reduced significantly after the 12-week atorvastatin treatment. The TBR reduction marginally correlated with changes in MMP-9 levels (R = 0.56, p = 0.05). The control group, whose median age was younger, by comparison had lower hsCRP and arterial TBR than the subjects with atherosclerosis (all p < 0.05), and moreover had a slight but insignificant increase in mean TBR at their 2.5{+-}0.8 year follow-up. The medium dose of atorvastatin over a 12-week period resulted in a significant

  12. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is independent of excess abdominal adiposity in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank; Sia, Chang Ling; Shepard, Marguerite K; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

    2012-12-01

    What is the effect of glucose ingestion on leukocytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with and without excess abdominal adiposity (AA)? Normal-weight women with PCOS exhibit an increase in leukocytic ROS generation in response to glucose ingestion, and this increase is independent of excess AA. Excess adipose tissue is a source of oxidative stress. Normal-weight women with PCOS exhibit oxidative stress and can have excess AA. This is a cross-sectional study involving 30 reproductive-age women. Fourteen normal-weight women with PCOS (6 normal AA, 8 excess AA) and 16 body composition-matched controls (8 normal AA, 8 excess AA) underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy absorptiometry and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at a university medical center. Insulin sensitivity was derived from the OGTT (IS(OGTT)). Blood was drawn while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion to measure leukocytic ROS generation and p47(phox) protein content and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Compared with controls, both PCOS groups exhibited lower IS(OGTT) (43-54%) and greater percentage change (% change) in ROS generation (96-140%), p47(phox) protein (18-28%) and TBARS (17-48%). Compared with women with PCOS with excess AA, those with normal AA exhibited higher testosterone levels (29%) and lower CRP levels (70%). For the combined groups, IS(OGTT) was negatively correlated with the % change in ROS generation and p47(phox) protein. CRP was positively correlated with abdominal fat. The % change in p47(phox) protein was positively correlated with CRP and androgens. Although this study is adequately powered to assess differences in ROS generation between the women with PCOS and control participants, the modest sample size merits caution when interpreting the corroborative results of the additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study

  13. Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall...

  14. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an ora...

  15. Influence of genetic type, live weight at slaughter and carcass fatness on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham in the heavy pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiego, D P Lo; Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; De Leonibus, E

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to assess some quality traits of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham for Parma production, obtained from 56 "traditional" Landrace×Large White (L×LW) and 56 Cotswold commercial hybrid (CH) pigs reared in the same conditions and slaughtered at an average live weight (l.w.) of about 165 kg. Further, the relationships between lipid composition, l.w. and carcass fatness were studied. Compared to the CH, the fatty tissue of L×LW pigs showed a lower water (6.33% vs. 7.35%, P<0.01) and a higher lipid (91.18% vs. 90.18%, P<0.01) content. CH lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.53% vs. 13.75%, P<0.01), and smaller saturated fatty acids (38.20% vs. 40.26%, P<0.01) content and a higher iodine value (69.69 vs. 65.22, P<0.01). An increased slaughter weight was associated with a lower degree of lipid unsaturation, but only the lowest weight class (<160 kg) showed a significant difference compared to the other two classes (⩾160<170 and ⩾170 kg). Regardless of genetic type or l.w. class, an increase in backfat thickness is associated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a remarkable reduction in polyunsaturated content.

  16. Lower "awake and fed thermogenesis" predicts future weight gain in subjects with abdominal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Thearle, Marie S

    2013-12-01

    Awake and fed thermogenesis (AFT) is the energy expenditure (EE) of the nonactive fed condition above the minimum metabolic requirement during sleep and is composed of the thermic effect of food and the cost of being awake. AFT was estimated from whole-room 24-h EE measures in 509 healthy subjects (368 Native Americans and 141 whites) while subjects consumed a eucaloric diet. Follow-up data were available for 290 Native Americans (median follow-up time: 6.6 years). AFT accounted for ~10% of 24-h EE and explained a significant portion of deviations from expected energy requirements. Energy intake was the major determinant of AFT. AFT, normalized as a percentage of intake, was inversely related to age and fasting glucose concentration and showed a nonlinear relationship with waist circumference and BMI. Spline analysis demonstrated that AFT becomes inversely related to BMI at an inflection point of 29 kg/m(2). The residual variance of AFT, after accounting for covariates, predicted future weight change only in subjects with a BMI >29 kg/m(2). AFT may influence daily energy balance, is reduced in obese individuals, and predicts future weight gain in these subjects. Once central adiposity develops, a blunting of AFT may occur that then contributes to further weight gain.

  17. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  18. Abdominal adiposity and family income-to-poverty ratio in American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence on chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in co-culture with donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Sansone, V; Preis, F W Baruffaldi; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) has been proposed for autologous cartilage cell-based therapies, to overcome the issues associated to limited availability of articular chondrocytes (ACs). To evaluate the potentiality of a co-culture approach in aged osteoarthritic patients, MSCs from infrapatellar fat pad (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs) were co-cultured with donor-matched osteoarthritic, expanded and cryopreserved, ACs in a 75%/25% ratio. Co-cultures were prepared also from nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to evaluate their possible use as an alternative to ACs. Pellets were differentiated for 14 days, using mono-cultures of each cell type as reference. Chondrogenic genes SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN were less expressed in co-cultures compared to ACs and NCs. Total GAGs content in co-cultures did not differ significantly from values predicted as the sum of each cell type contribution corrected for the co-culture ratio, as confirmed by histology. No significant differences were observed for GAGs/DNA in mono-cultures, demonstrating a reduced chondrogenic potential of ACs and NCs. In conclusion, a small percentage of expanded and cryopreserved ACs and NCs did not lead to IFP-MSCs and ASCs chondro-induction. Our results suggest that chondrogenic potential and origin of chondrocytes may play a relevant role in the outcome of co-cultures, indicating a need for further investigations to demonstrate their clinical relevance in the treatment of aged osteoarthritic patients.

  20. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  1. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  2. Changes in the MicroRNA Profile Observed in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Patients after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Nardelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB results in significant lasting weight loss and improved metabolism in obese patients. To evaluate whether epigenetic factors could concur to these benefits, we investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT microRNA (miRNA profile before (T0 and three years (T1 after LAGB in three morbidly obese women. Case Reports. SAT miRNA profiling, evaluated by TaqMan Array, showed four downexpressed (miR-519d, miR-299-5p, miR-212, and miR-671-3p and two upexpressed (miR-370 and miR-487a miRNAs at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that these miRNAs regulate genes belonging to pathways associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, and metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that PPAR-alpha, which is the target gene of miR-519d, increased after LAGB, thereby suggesting an improvement in SAT lipid metabolism. Accordingly, the number and diameter of adipocytes were significantly higher and lower, respectively, at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that the decreased levels of miR-212, miR-299-5p, and miR-671-3p at T1 concur in reducing SAT inflammation. Conclusion. We show that the miRNA profile changes after LAGB. This finding, although obtained in only three cases, suggests that this epigenetic mechanism, by regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism, could concur to improve SAT functionality in postoperative obese patients.

  3. Combined effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2014-05-01

    The cumulative effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig longissimus lumborum muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were investigated. The experiment was performed on fifty-four intact male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred), with a live weight ranging from 59 to 92 kg. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two levels of arginine supplementation (0 v. 1 %) and three levels of a basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet to achieve 2 % of leucine, RPDL). The results showed that dietary arginine supplementation did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and back fat thickness, but increased the total fat in SAT. This effect was associated with an increase in fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in SAT, which suggests that arginine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in pig muscle and SAT. The increase in IMF content under the RPD, with or without leucine supplementation, was accompanied by increased FASN and SCD mRNA levels. Arginine supplementation did not influence the percentage of main fatty acids, while the RPD had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in both tissues. Leucine supplementation of RPD did not change IMF, total fat of SAT and back fat thickness, but increased 16 : 0 and 18 : 1cis-9 and decreased 18 : 2n-6 in muscle.

  4. Site-dependent differences in both prelamin A and adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Vilar, D; Lattanzi, G; González-Méndez, B; Costa-Freitas, A T; Prieto, D; Columbaro, M; Mattioli, E; Victoria, B; Martínez-Sánchez, N; Ramazanova, A; Fraga, M; Beiras, A; Forteza, J; Domínguez-Gerpe, L; Calvo, C; Lado-Abeal, J

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2) is characterised by loss of fat in the limbs and buttocks and results from mutations in the LMNA gene. To evaluate the role of several genes involved in adipogenesis in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of regional loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) in patients with FPLD2. In total, 7 patients with FPLD2 and 10 healthy control participants were studied. A minimal model was used to calculate the insulin sensitivity (IS). scAT was obtained from abdomen and thigh by biopsy. Relative gene expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcription PCR in a thermal cycler. Prelamin A western blot analysis was carried out on scAT and prelamin A nuclear localisation was determined using immunofluorescence. Adipocyte nuclei were examined by electron microscopy. Patients with FPLD2 were found to have significantly lower IS. The expression of LMNA was similar in both groups. The expression of PPARG2, RB1, CCND3 and LPL in thigh but not in abdomen scAT was significantly reduced (67%, 25%, 38% and 66% respectively) in patients with FPLD2. Significantly higher levels of prelamin A were found in peripheral scAT of patients with FPLD2. Defects in the peripheral heterochromatin and a nuclear fibrous dense lamina were present in the adipocytes of patients with FPLD2. In FPLD2 participants, prelamin A accumulation in peripheral scAT is associated with a reduced expression of several genes involved in adipogenesis, which could perturb the balance between proliferation and differentiation in adipocytes, leading to less efficient tissue regeneration.

  5. Repressive effects of oat extracts on intracellular lipid-droplet formation in adipocytes and a three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Kato, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroki; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the repression of lipid-droplet formation in mouse mesenchymal stromal preadipocytes OP9 by specified oat extracts (Hatomugi, Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen) named "SPH" which were proteolytically and glucosyl-transferredly prepared from finely-milled oat whole-grain. Stimulation of OP9 preadipocytes with insulin-containing serum-replacement promoted differentiation to adipocytes, concurrently with an increase in the intracellular lipid droplets by 51.5%, which were repressed by SPH-bulk or SPH-water-extract at 840ppm, to 33.5% or 46.9%, respectively, but not by SPH-ethanol-extract at the same dose, showing the hydrophilic property of the anti-adipogenetic ingredients. The intracellular lipid droplets were scanty for intact preadipocytes, small-sized but abundant for the SPH-unadministered adipocytes, and large-sized but few for SPH-bulk-administered adipocytes being coexistent with many lipid-droplet-lacking viable cells, suggesting "the all-or-none rule" for lipid-droplet generation in cell-to-cell. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death in human epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT was prevented by SPH-bulk at 100 or 150ppm by 5.6-8.1%, being consistent with higher viabilities of SPH-bulk-administered OP9 cells, together with repressions of both cell shrinkage and cell detachment from the culture substratum. In three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue models reconstructed with HaCaT-keratinocytes and OP9-preadipocytes, lipid droplets were accumulated in dermal OP9-cell-parts, and repressed to 43.5% by SPH-bulk at 840ppm concurrently with marked diminishment of huge aggregates of lipid droplets. Thus SPH-bulk suppresses adipogenesis-associated lipid-droplet accumulation during differentiation of OP9 preadipocytes together with lowered cytotoxicity to either HaCaT keratinocytes or the preadipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Far-off and close-up dry matter intake modulate indicators of immunometabolic adaptations to lactation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Farina, G; Batistel, F; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2017-03-01

    The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Sixty mid-lactation, grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups that were managed through late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale) at dry-off. The low BCS cows were then overfed ME to ensure that they achieved the same BCS as the higher BCS group by calving. Within each rate of BCS gain treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (i.e., 10 cows/treatment). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA and microRNA expression of targets related to adipogenesis and inflammation. Cows overfed in the far-off period had increased expression of miR-143 and miR-378 prepartum (-1 wk) indicating greater adipogenesis, consistent with their rapid gain in BCS following dry-off. Furthermore, the lower postpartum expression of IL6, TNF, TLR4, TLR9, and miR-145, and a higher abundance of miR-99a indicated lower body fat mobilization in early lactation in the same group. In the close-up period, feeding either 65 or 120% of ME requirements caused changes in FASN, IL1B, IL6R, TLR9, and the microRNA miR-143, miR-155, and miR-378

  7. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  8. De novo lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early growth stages after hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Pan, Zhixiong; Kou, Jie; Li, Le; Xia, Lu; Hu, Shenqiang; Liu, Hehe; Wang, Jiwen

    2012-09-01

    In vivo de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early developmental stages after hatching has not previously been investigated. In this study, female Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at weeks 1 to 8 post-hatching were selected for experimentation. We measured the mRNA levels of 6 DNL-related genes in the duck liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and abdominal adipose tissue by real-time PCR during the 8 weeks. Correlations of the plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations with fat deposition at these sites were also detected during growth. Our results showed that fat content was highest in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and lowest in the liver during the growth period we studied. Additionally, plasma VLDL and TG were significantly associated with lipid content in adipose tissue (Plipogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) during neonatal stress prevents hyperinsulinemia despite stress-induced adiposity in weanling rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Haley, Shannon; Gulliver, Kristina; Thomson, Anne; Slater, Hillarie; Barrett, Brett; Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Callaway, Christopher; McKnight, Robert A; Moore, Barry; Lane, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    Stress in early life negatively influences growth quality through perturbations in body composition including increased fat mass. At term (40 weeks) preterm infants have greater fat mass and abdominal visceral adipose tissue than term-born infants. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) attenuates the stress response in preterm infants and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that MTS, administered during an established model of neonatal stress, would decrease stress-driven adiposity and prevent associated metabolic imbalances in rat pups. Pups received one of three treatments from postnatal days 5 to P9: Neonatal Stress (Stress; n=20) = painful stimulus and hypoxic/hyperoxic challenge during 60 min of maternal separation; MTS (n=20) = neonatal stress+10 min of MTS; or Control (n=20). Body weight, DXA whole body fat mass (g), MRI subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, and fasting adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, and corticosterone were measured at weaning (P21). Stress and MTS weight gain (g/d) were accelerated following neonatal stress with greater fat mass, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, serum adiponectin, leptin, and fasting glucose at weaning (P21). Male Stress and MTS pups had greater visceral adipose tissue depot. Male and female Stress pups were hyperinsulinemic. In summary, neonatal stress compromised body composition by increasing fat mass and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, and in males, visceral adipose tissue depot. Importantly, MTS prevented hyperinsulinemia despite of stress-induced adiposity. We conclude that MTS during neonatal stress has the potential to minimize metabolic consequences associated with stress-driven perturbations in fat mass and abdominal adipose depots. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal Obesity and Association With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roever, Leonardo S.; Elmiro S. Resende; Diniz, Ang?lica. L. D.; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Veloso, Fernando. C.; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo M.M.; Antonio C.P. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ectopic visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and ectopic fat in the Brazilian population still lacking. Cross-sectional study with 101 volunteers (50.49% men; mean age 56.5???18, range 19?74 years) drawn from the Uberl?ndia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal visceral adipose tissue with convex transducer of 3.5?MHz of freque...

  11. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  12. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid......, a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease...... adipose tissue during exercise is the same whether the relative workload is 40% or 60% of maximum. Post-exercise, there is a substantial lipid mobilization from adipose tissue and only a small fraction of this is taken up in the lower extremities. This leaves a substantial amount of NEFAs for either NEFA...

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and...... output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work......./or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose...

  14. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  15. Donor-matched mesenchymal stem cells from knee infrapatellar and subcutaneous adipose tissue of osteoarthritic donors display differential chondrogenic and osteogenic commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Colombini, A; Stanco, D; de Girolamo, L; Sansone, V; Moretti, M

    2014-04-23

    Cell-based therapies have recently been proposed for the treatment of degenerative articular pathologies, such as early osteoarthritis, with an emphasis on autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as an alternative to terminally differentiated cells. In this study, we performed a donor-matched comparison between infrapatellar fat pad MSCs (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs), as appealing candidates for cell-based therapies that are easily accessible during surgery. IFP-MSCs and ASCs were obtained from 25 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total knee replacement and compared for their immunophenotype and differentiative potential. Undifferentiated IFP-MSCs and ASCs displayed the same immunophenotype, typical of MSCs (CD13+/CD29+/CD44+/CD73+/CD90+/CD105+/CD166+/CD31-/CD45-). IFP-MSCs and ASCs showed similar adipogenic potential, though undifferentiated ASCs had higher LEP expression compared to IFP-MSCs (p<0.01). Higher levels of calcified matrix (p<0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05) in ASCs highlighted their superior osteogenic commitment compared to IFP-MSCs. Conversely, IFP-MSCs pellets showed greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (p<0.01) and superior expression of ACAN (p<0.001), SOX9, COMP (p<0.001) and COL2A1 (p<0.05) compared to ASCs pellets, revealing a superior chondrogenic potential. This was also supported by lower COL10A1 (p<0.05) and COL1A1 (p<0.01) expression and lower alkaline phosphatase release (p<0.05) by IFP-MSCs compared to ASCs. The observed dissimilarities between IFP-MSCs and ASCs show that, despite expressing similar surface markers, MSCs deriving from different fat depots in the same surgical site possess specific features. Furthermore, the in vitro peculiar commitment of IFP-MSCs and ASCs from osteoarthritic donors towards the chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage may suggest a preferential use for cartilage and bone cell-based treatments, respectively.

  16. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  17. Weight loss-induced cellular stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the risk for weight regain in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, N.J.T.; Vink, R.G.; Bouwman, F.G.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Baak, van M.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose

  18. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    , referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...... concentration (P tissue, the HSL protein levels did not differ significantly between T and S rats. In muscle, HSL (TG) activity as well as HSL (TG)/HSL (DG) were lower in T rats, whereas HSL (DG) activity did not differ between groups. Furthermore, HSL protein concentration in muscle did...

  19. Comparative Expression Profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs Among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Breast, Face, and Abdominal Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hung Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined the expression of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs from human mesenchymal stem cells BM19, FM30, and AM3, which is derived from breast, face, and abdominal adipose tissues, respectively. BM19, FM30, and AM3 cells exhibited considerably similar mRNA profiles, and their 1,038 abundantly common genes were involved in regulating six cell adhesion and three cytoskeleton remodeling processes among the top ten GeneGo canonical pathway maps. The 39 most abundant miRNAs in AM3 cells were expressed at very similar levels in BM19 cells. However, seven abundant miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-320, miR-186, miR-199a, miR-339, miR-99a, and miR-152 in AM3 cells were expressed at much lower levels than that in FM30 cells, and 38 genes targeted by these miRNAs were consequently upregulated more than 3-fold in FM30 cells compared with AM3 cells. Therefore, autologous abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are suitable for tissue engineering of breast reconstruction because of very similar expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs between AM3 and BM19 cells. Conversely, abdominal AM3 cells might not be suitable for facial rejuvenation, since the 38 highly expressed genes targeted by miRNAs in FM30 cells might play an important role(s in the development of facial tissue.

  20. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...

  1. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of subcutaneous adipose 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity after oral administration of AMG 221, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John P; Emery, Maurice G; McCaffery, Ian; Smith, Brian; Gibbs, Megan A; Akrami, Anna; Rossi, John; Paweletz, Katherine; Gastonguay, Marc R; Bautista, Edgar; Wang, Minghan; Perfetti, Riccardo; Daniels, Oranee

    2011-06-01

    Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is hypothesized to improve measures of insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose output in patients with type II diabetes. AMG 221 is a potent, small molecule inhibitor of 11β-HSD1. The objective of this analysis is to describe the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship between AMG 221 and 11β-HSD1 inhibition in ex vivo adipose tissue samples. Healthy, obese subjects were administered a single dose of 3, 30, or 100 mg of oral AMG 221 (n = 44) or placebo (n = 11). Serial blood samples were collected over 24 hours. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected by open biopsy. Population PK/PD analysis was conducted using NONMEM. The inhibitory effects (mean ± standard error of the estimate) of AMG 221 on 11β-HSD1 activity were directly related to adipose concentrations with I(max) (the maximal inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity) and IC₅₀ (the plasma AMG 221 concentration associated with 50% inhibition of enzyme activity) of 0.975 ± 0.003 and 1.19 ± 0.12 ng/mL, respectively. The estimated baseline 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity was 755 ± 61 pmol/mg. An equilibration rate constant (k(eo)) of 0.220 ± 0.021 h⁻¹ described the delay between plasma and adipose tissue AMG 221 concentrations. AMG 221 potently blocked 11β-HSD1 activity, producing sustained inhibition for the 24-hour study duration as measured in ex vivo adipose samples. Early characterization of concentration-response relationships can support rational selection of dose and regimen for future studies.

  2. Changes in viability of rat adipose-derived stem cells isolated from abdominal/perinuclear adipose tissue stimulated with pulsed electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A; Skowron, B; Nowak, B; Ciesielczyk, K; Guzdek, P; Gil, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J

    2017-04-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) may activate cellular death pathways in proliferating cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that LF-EMF may also influence viability of highly proliferating undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Obesity is classified as a civilization disease; its etiopathogenesis is presumed to include both genetic predisposition and influence of modified environmental factors, such as unbalanced diet with excess calories and/or too low physical activity. Obesity may lead to a number of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases (associated with atherosclerosis) related to primary hypertension and ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and other complications. The aim of this study was to verify if LF-EMF alters viability parameters of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from rats, cultured in vitro and exposed to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF; 7 Hz, 30 mT). ADSCs were obtained from healthy rats and animals with experimentally-induced obesity, both males and females, pups and adults. The animals were fed with chow with either low (LF diet) or high fat content (HF diet) for 21 days. Then, ADSCs were isolated from extracted adipose tissue and used to establish cell cultures. ADSCs from the first passage were exposed to PEMF three times, 4 hours per exposure, at 24-h intervals (experimentally developed protocol of PEMF stimulation). 24 hours after the last exposure to PEMF, viability parameters of ADSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). The study demonstrated that LF diet exerted a protective effect on PEMF-exposed ADSCs, especially in the case of male and female pups. In turn, the proportion of early apoptotic cells in PEMF-treated ADSC cultures from adult female rats maintained on HF diet turned out to be significantly higher than in other experimental groups.

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to perform.

  4. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather A.; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian'an; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J.; Overvad, Kim; Ostergaard, Jane Nautrup; TjOnneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Mesrine, Sylvie; Foamier, Agnes; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Ramon Quiros, J.; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Maria Huerta, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Sand, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Soren; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  6. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  7. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  8. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  9. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO2peak/3min, 50% VO2peak) or MICT (55% VO2peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (Ptraining intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, Pintensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, Phigh intensity and moderate intensity exercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: Across-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Premanath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6(IL-6, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR. Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C, lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group ( P = 0.014. IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group ( P = 0.028, P = 0.003. TNF-α was high in obese males (NS, IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS, hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS. AN was high in females of both groups ( P = 0.002. Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful.

  11. The double isotope technique for in vivo determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for xenon in human subcutaneous adipose tissue--an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A; Bülow, J

    1985-01-01

    Local subcutaneous 133xenon (133Xe) elimination was registered in the human forefoot in 34 patients. The tissue/blood partition coefficient for Xe was estimated individually by simultaneous registration of 133Xe and [131I]antipyrine ([131I]AP) washout from the same local depot. When measured...... the partition coefficient found by the double isotope technique, significantly lower values are obtained than if the in vitro determined coefficient is used. This difference is explained mainly by local dilution when injecting xenon subcutaneously. In short-term studies, utilization of the double isotope...

  12. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...... was found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...... correlated to SFT with the equation lambda = 0.20 . SFT + 4.63. It is concluded that the previously accepted lambda value of 10 is generally too high in perirenal as well as in subcutaneous tissue. Thus, by application of the present regression equations, it is possible to obtain more exact estimates...

  13. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high......-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher...

  14. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...

  15. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H. J.; Middelkoop, E.; van Heemstra-Hoen, M.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated

  16. Visceral adipose tissue is associated with microstructural brain tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widya, Ralph L; Kroft, Lucia J M; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van der Bijl, Noortje; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with microstructural brain tissue damage. Different fat compartments demonstrate different metabolic and endocrine behaviors. The aim was to investigate the individual associations between abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and microstructural integrity in the brain. This study comprised 243 subjects aged 65.4 ± 6.7 years. The associations between abdominal VAT and SAT, assessed by CT, and magnetization transfer imaging markers of brain microstructure for gray and white matter were analyzed and adjusted for confounding factors. VAT was associated with normalized MTR peak height in gray (β -0.216) and white matter (β -0.240) (both P  0.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that only VAT was associated with normalized MTR peak height in gray and white matter (both P VAT rather than SAT is associated with microstructural brain tissue damage in elderly individuals. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Young; Després, Jean-Pierre; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-10-01

    Adipose tissue, which has been considered mainly as a site of energy storage and mobilization, is found in many depots throughout the body. Adipose depots may have structural properties such as, for instance, the fat pads located in the hands and feet and the periorbital fat supporting the eyes. Adipose tissue also shows remarkable regional heterogeneity. For instance, substantial differences have been reported in the metabolic properties of visceral (intra-abdominal) vs. subcutaneous adipose depots. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has active endocrine and paracrine functions with the secretion of various pro-inflammatory chemokines potentially contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis related with obesity. In addition, adipose depots surrounding the heart, such as epicardial (EAT) and perivascular adipose tissues (PAT) may also exert important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease beyond the contribution of VAT due to their close anatomic relationships with vascular structures and myocardium. The purpose of the present review is to outline the current understanding of the pathophysiological links between EAT, PAT and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Also, we discuss the current investigative methods for PAT quantification and discuss the potential impact of PAT on cardiovascular risk prediction. Finally, potential clinical implications of these notions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipose tissue remodeling in rats exhibiting fructose-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Valiante, Salvatore; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of a fructose-rich diet on morphological and functional changes in white adipose tissue (WAT) that could contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Adult sedentary rats were fed a fructose-rich diet for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance test was carried out together with measurement of plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation. In subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal WAT, number and size of adipocytes together with cellular insulin sensitivity and lipolytic activity were assessed. Rats fed a fructose-rich diet exhibited a significant increase in plasma insulin, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation, together with significantly increased body lipids and epididymal and mesenteric WAT, compared to controls. Mean adipocyte volume in subcutaneous abdominal WAT was significantly lower, while mean adipocyte volume in intra-abdominal WAT was significantly higher, in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. A significant increase in larger adipocytes and a significant decrease in smaller adipocytes were found in intra-abdominal WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. Insulin's ability to inhibit lipolysis was blunted in subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal adipocytes from fructose-fed rats. Accordingly, lower p-Akt/Akt ratio was found in WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. Long-term consumption of high levels of fructose elicits remarkable morphological and functional modifications, particularly in intra-abdominal WAT, that are highly predictive of obesity and insulin resistance and that contribute to the worsening of metabolic alterations peculiar in a fructose-rich, hypolipidic diet.

  19. Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, N.; Kanaya, A.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, Frances A; Seidell, J C

    AIMS: We investigated whether low subcutaneous thigh fat is an independent risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, and whether these associations differ between sexes, and between white and black adults. Our secondary aim was to investigate which body composition characteristics (lean

  20. Central adiposity is negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Baym, Carol L; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Moore, R Davis; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-02-01

    To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (age 7-9 years; n = 126), classified as non-overweight (memory tasks. Performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (ie, percent whole-body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Backward regression identified significant (P memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, oxygen consumption, and BMI z-score. Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with SES jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of SES and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Regional, but not whole-body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H J; Middelkoop, E; van Heemstra-Hoen, M; Wildevuur, C H; Westerhof, W

    1995-10-01

    Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated within hours, which allows immediate treatment of full thickness defects. Porcine full thickness wounds were substituted with native collagen/alpha-elastin hydrolysate matrices. One group of matrices was left unseeded as negative control. The second was seeded with cultured dermal fibroblasts as positive control. The third was seeded with a stromal-vascular-fraction of adipose tissue, and the fourth was seeded with a stromal fraction with few vascular fragments (SF). All substitutes were covered with split skin mesh grafts and were protected against dehydration and infection with a microporous polyether urethane membrane. For 8 weeks, weekly biopsies were taken, myofibroblasts and fibroblasts were counted, thickness of the granulation tissue band was measured, and wound contraction and histology were evaluated. Negative control and stromal-vascular-fraction substitutes were invaded by high numbers of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts. They did not reduce wound contraction, and scar tissue was formed. SF substitutes reduced the accumulation of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts and prevented the formation of granulation tissue. As a result, dermal regeneration improved, and wound contraction was less than by the other substitutes. Adipose tissue cell isolates included vascular fragments containing endothelial cells. Seeded in dermal substitutes, these vascular fragments induced hypergranulation tissue formation and caused wound contraction. SF substitutes contained few endothelial cells. As a result, the contraction arresting effect of the seeded stromal cell fraction was effective. Our concept of a cellular dermal substitute seeded with stromal cells from adipose tissue is feasible and allows

  2. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed...... in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body...

  3. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined...... with local infusion of the alpha2-blocker phentolamine in superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in preperitoneal adipose tissue was studied in seven healthy subjects. The interstitial glycerol concentration in the three adipose tissue depots was measured by the microdialysis method....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...

  4. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  5. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin in hu...... the presence of sufficient concentrations in the adipose tissue to be effective against common bacteria....

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non-diab......-diabetic subjects are associated with subsequent changes in body weight and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)].......Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non...

  7. Inflammation in response to glucose ingestion is independent of excess abdominal adiposity in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank; Sia, Chang Ling; Shepard, Marguerite K; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation and excess abdominal adiposity (AA) are often present in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We determined the effects of hyperglycemia on nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of normal-weight women with PCOS with and without excess AA. This was a prospective controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Fifteen normal-weight, reproductive-age women with PCOS (seven normal AA, eight excess AA) and 16 body composition-matched controls (eight normal AA, eight excess AA) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry. Insulin sensitivity was derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (IS(OGTT)). Activated NFκB and the protein content of p65 and inhibitory-κB were quantified from MNC, and TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in plasma obtained from blood drawn while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Compared with controls, both PCOS groups exhibited lower IS(OGTT), increases in activated NFκB and p65 protein, and decreases in inhibitory-κB protein. Compared with women with PCOS with excess AA, those with normal AA exhibited higher testosterone levels and lower TNFα and CRP levels. For the combined groups, the percent change in NFκB activation was negatively correlated with IS(OGTT) and positively correlated with androgens. TNFα and CRP were positively correlated with abdominal fat. In normal-weight women with PCOS, the inflammatory response to glucose ingestion is independent of excess AA. Circulating MNC and excess AA are separate and unique sources of inflammation in this population.

  8. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da; Carlos, Aluana Santana; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if pfat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  9. Cranioplasty with subcutaneously preserved autologous bone grafts in abdominal wall—Experience with 75 cases in a post-war country Kosova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Dragusha, Shefki; Ahmeti, Feti; Morina, Dukagjin; Gashi, Kushtrim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study is to show the advantages of preservation of a calvarial bone flap in the abdominal pocket after decompressive craniotomy. Decompressive craniectomy is an option in the surgical management of refractory hypertension when maximal medical treatment (sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, moderate cooling, etc) has failed to control refractory high intracranial pressure. Methods: We have prospectively analyzed 82 consecutively operated cases decompressive craniotomies done at the University Neurosurgical Clinic in Prishtina/KOSOVA over a period of eight years (June 1999 to Aug 2008). Of the 75 who had their grafts replaced (7 patient died before replacement of bone graft), 62 patients had hemicraniectomy (fronto-parieto-temporal) 7 of them were bilateral. Results In 66 out of 75 patients was achieved a satisfactory and cosmetically reconstruction, in 9 cases was required augmentation with methyl methacrylate to achieve cosmetic needs. Two patients had infection and the bone was removed; 6 months later these patients had cranioplasty with methyl methacrylate. The duration of storage of calvarial bone in abdominal pouch before reimplantation was 14 – 232 days (range 56 days). Conclusion: We think that storage of the patients own bone flap in the abdominal pocket is a safe, easy, cheap, sterile, histocompatible, and better cosmetic results. PMID:21697987

  10. Cranioplasty with subcutaneously preserved autologous bone grafts in abdominal wall-Experience with 75 cases in a post-war country Kosova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Dragusha, Shefki; Ahmeti, Feti; Morina, Dukagjin; Gashi, Kushtrim

    2011-01-01

    The study is to show the advantages of preservation of a calvarial bone flap in the abdominal pocket after decompressive craniotomy. Decompressive craniectomy is an option in the surgical management of refractory hypertension when maximal medical treatment (sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, moderate cooling, etc) has failed to control refractory high intracranial pressure. We have prospectively analyzed 82 consecutively operated cases decompressive craniotomies done at the University Neurosurgical Clinic in Prishtina/KOSOVA over a period of eight years (June 1999 to Aug 2008). Of the 75 who had their grafts replaced (7 patient died before replacement of bone graft), 62 patients had hemicraniectomy (fronto-parieto-temporal) 7 of them were bilateral. In 66 out of 75 patients was achieved a satisfactory and cosmetically reconstruction, in 9 cases was required augmentation with methyl methacrylate to achieve cosmetic needs. Two patients had infection and the bone was removed; 6 months later these patients had cranioplasty with methyl methacrylate. The duration of storage of calvarial bone in abdominal pouch before reimplantation was 14 - 232 days (range 56 days). We think that storage of the patients own bone flap in the abdominal pocket is a safe, easy, cheap, sterile, histocompatible, and better cosmetic results.

  11. Reduced LPL and subcutaneous lipid storage capacity are associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M C; Ryan, A S; Goldberg, A P

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that lower adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and a limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte expansion will be associated with metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese. Women (N = 150; age 60 ± 1 year; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.3 kg m-2; mean ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) with and without MSyn had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for total body fat, CT scans for visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue areas, lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, and abdominal and gluteal fat aspirations for subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; N = 150) and LPL activity (N = 100). Women with MSyn had similar total body fat, but 15% larger abdominal and 11% larger gluteal FCWs and more visceral fat (179 ± 7 vs. 134 ± 6 cm2) than women without MSyn (P's women with than without MSyn and correlated with abdominal FCW (r = 0.49, P independent of total body fat. These results show that women with MSyn have lower LPL activity, limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte lipid storage and greater ectopic fat accumulation in viscera than women without MSyn of comparable obesity. This suggests that the development of novel therapies that would enhance adipocyte expandability might prevent the accumulation of ectopic fat and reduce the risk for MSyn in postmenopausal women with obesity.

  12. Expression of Innate Immune Response Genes in Liver and Three Types of Adipose Tissue in Cloned Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a relevant model for human obesity-induced inflammation, and cloning may improve the applicability of this model. We tested the assumptions that cloning would reduce interindividual variation in gene expression of innate immune factors and that their expression would...... remain unaffected by the cloning process. We investigated the expression of 40 innate immune factors by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR in samples from liver, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and neck SAT in cloned pigs compared to normal outbred pigs...

  13. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitt...

  14. Concentration of sex steroids in adipose tissue after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H; Blankenstein, M A; Daroszewski, J

    1998-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a site of uptake, storage, action, and metabolism of sex steroids. After menopause aromatization of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue is one of the most important sources of estrogen in the circulation and for peripheral tissues. The aim of this study was to estimate local sex steroid concentrations in breast and abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, to compare them with plasma concentrations and to investigate possible correlations with body mass index (BMI). The patients were postmenopausal women undergoing surgery for non-oncological reasons (Group A; n = 35) and breast cancer patients (group B; n = 19). The concentrations of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone sulfate, 17 beta-estradiol sulfate, androstenedione, androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. The method was based on frozen tissue homogenization, extraction with ethanol: acetone, delipidation, extraction of estrogens with ether, and of androgens with iso-octane in toluene, followed by RIA. The mean levels of steroids were higher in fat than in plasma, apart from testosterone. Levels of sulfates of estrogens and androstenediol were higher in breast than abdominal adipose tissue, and levels of estradiol lower. Positive correlations were found between BMI and tissue and plasma concentration of both estrone and androstenedione.

  15. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  16. Tracheal CT morphology: correlation with distribution and extent of thoracic adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ap Dafydd, Derfel [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Desai, Sujal R. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Gordon, Fabiana; Copley, Susan J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between adipose tissue measurements and anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall in a large nonselected group of patients undergoing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Consecutive patients undergoing CTPA over a 4-month period were analyzed retrospectively. Using an adapted scoring system (posterior bowing, flattening, mild/moderate or severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal membrane), the axial morphology and cross-sectional area of the trachea at the narrowest point and 1 cm above the aortic arch were evaluated. Measurements of adipose tissue were taken (anterior mediastinal fat width, sagittal upper abdominal diameter and subcutaneous fat thickness at the level of the costophrenic angle). Relationships between tracheal morphology and measurements of adipose tissue were analyzed. 296 patients were included (120 males, 176 females, mean age 59 years, range 19-90). Severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing sagittal upper abdominal diameter (p = 0.002). Mild/moderate and severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing mediastinal fat width (p = 0.000 and p = 0.031, respectively). Tracheal cross-sectional area was inversely correlated with increasing subcutaneous fat thickness (p = 0.022). The findings demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between CT tracheal morphology and adipose tissue measurements in a large nonselected population. (orig.)

  17. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; McKenna, Cristin; Bauman, William A

    2017-01-01

    Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (plipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than that observed in the ↑T4 and the AB control groups. Thus, level of injury is an important determinate of the concentration of circulating triglyceride rich lipoproteins, which may play a role in the genesis of cardiometabolic dysfunction.

  18. Investigating the correlation of the number of diagnostic criteria to serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels and abdominal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeser, Tayfun; Basak, Mesut; Arslan, Kadem; Sayan, Ismet

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Metabolic syndrome is a common clinical presentation posing significant risk in cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the correlation between the number of diagnostic criteria and serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels and abdominal adipose tissue in the individuals with metabolic syndrome. This study included a total of 40 patients (18 men and 22 women) with metabolic syndrome that applied to the Internal Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. The data including age, gender, personal history, familial history, habits, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, body composition (tanita) were recorded for each patient. Blood samples were collected for biochemical examinations. The serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels were measured. Statistical analyses were carried out using the NCSS (Number Cruncher Statistical System) 2007 and the PASS (Power Analysis and Sample Size) 2008 Statistical Software (UT, USA). When the patients with metabolic syndrome were analyzed by gender, no statistically significant difference was found between the EGFR and TNF-alpha levels (p>0.05). On the other side, the visceral fat rating and GGT levels of women were significantly lower than those of men (palpha, adiponectin, resistin, and EGFR levels of the patients according to the number of diagnostic criteria; however, there was significant change in the patients' leptin levels. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Lifestyle Interventions on Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Implications for Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Landells, Catherine E; Fan, Jeremy; Brenner, Darren R

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms driving the associations between body weight and physical activity levels and multiple types of cancer are not yet well understood. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions on proposed biomarkers of lifestyle and cancer risk at the level of adipose tissue in humans. Embase, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were searched by using keywords relating to exercise or diet interventions, adipose tissue biology, and outcomes of interest. Eligible studies included randomized clinical trials of exercise and/or dietary interventions in humans compared with control or other interventions, reporting the collection of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Nineteen studies met criteria for inclusion. Eight studies modified dietary intake, five altered exercise levels, and six studies used a combination of both. Change in subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression was most commonly observed with dietary weight loss, with a pattern of decrease in leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6, along with an increase in adiponectin. There was limited change with exercise-only interventions or study arms. Interventions leading to weight loss result in an altered gene expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers in subcutaneous adipose tissue, while less change in gene expression was noted with exercise alone. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  1. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  3. Adipose tissue location and contribution to postinjury hypercoagulability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Robert D; Mellnick, Vincent M; Chamieh, Jad; Nohra, Eden; Tan, Wen-Hui; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raptis, Constantine; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Bochicchio, Kelly; Reese, Stacey; Spinella, Philip C; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state at baseline and following injury. The anatomic location of adipose deposition may influence the type of thrombotic event, with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) associated with arterial thrombosis and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) predisposing to venous thrombosis. We sought to determine whether adipose tissue amount and location correlated with measures of coagulation. All adult Level I trauma activations at our institution between January 2013 and August 2014 who underwent admission abdominal computed tomography scan and had admission rotational thromboelastometry measurements were included. Patients were excluded for history of anticoagulant use and known coagulopathy/hypercoagulable state. Admission computed tomography was used to obtain cross-sectional VAT and SAT areas at the umbilicus utilizing a novel software system; VAT and SAT measurements were associated with markers of coagulation utilizing Spearman correlation and stepwise linear regression with significance set at p < 0.05. Two hundred forty-two patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixty-nine percent of patients sustained blunt injury, 79% were male, mean age was 40 years, 25% were obese or morbidly obese, and mean Injury Severity Scale score was 17. Seventeen percent of patients had acute deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism during hospitalization. Neither SAT nor VAT correlated with prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, or partial thromboplastin time. Subcutaneous adipose tissue correlated positively with platelet count. Visceral adipose tissue and SAT correlated negatively with clot formation time and positively with TEM fibrinogen, α angle, maximum clot firmness, and lysis at 30 minutes; stronger correlations and greater significance were seen between SAT and these measures except for lysis at 30 minutes. Stepwise linear regression confirmed significant relationships between SAT and clot formation time, AA, and

  4. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24680136

  5. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  6. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group...... and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4...

  7. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, but regional differences are poorly elucidated in humans. We investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in five individual femoral muscle groups and four different adipose tissue regions...... was highest in femoral skeletal muscle followed by intraperitoneal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), retroperitoneal VAT, abdominal (anterior + posterior) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and femoral SAT (P ... groups in femoral skeletal muscle (MOD 24[9, 39] μmol·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.004; HIGH 22[9, 35] μmol·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.003) (mean[95% CI]) and in five individual femoral muscle groups but not in femoral SAT. Standardized uptake value of FDG decreased ∼24% in anterior abdominal SAT and ∼20% in posterior...

  8. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  9. Differential effects of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of Alentejana purebred and Large White × Landrace × Pietrain crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Costa, Ana S H; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2013-07-28

    The present study assessed the effect of pig genotype (fatty v. lean) and dietary protein and lysine (Lys) levels (normal v. reduced) on intramuscular fat (IMF) content, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) deposition, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism. The experiment was conducted on sixty intact male pigs (thirty Alentejana purebred and thirty Large White × Landrace × Pietrain crossbred), from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Animals were divided into three groups fed with the following diets: control diet equilibrated for Lys (17·5 % crude protein (CP) and 0·7 % Lys), reduced protein diet (RPD) equilibrated for Lys (13·2 % CP and 0·6 % Lys) and RPD not equilibrated for Lys (13·1 % CP and 0·4 % Lys). It was shown that the RPD increased fat deposition in the longissimus lumborum muscle in the lean but not in the fatty pig genotype. It is strongly suggested that the effect of RPD on the longissimus lumborum muscle of crossbred pigs is mediated via Lys restriction. The increase in IMF content under the RPD was accompanied by increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and PPARG mRNA levels. RPD did not alter backfat thickness, but increased the total fatty acid content in both lean and fatty pig genotype. The higher amount of SAT in fatty pigs, when compared with the lean ones, was associated with the higher expression levels of ACACA, CEBPA, FASN and SCD genes. Taken together, the data indicate that the mechanisms regulating fat deposition in pigs are genotype and tissue specific, and are associated with the expression regulation of the key lipogenic genes.

  10. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    Full Text Available Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG and VLDL particles (VLDL-P was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI.One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4; 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5] and 53 able-bodied (AB subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package.Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01 and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05, respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05 and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group.Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than that observed in the ↑T4 and the AB

  11. Distribution of Abdominal Obesity and Fitness Level in Overweight and Obese Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio, and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI (r=0.045, P=0.499, whereas VAT (r=0.232, P<0.001 and VAT/SAT ratio (r=0.214, P=0.001 remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (β=0.204, P<0.001 and VAT/SAT ratio (β=0.163, P=0.008 but not with SAT (β=0.097, P=0.111. Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults.

  12. Adipose tissue and muscle attenuation as novel biomarkers predicting mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas

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    Veld, Joyce; Vossen, Josephina A.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkan F. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute of Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To assess CT-attenuation of abdominal adipose tissue and psoas muscle as predictors of mortality in patients with sarcomas of the extremities. Our study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 135 patients with history of extremity sarcoma (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) who underwent whole body PET/CT. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and psoas muscle attenuation (HU) was assessed on non-contrast, attenuation-correction CT. Clinical information including survival, tumour stage, sarcoma type, therapy and pre-existing comorbidities were recorded. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine longitudinal associations between adipose tissue and muscle attenuation and mortality. There were 47 deaths over a mean follow-up period of 20 ± 17 months. Higher SAT and lower psoas attenuation were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively), which remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, tumor stage, therapy, and comorbidities (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). VAT attenuation was not associated with mortality. Attenuation of SAT and psoas muscle, assessed on non-contrast CT, are predictors of mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas, independent of other established prognostic factors, suggesting that adipose tissue and muscle attenuation could serve as novel biomarkers for mortality in patients with sarcomas. (orig.)

  13. [Abdominal splenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Bart; Barneveld, Peter C; Jager, Gerrit J; Rutten, Matthieu J C M

    2015-01-01

    Splenosis is a common benign finding that occurs after splenic trauma or after splenectomy. It is auto-transplantation of splenic tissue and can be seen intra-abdominally, intra-thoracically and even subcutaneously. Splenosis is usually found incidentally at laparoscopy, laparotomy or on radiological examination and is mostly asymptomatic. Treatment is only required if a patient complains of abdominal pain, obstruction or bleeding. On radiological examination splenosis can mimic a metastatic malignant disease. For this reason it is important to recognise splenosis and know the patient's medical history concerning splenic trauma or splenectomy, thus avoiding diagnostic laparoscopy or ultrasound guided biopsy. This paper presents two patients with splenosis. Additionally, we describe how to diagnose this entity by scintigraphy with (99m) Technetium-labelled heat-denatured erythrocytes.

  14. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichkendler, M H; Auerbach, P; Rosenkilde, M; Christensen, A N; Holm, S; Petersen, M B; Lagerberg, A; Larsson, H B W; Rostrup, E; Mosbech, T H; Sjödin, A; Kjaer, A; Ploug, T; Hoejgaard, L; Stallknecht, B

    2013-08-15

    Physical exercise increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, but regional differences are poorly elucidated in humans. We investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in five individual femoral muscle groups and four different adipose tissue regions, using dynamic (femoral region) and static (abdominal region) 2-deoxy-2-[¹⁸F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) PET/CT methodology during steady-state insulin infusion (40 mU·m⁻²·min⁻¹). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and MRI. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary [V(O2max) 36(5) ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹; mean(SD)], moderately overweight [BMI 28.1(1.8) kg/m²], young [age: 30(6) yr] men were randomized to sedentary living (CON; n = 17 completers) or moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day, n = 18) or high (HIGH; 600 kcal/day, n = 18) dose physical exercise for 11 wk. At baseline, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was highest in femoral skeletal muscle followed by intraperitoneal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), retroperitoneal VAT, abdominal (anterior + posterior) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and femoral SAT (P exercise groups in femoral skeletal muscle (MOD 24[9, 39] μmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, P = 0.004; HIGH 22[9, 35] μmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, P = 0.003) (mean[95% CI]) and in five individual femoral muscle groups but not in femoral SAT. Standardized uptake value of FDG decreased ~24% in anterior abdominal SAT and ~20% in posterior abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue, which demonstrates some interregional differences.

  15. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  16. Association of total adiposity and computed tomographic measures of regional adiposity with incident cancer risk: a prospective population-based study of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel A; Bureyko, Taylor F; Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A; Satterfield, Suzanne; Hue, Trisha F; Klepin, Heidi D; Cummings, Steven R; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of many types of cancer. Less is known regarding associations between adipose depots and cancer risk. We aimed to explore relationships between adipose depots, risk of cancer, and obesity-related cancer (per NCI definition) in participants initially aged 70-79 years without prevalent cancer (1179 men, 1340 women), and followed for incident cancer for 13 years. Measures included body mass index (BMI), total adipose tissue from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography measures of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, thigh intermuscular adipose tissue, and thigh muscle attenuation (Hounsfield unit, HU), where low HU indicates fatty infiltration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle variables, and medical conditions. During follow-up, 617 participants developed cancer of which 224 were obesity-related cancers. Total adipose tissue and VAT were positively associated with cancer risk among women (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.30 per SD increase; HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.30 per SD increase). There were no associations with cancer risk among men. Total adipose tissue was positively associated with obesity-related cancer risk among women (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46 per SD increase). VAT was positively associated with obesity-related cancer risk among men (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.60 per SD increase) and remained associated even with adjustment for BMI (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.08-1.82 per SD increase). These findings provide insight into relationships between specific adipose depots and cancer risk and suggest differential relationships among men and women.

  17. Treatment of subcutaneous abdominal wound healing impairment after surgery without fascial dehiscence by vacuum assisted closure™ (SAWHI-V.A.C.®-study) versus standard conventional wound therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Dörthe; Lefering, Rolf; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2013-11-20

    A decision of the Federal Joint Committee Germany in 2008 stated that negative pressure wound therapy is not accepted as a standard therapy for full reimbursement by the health insurance companies in Germany. This decision is based on the final report of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in 2006, which demonstrated through systematic reviews and meta-analysis of previous study projects, that an insufficient state of evidence regarding the use of negative pressure wound therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds exists. Further studies were therefore indicated. The study is designed as a multinational, multicenter, prospective randomized controlled, adaptive design, clinical superiority trial, with blinded photographic analysis of the primary endpoint. Efficacy and effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy for wounds in both medical sectors (in- and outpatient care) will be evaluated. The trial compares the treatment outcome of the application of a technical medical device which is based on the principle of negative pressure wound therapy (intervention group) and standard conventional wound therapy (control group) in the treatment of subcutaneous abdominal wounds after surgery. The aim of the SAWHI-VAC® study is to compare the clinical, safety and economic results of both treatment arms. The study project is designed and conducted with the aim of providing solid evidence regarding the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy. Study results will be provided until the end of 2014 to contribute to the final decision of the Federal Joint Committee Germany regarding the general admission of negative pressure wound therapy as a standard of performance within both medical sectors. Clinical Trials.gov NCT01528033German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00000648.

  18. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  19. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderaouf Damouche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are (i viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication and (ii chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF; the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV. The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART. Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low

  20. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Lazure, Thierry; Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  1. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Impact of early parenteral nutrition on muscle and adipose tissue compartments during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaer, Michael P; Langouche, Lies; Coudyzer, Walter; Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; De Dobbelaer, Bart; Güiza, Fabian G; Wouters, Pieter J; Mesotten, Dieter; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-10-01

    The goal of enhanced nutrition in critically ill patients is to improve outcome by reducing lean tissue wasting. However, such effect has not been proven. This study aimed to assess the effect of early administration of parenteral nutrition on muscle volume and composition by repeated quantitative CT. A preplanned substudy of a randomized controlled trial (Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients [EPaNIC]), which compared early initiation of parenteral nutrition when enteral nutrition was insufficient (early parenteral nutrition) with tolerating a pronounced nutritional deficit for 1 week in ICU (late parenteral nutrition). Late parenteral nutrition prevented infections and accelerated recovery. University hospital. Fifteen EPaNIC study neurosurgical patients requiring prescheduled repeated follow-up CT scans and six healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Repeated abdominal and femoral quantitative CT images were obtained in a standardized manner on median ICU day 2 (interquartile range, 2-3) and day 9 (interquartile range, 8-10). Intramuscular, subcutaneous, and visceral fat compartments were delineated manually. Muscle and adipose tissue volume and composition were quantified using standard Hounsfield Unit ranges. Critical illness evoked substantial loss of femoral muscle volume in 1 week's time, irrespective of the nutritional regimen. Early parenteral nutrition reduced the quality of the muscle tissue, as reflected by the attenuation, revealing increased intramuscular water/lipid content. Early parenteral nutrition also increased the volume of adipose tissue islets within the femoral muscle compartment. These changes in skeletal muscle quality correlated with caloric intake. In the abdominal muscle compartments, changes were similar, albeit smaller. Femoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments were unaffected by disease and nutritional strategy. Early parenteral

  3. Consumption of a high glycemic index diet increases abdominal adiposity but does not influence adipose tissue pro-oxidant and antioxidant gene expression in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie Colbert; Huggins, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that consumption of a high glycemic index (GI) starch will increase adiposity, increase expression of the pro-oxidant enzyme (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADPH] oxidase), and decrease expression of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) in adipose tissue of mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 5-8/group) were fed a diet containing either high-GI starch (100% amylopectin) or low-GI starch (60% amylose/40% amylopectin) under low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) conditions for 16 weeks. Meal tolerance tests (MTTs) indicated that the postprandial blood glucose response over 120 minutes for the high-GI mice under LF and HF conditions was significantly greater than for mice fed low-GI diets. This result was not due to increased food consumption by the high-GI mice during the MTT. Although there was no difference in body weight between mice fed high-GI or low-GI starch, LF high-GI mice had significantly greater adiposity compared to LF low-GI mice. High-fat mice had a significant increase in NADPH oxidase expression compared to LF mice, but there was no significant effect of starch on NADPH oxidase expression. High-fat diet significantly decreased the expression of GPx and catalase, but there was no significant effect of starch on GPx and catalase expression. There was no difference in SOD expression among any of the diet groups. In conclusion, high GI diets increase adiposity under LF conditions but do not influence pro-oxidant or antioxidant enzyme gene expression in adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asem H; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L(-1) (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min(-1) (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk...

  6. Cardiovascular risk score is linked to subcutaneous adipocyte size and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, M; Arner, P

    2017-09-01

    Although white adipose tissue mass and distribution correlates with cardiovascular disease, the fat cell-specific perturbations underlying this association are not known. We determined the relationship between adipocyte size and lipid metabolism with cardiovascular risk. Adipocyte size as well as spontaneous (basal) and hormone-stimulated effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism (lipolysis and lipogenesis) were investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of 304 men and 775 women. Subjects were classified into five categories according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) metabolic syndrome criteria. Adipocyte size increased with increasing ATPIII score (P ATPIII (P ATPIII classes. Basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis decreased with increasing score (P ATPIII score and lipolysis but negatively with lipogenesis. All these differences were independent of age, sex and body weight status (P ATPIII in score. Independently of sex, age and body weight status, a high cardiovascular risk score associates with increased circulating free fatty acid levels and hormone-specific alterations of lipolysis/lipogenesis in enlarged subcutaneous fat cells. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Do Quyen; Ommerborn, Mark J; Hickson, DeMarc A; Taylor, Herman A; Clark, Cheryl R

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study. We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881). Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status. Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156)]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299), Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280), Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285), Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290), respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women. Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex and menopause-status differences that may mediate associations

  8. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study.We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status.Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women.Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex and menopause-status differences that may mediate

  9. Adverse Associations between Visceral Adiposity, Brain Structure, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Sim, Sam; Zheng, Hui; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Tai, E Shyong; Chee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The link between central adiposity and cognition has been established by indirect measures such as body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantification of central abdominal fat has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular disease. However it is not known how quantification of visceral fat correlates with cognitive performance and measures of brain structure. We filled this gap by characterizing the relationships between MRI measures of abdominal adiposity, brain morphometry, and cognition, in healthy elderly. A total of 184 healthy community dwelling elderly subjects without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk, neuropsychological measurements as well as MRI of the brain and abdomen fat were obtained. Abdominal images were segmented into subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) adipose tissue compartments. Brain MRI measures were analyzed quantitatively to determine total brain volume, hippocampal volume, ventricular volume, and cortical thickness. VAT showed negative association with verbal memory (r = 0.21, p = 0.005) and attention (r = 0.18, p = 0.01). Higher VAT was associated with lower hippocampal volume (F = 5.39, p = 0.02) and larger ventricular volume (F = 6.07, p = 0.02). The participants in the upper quartile of VAT had the lowest hippocampal volume even after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, and BMI (b = -0.28, p = 0.005). There was a significant age by VAT interaction for cortical thickness in the left prefrontal region. In healthy older adults, elevated VAT is associated with negative effects on cognition, and brain morphometry.

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher W Resnyk; Chuming Chen; Hongzhan Huang; Wu, Cathy H.; Jean Simon,; Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral f...

  11. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  12. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.

    2013-01-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms......, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck......, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none...

  14. Adipose tissue-specific regulation of angiotensinogen in obese humans and mice: impact of nutritional status and adipocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, Shintaro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Okada, Sadanori; Ishii, Takako; Kozuka, Chisayo; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Fujikura, Junji; Ebihara, Ken; Hosoda, Kiminori; Katsurada, Akemi; Ohashi, Naro; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Naoki; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Naitoh, Motoko; Okada, Mitsuru; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-04-01

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and dysfunction of adipose tissue. However, neither regulation of angiotensinogen (AGT) expression in adipose tissue nor secretion of adipose tissue-derived AGT has been fully elucidated in humans. Human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were performed for 46 subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). Considering the mRNA level of AGT and indices of body fat mass, the amount of adipose tissue-derived AGT secretion (A-AGT-S) was estimated. Using a mouse model of obesity and weight reduction, plasma AGT levels were measured with a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the contribution of A-AGT-S to plasma AGT levels was assessed. A-AGT-S was substantially increased in obese humans and the value was correlated with the plasma AGT level in mice. A-AGT-S and plasma AGT were higher in obese mice, whereas lower in mice with weight reduction. However, the AGT mRNA levels in the liver, kidney, and aorta were not altered in the mouse models. In both humans and mice, the AGT mRNA levels in mature adipocytes (MAs) were comparable to those in stromal-vascular cells. Coulter Multisizer analyses revealed that AGT mRNA levels in the MAs were inversely correlated with the average size of mature adipocytes. This study demonstrates that adipose tissue-derived AGT is substantially augmented in obese humans, which may contribute considerably to elevated levels of circulating AGT. Adipose tissue-specific regulation of AGT provides a novel insight into the clinical implications of adipose tissue RAS in human obesity.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648613; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  16. Adipose Lipolysis Unchanged by Preexercise Carbohydrate regardless of Glycemic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel A; Willingham, Brandon D; Smith, Kyle A; Kisiolek, Jacob N; Morrissey, Margaret C; Saracino, Patrick G; Ragland, Tristan J; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2017-11-20

    To determine the impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% VO2max, 30 min at 75% VO2max, and a 5-km time trial (TT). Thirty min prior to exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched non-caloric placebo (PL). SCAAT lipolysis was assessed via microdialysis. Prior to exercise, blood glucose and insulin were elevated with G vs. PL (+53.0 ± 21.3 mg[BULLET OPERATOR]dL [SD]; p glycemic index carbohydrate. However, these changes are not the result of alterations in SCAAT lipolysis, nor do they affect running performance.

  17. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  18. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]. We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS. Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women.

  19. Validation of volumetric and single-slice MRI adipose analysis using a novel fully automated segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addeman, Bryan T; Kutty, Shelby; Perkins, Thomas G; Soliman, Abraam S; Wiens, Curtis N; McCurdy, Colin M; Beaton, Melanie D; Hegele, Robert A; McKenzie, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    To validate a fully automated adipose segmentation method with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fat fraction abdominal imaging. We hypothesized that this method is suitable for segmentation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in a wide population range, easy to use, works with a variety of hardware setups, and is highly repeatable. Analysis was performed comparing precision and analysis time of manual and automated segmentation of single-slice imaging, and volumetric imaging (78-88 slices). Volumetric and single-slice data were acquired in a variety of cohorts (body mass index [BMI] 15.6-41.76) including healthy adult volunteers, adolescent volunteers, and subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lipodystrophies. A subset of healthy volunteers was analyzed for repeatability in the measurements. The fully automated segmentation was found to have excellent agreement with manual segmentation with no substantial bias across all study cohorts. Repeatability tests showed a mean coefficient of variation of 1.2 ± 0.6% for SAT, and 2.7 ± 2.2% for IAAT. Analysis with automated segmentation was rapid, requiring 2 seconds per slice compared with 8 minutes per slice with manual segmentation. We demonstrate the ability to accurately and rapidly segment regional adipose tissue using fat fraction maps across a wide population range, with varying hardware setups and acquisition methods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Case of subcutaneous and mesenteric acute panniculitis with Sjögren's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Takahiko; Koike, Rhuji; Nosaka, Yurika; Ogawa, Jun; Hagiyama, Hiroyuki; Nagasaka, Kenji; Nonomura, Yoshinori; Nishio, Junko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Kubota, Tetsuo; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2002-06-01

    We report a case of a 27-year-old Japanese female with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), who suffered from several episodes of subcutaneous and mesenteric panniculitis with a recurrence within one year. After a history of fever and skin rash, the patient underwent surgery at a local hospital with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis complicated with an ileocecal abscess. She was also diagnosed as having SS. After the operation, the fever and skin rash persisted. She was treated with prednisolone (PSL), and her symptoms resolved. A recurrent bout of abdominal pain with fever, annular erythema on the trunk and a nodular erythematous rash on the lower extremities occurred six months after the operation. A skin biopsy from the lower extremities showed findings that were compatible with panniculitis. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) showed a diffuse swelling with soft tissue density in the intestinal mesenterium and para aortic area. A retrospective examination of the operative specimen obtained from the local hospital revealed centrilobular infiltration of neutrophils in the mesenteric adipose tissue with fat necrosis, which is compatible with mesenteric panniculitis. Twenty mg/day of PSL was successful in treating the systemic panniculitis, and the abnormal diffuse soft tissue density on the abdominal CT disappeared after three weeks of PSL administration. Systemic panniculitis is a rare complication in SS, and the pathogenesis is unclear.

  1. CT-based compartmental quantification of adipose tissue versus body metrics in colorectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nattenmueller, Johanna; Hoegenauer, Hanna; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia [Huntsman Cancer Institute, Department of Population Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Scherer, Dominique; Paskow, Michael; Gigic, Biljana; Schrotz-King, Petra [National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Division of Preventive Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    While obesity is considered a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC), there is increasing evidence that not simply body mass index (BMI) alone but specifically abdominal fat distribution is what matters. As part of the ColoCare study, this study measured the distribution of adipose tissue compartments in CRC patients and aimed to identify the body metric that best correlates with these measurements as a useful proxy for adipose tissue distribution. In 120 newly-diagnosed CRC patients who underwent multidetector computed tomography (CT), densitometric quantification of total (TFA), visceral (VFA), intraperitoneal (IFA), retroperitoneal (RFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA), as well as the M. erector spinae and psoas was performed to test the association with gender, age, tumor stage, metabolic equivalents, BMI, waist-to-height (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). VFA was 28.8 % higher in men (p{sub VFA}<0.0001) and 30.5 % higher in patients older than 61 years (p{sub VFA}<0.0001). WHtR correlated best with all adipose tissue compartments (r{sub VFA}=0.69, r{sub TFA}=0.84, p<0.0001) and visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio (VFR, r{sub VFR}=0.22, p=<0.05). Patients with tumor stages III/IV showed significantly lower overall adipose tissue than I/II. Increased M. erector spinae mass was inversely correlated with all compartments. Densitometric quantification on CT is a highly reproducible and reliable method to show fat distribution across adipose tissue compartments. This distribution might be best reflected by WHtR, rather than by BMI or WHR. (orig.)

  2. Influência da adiposidade global e da adiposidade abdominal nos níveis de proteína C-reativa em mulheres idosas Influence of overall and abdominal adiposity on C-reactive protein levels in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffer Eidi Sasaki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar como a adiposidade global e a adiposidade abdominal, expressas pela circunferência da cintura (CC, pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC e pelo somatório de dobras cutâneas (sigmaDC, influenciam os níveis de proteína C-reativa (PCR em mulheres idosas. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 387 mulheres idosas, com idade superior a 60 anos (média, 68,9; desvio padrão, 5,9 anos. Foram avaliados o IMC, a CC, o sigmaDC, e os níveis de PCR. Foi utilizada a análise estatística ANOVA one-way para verificar as diferenças nas variáveis entre as categorias investigadas. Para avaliar a influência das medidas de adiposidade nos níveis de PCR foi utilizada a regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado foi de p OBJECTIVE: To investigate how overall and abdominal adiposity, measured by waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, and sum of skinfolds (sigmaSK, affect plasma C-reactive protein levels (CRP in elderly women. METHODS: Study sample consisted of 387 women older than 60 years (mean age 68.9; standard deviation 5.9 years. BMI, WC, sigmaSK, and CRP levels were all measured. One-way ANOVA was performed to detect differences in study variables among the CRP levels investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of body fat measurements on CRP levels. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed that mean WC was lower in women with normal CRP levels, as compared to those with high CRP levels. Logistic regression analysis examined the influence of BMI, WC, and sigmaSK quartiles on CRP levels, yielding the following results: only WC was predictive of elevated CRP levels, its highest quartile (cut-off point of 94.0 cm showing levels nearly two times higher than its lowest quartile (odds ratio = 2.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.92-4.18; p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that abdominal adiposity is a strong predictor of

  3. Abdominal splenosis Esplenosis abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Ksiadzyna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Splenosis is a benign condition caused by an ectopic autotransplantation of splenic tissues after splenic trauma or surgery. It usually occurs within the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Patients are generally asymptomatic and this entity is diagnosed accidentally. However, occasionally extensive abdominal splenosis poses a significant diagnostic dilemma for gastroenterologists, especially when this condition manifests as a disseminated metastatic malignant disease on abdominal imaging. This paper presents a concise review of the literature on this often misleading disorder. The crucial role of taking a thorough patient's medical history concerning splenic trauma in the past, the need for differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions disclosed on abdominal imaging and novel diagnostics modalities that allow avoiding unnecessary laparotomy in case of abdominal splenosis are stressed. The increased prevalence of abdominal trauma due to road accidents and the growing armamentarium of available imaging modalities suggest that abdominal splenosis may be expected more often than ever. In order to prevent any possible diagnostic doubts and unnecessary future invasive examinations, confirmed splenosis should be recorded in the medical documentation of the patient.

  4. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deregulation of obesity-relevant genes is associated with progression in BMI and the amount of adipose tissue in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative impact of three phenotypes often used to characterize obesity on perturbation of molecular pathways involved in obesity. The three obesity-related phenotypes are (1) body mass index (BMI), (2) amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATa), and (3) amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPATa). Although it is generally accepted that increasing amount of RPATa is 'unhealthy', a direct comparison of the relative impact of the three obesity-related phenotypes on gene expression has, to our knowledge, not been performed previously. We have used multiple linear models to analyze altered gene expression of selected obesity-related genes in tissues collected from 19 female pigs phenotypically characterized with respect to the obesity-related phenotypes. Gene expression was assessed by high-throughput qPCR in RNA from liver, skeletal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue. The stringent statistical approach used in the study has increased the power of the analysis compared to the classical approach of analysis in divergent groups of individuals. Our approach led to the identification of key components of cellular pathways that are modulated in the three tissues in association with changes in the three obesity-relevant phenotypes (BMI, SATa and RPATa). The deregulated pathways are involved in biosynthesis and transcript regulation in adipocytes, in lipid transport, lipolysis and metabolism, and in inflammatory responses. Deregulation seemed more comprehensive in liver (23 genes) compared to abdominal adipose tissue (10 genes) and muscle (3 genes). Notably, the study supports the notion that excess amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue is associated with a greater metabolic disease risk. Our results provide molecular support for this notion by demonstrating that increasing amount of RPATa has a higher impact on perturbation of cellular pathways influencing obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits compared to increase

  6. Comparative studies on proliferation, molecular markers and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells from various tissues (adipose, bone marrow, ear skin, abdominal skin, and lung) and maintenance of multipotency during serial passages in miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Keum Sil; Lee, So-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Byeong Chun; Koo, Ok Jae; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multi-lineage cells, which confers great promise for use in regenerative medicine. In this study, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, ear skin, lung, and abdominal skin of miniature pigs (mpMSCs), and the optimal medium (DMEM/F12-Glutamax) was selected for the culturing of mpMSCs. As a result, proliferation of the mpMSCs derived from all tissues was steadily increased when cultured with DMEM/F12-Glutamax during 14 consecutive passages. The cells harbored MSC surface markers (CD34-, CD45-, CD29+, CD44+, CD90+, and CD105+), whose levels of expression differed among the tissue sources and declined over sub-passaging. In addition, the expression of stemness markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and differentiation into mesoderm (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) were clearly represented at early passage; however, expression of stemness markers decreased, and differentiation potential was lost over sequential sub-passaging, which should be considered in the selection of mpMSC for MSC-based application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the mincing method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from pregnant women fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Pao-Jen; Wu, Li-Wei; Chou, Pei-Wen; Sun, Li-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2017-12-12

    The success of stem cell application in regenerative medicine, usually require a stable source of stem or progenitor cells. Fat tissue represents a good source of stem cells because it is rich in stem cells and there are fewer ethical issues related to the use of such stem cells, unlike embryonic stem cells. Therefore, there has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, we aim to provide an easy processing method for isolating adult stem cells from human adipose tissue harvested from the subcutaneous fat of the abdominal wall during gynecologic surgery. We used a homogenizer to mince fat and compared the results with those obtained from the traditional cut method involving a sterile scalpel and forceps. Our results showed that our method provides another stable and quality source of stem cells that could be used in cases with a large quantity of fat. Furthermore, we found that pregnancy adipose-derived stem cells (P-ADSCs) could be maintained in vitro for extended periods with a stable population doubling and low senescence levels. P-ADSCs could also differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and insulin-producing cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, like human lipoaspirates, adipose tissues obtained from pregnant women contain multipotent cells with better proliferation and showed great promise for use in both stem cell banking studies as well as in stem cell therapy.

  8. Abdominal Fat Distribution and Cardiovascular Risk in Men and Women With Different Levels of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Stine H; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Johansen, Nanna B; Carstensen, Bendix; Witte, Daniel R; Andersen, Ingelise; Lauritzen, Torsten; Andersen, Gregers S

    2015-09-01

    Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important to understanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population of men and women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412 adults age 45-80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound. The associations of VAT and SAT with blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body mass index. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed. Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionally associated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionally associated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women and with higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity associated with cardiovascular risk in a population of men and women at low to high risk of diabetes or with screen-detected diabetes.

  9. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, José O; Iyengar, Neil M; Walker, Jeanne M; Milne, Ginger L; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N; Hudis, Clifford A; Breslow, Jan L; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Prospective cohort study. Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites (i.e., lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss.

  10. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  11. Inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Goran, Michael I

    2009-11-01

    To date, no studies have assessed the longitudinal changes of dietary intake on metabolic risk factors in Latino youth. We assessed the relation between changes in dietary intake, specifically sugar and fiber intakes, with changes in adiposity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal analysis of overweight Latino youth. Overweight Latino youth (n = 85; aged 11-17 y) underwent the following measures over 2 y [mean (+/-SD) time difference was 1.5 +/- 0.5 y]: dietary intake by 2-d diet recalls, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, and glucose and insulin indexes by oral- and intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests. Partial correlations and repeated-measures analysis of covariance assessed the relation between changes in dietary intake with changes in adiposity and glucose and insulin indexes, independent of the following a priori covariates: sex, Tanner stage, time between visits, and baseline dietary and metabolic variables of interest. Increases in total dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) and insoluble fiber (g/1000 kcal) were associated with decreases in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = -0.29, P = 0.02, and r = -0.27, P = 0.03, for total dietary and insoluble fiber, respectively), independent of baseline covariates and change in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Participants who had decreased total dietary fiber (mean decrease of 3 g . 1000 kcal(-1) x d(-1)) had significant increases in VAT compared with participants who had increased total dietary fiber (21% compared with -4%; P = 0.02). No other changes in dietary variables were related to changes in adiposity or metabolic variables. Small reductions in dietary fiber intake over 1-2 y can have profound effects on increasing visceral adiposity in a high-risk Latino youth population.

  12. Characterization and assessment of hyperelastic and elastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Fuetterer, Lydia; Reza Mousavi, Seyed; Armstrong, Ryan C; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2014-11-28

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown potential as a regenerative scaffold for plastic and reconstructive surgery to augment or replace damaged or missing adipose tissue (e.g. following lumpectomy or mastectomy). The mechanical properties of soft tissue substitutes are of paramount importance in restoring the natural shape and appearance of the affected tissues, and mechanical mismatching can lead to unpredictable scar tissue formation and poor implant integration. The goal of this work was to assess the linear elastic and hyperelastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissue and compare them to those of normal breast adipose tissue. To assess the influence of the adipose depot source on the mechanical properties of the resultant decellularized scaffolds, we performed indentation tests on DAT samples sourced from adipose tissue isolated from the breast, subcutaneous abdominal region, omentum, pericardial depot and thymic remnant, and their corresponding force-displacement data were acquired. Elastic and hyperelastic parameters were estimated using inverse finite element algorithms. Subsequently, a simulation was conducted in which the estimated hyperelastic parameters were tested in a real human breast model under gravity loading in order to assess the suitability of the scaffolds for implantation. Results of these tests showed that in the human breast, the DAT would show similar deformability to that of native normal tissue. Using the measured hyperelastic parameters, we were able to assess whether DAT derived from different depots exhibited different intrinsic nonlinearities. Results showed that DAT sourced from varying regions of the body exhibited little intrinsic nonlinearity, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) intervention in a neonatal stress model alters adult adipose tissue deposition and prevents hyperinsulinemia in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Shannon; Neff, Kimberly; Gulliver, Kristina; Gough, Grace; Slater, Hillarie; Lane, Robert H; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J

    2013-06-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to numerous stressors during hospitalization and by term corrected gestational age they have lower body weight but a greater proportion of total body as well as abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation. Greater abdominal VAT stores have a known association with metabolic syndrome. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) improves modulation of stress response in both humans and rodents. We hypothesize that MTS, administered during an established model of neonatal stress, would decrease stress-driven adiposity and prevent associated metabolic imbalances in adult rats. Neonatal stress, administered to rat pups from postnatal days 5 to P9, consisted of needle puncture and hypoxic/hyperoxic challenge during 60 min of maternal separation (STRESS; n=20). Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS; n=20) was administered to rat pups for 10 min during maternal separation in the stress protocol. Control animals received standard care (CTL; n=20). MRI measured adult (P120) abdominal total fat mass, subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Body weight and fasting serum adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, and corticosterone were also measured. STRESS results in elevated VAT/SAT ratio compared to CTL but lower abdominal total fat mass and abdominal SAT. STRESS males experience hyperinsulinemia. Both STRESS and MTS had elevated leptin with lower adiponectin and corticosterone compared to CTL. In summary, neonatal stress promotes greater abdominal VAT accumulation and, in males, caused hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia. Importantly, MTS normalized the VAT/SAT ratio and prevented hyperinsulinemia. We speculate that MTS ameliorates some of the negative metabolic consequences of early life perturbations due to neonatal stress exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  15. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

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    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  16. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w./day. Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α, compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  17. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  18. Family history of diabetes is associated with enhanced adipose lipolysis: Evidence for the implication of epigenetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, I; Ryden, M; Arner, P

    2017-11-11

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance, adipose hypertrophy and increased lipolysis. The heritability of these traits has been determined by associating them with a family history of diabetes. Abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained from 581 subjects in a cross-sectional study. Fat cells were isolated, and the difference between measured and expected fat-cell volume was used to determine adipose morphology (degree of hypertrophy or hyperplasia). Spontaneous lipolytic activity was determined in explants of adipose tissue by measuring glycerol release. Insulin-stimulated lipogenesis was assessed by measuring the incorporation of radiolabelled glucose into fat-cell lipids. Information on parental history of diabetes was gathered by a questionnaire. Adipose morphology correlated positively with lipolysis (P<0.0001) and inversely with insulin-stimulated lipogenesis (P<0.008). Also, 24% of probands had a family history of diabetes, which was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) scores, and more insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and adipose hypertrophy. Lipolytic activity was increased, and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis decreased, in probands with a parental history of diabetes. The results for HOMAIR, lipolysis and adipose morphology remained significant after adjusting for proband BMI. A maternal history of diabetes was associated with increased adipose lipolytic activity in probands. A family history of diabetes is independent of proband BMI, but associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and enhanced lipolysis, which suggests that these factors are genetically linked to diabetes. Moreover, the influence on lipolysis was only observed in probands with a maternal history of diabetes, thereby supporting an epigenetic impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Adipogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Within Three-Dimensional Hollow Fiber-Based Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A.; Minteer, Danielle M.; Li, Han; Rubin, J. Peter

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro. PMID:21902468

  20. Adipose tissue attenuation as a marker of adipose tissue quality: Associations with six-year changes in body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therkelsen, Kate E; Pedley, Alison; Rosenquist, Klara J; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M; Murabito, Joanne M; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-02-01

    Weight gain is associated with fat volume increases, but associations with fat quality are less well characterized The associations of weight change with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and attenuation were investigated. Computed tomography abdominal scans were acquired on a Framingham Heart Study subset (N = 836; 40.2% women; mean age 45.7 years), a mean of 6.1 years apart. Fat attenuation estimated fat quality. Mean weight change was +2.0 (SD 6.8; IQR -0.7, 5.0) kg in women and +2.7 (SD 6.0; IQR -0.5, 5.4) kg in men. Per 2.5 kg weight increase in women, VAT volume increased 126 cm(3) (95% CI, 112-140, p weight change. Relative to weight-stable women (n = 129), women who lost >2.5 kg (n = 58) had smaller SAT attenuation decreases (p Weight gain was associated with decreases in fat attenuation independent of VAT and SAT volume changes. These findings highlighted the associations of weight gain and worsening fat attenuation, suggesting fat attenuation may be dynamic. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Different adipose tissue depots: Metabolic implications and effects of surgical removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcadenti, Aline; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Increased adiposity has been associated to worse metabolic profile, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. There are two main adipose tissue depots in the body, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which differ in anatomical location. A large body of evidence has shown the metabolic activity of adipose tissue; lipectomy and/or liposuction therefore appear to be alternatives for improving metabolic profile through rapid loss of adipose tissue. However, surgical removal of adipose tissue may be detrimental for metabolism, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has not been associated to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, animal studies have shown a compensatory growth of adipose tissue in response to lipectomy. This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, its relationship with the different adipose tissue depots, and the effects of lipectomy on cardiometabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of abdominal fat with serum amylase in an older cohort: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Schrack, Jennifer A; Shardell, Michelle D; Egan, Josephine M; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal fat is a major determinant of metabolic diseases in older individuals. Obesity and diabetes are associated with low serum amylase (SA) levels, but the association between SA and metabolic disease is poorly understood. We investigated the association of low SA with diabetes and sex-specific associations of serum amylase with abdominal fat in older adults. In community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (778 participants, age 66.8±13.6years), we assessed abdominal fat by computed tomography and diabetes status using the American Diabetes Association criteria. Linear regression analyses assessed the cross-sectional associations between abdominal fat and SA, and logistic regression assessed the odds of diabetes, given low SA. In unadjusted analyses, individuals in the lowest SA quartile (<48μ/L) had 1.97 greater odds of diabetes, (95%CI, 1.01-3.83) than those in the highest quartile (⩾80μ/L). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for visceral adipose tissue area (VAT, dm(2)), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, dm(2)) or BMI. In adjusted analyses, VAT and SAT were significantly associated with SA in both sexes. Among women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with SAT or BMI; VAT (β=-0.117±0.048, P<0.001), SAT (β=-0.023±0.025, P=0.346) and BMI (β=-0.0052±0.075, P=0.49). The association between SA and diabetes was explained mainly by abdominal visceral fat. In women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with BMI or SAT. These findings provide motivation for future mechanistic studies on SA's role in metabolic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Adverse associations between visceral adiposity, brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian eIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between central adiposity and cognition has been established by indirect measures such as BMI or waist-hip ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI quantification of central abdominal fat has been linked to elevated risk of cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular disease. However it is not known how quantification of visceral fat correlates with cognitive performance and measures of brain structure. We filled this gap by characterizing the relationships between MRI measures of abdominal adiposity, brain morphometry and cognition, in healthy elderly. Methods: A total of 184 healthy community dwelling elderly subjects without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardio-vascular risk, neuropsychological measurements as well as MRI of the brain and abdomen fat were obtained. Abdominal images were segmented into subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissue compartments. Brain MRI measures were analyzed quantitatively to determine total brain volume, hippocampal volume, ventricular volume and cortical thickness. Results: VAT showed negative association with verbal memory (r=0.21, p=0.005 and attention (r=0.18, p=0.01. Higher VAT was associated with lower hippocampal volume (F=5.39, p=0.02 and larger ventricular volume (F=6.07, p=0.02. The participants in the upper quartile of VAT had the lowest hippocampal volume even after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension and BMI (b=-0.28, p=0.005. There was a significant age by VAT interaction for cortical thickness in the left prefrontal region. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, elevated VAT is associated with negative effects on cognition, and brain morphometry.

  4. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  5. The effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression patterns in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, E; Timmers, S; Boekschoten, M V; Goossens, G H; Jocken, J W; Afman, L A; Müller, M; Schrauwen, P; Mariman, E C; Blaak, E E

    2014-03-01

    Polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, have recently received widespread interest because of their ability to mimic effects of calorie restriction. The objective of the present study was to gain more insight into the effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and underlying processes. Eleven healthy obese men were supplemented with placebo and resveratrol for 30 days (150 mg per day), separated by a 4-week washout period in a double-blind randomized crossover design. A postprandial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was collected to assess adipose tissue morphology and gene expression using microarray analysis. Resveratrol significantly decreased adipocyte size, with a shift toward a reduction in the proportion of large and very-large adipocytes and an increase in small adipocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways and upregulation of pathways involved in cell cycle regulation after resveratrol supplementation, suggesting enhanced adipogenesis. Furthermore, lysosomal/phagosomal pathway and transcription factor EB were upregulated reflecting an alternative pathway of lipid breakdown by autophagy. Further research is necessary to investigate whether resveratrol improves adipose tissue function.

  6. Postprandial triglycerides and adipose tissue storage of dietary fatty acids: impact of menopause and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Hernandez, Teri Lynn; Erickson, Christopher B; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matt R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia worsens after menopause, but the mechanism remains unknown. The hypothesized menopause-related postprandial lipemia would be (1) associated with reduced storage of dietary fatty acids (FA) as triglyceride (TG) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and (2) improved by short-term estradiol (E2 ). Twenty-three pre- (mean ± SD: 42 ± 4 years) and 22 postmenopausal (55 ± 4 years) women with similar total adiposity were studied. A subset of postmenopausal women (n = 12) were studied following 2 weeks of E2 (0.15 mg) and matching placebo in a random, cross-over design. A liquid meal containing (14) C-oleic acid traced appearance of dietary FA in: serum (postprandial TG), breath (oxidation), and abdominal and femoral SAT (TG storage). Compared to premenopausal women, healthy, lean, postmenopausal women had increased postprandial glucose and insulin and trend for higher TG but had similar dietary FA oxidation and storage. Adipocytes were larger in post- compared to premenopausal women, particularly in femoral SAT. Short-term E2 reduced postprandial TG and insulin but had no effect on oxidation or storage of dietary FA. E2 increased the proportion of small adipocytes in femoral (but not abdominal) SAT. Short-term E2 attenuated menopause-related increases in postprandial TG and increased femoral adipocyte hyperplasia but not through increased net storage of dietary FA. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Several cardiometabolic factors present in obese and insulin-resistant individuals represent a continuum of increasing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The importance of abdominal obesity as an independent risk factor is underscored by its association with adverse endocrine function. Recent evidence from animal and human studies has shown a role for the endocannabinoid system in maintaining energy balance and glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, with overactivity linked to aberrant glycemic and lipoprotein control, and a link to adiposity. Modulation of this system through endocannabinoid-receptor blockade has resulted in an improvement in a number of important risk factors in clinical trials, including visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and measures of inflammation. These findings may have significant implications for the management of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease; however, the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events with rimonabant may preclude further development of centrally active endocannabinoid receptor antagonists for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Future research is needed to explore the role of selective peripheral CB(1) receptor antagonists in the treatment of patients at high cardiometabolic risk. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Detecção de hipertensão arterial em adolescentes através de marcadores gerais e adiposidade abdominal Detección de hipertensión arterial en adolescentes por medio de marcadores generales y adiposidad abdominal High blood pressure detection in adolescents by clustering overall and abdominal adiposity markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego G. D Christofaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade está ligada à hipertensão arterial (HA na infância. Entretanto, o papel da gordura como preditor de HA em adolescentes permanece desconhecido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre obesidade geral e abdominal com HA e identificar a sensibilidade e especificidade desses indicadores para detectar HA em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu em 1.021 adolescentes com idade de 10-17 anos. Os indivíduos foram classificados como normal, sobrepeso/obesidade, de acordo com as medidas do IMC, e como não-obeso com obesidade abdominal, de acordo com as medidas da circunferência da cintura (CC. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD foi avaliada através de um dispositivo oscilométrico. Regressão logística e curvas ROC foram usadas na análise estatística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência geral de HA foi 11,8% (13,4% em meninos e 10,2% em meninas. A prevalência de HA em meninos e meninas com sobrepeso/obesidade foi 10% e 11,1%, respectivamente. A prevalência de HA em meninos com obesidade abdominal foi 28,6%. Para ambos os sexos, o odds ratio (OR para HA foi mais alto na obesidade abdominal do que no sobrepeso/obesidade geral (4,09 [OR IC95% = 2,57-6,51] versus 1,83 [OR IC95% = 1,83-4,30]. O OR para HA foi mais alto quando sobrepeso/obesidade geral e obesidade abdominal estavam agrupados (OR = 4,35 [OR IC95% = 2,68 -7,05], do que quando identificados como sobrepeso/obesidade geral ou obesidade abdominal apenas (OR = 1,32 [OR IC95% = 0,65- 2,68]. Entretanto, ambos os tipos de obesidade apresentavam baixo poder preditivo na detecção de HA. CONCLUSÃO: Obesidade geral e obesidade abdominal foram associadas com HA; entretanto, a sensibilidade e especificidade dessas variáveis na detecção de HA são baixas em adolescentes brasileiros.BACKGROUND: Obesity is linked to high blood pressure (HBP in childhood. However, the role of fat as a predictor of HBP in adolescents remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To

  9. Adipose tissue interleukin-18 mRNA and plasma interleukin-18: effect of obesity and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    resistance was tested. Furthermore, we speculated that acute exercise and exercise training would regulate AT IL-18 mRNA expression. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Non-obese subjects with BMI obese subjects with BMI >30 kg/m(2) (women: n = 6; men: n = 7......OBJECTIVES: Obesity and a physically inactive lifestyle are associated with increased risk of developing insulin resistance. The hypothesis that obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue (AT) interleukin (IL)-18 mRNA expression and that AT IL-18 mRNA expression is related to insulin......) participated in the study. Blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous AT biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after an acute exercise bout, and at 2 hours or 10 hours of recovery. After 8 weeks of exercise training of the obese group, sampling was repeated 48 hours after the last training session. RESULTS...

  10. Abdominal fat and blood pressure in healthy young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Maria A C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Visseren, Frank L J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Dalmeijer, Geertje W

    2016-09-01

    High blood pressure (BP) and obesity are well known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Both risk factors exert an influence early in life, and BP is related to body weight. However, the effect of abdominal fat accumulation on BP in childhood is still unclear. We aimed to determine the relation between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and BP in young children. In 862 healthy 5-year-old children of the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, VAT and SAT were measured ultrasonographically. SBP and DBP were measured in sitting and supine postures using a semi-automatic oscillometric device. General linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between abdominal fat and BP adjusted for confounders. Further explanatory models were run to explore if associations with localized abdominal fat distributions were independent of measures of overall body adiposity. Each millimeter increase in VAT was related to 0.17 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.3) and 0.11 mmHg (0.02; 0.2) higher sitting SBP and DBP, respectively. These associations remained after additional adjustment for BMI (SBP: 0.14 mmHg/mm, 0.05; 0.2; DBP: 0.11 mmHg/mm, 0.02; 0.2), waist circumference (SBP: 0.16 mmHg/mm, 0.06; 0.3; DBP: 0.12 mmHg/mm, 0.03; 0.2) or early life growth (SBP: 0.16 mmHg/mm, 0.07; 0.3; DBP: 0.115 mmHg/mm, 0.03; 0.2). Associations between VAT and supine SBP and DBP were, respectively, 0.14 mmHg/mm (0.06; 0.2) and 0.08 mmHg/mm (0.004; 0.2), which remained after further explanatory analyses. SAT was not associated to SBP or DBP. Independent of body size, children with more VAT have higher BP, especially when measured in sitting posture.

  11. Differential expression of aquaporin 7 in adipose tissue of lean and obese high fat consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrades, M Pilar; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2006-01-20

    Aquaporin 7 (AQP7) is an aquaglyceroprotein responsible for the secretion and uptake of glycerol from the adipocyte. The modulation of the expression of this membrane transport protein might play an important role in the susceptibility to the development of obesity. The aim of the present study was to compare the AQP7 gene expression in subcutaneous abdominal fat in lean vs. obese high fat intakers with a similar daily physical activity pattern. Twelve young men, 6 lean (BMI=23.2+/-0.4kg/m(2)) and 6 obese (35.0+/-1.1kg/m(2)) with a similar habitual dietary intake of fat (45.5+/-2.5 vs. 43.5+/-1.7% daily energy from fat for lean and obese, respectively) and physical activity (16.0+/-5.7 vs. 17.2+/-5.1 METsh/week for lean and obese, respectively), were recruited. Subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were obtained and total RNA was extracted and purified. Pools of RNA from lean and obese individuals were probed into Affymetrix GeneChip Human U133A. The microarray analysis revealed that AQP7 gene was down-regulated in obese compared to lean subjects. The results of the microarray analysis were confirmed by real-time PCR studies. In summary, our data show that the AQP7 gene is differentially expressed in adipose tissue of lean and obese individuals. The down-regulation of the AQP7 gene could be implicated in the susceptibility to obesity by reducing glycerol release and promoting the accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue.

  12. Relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and absorption of lente type insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrant, P; Mehlsen, J; Birch, K

    1987-01-01

    To study the relationship between the absorption of intermediate acting insulin and the local subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) 8 diabetic patients were given subcutaneous injections of 125I labeled human lente type insulin and 133Xenon in the abdominal wall. External measurements of the tracer...

  13. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  14. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  15. Abdominal body composition measured by quantitative computed tomography and risk of non-spine fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheu, Y; Marshall, L M; Holton, K F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fractu...... risk independent of BMD....

  16. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  17. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  18. Anthropometric predictors of visceral adiposity in normal-weight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Dorit; Marcus, Carole L; Kim, Christopher; Gallagher, Paul R; Schwab, Richard; Bradford, Ruth M; Zemel, Babette S

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and fat distribution patterns [subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] are important predictors of future cardiometabolic risk. As accurate VAT measurement entails imaging, surrogate anthropometric measurements that would be cheaper and quicker to obtain would be highly desirable. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be better than other VAT surrogate measures in adults, but the value of SAD to predict magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined VAT in adolescents of different races, sexes, and pubertal stages has not been determined. To test the hypothesis that SAD correlates more strongly with volumetric VAT than other anthropometric measurements, independent of age, sex, race, and Tanner stage. Twenty-eight normal-weight and 44 obese adolescents underwent Tanner staging, anthropometric examinations, and abdominal MRI for volumetric partitioned fat calculation. VAT increased exponentially in the body mass index (BMI) > 97th percentile range. SAD, waist circumference (WC), BMI, and BMI Z-score correlated strongly with VAT (correlation coefficients of 0.85-0.86, all p-values < 0.0005); waist-hip ratio was less predictive of VAT (r = 0.68, p < 0.0005). On hierarchical regression, the strongest predictors of VAT in obese subjects were BMI Z-score and SAD (R(2)  = 0.34 vs. 0.31, respectively, p < 0.0005); in normal-weight subjects, most anthropometric measures predicted VAT equally (R(2)  = 0.16-0.18, p-values = 0.018-0.026). Unlike adults, in obese adolescents, SAD is not the strongest predictor of visceral adiposity. BMI Z-score is equivalently predictive and, together with BMI, provides sufficient information to assess visceral adiposity; more specialized anthropometric measurements (e.g., SAD and WC) do not add additional predictive value. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  20. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an Ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4.5 year old children – Results from the GUSTO cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R.; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S. Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P.; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F.P.; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but less is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesized that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). Body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n=153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r=0.61, peating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75% more calories than slower eating children (Δ131 kcal, 95%CI [107.6, 154.4], peating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b=13.59, 95% CI [7.48, 21.83]). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMIz and adiposity. PMID:28462734

  1. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, Peating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, Peating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  2. Adipose tissue in muscle : a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  3. Applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to segment and quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat areas from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with a number of diseases and accurately assessment of subtypes of adipose tissue volume plays a significant role in predicting disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning models to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral (VFA) fat areas depicting on CT images. A dataset involving CT images from 40 patients were retrospectively collected and equally divided into two independent groups (i.e. training and testing group). The new CAD scheme consisted of two sequential convolutional neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. Selection-CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to automatically select CT slices belonging to abdomen areas and SegmentationCNN was trained using 84,000 fat-pixel patches to classify fat-pixels as belonging to SFA or VFA. Then, data from the testing group was used to evaluate the performance of the optimized CAD scheme. Comparing to manually labelled results, the classification accuracy of CT slices selection generated by Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using Segmentation-CNN yielded 96.8%. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep learning based CAD scheme to recognize human abdominal section from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from CT slices with high agreement compared with subjective segmentation results.

  4. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  5. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  7. Asociación entre tejido graso abdominal y riesgo de morbilidad: efectos positivos del ejercicio físico en la reducción de esta tendencia Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk

    OpenAIRE

    G. González Calvo; S. Hernández Sánchez; P. Pozo Rosado; D. García López

    2011-01-01

    Justificación: Las consecuencias derivadas de la acumulación de grasa abdominal por encima de niveles saludables infligen un considerable daño a nivel orgánico. Entre las consecuencias fisiológicas destacan las enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión, diabetes tipo 2, obesidad y síndrome metabólico, que reducen drásticamente la calidad y esperanza de vida. Hay evidencias de que la mejora de la salud es proporcional al incremento de actividad física. No obstante, el ejercicio físico puede ...

  8. Abdominal sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldingh, Quirine J. J.; de Vries, Fleur E. E.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent evidence on the treatment of abdominal sepsis with a specific emphasis on the surgical treatment. Recent findings A multitude of surgical approaches towards abdominal sepsis are practised. Recent evidence shows that immediate closure of the abdomen has a

  9. The potential role of inhibitor of differentiation-3 in human adipose tissue remodeling and metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic health in obesity is known to differ among individuals, and the distribution of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in this regard. Adipose tissue expansion is dependent on new blood vessel formation in order to prevent hypoxia and inflammation......-3 (ID3) gene in relation to adipose tissue and angiogenesis in humans in order to determine whether ID3 could be involved in the regulation of adipose tissue expansion and metabolic health in human obesity. We find evidence that ID3 is involved in regulatory mechanisms in adipose tissue...... and regulates angiogenesis in many tissues including adipose tissue. We discuss how this might influence obesity and metabolic health in obesity and further discuss some potential mechanisms by which ID3 might regulate visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion. The combined results from the reviewed...

  10. Alteration of amine oxidase activity in the adipose tissue of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Virgile; Prévot, Danielle; De Saint Front, Véronique Durand; Morin-Cussac, Nathalie; Thalamas, Claire; Galitzky, Jean; Valet, Philippe; Zorzano, Antonio; Carpéné, Christian

    2004-03-01

    To explore the activity of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs) in adipose tissue and blood of lean and moderately obese subjects and to study whether there is a link between these hydrogen peroxide-generating enzymes and blood markers of oxidative stress. Nine obese male subjects (BMI 32.6 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) and nine controls (BMI 23.4 +/- 0.5) of 24- to 40-year-old subjects were included in the study. MAO and SSAO activities were measured on microbiopsies of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by quantifying (14)C-tyramine and (14)C-benzylamine oxidation. Levels of soluble SSAO, lipid peroxidation products, and antioxidant agents were measured in plasma, whereas cytoprotective enzymes were determined in blood lysates. The high MAO activity found in adipose tissue was diminished by one-half in obese subjects (maximum initial velocity of 1.2 vs. 2.3 nmol tyramine oxidized/mg protein/min). There was no change in SSAO activity, either under its adipose tissue-bound or plasma-soluble form. Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant vitamins remained unmodified, as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, whereas circulating triglycerides, insulin, and leptin were increased. Although they already exhibited several signs of endocrino-metabolic disorders, the obese men did not exhibit the increase in blood markers of oxidative stress or the decrease in antioxidant defenses reported to occur in very obese or diabetic subjects. The reduced MAO and the unchanged SSAO activities found in obesity suggest that these hydrogen peroxide-generating enzymes expressed in adipocytes are probably not involved in the onset of the oxidative stress found in severe obesity and/or in its complications.

  11. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  12. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  13. Hydrochlorothiazide compared to candesartan treatment increases adipose tissue gene expression and circulating levels of serum amyloid A in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palming, J; Jansson, P-A; Renström, F; Johansson, A; Johansson, L; Karlsson, C; Lind, L; Eriksson, J W

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of hypertension with angiotensin receptor blockers has been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in comparison to thiazide diuretics and beta adrenergic blockers. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of antihypertensive drugs on adipose tissue with respect to insulin resistance. In the MEDICA (MEchanisms for the DIabetes preventing effects of CAndesartan) study, 22 hypertensive, nondiabetic patients with abdominal obesity (10 men, 12 women) were randomized into 12-week treatment periods with candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and placebo according to a 3-way cross-over design. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were taken after 8 weeks treatment to analyze gene expression, glucose uptake capacity, insulin-signaling, and adipocyte size. Adipose tissue gene expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) was higher after hydrochlorothiazide treatment compared to candesartan (p=0.036), and this was in accordance with our previous finding on circulating SAA levels. Serum levels of E selectin were increased after hydrochlorothiazide compared to candesartan treatment (p=0.002) and lower after candesartan compared to placebo (p=0.002). In adipocytes, there were no significant differences between the treatments with respect to cell size, glucose uptake capacity, or insulin-signaling. In comparison to candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide raised the adipose tissue gene expression of SAA and the serum level of SAA as well as E selectin in hypertensive patients. Less adipose and systemic inflammation may be one explanation why candesartan is favorable in comparison to thiazide diuretics with respect to development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Ontogenesis changes and sex dimorphism of subcutaneous fat distribution: 12-year longitudinal study of children and adolescents from Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowska, Maria; Suder, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the direction and tempo of subcutaneous fat redistribution during ontogenesis, appearing sex differences and relations to puberty on the basis of 12-year longitudinal data of 270 boys and 154 girls from Cracow, Poland. They all had complete data (from 7 to 18-years old) of three trunk (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac) and three extremity (triceps, knee, medial calf) skinfold thicknesses. The type of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution was determined based on trunk to extremity ratio to analyze the process of fat redistribution. The analysis included medians of extremity and trunk skinfolds and medians of their sums and age altered frequency of central and peripheral type of fat distribution. To present empirical values, the median variability of the sums of three trunk and extremity skinfolds was calculated using a third degree polynomial as an age function. Polynomial regression of extremity skinfolds median explained 88% of its variability (F = 71.2, P < 0.001) and for trunk skinfolds as far as 96% (F = 111.65, P < 0.001). The median variability curves of both types of distribution crossed at the age of 11.88 in girls and 13.45 in boys directly preceding puberty stage, which indicated clear dependencies between fat redistribution and puberty. The results showed a tight connection between the process of subcutaneous fat redistribution and puberty, and also sex dimorphism of the process. More dynamic fat redistribution in boys contrasted trunk and extremity fatness, while in girls less dynamic changes resulted in more even fatness. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiadzyna, Dorota; Peña, Amado Salvador

    2011-08-01

    Splenosis is a benign condition caused by an ectopic autotransplantation of splenic tissues after splenic trauma or surgery. It usually occurs within the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Patients are generally asymptomatic and this entity is diagnosed accidentally. However, occasionally extensive abdominal splenosis poses a significant diagnostic dilemma for gastroenterologists, especially when this condition manifests as a disseminated metastatic malignant disease on abdominal imaging.This paper presents a concise review of the literature on this often misleading disorder. The crucial role of taking a thorough patient´s medical history concerning splenic trauma in the past, the need for differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions disclosed on abdominal imaging and novel diagnostics modalities that allow avoiding unnecessary laparotomy in case of abdominal splenosis are stressed.The increased prevalence of abdominal trauma due to road accidents and the growing armamentarium of available imaging modalities suggest that abdominal splenosis may be expected more often than ever.In order to prevent any possible diagnostic doubts and unnecessary future invasive examinations, confirmed splenosis should be recorded in the medical documentation of the patient.

  16. Familial Abdominal and Intestinal Lipomatosis Presenting with Upper GI Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Bilgic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lipomas are encapsulated benign tumors, systemic lipomatosis defines infiltrative nonencapsulated tumors resembling normal adipose tissue. Abdominal lipomatosis and intestinal lipomatosis are different clinicopathological entities with similar clinical symptoms. We describe here a case presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from eroded submucosal lipoma at duodenum secondary to intestinal lipomatosis and abdominal lipomatosis.

  17. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  18. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh; Halabchi; Mazaheri; Abolhasani; Tabesh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other ...

  19. Role of adipose tissue in facial aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Wetzker, Reinhard; Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Kruglikov, Ilja L

    2017-01-01

    Age-dependent modification of the facial subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) connected with reduction of its volume, modification of collagen content and adhesion between dermal and adipose layers can significantly influence mechanical stability of the skin and cause the development of aging symptoms such as wrinkles. Typical aging appearance in facial skin is at least partly connected with special phenotypical features of facial preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. In this paper, we have discussed the possible roles of local inflammation, compartmental structure of facial sWAT and trans-differentiation processes such as beiging of white adipocytes and adipocyte-myofibroblast transition in facial skin aging.

  20. miRNAs in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M.; Davidsen, Peter K.; Vigelso, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed...

  1. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of abdominal trauma is blunt trauma, gunshot wounds and stab wounds are rare. Most commonly injured organs in abdominal cavity are the spleen and the liver.Conclusions. Early diagnosis is very important and include precise phisical examination and all available diagnostic methods. The final decission about the method of treatmet depends on patients clinical condition, surgeon’s experience and other local conditions.

  2. Glucose gradient differences in subcutaneous tissue of healthy volunteers assessed with ultraslow microdialysis and a nanolitre glucose sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, RG; Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Korf, J

    2002-01-01

    The abdominal subcutaneous interstitium is easily accessible for monitoring glucose for Diabetes Mellitus research and management. The available glucose sensing devices demand frequent blood sampling by finger pricking for calibration. Moreover, there is controversy about the exact relationship

  3. Region-specific effects of oestradiol on adipose-derived stem cell differentiation in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Pereira, Rocio I; Bessesen, Daniel H; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of acute transdermal 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) on the adipogenic potential of subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women (n = 11; mean age 57 ± 4.5 years) were treated for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over design, with transdermal E2 (0.15 mg) or placebo patches. Biopsies of abdominal (AB) and femoral (FEM) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained after each treatment and mature adipocytes were analysed for cell size and ASC for their capacity for proliferation (growth rate), differentiation (triglyceride accumulation) and susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. Gene expression of oestrogen receptors α and β (ESR1 and ESR2), perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), was also assessed. In FEM SAT, but not AB SAT, 2 weeks of E2 significantly (P = 0.03) increased ASC differentiation and whole SAT HSL mRNA expression (P = 0.03) compared to placebo. These changes were not associated with mRNA expression of oestrogen receptors α and β, but HSL expression was significantly increased in FEM SAT with transdermal E2 treatment. Adipose-derived stem cells proliferation and apoptosis did not change in either SAT depot after E2 compared with placebo. Short-term E2 appeared to increase the adipogenic potential of FEM, but not AB, SAT in post-menopausal women with possible implications for metabolic disease. Future studies are needed to determine longer term impact of E2 on regional SAT accumulation in the context of positive energy imbalance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Associação entre ganho de peso no primeiro ano de vida com excesso de peso e adiposidade abdominal na idade pré-escolar Asociación entre ganancia de peso en el primer año de vida con exceso de peso y de adiposidad abdominal en la edad pre-escolar Association between weight gain in the first year of life with excess weight and abdominal adiposity at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Leite Bertotto

    2012-12-01

    12 a 16 meses. A los 3 a 4 años de edad, se verificó también la circunferencia de la cintura. Se calculó la ganancia de peso por la diferencia en el escore Z de IMC/Edad a los 12 a 16 meses respecto al IMC/Edad al nacer, adoptando punto de corte >0,67 para ganancia de peso excesiva. Relación cintura/estatura fue realizada, considerando exceso de adiposidad central valores >0,5. Se utilizó el análisis multivariado para probar la asociación entre los desenlaces y las variables independientes. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de ganancia de peso excesiva en el primer año de vida fue de 29,5% de un total de 338 niños. Después del ajuste para las variables sexo, grupo, peso al nacer, tiempo de lactancia materna exclusiva e IMC de la madre, el cambio en el escore z >0,67 del nacimiento hasta los 12 a 16 meses se presentó como factor de riesgo para excesos de peso (RR 2,81; IC95% 1,53-5,16 y elevada relación cintura/altura en la edad pre-escolar (RR 2,10; IC95% 1,19-3,72. CONCLUSIÓN: Ganancia de peso excesivo en el primer año de vida está asociada a exceso de peso y elevada adiposidad abdominal en la edad pre-escolar.OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the change in body mass index Z-score for age >0.67 in the first year of life was associated with overweight at preschool age. METHODS: A cohort study nested in a randomized field trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Data on weight and height of children at birth, from six to eight, and from 12 to 16 months were collected. From ages three to four, besides these data, waist circumference was measured. Weight gain was calculated by the difference in body mass index/age Z-score from 12 to 16 months in relation to that at birth, adopting as cutoff >0.67 Z-score for weight gain. Waist-to-height ratio was calculated, and the excess of central adiposity was considered for values >0.5. Multivariate analysis to test the association between outcomes and independent variables was applied. RESULTS: The

  5. Evaluation of adipose tissue volume quantification with IDEAL fat-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabousi, Abdullah; Al-Attar, Salam; Joy, Tisha R; Hegele, Robert A; McKenzie, Charles A

    2011-08-01

    To validate iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) for adipose tissue volume quantification. IDEAL allows MRI images to be produced only from adipose-containing tissues; hence, quantifying adipose tissue should be simpler and more accurate than with current methods. Ten healthy controls were imaged with 1.5 Tesla (T) Spin Echo (SE), 3.0T T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SPGR), and 3.0T IDEAL-SPGR. Images were acquired from the abdomen, pelvis, mid-thigh, and mid-calf. Mean subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue volumes were compared between the three acquisitions for each subject. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the three acquisitions for subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes. However, there was a significant difference (P=0.0002) for visceral adipose tissue volumes in the abdomen. Post hoc analysis showed significantly lower visceral adipose tissue volumes measured by IDEAL versus 1.5T (P<0.0001) and 3.0T SPGR (P<0.002). The lower volumes given by IDEAL are due to its ability to differentiate true visceral adipose tissue from other bright structures like blood vessels and bowel content that are mistaken for adipose tissue in non-fat suppressed images. IDEAL measurements of adipose tissue are equivalent to established 1.5T measurement techniques for subcutaneous depots and have improved accuracy for visceral depots, which are more metabolically relevant. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Vaspin gene in rat adipose tissue: relation to obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Olfat G; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Visceral adipose fat has been claimed to be the link between obesity and insulin resistance through the released adipokines. This study aimed to assess the expression of vaspin as one of the recent adipokines in rats abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in diet-induced obese (DIO) and in DIO performing 3 weeks swimming exercise (DIO + EXE) compared to control and control + exercise (C + EXE) groups. Vaspin mRNA and protein expression assessed using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis revealed vaspin expression in DIO and DIO + EXE but not in controls groups. In DIO group, visceral vaspin expression was higher than in that of subcutaneous fat and was positively correlated with body weight. Upregulation of visceral vaspin expression in DIO was concomitant with the development of insulin resistance (increase in fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR) and rise in serum leptin level. Unchanged visceral vaspin mRNA in DIO + EXE rats, with significant improvements of insulin resistance parameters and serum leptin compared to DIO group was found. In conclusion, increased visceral vaspin expression in obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Further investigations into the molecular links between vaspin and obesity may unravel innovative therapeutic strategies in people affected by obesity-linked insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Metformin for Rapidly Maturing Girls with Central Adiposity: Less Liver Fat and Slower Bone Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; García Beltrán, Cristina; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2017-11-07

    Girls with low-birth weight (LBW) and postnatal weight catch-up tend to develop visceral and hepatic fat excess, which may be accompanied by an upregulated adrenarche with precocious pubarche (PP) and by a rapidly progressive puberty with early menarche and shorter stature. A pilot study suggested that metformin treatment for 4 years reduces central adiposity in LBW-PP girls and normalizes puberty and adult height. In this cohort, we studied the relationship between metformin treatment, bone maturation, and body composition. Longitudinal hand X-rays (0-4 years, analyzed by BoneXpert) were available from 34 LBW-PP girls (89% of the original cohort; n = 17 untreated, n = 17 metformin-treated; age at the start of treatment 8 years) along with body composition (0-4 years, by DXA), hepatic fat, and abdominally subcutaneous and visceral fat (posttreatment, by MRI). The tempo of bone aging was accelerated in untreated girls (≈16% faster vs. chronological aging) and normal in metformin-treated girls (≈20% slower vs. untreated girls). Metformin-treated girls gained more height per bone-age year and had less visceral and hepatic fat. The tempo of bone maturation was associated (R = 0.55; p fat. Metformin treatment in rapidly maturing girls with central adiposity normalized bone maturation. This normalization was accompanied by less central fat and was related closely to hepatic fat. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Anterior Abdominal Wall Desmoids Tumor in a Five Year Old Girl – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    usually affecting the mesentery of the intestine or it could be extra-abdominal in which they may affect the popliteal region, the chest wall or the anterior abdominal wall. Reports in children less than ... anterior abdominal wall muscles are tensed. Rectal examination was essentially normal. An assessment of subcutaneous ...

  9. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...

  10. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  11. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  12. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with body adiposity. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with age. • Breast cancer is positively associated with body adiposity. • Breast Cancer is not associated with MRI breast density.

  13. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  14. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...

  16. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  17. Adipose tissue autophagy related gene expression is associated with glucometabolic status in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Mariman, Edwin C M; Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E; Jocken, Johan W E

    2018-02-05

    Adipose tissue autophagy (AT) is associated with human obesity and increased metabolic risk. Recent findings establish a role for autophagy in lipid metabolism. Here, we compared the expression of autophagy-related and lipolysis genes in human abdominal subcutaneous AT (SCAT) in overweight/obese subjects (n = 17) with or without impaired glucose tolerance in comparison with lean normal glucose tolerant individuals (n = 9), and investigated the association between AT autophagy and lipolysis. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (hMADS) were used to investigate the effect of pharmacological HSL inhibition on changes in the autophagic flux. The expression of autophagy-related genes (ATG) 5, 7 and 12 in SCAT was significantly higher (p = 0.043, p = 0.015, p = 0.004, respectively) in overweight/obese compared to lean men, while expression of the classical lipases HSL (p = 0.092) and ATGL (p = 0.084) tended to be lower. ATG12 mRNA was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.407, p = 0.039). ATG7 mRNA correlated positively with waist/hip ratio (WHR) (r = 0.420, p = 0.041), 2 h glucose concentration (r = 0.488, p = 0.011) and insulin (r = 0.419, p = 0.033). Multiple linear regressions revealed that ATG7 gene expression was positively related to 2 h glucose, independent of BMI, WHR and insulin. Gene expression interaction analysis showed that ATG7 mRNA negatively correlated with HSL (p<0.01) and ATGL mRNA expression (p<0.01). In line, treatment of differentiated hMADS with an HSL inhibitor increased LC3 accumulation, a marker of increased autophagic flux. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that a low expression of classical lipases in abdominal SCAT is accompanied by an increased expression of ATGs in overweight/obese subjects, which seems to be mainly related to glucose tolerance.

  18. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss slowed growth rate lots of vomiting chronic severe diarrhea gastrointestinal blood loss persistent pain on the right ... or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and ... Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children , a clinical report from ...

  19. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  20. It Suddenly Occurred: Extensive Subcutaneous Emphysema after Bipolar Transurethral Resection of Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bagcioglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a very rare and good-natured complication after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP. It has been reported as colon perforation, diverticulitis, and bladder perforation associated complication previously. We report the first case of a wide subcutaneous emphysema due to microperforations of prostatic capsule, without a bladder perforation after TURP. Any sign of clinic situation should lead to ceasing of the procedure immediately; otherwise, it can cause a life-threatening problem of abdominal compartment syndrome.

  1. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishwar Vikas; Rupani Asha; Amarapurkar Anjali; Anchinmane Vyankatesh

    2008-01-01

    Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually e...

  2. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and/or α-lipoic acid on adipose tissue transcriptomic profile of healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Ana E; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Escoté, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2017-01-02

    In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. α-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and α-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):117-131, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. The impact of visceral adipose tissue and high-molecular weight adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index in asymptomatic Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Norihiko; Ito, Chikako; Fujikawa, Rumi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-07-01

    Few studies addressed the relation of visceral adiposity and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin to arterial stiffness. We investigated the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and HMW adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. We studied 487 consecutive subjects (271 men and 216 women) who underwent general health examination between October 2005 and May 2008. The abdominal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were determined by low-dose x-ray computed tomography. Serum levels of total and HMW adiponectin were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system based on a monoclonal antibody to humans. Cardio-ankle vascular index was positively correlated with VAT area and negatively correlated with HMW adiponectin levels. We also found the positive association of the number of metabolic syndrome components with CAVI in both sexes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, VAT area, serum HMW adiponectin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were independent determinants of CAVI. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that the predictive value of the VAT area for the extent of CAVI (mild: 75th percentile) exceeded that of total or HMW adiponectin levels in both sexes. In conclusion, increased CAVI is associated with both amounts of VAT measured by computed tomography and serum HMW adiponectin levels in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates that the VAT area is a lot better predictor of arterial stiffness than adiponectin levels.

  5. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Daniel; Viñuela, Ana; Davies, Matthew N; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Parts, Leopold; Knowles, David; Brown, Andrew A; Hedman, Asa K; Small, Kerrin S; Buil, Alfonso; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O; Ryten, Mina; Durbin, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Weale, Michael E; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim D

    2013-07-26

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases.

  6. De novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue is associated with course of morbid obesity after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-García, Diego; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victoria; Chacón, Matilde R; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Luis; Alcaide, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    De novo lipogenesis is involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and could be involved in the regulation of the triglyceride storage capacity of adipose tissue. However, the association between lipogenic and lipolytic genes and the evolution of morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery remains unknown. In this prospective study we analyze the association between the improvement in the morbidly obese patients as a result of bariatric surgery and the basal expression of lipogenic and lipolytic genes. We study 23 non diabetic morbidly obese patients who were studied before and 7 months after bariatric surgery. Also, we analyze the relative basal mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and lipolytic genes in epiploic visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). When the basal acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) and ATP citrate lyase (ACL) expression in SAT was below percentile-50, there was a greater decrease in weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.034, P = 0.026), body mass index (P = 0.008, P = 0.033, P = 0.034) and hip circumference (P = 0.033, P = 0.021, P = 0.083) after bariatric surgery. In VAT, when the basal ACSS2 expression was below percentile-50, there was a greater decrease in hip circumference (P = 0.006). After adjusting for confounding variables in logistic regression models, only the morbidly obese patients with SAT or VAT ACSS2 expression ≥ P50 before bariatric surgery had a lower percentage hip circumference loss (novo lipogenesis, is associated with a better evolution of anthropometric variables after bariatric surgery. Thus, the previous state of the pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism may have repercussions on the improvement of these patients.

  7. [An assessment of abdominal fatty tissue distribution in obese children. A comparison between echography and computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrozzi, F; Zuccoli, G; Tognini, G; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A; Bacchini, E; Bernasconi, S; Campani, R

    1999-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and, more recently, ultrasound (US), have proved excellent tools for quantifying adipose tissue distribution. Body fat distribution is an important factor in the treatment of obesity and its complications. We investigated the correlation between CT and US measurements in pediatric obesity. Forty obese children and adolescents aged 4.1-14.8 years were submitted to CT and US. Intra-abdomin