Sample records for subcritical flow conditions

  1. The imprint of the Hawking effect in subcritical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Coutant, Antonin


    We study the propagation of low frequency shallow water waves on a one dimensional flow of varying depth. When taking into account dispersive effects, the linear propagation of long wavelength modes on uneven bottoms excites new solutions of the dispersion relation which possess a much shorter wavelength. The peculiarity is that one of these new solutions has a negative energy. When the flow becomes supercritical, this mode has been shown to be responsible for the (classical) analog of the Hawking effect. For subcritical flows, the production of this mode has been observed numerically and experimentally, but the precise physics governing the scattering remained unclear. In this work, we provide an analytic treatment of this effect in subcritical flows. We analyze the scattering of low frequency waves using a new perturbative series, derived from a generalization of the Bremmer series. We show that the production of short wavelength modes is governed by a complex value of the position: a complex turning point....

  2. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.


    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becherer, Paul


    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelastic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite-amplitude) instabilities in parallel

  4. Global bifurcations to subcritical magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow (United States)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Longaretti, P.-Y.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Herault, J.


    Magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow is a three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic process whose study is relevant to the understanding of accretion and magnetic field generation in astrophysics. Transition to this form of dynamo is subcritical and shares many characteristics of transition to turbulence in non-rotating hydrodynamic shear flows. This suggests that these different fluid systems become active through similar generic bifurcation mechanisms, which in both cases have eluded detailed understanding so far. In this paper, we investigate numerically the bifurcation mechanisms at work in the incompressible Keplerian magnetorotational dynamo problem in the shearing box framework. Using numerical techniques imported from dynamical systems research, we show that the onset of chaotic dynamo action at magnetic Prandtl numbers larger than unity is primarily associated with global homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations of nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles. These global bifurcations are supplemented by local bifurcations of cycles marking the beginning of period-doubling cascades. This suggests that nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles provide the pathway to turbulent injection of both kinetic and magnetic energy in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic Keplerian shear flow in the absence of an externally imposed magnetic field. Studying the nonlinear physics and bifurcations of these cycles in different regimes and configurations may subsequently help to better understand the conditions of excitation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and instability-driven dynamos in various astrophysical systems and laboratory experiments. The detailed characterization of global bifurcations provided for this three-dimensional subcritical fluid dynamics problem may also prove useful for the problem of transition to turbulence in hydrodynamic shear flows.

  5. Reynolds number effect on VIV: from subcritical to supercritical flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantafyllou, M.S.; Hover, F.S.; Techet, A.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Vortex Induced Vibrations in flexibly supported rigid cylinders and long, flexible slender structures, such as cables and risers, are caused by the formation of large-scale vortices, whose dynamics are controlled to a large extend by inviscid mechanisms. Reynolds number remains a very important parameter, however, because it influences the formation and shedding mechanisms of the vortical patterns. For low Reynolds numbers, below a few thousand, a nearly complete understanding has been obtained in recent years, at least for flexibly mounted rigid cylinders. This is not the case, though, for VIV above Re=10,000 and - especially - above the critical Reynolds number of about Re=250,000 for smooth cylinders. The talk provides observed WV trends of flexibly mounted cylinders, obtained in recent experiments as function of the Reynolds number, from Re about 1,000 up to 1,000,000. In particular, similarities and differences between subcritical and supercritical force and motion data will be discussed, and conclusions on the governing principal mechanisms will be drawn, including transitions in the arrangement of vortical patterns and effects of correlation length. (authors)

  6. Numerical simulations of flow field in the target region of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Hai Yan


    Numerical simulations of flow field were performed by using the PHOENICS 3.2 code for the proposed spallation target of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system (ADS). The fluid motion in the target is axisymmetric and is treated as a 2-D steady-state problem. A body-fitted coordinate system (BFC) is then chosen and a two-dimensional mesh of the flow channel is generated. Results are presented for the ADS target under both upward and downward flow, and for the target with diffuser plate installed below the window under downward flow

  7. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    in a very wide range of applications. However, those conditions, especially the levels of high pressure required at larger scale, involve certain equipment limitations. An alternative to overcome those restrictions is to use subcritical carbon dioxide. In order to understand the different systems......) of the ternary system HAc—H2O—CO2 at different subcritical conditions. A proposed computer model could be validated with experimental data, leading to a certain degree of adjustment due to specific factors, such as the binary interaction parameter kij, used in the model based on the Peng-Robinson EoS coupled...... it will be returned to the atmosphere (as part of the carbon cycle), CO2 is an inexpensive and clean source with numerous industrial applications in diverse fields: from chemical processes to biotechnological purposes [1]. Many of these studies have been focused on supercritical CO2, due to its broad potential uses...

  8. Optimization of supercritical phase and combined supercritical/subcritical conversion of lignocellulose for hexose production by using a flow reaction system. (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wu, Hua-Yong; Liu, Jin-Wen; Wang, Hong-Tao


    A flow reaction system was utilized to investigate lignocellulose conversion using combined supercritical/subcritical conditions for hexose production. Initially, investigation of cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water and optimization of reaction parameters were done. Oligosaccharide yields reached over 30% at cellulose concentrations of 3-5 gL(-1) and reaction times of 6-10s at 375 °C, and 2.5-4 gL(-1) and 8-10s at 380 °C. Temperatures above 380 °C were not appropriate for the supercritical phase in the combined process. Subsequently, conversion of lignocellulosic materials under combined supercritical/subcritical conditions was studied. Around 30% hexose was produced from corn stalks under the optimal parameters for supercritical (380 °C, 23-24 MPa, 9-10s) and subcritical (240 °C, 8-9 MPa, 45-50s) phases. Flow systems utilizing the combined supercritical/subcritical technology present a promising method for lignocellulosic conversion. The results of this study provide an important guide for the operational optimization and practical application of the proposed system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Free Overfall in Circular Sections with Different Flat Base in Supercritical and Subcritical Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vatankhah


    Full Text Available Introduction: A free overfall offers a simple device for flow discharge measuring by a single measurement of depth at the end of the channel yb which is known as the end depth or brink depth. When the bottom of a channel drops suddenly, the flow separates from sharp edge of the brink and the pressure distribution is not hydrostatic because of the curvature of the flow. In channels with subcritical flow regime, control section occurs at the upstream with a critical depth (yc. Although pressure distribution at the critical depth is hydrostatic, the location of the critical depth can vary with respect to the discharge value. So, the end depth at brink is offered to estimate the discharge. A unique relationship between the brink depth (yb and critical depth (yc, known as end-depth ratio (EDR = yb/yc, exist. Since a relationship between the discharge and critical depth exists, the discharge can ultimately be related to yb. However, when the approaching flow is supercritical, critical section does not exist. Therefore, the discharge will be a function of end depth and channel longitudinal slope. In current study, an analytical model is presented for a circular free overfall with different flat base height in subcritical and supercritical flow regimes. The flow over a drop in a free overfall is simulated by applying the energy to calculate the EDR and end depth-discharge (EDD relationship. End-depth-discharge relationship: The flow of a free overfall in a channel can be assumed that is similar to the flow over a sharp-crested weir by taking weir height equal to zero. It is assumed that pressure at the end section is atmospheric, and also streamlines at the end section are parallel. To account for the curvature of streamlines, the deflection of jet due to gravity, the coefficient of contraction, Cc, is considered. At a short distance upstream the end section, the pressure is hydrostatic. By applying the energy equation between end section and control

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.


    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... on Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  11. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky


    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  12. Discharge Computation of Trapezoidal Side Weir in Subcritical Flow Regime Using Conventional Weir Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Side weir structures are extensively used in hydraulic engineering, irrigation and environmental engineering, and it usually consists of a main weir and a lateral channel. Side weirs are also used as an emergency structure. This structure is installed on one side or both sides of the main channel to divert the flow from the main channel to the side channel. Lateral outflow takes place when the water surface in the main channel rises above the weir sill. Flow over a side weir is a typical case of spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge. There have been extensive studies on side weir overflows. Most of the previous theoretical analysis and experimental research works are related to the flow over rectangular side weirs in rectangular main channels. In the current study, the flow conditions over a trapezoidal side weir located in a rectangular main channel in subcritical flow regime is considered. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed in a rectangular open channel having provisions for a side weir at one side of the channel. The main channel was horizontal with 12 m length, 0.25 m width, and 0.5 m height, and it was installed on a frame; lateral channel that has a length of 6 m, width of 0.25 m, and height of 1 m. It was set up parallel to the main channel; walls and its bed were made up of Plexiglas plates. The side weir was positioned at a distance of 6 m from the channel’s entrance. A total of 121 experiments on trapezoidal side weirs were carried out. Results and Discussion: For trapezoidal side weir, effective non-dimensionnal parameters were identified using dimensional analysis and Buckingham's Pi-Theorem. Finally, the following non-dimensional parameters were considered as the most effective ones on the discharge coefficient of the trapezoidal side weir flow. in which Fr1= upstream Froude number, P= hight of the trapezoidal side weir, y1= upstream water depth, z=side slope of the trapezoidal side weir

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions. (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A


    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed at Subcritical Conditions with Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Yusoff


    Full Text Available Roselle seeds are the waste product of roselle processing, but they are now labeled as a polyphenol source with great herbal quality. In this work, polyphenols were extracted using ethanol-water (70% (v/v in a closed vessel under microwave irradiation. The main objective was to determine the optimal parameters statistically. The influence of extraction time (4–10 min, microwave power (100–300 W, and solvent/solid ratio (25–100 mL/g was studied. The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Without temperature control, the subcritical conditions could occur and the highest flavonoid content (14.4251 mg QE/g was achieved at 158°C and 16.4 bar. Although the optimum MAE conditions (10 min, 300 W, and 97.7178 mL/g resulted in the highest yield (65.0367% and phenolic content (18.2244 mg GAE/g, low flavonoids content (6.4524 mg QE/g was unexpectedly obtained due to degradation at 163°C.

  15. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.


    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

  16. Experimental Assessment of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Operating at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions in a Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova


    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a helical coil heat exchanger operating at subcritical and supercritical conditions is analysed. The counter-current heat exchanger was specially designed to operate at a maximal pressure and temperature of 42 bar and 200 °C, respectively. The small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC installation has a net power output of 3 kWe. The first tests were done in a laboratory where an electrical heater was used instead of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T collectors. The inlet heating fluid temperature of the water was 95 °C. The effects of different parameters on the heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger were investigated. Particularly, the performance analysis was elaborated considering the changes of the mass flow rate of the working fluid (R-404A in the range of 0.20–0.33 kg/s and the inlet pressure varying from 18 bar up to 41 bar. Hence, the variation of the heat flux was in the range of 5–9 kW/m2. The results show that the working fluid’s mass flow rate has significant influence on the heat transfer rate rather than the operational pressure. Furthermore, from the comparison between the experimental results with the heat transfer correlations from the literature, the experimental results fall within the uncertainty range for the supercritical analysis but there is a deviation of the investigated subcritical correlations.

  17. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri


    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  18. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) defatted seeds using water and ethanol under sub-critical conditions. (United States)

    Bodoira, Romina; Velez, Alexis; Andreatta, Alfonsina E; Martínez, Marcela; Maestri, Damián


    Sesame seeds contain a vast array of lignans and phenolic compounds having important biological properties. An optimized method to obtain these seed components was designed by using water and ethanol at high pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum concentrations of lignans, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols compounds were achieved at 220°C extraction temperature and 8MPa pressure, using 63.5% ethanol as co-solvent. Under these conditions, the obtained sesame extracts gave the best radical scavenging capacity. Kinetic studies showed a high extraction rate of phenolic compounds until the first 50min of extraction, and it was in parallel with the highest scavenging capacity. The comparison of our results with those obtained under conventional extraction conditions (normal pressure, ambient temperature) suggests that recovery of sesame bioactive compounds may be markedly enhanced using water/ethanol mixtures at sub-critical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow. (United States)

    Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo


    We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).

  20. An experimental study of the behavior of liquid jets subjected to thermodynamic subcritical and supercritical conditions (United States)

    Spegar, Timothy Daniel

    As pressures and temperatures have risen in internal combustion engines, liquid fuel injection into an environment exceeding the critical pressure and temperature of the fuel is routine. If the fuel/oxidizer mixture reaches critical conditions, surface tension vanishes while the vapor/liquid density ratio approaches unity, altering the mixing behavior of the fuel and oxidizer from the well-studied behavior of jets injected into environments of more modest pressures and temperatures. To elucidate these issues, an experimental study of n-pentane jet breakup in high pressure and high temperature nitrogen environments was performed. Specifically, n-pentane at 20°C was injected transversely into nitrogen through a plain orifice atomizer at velocities varying from 1.0 m/sec to 6.0 m/sec. The nitrogen temperature and pressure were varied from 20°C to 300°C and 100 psig to 1500 psig, respectively. The experiments were carried out in an optically accessible test chamber and two-dimensional spontaneous Raman imaging was employed to attempt to quantify the degree of jet vaporization. An analysis of the jets' breakup mechanism, continuous length, drag coefficient and wake fuel concentration was conducted to determine if jet behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures could be explained by the characteristic decrease in surface tension and increase in gas/liquid density ratio as the critical point is reached. Though not all results could be explained by the appropriate changes in surface tension and the gas/liquid density ratio, jet behavior at ambient conditions in excess of the liquid critical point was observed to differ from behavior typical of jets injected at relatively low pressures. Furthermore, little variation in wake intensity was seen, but this is conceivable considering the inherent difficulties in spontaneous Raman scattering, most notably, its intrinsic weakness. Suggestions for improving the results of the Raman measurements employed in this investigation

  1. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and ...

  2. Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1982-August 1982. [Comparison of subcritical and supercritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.


    The initial objective of this work was to study the phase distribution of donor solvents and solvent mixtures during the liquefaction of coal, to investigate the effects of phase distribution on coal conversion, and to determine the advantages, if any, of operating at subcritical and/or supercritical conditions. Computer simulations were used to predict the phase distribution, for various binary systems, as a function of temperature. The FLASH program was used to theoretically predict phase distribution for various model systems. Due to limitations in the computer program, success was achieved only in a few cases. Even in these cases, the existence of two-phase regions was observed only at temperatures and pressures far below normal liquefaction conditions. An extensive review of the literature was carried out in order to survey methods of experimentally studying vapor-liquid equilibria. Finally, some preliminary laboratory studies were carried out with the use of benzothiophene-dodecane as the model reaction system. It was felt that the study of the effect of reactor configuration on conversion would provide insight into whether phase distribution or mass transfer was the limiting consideration for coal conversion. However, no conclusive results were obtained from these studies.

  3. Large Eddy simulation of turbulent flow past a circular cylinder in the subcritical and critical regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyongjun; Yang, Kyung-Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Large Eddy simulation (LES) results of turbulent flow past a circular cylinder for the specified Reynolds numbers (Re = 63100, 126000, 252000) are presented. An immersed boundary method was employed to facilitate implementation of a circular cylinder in a Cartesian grid system. A dynamic subgrid-scale model, in which the model coefficient is dynamically determined by the current resolved flow field rather than assigned a prefixed constant, was implemented for accurate turbulence modeling. For better resolution near the cylinder surface and in the separated free-shear layers, a composite grid was used. Flow statistics including mean and rms values of force coefficients and Strouhal number of vortex shedding, are presented. Flow visualization using vorticity or Q contours are also shown. Our results are in better agreement with the MARIN measurements compared with RANS calculations reported in the previous ITTC workshop, confirming that LES is a more appropriate simulation methodology than a RANS approach to predict VIV for marine structures.

  4. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the process can follow different scenarios depending on the physical situation under consideration. In closed flows, besides the ... a limited set of central modes governed by normal forms obtained through adiabatic elimination of enslaved modes. ... alternatively slow and fast streaks. Right: Self-sustaining process in wall.

  5. Experimental investigation of flow characteristics around four square-cylinder arrays at subcritical Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Liu


    Full Text Available The Deep Draft Semi-Submersible (DDS concepts are known for their favourable vertical motion performance. However, the DDS may experience critical Vortex-Induced Motion (VIM stemming from the fluctuating forces on the columns. In order to investigate the current-induced excitation forces of VIM, an experimental study of flow characteristics around four square-section cylinders in a square configuration is presented. A number of column spacing ratios and array attack angles were considered to investigate the parametric influences. The results comprise flow patterns, drag and lift forces, as well as Strouhal numbers. It is shown that both the drag and lift forces acting on the cylinders are slightly different between the various L/D values, and the fluctuating forces peak at L/D = 4.14. The lift force of downstream cylinders reaches its maximum at around α = 15°. Furthermore, the flow around circular- section-cylinder arrays is also discussed in comparison with that of square cylinders.

  6. Applications of subcritical and supercritical water conditions for extraction, hydrolysis, gasification, and carbonization of biomass: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lachos-Perez


    Full Text Available This review summarizes the recent essential aspects of subcritical and supercritical water technology applied tothe extraction, hydrolysis, carbonization, and gasification processes. These are clean and fast technologies which do not need pretreatment, require less reaction time, generate less corrosion and residues, do not usetoxic solvents, and reduce the synthesis of degradation byproducts. The equipment design, process parameters, and types of biomass used for subcritical and supercritical water process are presented. The benefits of catalysis to improve process efficiency are addressed. Bioactive compounds, reducing sugars, hydrogen, biodiesel, and hydrothermal char are the final products of subcritical and supercritical water processes. The present review also revisits advances of the research trends in the development of subcriticaland supercritical water process technologies.

  7. Predicting the drying properties of sludge based on hydrothermal treatment under subcritical conditions. (United States)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fraikin, Laurent; Léonard, Angélique; Benavente, Verónica; Fullana, Andrés


    The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the drying properties of sludge were determined. Sludge was hydrothermally treated at 180-260 °C for 0.5-5 h using NaOH and HCl as additives to influence reaction conditions. Untreated sludge and attained hydrochar samples were then dried under identical conditions with a laboratory microdryer and an X-ray microtomograph was used to follow changes in sample dimensions. The effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar samples were determined and the effect of process conditions on respective mean diffusivities evaluated using multiple linear regression. Based on the results the drying time of untreated sludge decreased from approximately 80 min to 37-59 min for sludge hydrochar. Drying of untreated sludge was governed by the falling rate period where drying flux decreased continuously as a function of sludge moisture content due to heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage. Hydrothermal treatment increased the drying flux of sludge hydrochar and decreased the effect of internal heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage especially at higher treatment temperatures. The determined effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar increased as a function of decreasing moisture content and the mean diffusivity of untreated sludge (8.56·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) and sludge hydrochar (12.7-27.5·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) were found statistically different. The attained regression model indicated that treatment temperature governed the mean diffusivity of hydrochar, as the effects of NaOH and HCl were statistically insignificant. The attained results enabled prediction of sludge drying properties through mean moisture diffusivity based on hydrothermal treatment conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recuperation of the organic matter from oil shales with phenol in subcritical conditions; Recuperation a l'autoclave de la matiere organique de schistes bitumineux marocains par le phenol en conditions sub-critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourriche, A.; Oumam, M.; Hannache, H. [Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Lab. des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Casablanca (Morocco); Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux, UMR 5801 CNRS-CEA-Snecma, 33 - Pessac (France); Birot, M.; Pillot, J.P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, 33 - Pessac (France)


    Phenol was used for the recovery of the organic matter from Tarfaya's oil shales in subcritical conditions. The analyses carried out on the recovered oils revealed that phenol had a significant role on the increase of the yield of recuperation, amount of maltenes, aromatic compounds and the reduction of the amount of sulphur in oils. (author)

  9. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.


    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  10. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions. (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang


    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixing Under Transcritical Flow Conditions (United States)


    Poinsot and S. Lele . Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous flows. Journal of Computational Physics, 101(1):104–129...1992. 51 [47] B. E. Poling, J. M. Prausnitz, and J. P. O’Connel. The properties of gases and liquids. McGraw-Hill, fifth edition, 2001. [48] L. Pons , N...compact scheme the following method described by Lele [5] is used: aiϕ ′ i−1 + biϕ ′ i + ciϕ ′ i+1 = di (3.23) where ai, bi, ci are constant

  12. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.


    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  13. Biodiesel from Hydrolyzed Waste Cooking Oil Using a S-ZrO2/SBA-15 Super Acid Catalyst under Sub-Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nobi Hossain


    Full Text Available Due to rapid changes in food habits, a substantial amount of waste fat and used oils are generated each year. Due to strong policies, the disposal of this material into nearby sewers causes ecological and environmental problems in many parts of the world. For efficient management, waste cooking oil, a less expensive, alternative and promising feedstock, can be used as a raw material for producing biofuel. In the present study, we produced a biodiesel from hydrolyzed waste cooking oil with a subcritical methanol process using a synthesized solid super acid catalyst, a sulfated zirconium oxide supported on Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (S-ZrO2/SBA-15. The characterization of the synthesized catalyst was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The catalytic effect on biodiesel production was examined by varying the parameters: temperatures of 120 to 200 °C, 5–20 min times, oil-to-methanol mole ratios between 1:5 to 1:20, and catalyst loadings of 1–2.5%. The maximum biodiesel yield was 96.383%, obtained under optimum reaction conditions of 140 °C, 10 min, and a 1:10 oil-to-methanol molar ratio with a 2.0% catalyst loading. We successfully reused the catalyst five times without regeneration with a 90% efficiency. The fuel properties were found to be within the limits set by the biodiesel standard.

  14. Production of value added materials by subcritical water hydrolysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the determination of the best experimental conditions for the production of useful materials such as amino acids by subcritical water hydrolysis from supercritical carbon dioxide extracted krill residues and to compare the results with raw krill. Subcritical water hydrolysis efficiency from raw and ...

  15. Uniform flow around a circular cylinder in the subcritical range - using the Self-induced angular Moment Method turbulence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    The uniform flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1e5 is simulated in a three dimensional domain by means of the newly developed Self-induced angular Moment Method, SMoM, turbulence model. The global force coefficients, Strouhal number, pressure distributions and wall shear stress...

  16. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.


    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  17. Mechanisms of Subcritical Cracking in Calcite (United States)

    Royne, A.; Dysthe, D. K.; Bisschop, J.


    Brittle materials are characterized by a critical stress intensity factor above which they will fail catastrophically by dynamic cracking. However, it has been observed that materials can also fail at much lower stresses, through slow crack growth, often referred to as subcritical cracking. This phenomenon can take place even in vacuum, but is greatly enhanced by water and other reactive species in the environment. For a given material and environmental condition there is a systematic relationship between the crack tip velocity and the stress intensity factor. The presence of a lower stress limit to subcritical cracking has been predicted from thermodynamics but has not been firmly demonstrated experimentally. This parameter would control the long- term strength of geological materials. Subcritical cracking must necessarily be important in controlling the rock strength in near-surface processes where water and other active species are present and the displacements and stresses are low. Weathering is one example of such a process. Modelling has shown that fracture networks generated by a high degree of subcritical cracking will percolate at much lower fracture densities than purely stochastical fracture networks. This has important implications for how water can move through the crust. Understanding the mechanisms for subcritical crack growth in geological materials is also important in assessing the stability and long term performance of sequestration reservoirs for CO2 or nuclear waste. The mechanism for stress corrosion is well known for glasses and quartz. For carbonate minerals, the mechanism for subcritical crack growth has not been identified, and the only experimental studies on calcitic materials have been on polycrystalline rocks such as marble. Suggested mechanisms include stress corrosion (weakening reactions at the crack tip), preferential dissolution at the crack tip with rapid removal of dissolved species, and environmentally controlled

  18. Subcritical multiplication determination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Goulding, C.A.


    A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques are in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory that are aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the apparent multiplication of the system. Such studies are being performed in order to improve the special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since measured multiplication is not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has a system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a non-normal mode system).

  19. Quantum Subcritical Bubbles (United States)

    Uesugi, T.; Morikawa, M.; Shiromizu, T.


    We quantize subcritical bubbles which are formed in the weakly first order phase transition. We find that the typical size of the thermal fluctuation reduces in quantum-statistical physics. We estimate the typical size and the amplitude of thermal fluctuations near the critical temperature in the electroweak phase transition using a quantum statistical average. Furthermore, based on our study, we discuss implications for the dynamics of phase transitions.

  20. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  1. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology. (United States)

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A


    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flows in networks under fuzzy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhenyuk, Alexander Vitalievich; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Rozenberg, Igor Naymovich


    This book offers a comprehensive introduction to fuzzy methods for solving flow tasks in both transportation and networks. It analyzes the problems of minimum cost and maximum flow finding with fuzzy nonzero lower flow bounds, and describes solutions to minimum cost flow finding in a network with fuzzy arc capacities and transmission costs. After a concise introduction to flow theory and tasks, the book analyzes two important problems. The first is related to determining the maximum volume for cargo transportation in the presence of uncertain network parameters, such as environmental changes, measurement errors and repair work on the roads. These parameters are represented here as fuzzy triangular, trapezoidal numbers and intervals. The second problem concerns static and dynamic flow finding in networks under fuzzy conditions, and an effective method that takes into account the network’s transit parameters is presented here. All in all, the book provides readers with a practical reference guide to state-of-...

  3. Flow characteristics around a deformable stenosis under pulsatile flow condition (United States)

    Choi, Woorak; Park, Jun Hong; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon


    A specific portion of a vulnerable stenosis is deformed periodically under a pulsatile blood flow condition. Detailed analysis of such deformable stenosis is important because stenotic deformation can increase the likelihood of rupture, which may lead to sudden cardiac death or stroke. Various diagnostic indices have been developed for a nondeformable stenosis by using flow characteristics and resultant pressure drop across the stenosis. However, the effects of the stenotic deformation on the flow characteristics remain poorly understood. In this study, the flows around a deformable stenosis model and two different rigid stenosis models were investigated under a pulsatile flow condition. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure flow structures around the three stenosis models. The deformable stenosis model was deformed to achieve high geometrical slope and height when the flow rate was increased. The deformation of the stenotic shape enhanced jet deflection toward the opposite vessel wall of the stenosis. The jet deflection in the deformable model increased the rate of jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production as compared with those in the rigid models. The effect of stenotic deformation on the pulsating waveform related with the pressure drop was analyzed using the TKE production rate. The deformable stenosis model exhibited a phase delay of the peak point in the waveform. These results revealed the potential use of pressure drop waveform as a diagnostic index for deformable stenosis.

  4. Axial Flow Conditioning Device for Mitigating Instabilities (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet (Inventor); Birkbeck, Roger M. (Inventor); Hosangadi, Ashvin (Inventor)


    A flow conditioning device for incrementally stepping down pressure within a piping system is presented. The invention includes an outer annular housing, a center element, and at least one intermediate annular element. The outer annular housing includes an inlet end attachable to an inlet pipe and an outlet end attachable to an outlet pipe. The outer annular housing and the intermediate annular element(s) are concentrically disposed about the center element. The intermediate annular element(s) separates an axial flow within the outer annular housing into at least two axial flow paths. Each axial flow path includes at least two annular extensions that alternately and locally direct the axial flow radially outward and inward or radially inward and outward thereby inducing a pressure loss or a pressure gradient within the axial flow. The pressure within the axial flow paths is lower than the pressure at the inlet end and greater than the vapor pressure for the axial flow. The invention minimizes fluidic instabilities, pressure pulses, vortex formation and shedding, and/or cavitation during pressure step down to yield a stabilized flow within a piping system.

  5. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local energy losses occur when there is a transition in open channel flow. Even though local losses in subcritical open channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. Steps are commonly used in engineering applications ...

  6. A Comparative Study of Enantioseparations of Nα-Fmoc Proteinogenic Amino Acids on Quinine-Based Zwitterionic and Anion Exchanger-Type Chiral Stationary Phases under Hydro-Organic Liquid and Subcritical Fluid Chromatographic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Lajkó


    Full Text Available The focus of this contribution is a comparative investigation of enantioseparations of 19 Nα-Fmoc proteinogenic amino acids on Quinine-based zwitterionic and anion-exchanger type chiral stationary phases employing hydro-organic and polar-ionic liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic conditions. Effects of mobile phase composition (including additives, e.g., water, basis and acids and nature of chiral selectors on the chromatographic performances were studied at different chromatographic modes. Thermodynamic parameters of the temperature dependent enantioseparation results were calculated in the temperature range 5–50 °C applying plots of lnα versus 1/T. The differences in standard enthalpy and standard entropy for a given pair of enantiomers were calculated and served as a basis for comparisons. Elution sequence in all cases was determined, where a general rule could be observed, both in liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic mode the d-enantiomers eluted before the L ones. In both modes, the principles of ion exchange chromatography apply.

  7. A Comparative Study of Enantioseparations of Nα-Fmoc Proteinogenic Amino Acids on Quinine-Based Zwitterionic and Anion Exchanger-Type Chiral Stationary Phases under Hydro-Organic Liquid and Subcritical Fluid Chromatographic Conditions. (United States)

    Lajkó, Gyula; Grecsó, Nóra; Tóth, Gábor; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Péter, Antal; Ilisz, István


    The focus of this contribution is a comparative investigation of enantioseparations of 19 Nα-Fmoc proteinogenic amino acids on Quinine-based zwitterionic and anion-exchanger type chiral stationary phases employing hydro-organic and polar-ionic liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic conditions. Effects of mobile phase composition (including additives, e.g., water, basis and acids) and nature of chiral selectors on the chromatographic performances were studied at different chromatographic modes. Thermodynamic parameters of the temperature dependent enantioseparation results were calculated in the temperature range 5-50 °C applying plots of lnα versus 1/T. The differences in standard enthalpy and standard entropy for a given pair of enantiomers were calculated and served as a basis for comparisons. Elution sequence in all cases was determined, where a general rule could be observed, both in liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic mode the d-enantiomers eluted before the L ones. In both modes, the principles of ion exchange chromatography apply.

  8. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Physics around Blunt Shaped MAV using CFD (United States)


    street configurations and established a theoretical link between the vortex street structure and the drag on the body. Jordan and Fromm[2] investigated...flow reaches a chaotic state. Constantinescu[21] simulated a flowfield around a sphere for the conditions of subcritical and supercritical regimes at...simulated the subcritical flow at a Reynolds number of over a sphere to compare prediction of some of the main physics and flow parameters from

  9. Subcritical neutron production using multiple accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W.Y.; Jones, J.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harmon, J.F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)


    A subcritical neutron production technique using multiple accelerators is being developed to provide a selective alternative (for small volumes) to nuclear reactor neutron production. The concept combines the capabilities of multiple commercially-available linear accelerators and a compact subcritical assembly design to generate reactor-like thermal neutron fluxes (i.e., 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s) in small irradiation volumes of up to 500 cm{sup 3}. In addition, fast and epithermal neutron fluxes will also be available. The neutron source utilizes radially-oriented, pulsed, electron accelerators. The subcritical neutron production assembly is in the form of a compact right-cylinder (approximately 20-cm dia.). This assembly uses an outer ring of graphite (i.e., reflector) with re-entrant holes to enable penetration of the electron beam to the internal structure which comprises of uranium as an electron convertor/neutron multiplier followed by H{sub 2}O beryllium, H{sub 2}O aluminum, and D{sub 2}O in succession toward the center. The inner-most region filled with D{sub 2}O is the central irradiation volume. The material configuration and overall design is to maximize thermal neutron fluxes in the central irradiation volume based on photoneutron/photofission and neutron multiplication processes as well as neutron transport. This assembly will be designed not to reach a nuclear critical state under any normal and/or accidental condition.

  10. Accelerator driven sub-critical core (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor


    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  11. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    7) 554-568. MORRIS HM and WIGGERT JM (1972) Applied Hydraulics in. Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York. ÖRSEL SI (2002) Local Losses at a Step in a Sub-critical Open. Channel Flow. M.Sc. Thesis, Department ...

  12. Evaluation of sub-critical water as an extraction fluid for model contaminants from recycled PET for reuse as food packaging material. (United States)

    Santos, Amélia S F; Agnelli, José A M; Manrich, Sati


    Recycling of plastics for food-contact packaging is an important issue and research into meaningful and cost-effective solutions is in progress. In this paper, the use of sub-critical water was evaluated as an alternative way of purifying poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes for direct food contact applications. The effects of temperature, pressure and flow rate were assessed on the extraction efficiency of two of the most challenging classes of contaminants (toluene and benzophenone) from PET by sub-critical water using a first-order fractional experimental design. Extraction yield was quantified using GC/FID. The most important parameter was flow rate, indicating that the decrease in sub-critical water polarity with temperature was insufficient to eliminate partition effects. Temperature was also important, but only for the optimization of toluene extraction. These results may be explained by the poor solubility of higher molar mass compounds in sub-critical water compared to lower molar mass compounds under the same conditions, and the small decrease in dielectric constant with temperature under the experimental conditions evaluated. As cleaning efficiency is low and PET is very susceptible to hydrolysis, which limits the use of higher temperatures vis-à-vis physical recycling, the proposed extraction is unsuitable for a standalone super-clean process but may be a step in the process.

  13. Recent developments of axial flow compressors under transonic flow conditions (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Raghunandana, K.; Satish Shenoy, B.


    The objective of this paper is to give a holistic view of the most advanced technology and procedures that are practiced in the field of turbomachinery design. Compressor flow solver is the turbulence model used in the CFD to solve viscous problems. The popular techniques like Jameson’s rotated difference scheme was used to solve potential flow equation in transonic condition for two dimensional aero foils and later three dimensional wings. The gradient base method is also a popular method especially for compressor blade shape optimization. Various other types of optimization techniques available are Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) and Response surface methodology (RSM). It is observed that in order to improve compressor flow solver and to get agreeable results careful attention need to be paid towards viscous relations, grid resolution, turbulent modeling and artificial viscosity, in CFD. The advanced techniques like Jameson’s rotated difference had most substantial impact on wing design and aero foil. For compressor blade shape optimization, Evolutionary algorithm is quite simple than gradient based technique because it can solve the parameters simultaneously by searching from multiple points in the given design space. Response surface methodology (RSM) is a method basically used to design empirical models of the response that were observed and to study systematically the experimental data. This methodology analyses the correct relationship between expected responses (output) and design variables (input). RSM solves the function systematically in a series of mathematical and statistical processes. For turbomachinery blade optimization recently RSM has been implemented successfully. The well-designed high performance axial flow compressors finds its application in any air-breathing jet engines.

  14. Effect of Material Property Variations at Near Critical Thermodynamic Conditions on Pipe Flow Heat Transfer (United States)

    Barney, Rebecca; Nourgaliev, Robert; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; McCallen, Rose


    Heat transfer is quantified and contrasted for the Poiseuille flow of a fluid at both subcritical and supercritical thermodynamic conditions in a circular pipe subject to a uniform wall heat flux. The conditions considered are relevant to Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) applications. In the supercritical thermodynamic regime, a fluid can exhibit large density variations of density, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, which will affect flow and heat transfer characteristics significantly. An advanced equation of state for supercritical water was implemented in a 2D and 3D Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eurlerian multi-physics simulation tool called ALE3D developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A newly developed, robust, high-order in space and time, fully implicit reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method is used to enable the numerical simulation of convective heat transfer with supercritical water. Results demonstrate the capability of this approach to accurately capture the non-linear behavior and enhanced heat transfer with supercritical water. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-736004. Work is supported by the Integrated University Program Graduate Fellowship. Opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed are of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE office of NE.

  15. Studying leukocyte recruitment under flow conditions. (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Jurzinsky, Christophe; Cuvelier, Susan L; Patel, Kamala D


    Leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature occurs under conditions of haemodynamic shear stress. The parallel plate flow chamber apparatus is an in vitro system that is widely used to study leukocyte recruitment under shear conditions. The flow chamber is a versatile tool for examining adhesive interactions, as it can be used to study a variety of adhesive substrates, ranging from monolayers of primary cells to isolated adhesion molecules, and a variety of adhesive particles, ranging from leukocytes in whole blood to antibody-coated latex beads. We describe here methods for studying leukocyte recruitment to cytokine-stimulated, transfected or transduced endothelial cells using both whole blood and isolated leukocyte suspensions. These methods enable multiple parameters to be measured, including the total number of recruited leukocytes, the percentage of leukocytes that are rolling or firmly adherent, and the percentage of leukocytes that have transmigrated. Although these methods are described for interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, they are broadly applicable to the study of interactions between many combinations of adhesive substrates and adhesive particles.

  16. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S


    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical condit...

  17. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi


    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety.

  18. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse


    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...

  19. Ultrasound-Enhanced Subcritical CO2 Extraction of Lutein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa. (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Dan; Hou, Yan; Huang, Xing-Xin; Qiu, Tai-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Guo


    Lutein is an important pigment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with many beneficial functions in human health. The main purpose of this study was to extract lutein from C. pyrenoidosa using ultrasound-enhanced subcritical CO2 extraction (USCCE). Effects of operating conditions on the extraction, including extraction pretreatment, temperature, pressure, time, CO2 flow rate, and ultrasonic power, were investigated, and an orthogonal experiment was designed to study the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, cosolvent amount, and time on the extraction yields. The USCCE method was compared with other extraction methods in terms of the yields of lutein and the microstructure of C. pyrenoidosa powder by scanning electron microscopy. A maximal extraction yield of 124.01 mg lutein/100 g crude material was achieved under optimal conditions of extraction temperature at 27 °C, extraction pressure at 21 MPa, cosolvent amount at 1.5 mL/g ethanol, and ultrasound power at 1000 W. Compared to other methods, USCCE could significantly increase the lutein extraction yield at lower extraction temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the kinetic models of USCCE and subcritical CO2 extraction (SCCE) of lutein from C. pyrenoidosa were set as E = 130.64 × (1 - e(-0.6599t)) and E = 101.82 × (1 - e(-0.5683t)), respectively. The differences of parameters in the kinetic models indicate that ultrasound was able to enhance the extraction process of SCCE.

  20. Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Miachel E


    This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...

  1. Subcritical flutter in the acoustics of friction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O.N Kirillov


    ...-simple eigenfrequencies at the nodes. At contact with friction pads, the rotating continua, such as the singing wine glass or the squealing disc brake, start to vibrate owing to the subcritical flutter instability...

  2. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara boundary conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... distributed parallel circular cylinder or spheres in uniform viscous flow are investigated with slip boundary condition under Stokes approximation using particle-in-cell model technique and the result compared with the no-slip case. The corresponding problem of streaming flow past spheroidal particles departing but little in ...

  3. Bridge pressure flow scour for clear water conditions (United States)


    The equilibrium scour at a bridge caused by pressure flow with critical approach velocity in clear-water simulation conditions was studied both analytically and experimentally. The flume experiments revealed that (1) the measured equilibrium scour pr...

  4. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications (United States)

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.


    Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. TNT and RDX degradation and extraction from contaminated soil using subcritical water. (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Shin, Moon-Su; Jo, Young-Tae; Park, Jeong-Hun


    The use of explosives either for industrial or military operations have resulted in the environmental pollution, poses ecological and health hazard. In this work, a subcritical water extraction (SCWE) process at laboratory scale was used at varying water temperature (100-175 °C) and flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)), to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil, to reveal information with respect to the explosives removal (based on the analyses of soil residue after extraction), and degradation performance (based on the analyses of water extracts) of this process. Continuous flow subcritical water has been considered on removal of explosives to avoid the repartitioning of non-degraded compounds to the soil upon cooling which usually occurs in the batch system. In the SCWE experiments, near complete degradation of both TNT and RDX was observed at 175 °C based on analysis of water extracts and soil. Test results also indicated that TNT removal of >99% and a complete RDX removal were achieved by this process, when the operating conditions were 1 mL min(-1), and treatment time of 20 min, after the temperature reached 175 °C. HPLC-UV and ion chromatography analysis confirmed that the explosives underwent for degradation. The low concentration of explosives found in the process wastewater indicates that water recycling may be viable, to treat additional soil. Our results have shown in the remediation of explosives contaminated soil, the effectiveness of the continuous flow SCWE process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition (United States)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.


    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  7. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna


    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  8. Calculating Study of the Turbine at Last Stage Flow Field in the Small Volume Flow Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tieliu


    Full Text Available Based on basic equation and boundary layer theory of pneumodynamics, the thesis conducts numerical modeling and theoretical analysis on the last stage of turbine characteristics at a small volume flow by using FLUENT, gives an emphasized analysis on the position of first occurrence of backflow and its expansion direction and comes up with flow structure of the turbine flow field at last stage in the small volume flow condition. In connection with specific experiments, it puts forward the flow model of backflow occurring in the last stage field and the solution to the model. The flow field at last stage for a 100MW turbine in the small volume flow condition that is calculated by using the model is basically in conformity to the actual result.


    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  10. Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes (United States)

    Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.


    We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.

  11. Optimal design of multi-conditions for axial flow pump (United States)

    Shi, L. J.; Tang, F. P.; Liu, C.; Xie, R. S.; Zhang, W. P.


    Passage components of the pump device will have a negative flow state when axial pump run off the design condition. Combined with model tests of axial flow pump, this paper use numerical simulation and numerical optimization techniques, and change geometric design parameters of the impeller to optimal design of multi conditions for Axial Flow Pump, in order to improve the efficiency of non-design conditions, broad the high efficient district and reduce operating cost. The results show that, efficiency curve of optimized significantly wider than the initial one without optimization. The efficiency of low flow working point increased by about 2.6%, the designed working point increased by about 0.5%, and the high flow working point increased the most, about 7.4%. The change range of head is small, so all working point can meet the operational requirements. That will greatly reduce operating costs and shorten the period of optimal design. This paper adopted the CFD simulation as the subject analysis, combined with experiment study, instead of artificial way of optimization design with experience, which proves the reliability and efficiency of the optimization design of multi-operation conditions of axial-flow pump device.

  12. Differences in displayed pump flow compared to measured flow under varying conditions during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M


    Errors in blood flow delivery due to shunting have been reported to reduce flow by, potentially, up to 40-83% during cardiopulmonary bypass. The standard roller-pump measures revolutions per minute and a calibration factor for different tubing sizes calculates and displays flow accordingly. We compared displayed roller-pump flow with ultrasonically measured flow to ascertain if measured flow correlated with the heart-lung pump flow reading. Comparison of flows was measured under varying conditions of pump run duration, temperature, viscosity, varying arterial\\/venous loops, occlusiveness, outlet pressure, use of silicone or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the roller race, different tubing diameters, and use of a venous vacuum-drainage device.

  13. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko


    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  14. Pulsatile flow conditioning of three-dimensional bioengineered cardiac ventricle. (United States)

    Patel, Nikita M; Birla, Ravi K


    Current physical stimuli mechanical stretch bioreactor studies focus on conditioning planar and/or tubular engineered cardiac constructs. The current 3D bioreactor models in cardiac tissue engineering use differential pressure loading for structural support as opposed to conditioning. The development of the pulsatile flow conditioned ventricle (PFCV) provides a 3D mechanical stretch conditioning method to generate pump function in the engineered cardiac left ventricle. The study utilizes a chitosan bioengineered open ventricle scaffold, to produce the in vitro PFCV model. PFCV were fabricated by wrapping the outer scaffold surface with a 3D fibrin gel artificial heart muscle patch, followed by pulsatile flow conditioning for 20 h. The average contractile frequency was 57 bpm. The average pressure generated, under maintained flow, post-conditioning, was 3.1633 mmHg. The average biopotential output was 0.4881 mV. Histologically, the PFCV displayed a more disseminated presence of intercellular interactions and sarcomeric organization. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of pulsatile flow conditioning to improve the function of our engineered left ventricle.

  15. Enhancing sedimentation by improving flow conditions using parallel retrofit baffles. (United States)

    He, Cheng; Scott, Eric; Rochfort, Quintin


    In this study, placing parallel-connected baffles in the vicinity of the inlet was proposed to improve hydraulic conditions for enhancing TSS (total suspended solids) removal. The purpose of the retrofit baffle design is to divide the large and fast inflow into smaller and slower flows to increase flow uniformity. This avoids short-circuiting and increases residence time in the sedimentation basin. The newly proposed parallel-connected baffle configuration was assessed in the laboratory by comparing its TSS removal performance and the optimal flow residence time with those from the widely used series-connected baffles. The experimental results showed that the parallel-connected baffles outperformed the series-connected baffles because it could disperse flow faster and in less space by splitting the large inflow into many small branches instead of solely depending on flow internal friction over a longer flow path, as was the case under the series-connected baffles. Being able to dampen faster flow before entering the sedimentation basin is critical to reducing the possibility of disturbing any settled particles, especially under high inflow conditions. Also, for a large sedimentation basin, it may be more economically feasible to deploy the proposed parallel retrofit baffle in the vicinity of the inlet than series-connected baffles throughout the entire settling basin. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditions of microvessel occlusion for blood coagulation in flow. (United States)

    Bouchnita, A; Galochkina, T; Kurbatova, P; Nony, P; Volpert, V


    Vessel occlusion is a perturbation of blood flow inside a blood vessel because of the fibrin clot formation. As a result, blood circulation in the vessel can be slowed down or even stopped. This can provoke the risk of cardiovascular events. In order to explore this phenomenon, we used a previously developed mathematical model of blood clotting to describe the concentrations of blood factors with a reaction-diffusion system of equations. The Navier-Stokes equations were used to model blood flow, and we treated the clot as a porous medium. We identify the conditions of partial or complete occlusion in a small vessel depending on various physical and physiological parameters. In particular, we were interested in the conditions on blood flow and diameter of the wounded area. The existence of a critical flow velocity separating the regimes of partial and complete occlusion was demonstrated through the mathematical investigation of a simplified model of thrombin wave propagation in Poiseuille flow. We observed different regimes of vessel occlusion depending on the model parameters both for the numerical simulations and in the theoretical study. Then, we compared the rate of clot growth in flow obtained in the simulations with experimental data. Both of them showed the existence of different regimes of clot growth depending on the velocity of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of Carreau-Yasuda rheological parameters on subcritical Lapwood convection in horizontal porous cavity saturated by shear-thinning fluid (United States)

    Khechiba, Khaled; Mamou, Mahmoud; Hachemi, Madjid; Delenda, Nassim; Rebhi, Redha


    The present study is focused on Lapwood convection in isotropic porous media saturated with non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid. The non-Newtonian rheological behavior of the fluid is modeled using the general viscosity model of Carreau-Yasuda. The convection configuration consists of a shallow porous cavity with a finite aspect ratio and subject to a vertical constant heat flux, whereas the vertical walls are maintained impermeable and adiabatic. An approximate analytical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption, and numerical solutions are obtained by solving the full governing equations. The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation and energy transport equations are solved numerically using a finite difference method. The results are obtained in terms of the Nusselt number and the flow fields as functions of the governing parameters. A good agreement is obtained between the analytical approximation and the numerical solution of the full governing equations. The effects of the rheological parameters of the Carreau-Yasuda fluid and Rayleigh number on the onset of subcritical convection thresholds are demonstrated. Regardless of the aspect ratio of the enclosure and thermal boundary condition type, the subcritical convective flows are seen to occur below the onset of stationary convection. Correlations are proposed to estimate the subcritical Rayleigh number for the onset of finite amplitude convection as a function of the fluid rheological parameters. Linear stability of the convective motion, predicted by the parallel flow approximation, is studied, and the onset of Hopf bifurcation, from steady convective flow to oscillatory behavior, is found to depend strongly on the rheological parameters. In general, Hopf bifurcation is triggered earlier as the fluid becomes more and more shear-thinning.

  18. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji


    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  19. Stem sap flow in plants under low gravity conditions (United States)

    Tokuda, Ayako; Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki


    A study was conducted to obtain a fundamental knowledge for plant functions in bio-regenerative life support systems in space. Stem sap flow in plants is important indicators for water transport from roots to atmosphere through leaves. In this study, stem sap flow in sweetpotato was assessed at gravity levels from 0.01 to 2 g for about 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. Stem sap flow was monitored with a heat balance method in which heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by convection with the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. Thermal images of stem surfaces near heated points were captured using infrared thermography and the internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed. In results, the sap flow in stems was suppressed more at lower gravity levels without forced air circulation. No suppression of the stem sap flow was observed with forced air circulation. Suppressed sap flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under low gravity conditions in space.

  20. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Accelerator driven systems; nuclear waste transmutation; computer codes; reactor physics; reactor noise; kinetics; burnup; transport theory; Monte Carlo; thorium utilization; neutron multiplication; sub-criticality; sub-critical facilities.

  1. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova


    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  2. Subcritical water extraction, UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS analysis and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Luan, Guangxiang; Zhou, Wu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Honglun; Hu, Na; Suo, Yourui


    In this work, it has been developed an efficient method for extraction of anthocyanin from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and the antioxidative activities research. Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a green technology for the extraction of anthocyanin from L. ruthenicum. Several key parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum extraction conditions and the desirability of model were the time of extraction = 55 min and the flow rate was 3 mL/min at 170 °C. At this operating condition, the content of anthocyanin was high to 26.33%. Subcritical water extraction was more efficient than using hot water or methyl alcohol for the extraction of anthocyanin. The composition of anthocyanins from L. ruthenicum has been investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS). Seven anthocyanins have been detected, all of which were identified and quantified. Furthermore, the anthocyanins extracted by SWE showed significantly better antioxidant activity than the anthocyanins extracted by hot water or methyl alcohol according to DPPH and ABTS assay. SWE with significantly higher anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were achieved compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I


    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  4. Estimation of overland flow metrics at semiarid condition: Patagonian Monte (United States)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.


    Water infiltration and overland flow (WIOF) processes are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological management. WIOF processes in arid and semiarid regions present regional characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) was performed in order to estimate infiltration-overland descriptive flow parameters. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots at z-scale depression storage intensity. The experimental procedure presented supplies plot-scale estimates of overland flow and infiltration intensities at various intensities of water input which can be incorporated in larger-scale hydrological grid-models of arid regions. Findings were: (1) Overland flow velocities as well as infiltration-overland flow mass balances are consistently modelled by considering variable infiltration rates corresponding to depression storage and/or non-ponded areas. (2) The statistical relations presented allow the estimation of theoretical hydrodynamic parameters (Chezy's frictional C, average overland flow depth d*) through measurable characteristics of the surface soil and overland flow kinetics. (3) A protocol of field experiments and coupled time-distributed modelling to 1-2 above is described. The methodology and results obtained in this study are probably relevant to similar arid-semiarid areas of the world.

  5. Effects of Initial Conditions on Shock Driven Flows (United States)

    Martinez, Adam A.; Mula, Swathi M.; Charonko, John; Prestridge, Kathy


    The spatial and temporal evolution of shock-driven, variable density flows, such as the Richtmyer Meshkov (RM) instability, are strongly influenced by the initial conditions (IC's) of the flow at the time of interaction with shockwave. We study the effects of the IC's on the Vertical Shock Tube (VST) and on flows from Mach =1.2 to Mach =9. Experiments at the VST are of an Air-SF6 (At =0.6) multimode interface. Perturbations are generated using a shear layer with a flapper plate. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is used to characterize the IC's. New experiments are occurring using the Powder Gun driver at LANL Proton Radiography (pRad) facility. Mach number up to M =9 accelerate a Xenon-Helium (At =0.94) interface that is perturbed using a membrane supported by different sized grids. This presentation focuses on how to design and characterize different types of initial conditions for experiments.

  6. Modelling of transit-time ultrasonic flow meters under multi-phase flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej; Duggen, Lars; Lassen, Benny


    A pseudospectral model for transit time ultrasonic flowmeters under multiphase flow conditions is presented. The method solves first order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics, with acoustic media being modelled by setting shear modulus to zero. Additional terms to account for the effect...... under multiphase flow conditions is carried out....... of the background flow are included. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the Fast Fourier transform. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating...

  7. Mesoscopic Modelling of Heterogeneous Boundary Conditions for Microchannel Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Sbragaglia, M.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.


    We present a mesoscopic model of the fluid–wall interactions for flows in microchannel geometries. We define a suitable implementation of the boundary conditions for a discrete version of the Boltzmann equations describing a wall-bounded single-phase fluid. We distinguish different slippage

  8. Effect of water on critical and subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Eichhubl, Peter; Olson, Jon E.


    Subcritical fracture behavior of shales under aqueous conditions is poorly characterized despite increased relevance to oil and gas resource development and seal integrity in waste disposal and subsurface carbon sequestration. We measured subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale in ambient air, dry CO2 gas, and deionized water by using the double-torsion method. Compared to tests in ambient air, the presence of water reduces fracture toughness by 50%, subcritical index by 77%, and shear modulus by 27% and increases inelastic deformation. Comparison between test specimens coated with a hydrophobic agent and uncoated specimens demonstrates that the interaction of water with the bulk rock results in the reduction of fracture toughness and enhanced plastic effects, while water-rock interaction limited to the vicinity of the propagating fracture tip by a hydrophobic specimen coating lowers subcritical index and increases fracture velocity. The observed deviation of a rate-dependent subcritical index from the power law K-V relations for coated specimens tested in water is attributed to a time-dependent weakening process resulting from the interaction between water and clays in the vicinity of the fracture tip.

  9. Impacts of Snowy Weather Conditions on Expressway Traffic Flow Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng


    Full Text Available Snowy weather will significantly degrade expressway operations, reduce service levels, and increase driving difficulty. Furthermore, the impact of snow varies in different types of roads, diverse cities, and snow densities due to different driving behavior. Traffic flow parameters are essential to decide what should be appropriate for weather-related traffic management and control strategies. This paper takes Beijing as a case study and analyzes traffic flow data collected by detectors in expressways. By comparing the performance of traffic flow under normal and snowy weather conditions, this paper quantitatively describes the impact of adverse weather on expressway volume and average speeds. Results indicate that average speeds on the Beijing expressway under heavy snow conditions decrease by 10–20 km/h when compared to those under normal weather conditions, the vehicle headway generally increases by 2–4 seconds, and the road capacity drops by about 33%. This paper also develops a specific expressway traffic parameter reduction model which proposes reduction coefficients of expressway volumes and speeds under various snow density conditions in Beijing. The conclusions paper provide effective foundational parameters for urban expressway controls and traffic management under snow conditions.

  10. Influence of boundary conditions on fluid flow on hydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Simona, Fialová; František, Pochylý; Michal, Havlásek; Jiři, Malík


    The work is focused on the shape of velocity profiles of viscous liquid (water) in contact with hydrophobic surface. A demonstration is done on an example of liquid flow between two parallel plates. The solution is carried out at both the constant and variable viscosity of the liquid near the wall. The slip boundary condition of the liquid on the wall is expressed by the coefficient of adhesion and the shear stress on the wall. As a result, presented are the shapes of the velocity profiles in dependence on the coefficient of adhesion and the slip velocity on the wall. This solution is for laminar flow.

  11. Effect of thermodynamic disequilibrium on critical liquid-vapor flow conditions (United States)

    Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.

    In this lecture we characterize the effect of absence of unconstrained thermodynamic equilibrium and onset of a metastable state on the adiabatic flow of a mixture of liquid and its vapor through a convergent-divergent nozzle. We study steady-state flows and emphasize the relations that are present when the flow is choked. In such cases, there exists a cross-section in which the flow is critical and in which the adiabatic wave of small amplitude is stationary. More precisely, the relaxation process which results from the lack of equilibrium causes the system to be dispersive. In such circumstances, the critical velocity is equal to the frozen speed of sound, a(sub f) corresponding to (omega) (yields) (infinity). The relaxation process displaces the critical cross-section quite far downstream from the throat and places it in the divergent portion of the channel. We present the topological portrait of solutions in a suitably defined state-velocity space and discuss the potential appearance of normal and dispersed shock waves. In extreme cases, the singular point (usually a saddle) which enables the flow to become supercritical, is displaced so far that it is located outside the exit. Then, the flow velocity is everywhere subcritical (w less than a(sub f)) even though it may exceed the equilibrium speed of sound (w (approx. gt) a(sub e)) beyond a certain cross-section, and in spite of the presence of a throat.

  12. A vibrating membrane bioreactor operated at supra- and sub-critical flux: Influence of extracellular polymeric substances from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren Prip; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    A vibrating membrane bioreactor, in which the fouling problems are reduced by vibrating a hollow fiber membrane module, has been tested in constant flux microfiltration above (supra-critical) and below (sub-critical) an experimentally determined critical flux. Suspensions of bakers yeast cells were....... Filtration just below the critical flux (sub-critical) seems to be a good compromise between acceptable flux level and acceptable increase of fouling resistance and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) in a given time period. EPS from the yeast cells causes the membrane module to foul and part of the fouling...... is continually washed out during supra-critical flux operation whereas the washing out at sub-critical flux operation is not observed. This might be due to locally different hydrodynamic conditions at the membrane surface and pore entrances at supra- and sub-critical flux respectively....

  13. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S


    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  15. On the freestream matching condition for stagnation point turbulent flows (United States)

    Speziale, C. G.


    The problem of plane stagnation point flow with freestream turbulence is examined from a basic theoretical standpoint. It is argued that the singularity which arises from the standard kappa-epsilon model is not due to a defect in the model but results from the use of an inconsistent freestream boundary condition. The inconsistency lies in the implementation of a production equals dissipation equilibrium hypothesis in conjunction with a freestream mean velocity field that corresponds to homogeneous plane strain - a turbulent flow which does not reach such a simple equilibrium. Consequently, the adjustment that has been made in the constants of the epsilon-transport equation to eliminate this singularity is not self-consistent since it is tantamount to artificially imposing an equilibrium structure on a turbulent flow which is known not to have one.

  16. Magnetogasdynamic Power Extraction and Flow Conditioning for a Gas Turbine (United States)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Rich, J. William; Schneider, Steven; Blankson, Isaiah


    An extension of the Russian AJAX concept to a turbojet is being explored. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine cycle incorporating conventional gas turbine technology has MHD flow conditioning at the inlet to electromagnetically extract part of the inlet air kinetic energy. The electrical power generated can be used for various on-board vehicle requirements including plasma flow control around the vehicle or it may be used for augmenting the expanding flow in the high speed nozzle by MHD forces to generate more thrust. In order to achieve this interaction, the air needs to be ionized by an external means even up to fairly high flight speeds, and the leading candidates may be classified as electrical discharge devices. The present kinetic modeling calculations suggest that the use of electron beams with characteristics close to the commercially available e-beam systems (electron energy approx. 60 keV, beam current approx. 0.2 mA/sq cm) to sustain ionization in intermediate pressure, low-temperature (P = 0.1 atm, T = 300 K) supersonic air flows allows considerable reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 10 to 20 percent in M = 3 flows). The calculations also suggest that this can be achieved at a reasonable electron beam efficiency (eta approx. 5), even if the e-beam window losses are taken into account. At these conditions, the exit NO and O atom concentrations due to e-beam initiated chemical reactions do not exceed 30 ppm. Increasing the beam current up to approx. 2 mA/sq cm, which corresponds to a maximum electrical conductivity of sigma(sub max) approx. 0.8 mho/m at the loading parameter of K = 0.5, would result in a much greater reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 30 to 40 percent). The MHD channel efficiency at these conditions would be greatly reduced (to eta approx. 1) due to increased electron recombination losses in the channel. At these conditions, partial energy conversion from kinetic energy to heat would result in a

  17. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry


    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

  18. Faxen's Laws of a Composite Sphere under Creeping Flow Conditions. (United States)

    Chen; Ye


    Under creeping flow conditions, Faxen's laws are derived for a composite sphere comprising a solid core covered by a permeable layer of arbitrary thickness. The derivations are carried out by applying reciprocal theorem in combination with fluid velocity and pressure distributions in certain simple flow as a comparison field. In this regard, the fluid velocity disturbances caused by a composite sphere subject to a simple shear flow and a rotational flow are solved individually. In the limiting case where the solid core vanishes, the resulting Faxen expressions for the drag force, torque, and stresslet compare very well with the existing Faxen's law for a porous sphere. It is found that when the porous layer is thick enough and its permeability is sufficiently low, the hydrodynamic behavior of a composite sphere can be approximated by that of a porous particle with equal permeability. This can be explained by the fact that the fluid cannot penetrate deeply into a porous layer of low permeability to flow through the pores near the core surface, and thereby the fluid can hardly feel the resistance from the core surface. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.


    A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

  20. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer


    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  1. Flame-conditioned turbulence modeling for reacting flows (United States)

    Macart, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.


    Conventional approaches to turbulence modeling in reacting flows rely on unconditional averaging or filtering, that is, consideration of the momentum equations only in physical space, implicitly assuming that the flame only weakly affects the turbulence, aside from a variation in density. Conversely, for scalars, which are strongly coupled to the flame structure, their evolution equations are often projected onto a reduced-order manifold, that is, conditionally averaged or filtered, on a flame variable such as a mixture fraction or progress variable. Such approaches include Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) and related variants. However, recent observations from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) have indicated that the flame can strongly affect turbulence in premixed combustion at low Karlovitz number. In this work, a new approach to turbulence modeling for reacting flows is investigated in which conditionally averaged or filtered equations are evolved for the momentum. The conditionally-averaged equations for the velocity and its covariances are derived, and budgets are evaluated from DNS databases of turbulent premixed planar jet flames. The most important terms in these equations are identified, and preliminary closure models are proposed.

  2. Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Ewing, R. P.


    The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix is constantly imbibing or draining, and this fluctuating wetness both drives two-way advective movement of radionuclides, and forces changes in the matrix diffusivity. This work is intended to examine, both experimentally and numerically, how radionuclide transport under episodic flow conditions is affected by the interacting processes of imbibition and drainage, diffusion, and matrix sorption. Using Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff, collected from the potential repository geologic unit at Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste, we prepared a saw-cut fracture core (length 10.2 cm, diameter 4.4 cm, and fracture aperture 100 microns). The dry core was packed into a flow reactor, flushed with CO2, then saturated via slow pumping (0.01 mL/min) of synthetic groundwater. The fractured core was then flushed with air at 97% relative humidity (to simulate in situ unsaturated fractured rock conditions at Yucca Mountain), then the episodic transport experiment was conducted. Episodic flow involved 4 cycles of tracer solution flow within the fracture, followed by flushing with high humidity air. Each flow episode contained a different suite of non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, which included 3H, ReO4- (a chemical analog for 99TcO4-), I- (for 129I-), Sr and Cs (for 90Sr and 137Cs), plus the radionuclides 235U, 237Np, and 241Pu. These radionuclides span a variety of sorption strengths and represent a large fraction of the radionuclides of concern at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Meanwhile, the non-sorbing 3H and Re

  3. Integrated Surface-groundwater Flow Modeling: a Free-surface Overland Flow Boundary Condition in a Parallel Groundwater Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollet, S J; Maxwell, R M


    Interactions between surface and ground water are a key component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed scale. Models that honor these interactions are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. These types of models link the subsurface and surface domains via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in field systems, there is a need for a more general coupled modeling approach. A more general coupled model is presented that incorporates a new two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variable saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow. In ParFlow, the overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another important advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism incorporated into ParFlow, which is efficiently exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The model is shown to reproduce an analytical solution for overland flow and compares favorably to other commonly used hydrologic models. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow is also examined. The results show the uncertainty in overland flow predictions due to subsurface heterogeneity and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. Both the overland flow component and the coupled model are evaluated in a parallel scaling study and show to be efficient.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Shock Tube Flow under Rarefied Conditions (United States)

    Watvisave, D. S.; Bhandarkar, U. V.; Puranik, B. P.


    Two-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations are carried out for investigating the shock wave propagation and boundary layer effects in a shock tube flow, for a wide range of rarefied conditions. Nitrogen is used for all simulations. The Cercignani-Lampis-Lord (CLL) model of gas surface interactions is implemented to study the effects of boundary layer which develops behind the moving shock front. The effect of surfaces is analyzed with different tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) values in the CLL model. The Larsen-Borgnakke (LB) model of inelastic collisions is implemented for diatomic gases. The shock front deceleration and the contact surface acceleration phenomena due to viscous effects are studied. The simulation at higher Knudsen number flows shows disappearance of the shock front and the contact surface.

  5. Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis. (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To


    Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C).

  6. Stability of quasi-Keplerian Shear Flow in a Laboratory Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartman, Ethan; Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael J.; Goodman, Jeremy


    Subcritical transition to turbulence has been proposed as a source of turbulent viscosity required for the associated angular momentum transport for fast accretion in Keplerian disks. Previously cited laboratory experiments in supporting this hypothesis were performed either in a di erent type of flow than Keplerian or without quantitative measurements of angular momentum transport and mean flow profile, and all of them appear to su er from Ekman e ects, secondary flows induced by nonoptimal axial boundary conditions. Such Ekman e ects are expected to be absent from astronomical disks, which probably have stress-free vertical boundaries unless strongly magnetized. Aims. To quantify angular momentum transport due to subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence, if exists, in a quasi-Keplerian flow with minimized Ekman e ects. Methods.We perform a local measurement of the azimuthal-radial component of the Reynolds stress tensor in a novel laboratory apparatus where Ekman e ects are minimized by flexible control of axial boundary conditions. Results.We find significant Ekman e ects on angular momentum transport due to nonoptimal axial boundary conditions in quasi-Keplerian flows. With the optimal control of Ekman e ects, no statistically meaningful angular momentum transport is detected in such flows at Reynolds number up to two millions. Conclusions. Either a subcritical transition does not occur, or, if a subcritical transition does occur, the associated radial transport of angular momentum in optimized quasi-Keplerian laboratory flows is too small to directly support the hypothesis that subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence is responsible for accretion in astrophysical disks. Possible limitations in applying laboratory results to astrophysical disks due to experimental geometry are discussed.

  7. MCNP multiplication analysis of subcritical HEU experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brockhoff, R.C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)


    A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques was described in Ref. 1 that were aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the multiplying characteristics of the system. This methodology has been applied to a number of the bare highly enriched uranium (HEU) measurements (simulating 0.5- to 21.5-kg balls with nesting shells) of Ref. 2, demonstrating that the experimental multiplication results can be reproduced computationally with good accuracy. This capability promises to improve special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, smuggling of SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since traditionally measured or calculated multiplications are not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has an SNM system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a nonnormal mode system). The measurement techniques used in Refs. 1 and 2 to determine multiplication are based on the Feynman variance-to-mean method, which has been previously documented in Refs. 3 and 4 and applied successfully to normal mode systems such as plutonium and uranium spheres. These techniques have been applied to nonnormal mode problems with less success, and both Refs. 1 and 2 as well as the current paper are attempts to better understand the subcritical multiplication of such systems.

  8. Hydraulic Darrieus turbines efficiency for free fluid flow conditions versus power farms conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antheaume, Sylvain [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et Environnement, 6 Quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Maitre, Thierry; Achard, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France)


    The present study deals with the efficiency of cross flow water current turbine for free stream conditions versus power farm conditions. In the first part, a single turbine for free fluid flow conditions is considered. The simulations are carried out with a new in house code which couples a Navier-Stokes computation of the outer flow field with a description of the inner flow field around the turbine. The latter is based on experimental results of a Darrieus wind turbine in an unbounded domain. This code is applied for the description of a hydraulic turbine. In the second part, the interest of piling up several turbines on the same axis of rotation to make a tower is investigated. Not only is it profitable because only one alternator is needed but the simulations demonstrate the advantage of the tower configuration for the efficiency. The tower is then inserted into a cluster of several lined up towers which makes a barge. Simulations show that the average barge efficiency rises as the distance between towers is decreased and as the number of towers is increased within the row. Thereby, the efficiency of a single isolated turbine is greatly increased when set both into a tower and into a cluster of several towers corresponding to possible power farm arrangements. (author)

  9. Corrosion Behavior Of Carbon Steel Under Flowing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Saleh Bahar


    Full Text Available The behavior of carbon steel in 0.1 N NaCl solution under flowing conditions and at 30◦C was analyzed by using two methods, viz, weight method and polarization one and comparing them. It was found that the corrosion rate is affected by alternating the velocity of the solution, generally, higher mass transfer rates were obtained in weight loss than in the polarization method. Empirical equations were obtained for the two methods that relate the corrosion current versus the velocity of solution


    Navitsky, Michael A.; Taylor, Joshua O.; Smith, Alexander B.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Manning, Keefe B.


    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s−1. The aim of the current work is to determine platelet adhesion properties to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system is used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g. cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments retain the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk is rotated in platelet rich bovine plasma for two hours with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow is found to exponentially decay with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels are found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices. PMID:24721222

  11. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane


    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  12. The Eschenmoser coupling reaction under continuous-flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Singh


    Full Text Available The Eschenmoser coupling is a useful carbon–carbon bond forming reaction which has been used in various different synthesis strategies. The reaction proceeds smoothly if S-alkylated ternary thioamides or thiolactames are used. In the case of S-alkylated secondary thioamides or thiolactames, the Eschenmoser coupling needs prolonged reaction times and elevated temperatures to deliver valuable yields. We have used a flow chemistry system to promote the Eschenmoser coupling under enhanced reaction conditions in order to convert the demanding precursors such as S-alkylated secondary thioamides and thiolactames in an efficient way. Under pressurized reaction conditions at about 220 °C, the desired Eschenmoser coupling products were obtained within 70 s residence time. The reaction kinetics was investigated and 15 examples of different building block combinations are given.

  13. Investigation of flow and microstructure in rheometric and processing flow conditions for liquid crystalline pitch (United States)

    Kundu, Santanu

    The microstructure development within mesophase pitch-based carbon materials depends on the flow history that the pitch is subjected to. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of flow and its influence on the microstructure is required to obtain carbon materials with desired properties. The objective of this research was to investigate the flow and microstructural behavior of a synthetic mesophase pitch (AR-HP) in rheometric and processing flow conditions. In addition, simulation studies were performed to establish a frame work for modeling the flow behavior of this complex material in different flow situations. The steady-shear viscosities obtained from a cone-plate rheometer during increasing rate-sweep experiments exhibited shear-thinning (Region I) and plateau (Region II) responses. However, the slope of the shear-thinning region was only about -0.2, much lower than -0.5 observed in some pitches and liquid-crystalline polymers. This difference could arise from the different molecular constituents of pitches. At higher shear rates, as measured from capillary rheometers, the viscosity values remained almost constant. The transient shear stress responses, as measured from cone-plate rheometer, exhibited nonmonotonic behavior as a function of applied strain at all shear rates and temperatures tested. After rheological experiments, the samples were collected by developing a new experimental protocol for preservation of the sample for microstructural analysis. Microstructural observations obtained from three orthogonal sections, reported for the first time in the literature, indicate that the local maximum in shear stress was due to yielding of initial microstructure. The microstructure became flow oriented with further shearing, and the structure size decreased with increasing shear rates. In addition to high-strain experiments, dynamic experiments were also performed in the linear viscoelastic region where no significant deformation of fluid takes place. The

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of a perturbed subcritical core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaradat, Mustafa K.; Park, Chang Je [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA) is designed for the purpose of education, training, and experiment research. Jordan subcritical assembly is considered Jordan's First Nuclear Facility Moving Jordan into the nuclear age. It is a teaching and training experimental facility that is designed to stay in a subcriticality A subcritical assembly is a multiplying system of nuclear fuel and moderator whose effective multiplication factor is less than unity. An extraneous source of neutron is required for the operation in order to compensate for the difference between the production rate of fission neutrons in the fuel and the rate of loss caused by absorption and leakage.

  15. Modeling Groundwater Flow using both Neumann and Dirichlet Boundary Conditions (United States)

    Zijl, Wouter; El-Rawy, Mustafa; Batelaan, Okke


    In groundwater flow models it is customary to use the recharge rate, obtained from measured precipitation minus run off and evapotranspiration, as the top boundary condition (a Neumann boundary condition). However, as has been emphasized by Tóth (1962; 2009), the topography of the water table offers a better boundary condition (a Dirichlet boundary condition), because it leads to the delineation of flow systems and stagnation zones. However, in practical modeling studies the recharge rates obtained when using the Dirichlet boundary condition may turn out to be unrealistically small or large. To remediate this we have developed an unconventional modeling procedure that is based on both the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary condition on the phreatic surface. Such a model does not only calculate the heads and fluxes, but also an update of the initially perceived hydraulic conductivities, in such a way that the initially perceived conductivity model is preserved as much as possible. For given grid block conductivities, numerical groundwater models (e.g. MODFLOW) are linear in the heads. However, for given heads the numerical models are not linear in the grid block conductivities. Mohammed et al. (2009) have developed a MODFLOW-compatible numerical model that is linear in the stream functions for given grid block conductivities, while it is also linear in the grid block resistivities (inverse of conductivities) if the heads are given. Unconventional modeling is based on this bi-linearity. Assume we specify a reasonable perception of the hydraulic conductivities and determine the numerical solution with Neumann boundary conditions. The resulting fluxes are then substituted into the stream function model, together with Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the grid block resistivities can then be determined by a standard routine for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. The thus calibrated grid block conductivities do not deviate much from the initially perceived

  16. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols. (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji


    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  17. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  18. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  19. A study on the instability criterion for the stratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a theoretical approach of the instability criterion from stratified to nonstratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions. The new theoretical instability criterion for the stratified and nonstratified flow transition in horizontal pipe has been developed by hyperbolic equations in two-phase flow. Critical flow condition criterion and onset of slugging at cocurrent flow condition correspond to zero and imaginary characteristics which occur when the hyperbolicity of a stratified two-phase flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present theory and the Kukita et al. [1] experimental data of pipes, it is shown that they are in good agreement with data. 4 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  20. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.


    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  1. Experimental study of swirl flow patterns in Gas Conditioning Tower at various entry conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinov, Andrei A.; Larsen, Poul Scheel


    In a gas conditioning tower hot flue gas with relatively high dust loads is cooled by injecting water spray near the top. For satisfactory operation wet particles should be kept off walls and all water should have evaporated to yield a uniformly cooled flow before it reaches the bottom of the tower....... For practical reasons and space limitations the gas often enters through an inlet pipe making a 150-180° bend shortly before a short diffuser expanding to full tower diameter (Fig. 1). A swirl generator is placed immediately before the inlet to the diffuser to prevent recirculation near walls of the diffuser...... is carried out using LDA-measurements and flow visualization in a 1:16 scale laboratory model. In addition, the degree of mixing on injected water spray is simulated by visualization studies to find the optimal position of injection nozzles....

  2. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar


    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  3. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    utilization; neutron multiplication; sub-criticality; sub-critical facilities. PACS Nos 89.30.Gg; 28.41.-I; 28.50.-k. 1. Introduction. Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are attracting worldwide attention increasingly due to their superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinide and fission product-waste and energy ...

  4. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from dry loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    concentrated in a rotary evaporator at 60°C until dry. The total extraction yield was obtained by the mean value of the total extracts divided by the mass of dry loquat leaves used. Subcritical water extraction. Subcritical water extraction was carried using an extractor. (Hangzhou Huali Co. Ltd, Hangzhou, China). The extractor ...

  5. 3-D Modelling and Experimental Comparison of Reactive Flow in Carbonates under Radial Flow Conditions. (United States)

    Liu, Piyang; Yao, Jun; Couples, Gary Douglas; Ma, Jingsheng; Iliev, Oleg


    We use a two-scale continuum model to simulate reactive flow and wormhole formation in carbonate rocks under 3-D radial flow conditions. More specifically, we present a new structure-property relationship based on the fractal geometry theory, to describe the evolution of local permeability, pore radius, and specific area with porosity variation. In the numerical calculation, to improve the convergence rate, the heterogeneous medium in question is extended by adding a thin layer of homogeneous porous medium to its inlet. We compare the simulation results with the available experimental observations and find that they are qualitatively consistent with each other. Additionally, sensitivity analysis of the dissolution process with respect to acid injection rate and rock heterogeneity, including heterogeneity magnitude and correlation length, is presented.

  6. Flow rates for sharp-edged orifices (United States)

    Groesbeck, W. A.; Manning, F. L.


    Two charts are proposed for calculating the flow coefficient and the area correction factor used in the equation for the flow rate through a sharp-edged orifice. The proposed charts account for variations in the discharge coefficient of sharp-edged orifices and can be used with any pressure ratio for both subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. They can also be used for any gas by using the appropriate gas constant and ratio of specific heats. The application of the charts is illustrated by examples.

  7. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles


    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  8. Boundary conditions for gas flow problems from anisotropic scattering kernels (United States)

    To, Quy-Dong; Vu, Van-Huyen; Lauriat, Guy; Léonard, Céline


    The paper presents an interface model for gas flowing through a channel constituted of anisotropic wall surfaces. Using anisotropic scattering kernels and Chapman Enskog phase density, the boundary conditions (BCs) for velocity, temperature, and discontinuities including velocity slip and temperature jump at the wall are obtained. Two scattering kernels, Dadzie and Méolans (DM) kernel, and generalized anisotropic Cercignani-Lampis (ACL) are examined in the present paper, yielding simple BCs at the wall fluid interface. With these two kernels, we rigorously recover the analytical expression for orientation dependent slip shown in our previous works [Pham et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 051201 (2012) and To et al., J. Heat Transfer 137, 091002 (2015)] which is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. More important, our models include both thermal transpiration effect and new equations for the temperature jump. While the same expression depending on the two tangential accommodation coefficients is obtained for slip velocity, the DM and ACL temperature equations are significantly different. The derived BC equations associated with these two kernels are of interest for the gas simulations since they are able to capture the direction dependent slip behavior of anisotropic interfaces.

  9. Energy simulation in the variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning system under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, S. [Daikin Air-conditioning and Enviromental Lab. Ltd, Osaka (Japan)


    As a high-efficiency air-conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way in office buildings. However, there is no well-known energy simulation software available so far which can be used for the energy analysis of VRF. Based on the generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new VRF module is developed and the energy usage of the VRF system is investigated. This paper compares the energy consumption of the VRF system with that of two conventional air-conditioning systems, namely, variable air volume (VAV) system as well as fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system. A generic office building is used to accommodate the different types of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The work focuses on the energy consumption of the VRF system in the office buildings and helps the designer's evaluation and decision-making on the HVAC systems in the early stages of building design. Simulation results show that the energy-saving potentials of the VRF system are expected to achieve 22.2% and 11.7%, compared with the VAV system and the FPFA system, respectively. Energy-usage breakdown for the end-users in various systems is also presented. (author)

  10. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James


    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  11. Supercritical CO(2) and subcritical propane extraction of pungent paprika and quantification of carotenoids, tocopherols, and capsaicinoids. (United States)

    Gnayfeed, M H; Daood, H G; Illés, V; Biacs, P A


    Ground paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and subcritical propane at different conditions of pressure and temperature to estimate the yield and variation in carotenoid, tocopherol, and capsaicinoid contents and composition. The yield of paprika extract was found to be affected by the extraction conditions with SC-CO(2) but fairly constant at different conditions with subcritical propane. The maximum yields of oleoresin were 7.9 and 8.1% of ground paprika by SC-CO(2) and subcritical propane, respectively. The quantitative distribution of carotenoids, tocopherols, and capsaicinoids between paprika extract and powder was influenced by extraction conditions. SC-CO(2) was inefficient in the extraction of diesters of xanthophylls even at 400 bar and 55 degrees C, whereas tocopherols and capsaicinoids were easy to extract at these conditions. Under mild conditions subcritical propane was superior to SC-CO(2) in the extraction of carotenoids and tocopherols but less efficient in the extraction of capsaicinoids.

  12. Scaling Parameter of CHF under Oscillatory Flow Condition


    梅川, 尚嗣; 小澤, 守; 光永, 有; 三島, 嘉一郎; 日引, 俊; 齋藤, 泰司


    Critical heat flux (CHF) was reduced by flow oscillations, and the reduction of CHF was significantly influenced by the flow oscillation period, amplitude, heat capacity of test tube and mean inlet mass flux. A scaling parameter of temperature response of tube wall was derived based on a lumped-parameter model of tube wall heat capacity. Applying this scaling parameter to the CHF data under flow oscillation, the experimental data of CHF was successfully correlated.

  13. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts (United States)

    Obler, H. D.


    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  14. Intrinsic Motivation and Flow Condition on the Music Teacher's Performance (United States)

    Torres Delgado, Gabriela


    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identify if there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of…

  15. Dynamics of Subcritical Bubbles in First Order Phase Transition (United States)

    Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.


    We derivate the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck equations for the radius of O(3)-symmetric subcritical bubbles as a phenomenological model to treat thermal fluctuation. The effect of thermal noise on subcritical bubbles is examined. We find that the fluctuation-dissipation relation holds and that in the high temperature phase the system settles down rapidly to the thermal equilibrium state even if it was in a nonequilibrium state initially. We then estimate the typical size of subcritical bubbles as well as the amplitude of fluctuations on that scale. We also discuss their implication to the electroweak phase transition.

  16. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly


    Ned Xoubi


    Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA) is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 ...

  17. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.


    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan


    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal


    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  20. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin


    Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of fluid salinity on subcritical crack propagation in calcite (United States)

    Rostom, Fatma; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Renard, François


    The slow propagation of cracks, also called subcritical crack growth, is a mechanism of fracturing responsible for a ductile deformation of rocks under crustal conditions. In the present study, the double-torsion technique was used to measure the effect of fluid chemistry on the slow propagation of cracks in calcite single crystals at room temperature. Time-lapse images and measurements of force and load-point displacement allowed accurate characterization of crack velocities in a range of 10- 8 to 10- 4 m/s. Velocity curves as a function of energy-release rates were obtained for different fluid compositions, varying NH4Cl and NaCl concentrations. Our results show the presence of a threshold in fluid composition, separating two regimes: weakening conditions where the crack propagation is favored, and strengthening conditions where crack propagation slows down. We suggest that electrostatic surface forces that modify the repulsion forces between the two surfaces of the crack may be responsible for this behavior.

  2. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.


    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  3. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research


    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  4. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Duan


    Full Text Available The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  5. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights


    Fang Duan; Yu-fen Chen; Zhong-zheng Sun; Ming-qing Chen; Hui Zhang; Jing Zhang


    The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  6. Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland under different operational conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdelhakeem, Sara G; Aboulroos, Samir A; Kamel, Mohamed M


    The performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSFCW) for sewage effluent treatment was studied in an eight month experiment under different operational conditions including: vegetation...

  7. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin


    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  8. Correlation analysis of spatio-temporal images for estimating two-dimensional flow velocity field in a rotating flow condition (United States)

    Yu, Kwonkyu; Kim, Seojun; Kim, Dongsu


    Flow velocity estimation in actual rivers using image processing technique has been highlighted for hydrometric communities in the last decades, and this technique is called Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Although LSPIV has been successfully tested in many flow conditions, it has addressed several limitations estimating mean flow field because of difficult flow conditions such as rotating, lack of light and seeds, and noisy flow conditions. Recently, an alternative technique named STIV to use spatio-temporal images based on successively recorded images has been introduced to overcome the limitations of LSPIV. The STIV was successfully applied to obtain one-dimensional flow component in the river for estimating streamflow discharge, where the main flow direction is known. Using the 5th order of central difference scheme, the STIV directly calculated the mean angle of slopes which appeared as strips in the spatio-temporal images and has been proved to be more reliable and efficient for the discharge estimation as compared with the conventional LSPIV. However, yet it has not been sufficiently qualified to derive two-dimensional flow field in the complex flow, such as rotating or locally unsteady flow conditions. We deemed that it was because the strips in the given spatio-temporal images from not properly oriented for main flow direction are not narrow enough or clearly visible, thus the direct estimating strip slope could give erroneous results. Thereby, the STIV has been mainly applied for obtaining one-dimensional flow component. In this regard, we proposed an alternative algorithm to estimate the mean slope angle for enhancing the capability of the STIV, which used correlation coefficient between odd and even image splits from the given spatio-temporal image. This method was named CASTI (Correlation Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Image). This paper described the step-by-step procedure of the CASTI and validated its capability for estimating two

  9. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara boundary conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    But, it is sufficient to obtain a relatively simple analytical expression that takes into account the effect of the ... symmetric flow that has a simple analytical solution in closed form, and thus can be used for drag calculations. ..... [6] Stokes G G, On the effects of internal friction of fluids on pendulums, J. Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc.

  10. A flow pattern map for two-phase liquid-gas flow under reduced gravity conditions (United States)

    Rezkallah, K. S.; Zhao, L.


    Two-phase gas-liquid flows have a wide range of applications in space including the flow of cryogenics in transport lines and heat-transfer fluids in a thermal control system. The behavior of these systems under reduced gravity must be understood in order to optimize the design and maintenance of such systems. Experimental studies on two-phase flow patterns and their transitions were conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft. A large set of flow pattern data for water-air and glycerin/water-air of different viscosities was reported. It was shown that two-phase flow under reduced gravity can be classified into four glow patterns: bubbly, slug, frothy slug-annular, and annular flows. Transitions between slug and frothy slug-annular, and frothy slug-annular and annular flows were predicted well using the liquid and gas Weber numbers as the mapping coordinates.

  11. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea. (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong


    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  12. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang


    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  13. Morphodynamics and sedimentary structures of bedforms under supercritical-flow conditions: new insights from flume experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.J.B.; Ventra, D.; Postma, G.; Berg, J.H. van den


    Particulate density currents, such as pyroclastic flows and turbidity currents, are prone to flow in a supercritical state, due to their small density difference in relation to the ambient fluid. Facies deposited in supercritical-flow conditions are therefore likely to be common, yet their

  14. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions. (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee


    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  15. Neutrino Physics with Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (United States)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio


    Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) reactors are being developed around the world, to produce energy and, at the same time, to provide an efficient way to dispose of and to recycle nuclear waste. Used nuclear fuel, by itself, cannot sustain a chain reaction; however in ADS reactors the additional neutrons which are required will be supplied by a high-intensity accelerator. This accelerator will produce, as a by-product, a large quantity of {\\bar{ν }}μ via muon Decay At Rest (µDAR). Using liquid scintillators, it will be possible to to measure the CP-violating phase δCP and to look for experimental signs of the presence of sterile neutrinos in the appearance channel, testing the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies. Even in the first stage of the project, when the beam energy will be lower, it will be possible to produce {\\bar{ν }}e via Isotope Decay At Rest (IsoDAR), which can be used to provide competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos in the disappearance channel. I will consider several experimental setups in which the antineutrinos are created using accelerators that will be constructed as part of the China-ADS program.

  16. General representation of capillary flow dynamics under microgravity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, M.; Dreyer, M.; Rath, H.J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM)


    The flow of liquid through circular cylindrical tubes driven by the capillary force is studied. The equation for the meniscus acceleration is derived from an integral relation for linear momentum for an arbitrary moving and deformable control volume. Scaling this equation with the capillary force yields a dimensionless description of the meniscus motion. It is found that the process is subdivided into three domains which are separated by two characteristic times that are derived from the dominating forces. (orig.)

  17. General representation of capillary flow dynamics under microgravity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, M.; Dreyer, M.; Rath, H.J. (Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM))


    The flow of liquid through circular cylindrical tubes driven by the capillary force is studied. The equation for the meniscus acceleration is derived from an integral relation for linear momentum for an arbitrary moving and deformable control volume. Scaling this equation with the capillary force yields a dimensionless description of the meniscus motion. It is found that the process is subdivided into three domains which are separated by two characteristic times that are derived from the dominating forces. (orig.)

  18. Concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in flow conditions by dielectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A device for concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in liquid flow conditions by dielectrophoresis is disclosed in this invention.......A device for concentration of nanoparticles and/or microparticles in liquid flow conditions by dielectrophoresis is disclosed in this invention....

  19. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppiesPoecilia reticulata. (United States)

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J


    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli , shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  20. Drop-box Weir for Measuring Flow Rates Under Extreme Flow Conditions (United States)

    Sediment and large rocks often are transported in runoff during extreme events. The sediment can deposit in a runoff-measuring structure and give erroneous readings. The drop-box weir (DBW) is one of only a few flow-measuring devices capable of measuring sediment-laden flows. Recent studies have ...

  1. Ion-scale turbulence in MAST: anomalous transport, subcritical transitions, and comparison to BES measurements (United States)

    van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Field, A. R.; Roach, C. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Dorland, W.


    We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i.e., the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but transitions to a turbulent state given a large enough initial perturbation. We propose that the transition to subcritical turbulence occurs via an intermediate state dominated by low number of coherent long-lived structures, close to threshold, which increase in number as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more strongly turbulent regime, until they fill the domain and a more conventional turbulence emerges. We show that the properties of turbulence are effectively functions of the distance to threshold, as quantified by the ion heat flux. We make quantitative comparisons of correlation lengths, times, and amplitudes between our simulations and experimental measurements using the MAST BES diagnostic. We find reasonable agreement of the correlation properties, most notably of the correlation time, for which significant discrepancies were found in previous numerical studies of MAST turbulence.

  2. Turbulence, aeration and bubble features of air-water flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pagliara


    Full Text Available Free surface flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions have a high aeration potential causing the flow characteristics to vary with slopes and discharges. The underlying mechanism of two-phase flow characteristics in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions were analyzed in an experimental setup assembled at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Protection of the Territory (PITLAB of the University of Pisa, Italy. Crushed angular rocks and hemispherical boulders were used to intensify the roughness of the bed. Flow rates per unit width ranging between 0.03 m2/s and 0.09 m2/s and slopes between 0.26 and 0.46 were tested over different arrangements of a rough bed. Analyses were mainly carried out in the inner flow region, which consists of both bubbly and intermediate flow regions. The findings revealed that the two-phase flow properties over the rough bed were much affected by rough bed arrangements. Turbulence features of two-phase flows over the rough bed were compared with those of the stepped chute data under similar flow conditions. Overall, the results highlight the flow features in the inner layers of the two-phase flow, showing that the maximum turbulence intensity decreases with the relative submergence, while the bubble frequency distribution is affected by the rough bed elements.

  3. Subcritical water as reaction environment: fundamentals of hydrothermal biomass transformation. (United States)

    Möller, Maria; Nilges, Peter; Harnisch, Falk; Schröder, Uwe


    Subcritical water, that is, water above the boiling and below critical point, is a unique and sustainable reaction medium. Based on its solvent properties, in combination with the often considerable intrinsic water content of natural biomass, it is often considered as a potential solvent for biomass processing. Current knowledge on biomass transformation in subcritical water is, however, still rather scattered without providing a consistent picture. Concentrating on fundamental physical and chemical aspects, this review summarizes the current state of knowledge of hydrothermal biomass conversion in subcritical water. After briefly introducing subcritical water as a reaction medium, its advantages for biomass processing compared to other thermal processes are highlighted. Subsequently, the physical-chemical properties of subcritical water are discussed in the light of their impact on the occurring chemical reactions. The influence of major operational parameters, including temperature, pressure, and reactant concentration on hydrothermal biomass transformation processes are illustrated for selected carbohydrates. Major emphasis is put on the nature of the carbohydrate monomers, since the conversion of the respective polymers is analogous with the additional prior step of hydrolytic depolymerization. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Flow characteristics past jellyfish and St. Vincent valves in the aortic position under physiological pulsatile flow conditions. (United States)

    Morsi, Y S; Sakhaeimanesh, A A


    Thrombus formation and hemolysis have been linked to the dynamic flow characteristics of heart valve prostheses. To enhance our understanding of the flow characteristics past the aortic position of a Jellyfish (JF) valve in the left ventricle, in vitro laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were carried out under physiological pulsatile flow conditions. The hemodynamic performance of the JF valve was then compared with that of the St. Vincent (SV) valve. The comparison was given in terms of mean systolic pressure drop, back flow energy losses, flow velocity, and shear stresses at various locations downstream of both valves and at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min, 4.5 L/min, and 6.5 L/min respectively. The results indicated that both valves created disturbed flow fields with elevated levels of turbulent shear stress as well as higher levels of turbulence in the immediate vicinity of the valve and up to 1 diameter of the pipe (D) downstream of the valve. At a location further downstream, the JF valve showed better flow characteristics than the SV in terms of velocity profiles and turbulent shear stresses. The closure volume of the SV valve was found to be 2.5 times higher than that of the JF valve. Moreover, the total back flow losses and mean systolic pressure drop also were found to be higher in the SV than the JF valve.

  5. Influence of the initial conditions for the numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachas Napa, Alex A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Medina, Cesar D. Perea


    Multiphase flows in pipelines commonly show several patterns depending on the flow rate, geometry and physical properties of the phases. In oil production, the slug flow pattern is the most common among the others. This flow pattern is characterized by an intermittent succession in space and time of an aerated liquid slug and an elongated gas bubble with a liquid film. Slug flow is studied through the slug tracking model described as one-dimensional and Lagrangian frame referenced. In the model, the mass and the momentum balance equations are applied in control volumes constituted by the gas bubble and the liquid slug. Initial conditions must be determined, which need to reproduce the intermittence of the flow pattern. These initial conditions are given by a sequence of flow properties for each unit cell. Properties of the unit cell in initial conditions should reflect the intermittence, for which they can be analyzed in statistical terms. Therefore, statistical distributions should be obtained for the slug flow variables. Distributions are complemented with the mass balance and the bubble design model. The objective of the present work is to obtain initial conditions for the slug tracking model that reproduce a better adjustment of the fluctuating properties for different pipe inclinations (horizontal, vertical or inclined). The numerical results are compared with experimental data obtained by PFG/FEM/UNICAMP for air-water flow at 0 deg, 45 deg and 90 deg and good agreement is observed. (author)

  6. Flow regimes of adiabatic gas-liquid two-phase under rolling conditions (United States)

    Yan, Chaoxing; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Wang, Yang; Tian, Daogui


    Characteristics of adiabatic air/water two-phase flow regimes under vertical and rolling motion conditions were investigated experimentally. Test sections are two rectangular ducts with the gaps of 1.41 and 10 mm, respectively, and a circular tube with 25 mm diameter. Flow regimes were recorded by a high speed CCD-camera and were identified by examining the video images. The experimental results indicate that the characteristics of flow patterns in 10 mm wide rectangular duct under vertical condition are very similar to those in circular tube, but different from the 1.41 mm wide rectangular duct. Channel size has a significant influence on flow pattern transition, boundary of which in rectangular channels tends asymptotically towards that in the circular tube with increasing the width of narrow side. Flow patterns in rolling channels are similar to each other, nevertheless, the effect of rolling motion on flow pattern transition are significantly various. Due to the remarkable influences of the friction shear stress and surface tension in the narrow gap duct, detailed flow pattern maps of which under vertical and rolling conditions are indistinguishable. While for the circular tube with 25 mm diameter, the transition from bubbly to slug flow occurs at a higher superficial liquid velocity and the churn flow covers more area on the flow regime map as the rolling period decreases.

  7. Modeling of the CTEx subcritical unit using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Avelino [Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito - CTEx, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F. [Secao de Engenharia Nuclear - SE/7 Instituto Militar de Engenharia - IME Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Victor L. Lassance [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The present work aims at simulating the subcritical unit of Army Technology Center (CTEx) namely ARGUS pile (subcritical uranium-graphite arrangement) by using the computational code MCNPX. Once such modeling is finished, it could be used in k-effective calculations for systems using natural uranium as fuel, for instance. ARGUS is a subcritical assembly which uses reactor-grade graphite as moderator of fission neutrons and metallic uranium fuel rods with aluminum cladding. The pile is driven by an Am-Be spontaneous neutron source. In order to achieve a higher value for k{sub eff}, a higher concentration of U235 can be proposed, provided it safely remains below one. (author)

  8. Adhesion of Escherichia coli under flow conditions reveals potential novel effects of FimH mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, T.; Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Wieser, E.


    H mutations on bacterial adhesion using a novel adhesion assay, which models the physiological flow conditions bacteria are exposed to. We introduced 12 different point mutations in the mannose binding pocket of FimH in an E. coli strain expressing type 1 fimbriae only (MSC95-FimH). We compared the bacterial...... mutations abrogated adhesion. We demonstrated that FimH residues E50 and T53 are crucial for adhesion under flow conditions. The coating of endothelial cells on biochips and modelling of physiological flow conditions enabled us to identify FimH residues crucial for adhesion. These results provide novel...

  9. Experimental investigation of flow accelerated corrosion under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Wael H., E-mail:; Bello, Mufatiu M.; El Nakla, Meamer; Al Sarkhi, Abdelsalam; Badr, Hassan M.


    Highlights: • Effect of two-phase flow on flow accelerated corrosion has been investigated experimentally. • Experiments were performed for different orifice to pipe diameter ratios. • The effect of flow patterns and mass quality on wear patterns is investigated. • The maximum FAC wear was found at approximately 2–5 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. • The current study will help FAC engineers to prepare reliable plant inspection scope. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to experimentally study the effect of two-phase flow on flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) downstream an orifice. FAC is a major safety and reliability issue affecting carbon-steel piping in nuclear and fossil power plants. This is because of its pipe wall wearing and thinning effects that could lead to sudden and sometimes catastrophic failures, as well as a huge economic loss. In the present study, FAC wear of carbon-steel piping was simulated experimentally by circulating air–water mixtures through hydrocal (CaSO{sub 4}·1/2H{sub 2}O) test sections at liquid superficial Reynolds number, Re = 20,000, and different air mass flow rates. Experiments were performed for a test section with different orifice to pipe diameter ratios (d{sub o}/D = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.74). The observed flow patterns were compared with the available flow pattern maps. Surface wear patterns downstream the orifices were also analyzed. The maximum FAC wear was found to occur at approximately 2–5 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those from a single-phase flow study reported earlier. Moreover, FAC was found to depend on the relative values of the mixture mass quality and the volumetric void fraction. Lower values of FAC wear rate were obtained for higher values of mass quality. A modified correlation is developed in order to predict FAC wear rate downstream of the pipe-restricting orifice with an average RMS accuracy of ±10%. However

  10. Nutrient removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands under batch and continuous flow conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M; Zhu, Junfei; Sadreddini, Sara; Li, Yifei


    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of batch versus continuous flow on the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (TP) in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CW). The quantitative role of the higher aquatic plants in nutrient removal in these two operational modes was also investigated. Results indicated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in COD removal between batch and continuous flow modes for either the planted or unplanted treatments. Furthermore, the batch-loaded planted wetlands showed significantly (p hydraulic retention time (HRT), the presence of plants significantly enhanced both ammonia oxidation and TP removal in both batch and continuous modes of operation as compared to that for unplanted beds. An estimation of the quantitative role of aeration from drain and fill operation at a 4-day HRT, as compared to rhizosphere aeration by the higher aquatic plant, indicated that drain and fill operation might account for only less than half of the higher aquatic plant's quantitative contribution of oxygen (1.55 g O2 per m2 per day for batch flow versus 1.13 g O2 per m2 per day for continuous flow). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a setup to enable stable and accurate flow conditions for membrane biofouling studies

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard


    Systematic laboratory studies on membrane biofouling require experimental conditions that are well defined and representative for practice. Hydrodynamics and flow rate variations affect biofilm formation, morphology, and detachment and impacts on membrane performance parameters such as feed channel pressure drop. There is a suite of available monitors to study biofouling, but systems to operate monitors have not been well designed to achieve an accurate, constant water flow required for a reliable determination of biomass accumulation and feed channel pressure drop increase. Studies were done with membrane fouling simulators operated in parallel with manual and automated flow control, with and without dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feedwater to enhance biofouling rate. High flow rate variations were observed for the manual water flow system (up to ≈9%) compared to the automatic flow control system (<1%). The flow rate variation in the manual system was strongly increased by biofilm accumulation, while the automatic system maintained an accurate and constant water flow in the monitor. The flow rate influences the biofilm accumulation and the impact of accumulated biofilm on membrane performance. The effect of the same amount of accumulated biomass on the pressure drop increase was related to the linear flow velocity. Stable and accurate feedwater flow rates are essential for biofouling studies in well-defined conditions in membrane systems. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  12. stochastic estimation of transmissivity fields conditioned to flow connectivity data (United States)

    Freixas, Genis; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-vila, Xavier


    Most methods for hydraulic parameter interpretation rely on a number of simplifications regarding the homogeneity of the underlying porous media. This way, the actual heterogeneity of any natural parameter, such as transmissivity, is transferred to the estimated in a way heavily dependent on the interpretation method used. An example is a pumping test, in most cases interpreted by means of the Cooper-Jacob method, which implicitly assumes a homogeneous isotropic confined aquifer. It was shown that the estimates obtained from this method when applied to a real site are not local values, but still have a physical meaning; the estimated transmissivity is equal to the effective transmissivity characteristic of the regional scale, while the log-ratio of the estimated storage coefficient with respect to the actual real value (assumed constant), indicated by , is an indicator of flow connectivity, representative of the scale given by the distance between the pumping and the observation wells. In this work we propose a methodology to use together with actual measurements of the log transmissivity at selected points to obtain a map of the best local transmissivity estimates using cokriging. Since the interpolation involves two variables measured at different support scales, a critical point is the estimation of the covariance and crosscovariance matrices, involving some quadratures that are obtained using some simplified approach. The method was applied to a synthetic field displaying statistical anisotropy, showing that the use of connectivity indicators mixed with the local values provide a better representation of the local value map, in particular regarding the enhanced representation of the continuity of structures corresponding to either high or low values.

  13. Simulation of transitional flows through a turbine blade cascade with heat transfer for various flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Petr


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the simulation of the transitional flows with heat transfer by means the EARSM turbulence model of Hellsten [1] completed by the algebraic transition model of Straka and Příhoda [2] and by the three-equation model of Walters and Cokjlat [3]. The both mathematical models were tested for the flat plate flow on a heated wall measured by Sohn and Reshotko [16] and then applied to the simulation of compressible flow through the VKI turbine blade cascade according to measurements of Arts et al. [4]. The simulations were carried out for subsonic and transonic regimes at various free-stream turbulence levels. The best agreement of numerical results with experimental data was achieved by the URANS approach applied for the EARSM model with the algebraic transition model giving good results for both subsonic and transonic regimes as well.

  14. Redox and ATP control of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (I) aerobic conditions. (United States)

    Alric, Jean; Lavergne, Jérôme; Rappaport, Fabrice


    Assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by photosynthetic organisms such as plants, cyanobacteria and green algae, requires the production of ATP and NADPH in a ratio of 3:2. The oxygenic photosynthetic chain can function following two different modes: the linear electron flow which produces reducing power and ATP, and the cyclic electron flow which only produces ATP. Some regulation between the linear and cyclic flows is required for adjusting the stoichiometric production of high-energy bonds and reducing power. Here we explore, in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the onset of the cyclic electron flow during a continuous illumination under aerobic conditions. In mutants devoid of Rubisco or ATPase, where the reducing power cannot be used for carbon fixation, we observed a stimulation of the cyclic electron flow. The present data show that the cyclic electron flow can operate under aerobic conditions and support a simple competition model where the excess reducing power is recycled to match the demand for ATP.

  15. Subcritical convection in a rapidly rotating sphere at low Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Celine


    We study non-linear convection in a low Prandtl number fluid ($Pr = 0.01-0.1$) in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of a superposition of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl nu...

  16. Flow plug with length-to-hole size uniformity for use in flow conditioning and flow metering (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)


    A flow plug of varying thickness has a plurality of holes formed therethrough. The plug fits in a conduit such that a fluid flow in the conduit passes through the plug's holes. Each hole is defined by a parameter indicative of size in terms of the cross-sectional area thereof. A ratio of hole length-to-parameter is approximately the same for all of the holes.

  17. Wax deposition measurement under turbulent flow conditions for a live waxy crude from Turkmenistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, K.; Ratulowski, J.; Davies, T. [Schlumberger, Edmonton, AB (Canada). DBR Technology Center; Norpiah, R.M. [Petronas (Malaysia)


    The challenges facing deepwater oil production were discussed, with particular reference to flow assurance problems caused by cold temperatures and long offsets that impact the flow of fluids from the wellbore to the export line. The precipitation and deposition of waxy material is one of the most pervasive flow assurance issues. In order to develop operating strategies that address flow assurance risks while minimizing capital and operating costs, it is important to obtain fluid property data and phase behaviour data. Conventional deposition testing for wax is typically run on dead oil in a low shear environment. However, the flow regime in a production system is turbulent with high wall shears because the oil, gas and water are at elevated pressures. As such, wax deposition data for dead oil taken under laminar flow conditions overpredicts the actual wax deposition rates observed at field conditions. Therefore, a high-pressure deposition cell was used in this study to investigate the deposition tendency of a waxy crude oil from Turkmenistan at field conditions. The study also examined the influence of flow rate, temperature and wax inhibitors on wax deposition. The effect of solution gas was also determined. A method for scaling the deposition cell data to pipe flow was also presented and used in a multiphase flow simulator to predict the wax deposition profile in the field.

  18. Safety analysis of switching between reductive and oxidative conditions in a reaction coupling reverse flow reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    A new reverse flow reactor is developed where endothermic reactants (propane dehydrogenation) and exothermic reactants (fuel combustion) are fed sequentially to a monolithic catalyst, while periodically alternating the inlet and outlet positions. Upon switching from reductive to oxidative conditions

  19. Endothelial biocompatibility and accumulation of SPION under flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Zaloga, Jan; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Lyer, Stefan [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Cicha, Iwona, E-mail: [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)


    Magnetic targeting is considered a promising method to accumulate the nanoparticles at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions, but little is known about the biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the vascular wall. Here, we investigated endothelial cell growth and vitality upon treatment with SPION (0–60 µg/mL) using two complementing methods: real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy. Moreover, the uptake of circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was assessed in an in vitro model of arterial bifurcations. At the tested concentrations, SPIONs were well tolerated and had no major influence on endothelial cell growth. Our results further showed a uniform distribution of endothelial SPION uptake independent of channel geometry or hemodynamic conditions: In the absence of magnetic force, no increase in accumulation of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region at the outer walls of bifurcation was observed. Application of external magnet allowed enhanced accumulation of SPIONs at the regions of non-uniform shear stress. Increased uptake of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region was well tolerated by endothelial cells (ECs) and did not affect endothelial cell viability or attachment. These findings indicate that magnetic targeting can constitute a promising and safe technique for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles to atherosclerotic lesions.

  20. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara


    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  1. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann


    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  2. Simulation of Couette flow using conventional Burnett equations with modified slip boundary conditions (United States)

    Liu, Hualin; Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Weifang


    Gas or liquid flow through small channels has become more and more popular due to the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies such as micro-motors, electrostatic comb-drive, micro-chromatographs, micro-actuators, micro-turbines and micro-pumps, etc. The flow conditions in and around these systems are always recognized as typical transitional regimes. Under these conditions, the mean free path of gas molecules approaches the characteristic scale of the micro-devices itself, and due to the little collisions the heat and momentum cannot equilibrate between the wall and fluids quickly. Couette flow is a simple and critical model in fluid dynamics which focuses on the mechanism of the heat transfer in shear-driven micro-cavities or micro-channels. Despite numerous work on the numerical solutions of the Couette flow, how to propose stable and accurate slip boundary conditions in rarefied flow conditions still remains to be elucidated. In this paper, converged solutions for steady-state micro Couette flows are obtained by using conventional Burnett equations with a set of modified slip boundary conditions. Instead of using the physical variables at the wall, the modified slip conditions use the variables at the edge of the Knudsen layer based on a physically plausible assumption in literature that Knudsen layer has a thickness only in the order of a mean free path and molecules are likely to travel without collision in this layer. Numerical results for non-dimensional wall shear stress and heat flux are compared with those of the DSMC solutions. Although there are not much improvement in the accuracy by using this modified slip conditions, the modified conditions perform much better than the unmodified slip conditions for numerical stabilization. All results show that the set of conventional Burnett equations with second order modified conditions are proved to be an appropriate model for the micro-Couette flows.

  3. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water. (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen


    In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350°C, PVC/LiCoO2 ratio 3:1, time 30min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350°C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO2 subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of spherical particles in Poiseuille flow under creeping-flow condition. (United States)

    Reddig, S; Stark, H


    We study the nonlinear dynamics of spherical colloids under the influence of a pressure driven flow at vanishing Reynolds number. The colloids are confined between two parallel planar walls with a distance comparable to the particle diameter and they interact hydrodynamically via the solvent. We show that the bounded Poiseuille flow gives rise to new classes of trajectories resulting in cross-streamline migration. Two particles moving on these new trajectories exhibit either bound or unbound states. In the first case they oscillate on closed trajectories in the center-of-mass frame. In the second case, they exhibit cross-swapping trajectories in addition to swapping trajectories which were already observed in unbounded or bounded linear shear flow. The different classes of trajectories occur depending on the initial positions of the two particles and their size. We present state diagrams in the lateral positions, where we categorize the trajectories and color code the oscillation frequencies of the bound states. Finally we discuss how the results on the two-particle system help to understand the stability of particle trains composed of several particles.

  5. A Fourier Collocation Approach for Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Under Multi-Phase Flow Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej; Lassen, Benny; Duggen, Lars


    A numerical model for a clamp-on transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter (TTUF) under multi-phase flow conditions is presented. The method solves equations of linear elasticity for isotropic heterogeneous materials with background flow where acoustic media are modeled by setting shear modulus to zero...... is then employed to model a complete TTUF measurement setup to simulate the effect of a flow profile on the flowmeter accuracy and a study of an impact of inclusions in flowing media on received signals is carried out....

  6. LHe Flow Regime/Pressure Drop for D0 Solenoid at Steady State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab


    This paper describes in a note taking format what was learned from several sources on two phase liquid helium flow regimes and pressure drops as applied to the D-Zero solenoid upgrade project. Calculations to estimate the steady state conditions for the D-Zero solenoid at 5, 10 and 15 g/s are also presented. For the lower flow rates a stratified type regime can be expected with a pressure drop less than 0.5 psi. For the higher flow rate a more homogeneous flow regime can be expected with a pressure drop between 0.4 to 1.5 psi.

  7. Robust optical flow using adaptive Lorentzian filter for image reconstruction under noisy condition (United States)

    Kesrarat, Darun; Patanavijit, Vorapoj


    In optical flow for motion allocation, the efficient result in Motion Vector (MV) is an important issue. Several noisy conditions may cause the unreliable result in optical flow algorithms. We discover that many classical optical flows algorithms perform better result under noisy condition when combined with modern optimized model. This paper introduces effective robust models of optical flow by using Robust high reliability spatial based optical flow algorithms using the adaptive Lorentzian norm influence function in computation on simple spatial temporal optical flows algorithm. Experiment on our proposed models confirm better noise tolerance in optical flow's MV under noisy condition when they are applied over simple spatial temporal optical flow algorithms as a filtering model in simple frame-to-frame correlation technique. We illustrate the performance of our models by performing an experiment on several typical sequences with differences in movement speed of foreground and background where the experiment sequences are contaminated by the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at different noise decibels (dB). This paper shows very high effectiveness of noise tolerance models that they are indicated by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  8. Analysis of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    profile across the A-coil evaporator was predicted by means of CFD simulation software STAR-CD 3.26 (2005) and applied in the numerical model. The main reason for the better face split evaporator performance at uniform conditions or when compensating, is that the superheated "weak" zones with low UA...... for distributing mass flow to each evaporator channels. It should be kept as low as possible. Furthermore, it is better to use a partial secondary flow into the remaining channels while distributing the main flow to each individual channel. The discontinuous liquid injection simulations showed spurious......This thesis is concerned with the effects of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube A-coil evaporators for residential air-conditioning and compensation potentials with regards to system performance. The goal is to create a better understanding of flow maldistribution and the involved physical...

  9. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui


    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  10. Neutron imaging of diabatic two-phase flows relevant to air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL


    The design of the evaporator of an air conditioning system relies heavily on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop correlations that predominantly involve an estimate of the changing void fraction and the underlying two-phase flow regime. These correlations dictate whether the resulting heat exchanger is oversized or not and the amount of refrigerant charge necessary to operate. The latter is particularly important when dealing with flammable or high GWP refrigerants. Traditional techniques to measure the void fraction and visualize the flow are either invasive to the flow or occur downstream of the evaporator, where some of the flow distribution will have changed. Neutron imaging has the potential to visualize two-phase flow in-situ where an aluminium heat exchanger structure becomes essentially transparent to the penetrating neutrons. The subatomic particles are attenuated by the passing refrigerant flow. The resulting image may be directly related to the void fraction and the overall picture provides a clear insight into the flow regime present. This work presents neutron images of the refrigerant Isopentane as it passes through the flow channels of an aluminium evaporator at flowrates relevant to air conditioning. The flow in a 4mm square macro channel is compared to that in a 250 m by 750 m rectangular microchannel in terms of void fraction and regime. All neutron imaging experiments were conducted at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, an Oak Ridge National Laboratory facility

  11. Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad


    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and

  12. Characterization of the Subcritical Water Extraction of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride. (United States)

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B; Lambertus, Gordon; Jensen, Eric


    The characteristics of using Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) to recover Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from both standard solutions and the contents of commercial capsule formulations were investigated. Analysis of solutions and extracts was done by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm. Standard solutions of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride were exposed to a variety of SWE operating conditions, including temperatures from 125 to 275°C and periods ranging from 5 to 30 min. Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively recovered from standard solutions (1.0mg/mL) that were heated up to 175°C for 30 min, up to 200°C for 15 min, or up to 225°C for 10 min. At higher temperatures and/or times, Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride recoveries were generally incomplete and often produced decomposition by-products during the process. By comparison, the concentration of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride in the standard solution had relatively little effect on recovery. Considering these parameters, an SWE method was developed to extract Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from the contents of Prozac(®) capsules. It was found that Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively extracted from the capsule contents in 8 min at a temperature of 200°C using 3.5 mL of water as the extraction solvent. Gelatinization of the starch excipient in the capsule contents was also observed to occur temporarily during the capsule extractions, before ultimately disappearing again. The period of this phenomenon was dependent on both temperature and sample size. The results indicate that SWE can be a very useful method for Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride extraction and suggest that it may be interesting to explore other pharmaceuticals using this method as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave ion source for accelerator driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Cui Bao Qun; Jiang Wei; LiLiQiang; WangRongWen


    A microwave ion source is under developing for a demonstration prototype of a accelerator driven sub-critical system at CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy), 100 mA hydrogen beam has been extracted from the source through a 7.3 mm aperture in diameter, proton ratio is more than 85%, reliability has been tested for 100 h without any failures

  14. Monte Carlo Alpha Iteration Algorithm for a Subcritical System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Shim


    Full Text Available The α-k iteration method which searches the fundamental mode alpha-eigenvalue via iterative updates of the fission source distribution has been successfully used for the Monte Carlo (MC alpha-static calculations of supercritical systems. However, the α-k iteration method for the deep subcritical system analysis suffers from a gigantic number of neutron generations or a huge neutron weight, which leads to an abnormal termination of the MC calculations. In order to stably estimate the prompt neutron decay constant (α of prompt subcritical systems regardless of subcriticality, we propose a new MC alpha-static calculation method named as the α iteration algorithm. The new method is derived by directly applying the power method for the α-mode eigenvalue equation and its calculation stability is achieved by controlling the number of time source neutrons which are generated in proportion to α divided by neutron speed in MC neutron transport simulations. The effectiveness of the α iteration algorithm is demonstrated for two-group homogeneous problems with varying the subcriticality by comparisons with analytic solutions. The applicability of the proposed method is evaluated for an experimental benchmark of the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system.

  15. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment (United States)

    Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.


    Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Lysozyme fractionation from egg white at pilot scale by means of tangential flow membrane adsorbers: Investigation of the flow conditions. (United States)

    Brand, Janina; Voigt, Katharina; Zochowski, Bianca; Kulozik, Ulrich


    The application of membrane adsorbers instead of classical packed bed columns for protein fractionation is still a growing field. In the case of egg white protein fractionation, the application of classical chromatography is additionally limited due to its high viscosity that impairs filtration. By using tangential flow membrane adsorbers as stationary phase this limiting factor can be left out, as they can be loaded with particle containing substrates. The flow conditions existing in tangential flow membrane adsorbers are not fully understood yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the transport mechanisms in tangential flow membrane adsorbers. It was found that loading in recirculation mode instead of single pass mode increased the binding capacity (0.39 vs. 0.52 mg cm(-2)). Further, it was shown that either higher flow rates (0.39 mg cm(-2) vs. 0.57 mg cm(-2) at 1 CV min(-1) or 20 CV min(-1), respectively) or higher amounts of the target protein in the feed (0.24 mg cm(-2) vs. 0.85 mg cm(-2) for 2.5 or 39.0 g lysozyme, respectively) led to more protein binding. These results show that, in contrast to radial flow or flat sheet membrane adsorbers, the transport in tangential flow membrane adsorbers is not purely based on convection, but on a mix of convection and diffusion. Additionally, investigations concerning the influence of fouling formation were performed that can lead to transport limitations. It was found that this impact is neglectable. It can be concluded that the usage of tangential flow membrane adsorbers is very recommendable for egg white protein fractionations, although the transport is partly diffusion-limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unsteady internal flow conditions of mini-centrifugal pump with splitter blades (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Kaji, K.; Wada, T.


    Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional unsteady numerical flow analysis was conducted to investigate the change of the internal flow according to the rotor rotation. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity region was suppressed in the case with the splitter blades. In addition to that, the unsteady flows near the volute casing tongue were suppressed due to the splitter blades. In the present paper, the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is shown and the unsteady flow condition is clarified with the results of the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the unsteady internal flow condition are investigated.

  18. Performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Kaji, K.; Wada, T.


    Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-CFX) to investigate the internal flow condition in detail. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades and the total pressure loss regions are decreased. The effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the internal flow condition are discussed in this paper.

  19. Median and Low-Flow Characteristics for Streams under Natural and Diverted Conditions, Northeast Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.


    Flow-duration statistics under natural (undiverted) and diverted flow conditions were estimated for gaged and ungaged sites on 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. The estimates were made using the optimal combination of continuous-record gaging-station data, low-flow measurements, and values determined from regression equations developed as part of this study. Estimated 50- and 95-percent flow duration statistics for streams are presented and the analyses done to develop and evaluate the methods used in estimating the statistics are described. Estimated streamflow statistics are presented for sites where various amounts of streamflow data are available as well as for locations where no data are available. Daily mean flows were used to determine flow-duration statistics for continuous-record stream-gaging stations in the study area following U.S. Geological Survey established standard methods. Duration discharges of 50- and 95-percent were determined from total flow and base flow for each continuous-record station. The index-station method was used to adjust all of the streamflow records to a common, long-term period. The gaging station on West Wailuaiki Stream (16518000) was chosen as the index station because of its record length (1914-2003) and favorable geographic location. Adjustments based on the index-station method resulted in decreases to the 50-percent duration total flow, 50-percent duration base flow, 95-percent duration total flow, and 95-percent duration base flow computed on the basis of short-term records that averaged 7, 3, 4, and 1 percent, respectively. For the drainage basin of each continuous-record gaged site and selected ungaged sites, morphometric, geologic, soil, and rainfall characteristics were quantified using Geographic Information System techniques. Regression equations relating the non-diverted streamflow statistics to basin characteristics of the gaged basins were developed using ordinary-least-squares regression analyses. Rainfall

  20. First reactivity determination of a subcritical reactor using a single beam-trip and fission chambers operating in current mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Villamarin, D.; Becares, V.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Nuclear Innovation Group, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Bergloef, C. [Reactor Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)


    Transmutation of spent nuclear fuel in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) is considered as a key technology for achieving sustainable nuclear energy. In the design of future ADS facilities, the reactivity monitoring system is of highest importance. An extensive experimental program devoted to reactivity monitoring of ADS has been carried out at the subcritical facility YALINA-Booster in the framework of IP-EUROTRANS. The main objective, besides the qualification of the reactivity monitoring techniques, has been to develop electronic chains that can be used in a full power ADS. For this purpose, YALINA-Booster couples a D-T neutron generator to a flexible zero-power subcritical assembly with a coupled fast-thermal neutron spectrum. The high intensity of the accelerator and the possibility to work in continuous or pulsed mode allowed the study of the current-to-flux relationship and beam-trip experiments. In addition, the experimental facility provided the opportunity to test electronic chains in current mode, which correspond to the most probable condition in a full power ADS. There exists a relationship between the reactivity of a subcritical core, the intensity of the accelerator and the neutron source intensity. Hence, by monitoring these three quantities it should be possible to determine the origin of any reactivity or power change within the subcritical assembly. We have developed the necessary acquisition system to monitor the conditions of these three variables in the millisecond scale. The current-to-flux technique provides relative changes in the behavior of the core, however, in order to determine absolute values of the reactivity, we have taken profit of short imposed beam interruptions in the millisecond scale, thus providing the possibility for applying the Source-Jerk method within few milliseconds. It is the first time that the reactivity of an ADS is determined in a single beam-trip using fission chambers operating in current mode. The experiments

  1. Subcritical saturation of the magnetorotational instability through mean magnetic field generation (United States)

    Xie, Jin-Han; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar


    The magnetorotational instability is widely believed to be responsible for outward angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs. The efficiency of this transport depends on the amplitude of this instability in the saturated state. We employ an asymptotic expansion based on an explicit, astrophysically motivated time-scale separation between the orbital period, Alfvén crossing time and viscous or resistive dissipation time-scales, originally proposed by Knobloch and Julien, to formulate a semi-analytical description of the saturated state in an incompressible disc. In our approach a Keplerian shear flow is maintained by the central mass but the instability saturates via the generation of a mean vertical magnetic field. The theory assumes that the time-averaged angular momentum flux and the radial magnetic flux are constant and determines both self-consistently. The results predict that, depending on parameters, steady saturation may be supercritical or subcritical, and in the latter case that the upper (lower) solution branch is always stable (unstable). The angular momentum flux is always outward, consistent with the presence of accretion, and for fixed wavenumber peaks in the subcritical regime. The limit of infinite Reynolds number at large but finite magnetic Reynolds number is also discussed.

  2. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere (United States)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.


    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  3. Modelling, simulation and geometric optimization of cross flow recuperative heat exchanger based on controllability condition number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Dalibor


    Full Text Available This paper presents the algebraic mathematical model of cross - flow heat exchanger derived on the basis of transport approach. Theirs operation in the face of variable loads is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates, where the controlled variable is usually the output temperature of principal flow. The aim of this paper is to optimize the geometry of a tube with the inlet flow of principal incompressible fluid and an external cross - country flow of compressible fluid, based on performance index expressed throughout its controllability characteristics. Thus the condition number has been used to provide the necessary information on the best situation for control of the exchanger under consideration. This concept can also provide us with information about the easiest operating condition to control a particular output. A transient model of a cross-flow heat exchanger is developed, where an implicit formulation is used for transient numerical solutions. The condition number performed throughout the ratio of geometric parameters of tube is optimized, subject to volume constraints, based on the optimum operation in terms of output controllability. The reported optimized aspect ratio, water mass flow rate and output controllability are studied for different external properties of the tube.

  4. Unsteady Flow Analysis of Pump Mode Small Discharge Condition for a Francis Pump-turbine (United States)

    Xiaoran, ZHAO; Yexiang, XIAO; Jincai, XU; Wei, XU; Jianbo, SUN; Zhengwei, WANG; Yangyang, YAO


    Unsteady flow phenomena, including vortex flow at runner inlet, helical backflow in the draft tube and numerous vortexes inside the guide vanes, can occur in pump-turbines under off design conditions at pump mode and can impact normal operation of pump-turbines. All of these phenomena cause serious pressure pulsation, which is quite different from cases in normal pump mode. There is also a difference of pressure pulsation frequency and amplitude in different place through the runner. This paper builds a whole flow passage of a model pump-turbine, simulates flow characteristics in runner by CFD technology, analyses pressure pulsation in the runner and explores the origin and mechanism of pressure pulsations. The SST-CC turbulence model is adopted to perform unsteady simulations of the pump-turbine under 0.46Q BEP small discharge condition at pump mode. Unsteady flow structures are proceeded combined with hydraulic loss and pressure amplitude spectra. The results indicates that there is complicated disordered flow inside the runner under 0.46Q BEP small discharge condition at pump mode, shows the amplitude and frequency characteristic of pressure pulsations through runner flow passage.

  5. Impacts of road conditions on the energy consumption of electric vehicular flow (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao


    In this paper, we use the electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow [H. Xiao, H. J. Huang and T. Q. Tang, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 30 (2016) 1650325] to study the effects of road conditions on the electricity consumption of electric vehicular flow during the evolutions of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that road conditions have negative influences on the electricity consumption during the evolutions of shock and rarefaction wave (i.e. the electricity consumption increases when road conditions become better) and positive impacts on the electricity consumption during the evolution of small perturbation when the traffic flow is unstable (i.e. the electricity consumption produces oscillation, but its amplitude decreases when road conditions become better).

  6. Characteristic Boundary Conditions for Numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Simulation of Solar and Laboratory Plasma Flows (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Wang, A. H.; Cassibry, J.


    We discuss the self-consistent time-dependent numerical boundary conditions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to study the solar and laboratory plasma dynamics. It is well known that these plasma flows cover from the sub-sonic and sub-Alfvénic to super-sonic and super-Alfvénic region. Mathematically, the set of governing differential equations is transited from elliptical to hyperbolic type. In order to assure self-consistency, characteristic boundary conditions need to be used because the information propagating according to these characteristics will affect the solutions inside the computational domain. To illustrate the importance of the characteristic boundary conditions, two examples are given; one for solar plasma which is to study the energy and magnetic flux from the sub-photosphere to the corona, and the other one concerns laboratory plasma flow for the investigation of sub-Alfvénic inlet boundary conditions of an MHD nozzle flow.

  7. Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)


    This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.

  8. Inflammatory responses of endothelial cells experiencing reduction in flow after conditioning by shear stress. (United States)

    Matharu, Nick M; McGettrick, Helen M; Salmon, Mike; Kissane, Steve; Vohra, Rajiv K; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B


    Exposure of endothelial cells (EC) to shear stress reduces their response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We tested how shear-conditioned EC responded to reduction in flow, either by spontaneously binding leukocytes, or by increasing sensitivity to TNF. Human umbilical vein EC were exposed to shear stress of 2.0 Pa (20 dyn/cm(2)) for 24 h. Shear was then reduced to stasis (30 sec perfusion each hour to exchange medium) or 0.003 Pa (creeping flow). At chosen times, neutrophils were perfused over the EC at 0.1 Pa (effective reperfusion). EC developed an ability to capture flowing neutrophils that lasted from 1 to 3 h after flow reduction, which was reduced by antibody against P-selectin or pre-treatment of EC with an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. Adhesion of neutrophils to TNF-treated EC was greatly suppressed by shear-conditioning, remained suppressed immediately after cessation of flow and then took 48 h to approach the level in static cultures. Interestingly, the response to TNF remained suppressed in cultures switched to creeping flow. Gene array analysis confirmed that differently recovered cells had separate phenotypes. Thus, an acute response of EC to reduction in shear may contribute to leukocyte recruitment, along with hypoxia, in ischaemia and reperfusion. Prolonged cessation of flow may increase the sensitivity of EC to inflammatory stimuli, but this effect may be suppressed by residual flow.

  9. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail:


    Highlights: • A co-treatment process for recovery of Co and Li and simultaneous detoxification of PVC in subcritical water was proposed. • PVC was used as a hydrochloric acid source. • More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were leached under the optimum conditions. • Neither corrosive acid nor reducing agent was used. • The co-treatment process has technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional recovery processes. - Abstract: In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350 °C, PVC/LiCoO{sub 2} ratio 3:1, time 30 min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350 °C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO{sub 2} subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water.

  10. Large-eddy simulations of a mixed-flow pump at off-design conditions (United States)

    Posa, Antonio; Lippolis, Antonio; Balaras, Elias


    Reduced flow-rates in turbopumps produce significant unsteady phenomena, characterized by separation and back-flow. In this study an LES approach coupled with an immersed-boundary methodology is utilized to investigate the changes in the flow physics, when compared to nominal flow-rates. The present methodology has been already validated for the design case through comparison with PIV experiments in the literature. It will be shown that for a reduced flow rate (40% of the design one) separation phenomena are generated on the suction side of the rotor blades and on the pressure side of the stator ones. Significant spanwise non-uniformity is produced in the diffuser channels, with a displacement of the flow towards the hub side and back-flow on the shroud side. The values of turbulent kinetic energy are increased by an order of magnitude at off-design conditions and the main source of turbulence is not anymore the flow from the suction side and the trailing edge of the rotor blades: most turbulence is generated now at the leading edge of the diffuser blades. The increased interaction between rotating and stationary parts implies also a stronger dependence of the flow features on the relative position between impeller and diffuser blades.

  11. Flow and Noise Characteristics of Centrifugal Fan under Different Stall Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available An implicit, time-accurate 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS solver is used to simulate the rotating stall phenomenon in a centrifugal fan. The goal of the present work is to shed light on the flow field and particularly the aerodynamic noise at different stall conditions. Aerodynamic characteristics, frequency domain characteristics, and the contours of sound power level under two different stall conditions are discussed in this paper. The results show that, with the decrease of valve opening, the amplitude of full pressure and flow fluctuations tends to be larger and the stall frequency remains the same. The flow field analysis indicates that the area occupied by stall cells expands with the decrease of flow rate. The noise calculation based on the simulation underlines the role of vortex noise after the occurrence of rotating stall, showing that the high noise area rotates along with the stall cell in the circumferential direction.

  12. Dynamic properties of nucleated microtubules: GTP utilisation in the subcritical concentration regime. (United States)

    Symmons, M F; Martin, S R; Bayley, P M


    Microtubule assembly kinetics have been studied quantitatively under solution conditions supporting microtubule dynamic instability. Purified GTP-tubulin (Tu-GTP) and covalently cross-linked short microtubule seeds (EGS-seeds; Koshland et al. (1988) Nature 331, 499) were used with and without biotinylation. Under sub-critical concentration conditions ([Tu-GTP] assembly, that was found to abolish the GDP release. The variation of the GDP release with tubulin concentration (Jh(c) plot) was determined below the critical concentration (Cc). The GDP production observed was consistent with the elongation of the observed seeded microtubules with an apparent rate constant of 1.5 x 10(6) M-1 second-1 above a threshold of approximately 1 microM tubulin. The form of this Jh(c) plot for elongation below Cc is reproduced by the Lateral Cap model for microtubule dynamic instability adapted for seeded assembly. The behaviour of the system is contrasted with that previously studied in the absence of detectable microtubule elongation (Caplow and Shanks (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8935-8941). The approach provides a means of monitoring microtubule dynamics at concentrations inaccessible to optical microscopy, and shows that essentially the same dynamic mechanisms apply at all concentrations. Numerical simulation of the subcritical concentration regime shows dynamic growth features applicable to the initiation of microtubule growth in vivo.

  13. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Tian


    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  14. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L. (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo


    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on effects of boundary conditions in confined turbulent flow predictions (United States)

    Nallasamy, M.; Chen, C. P.


    The differences in k epsilon model predictions of plane and axisymmetric expansion flows is investigated. The prediction of the coaxial jet for different velocity ratios of the annular to central jet is presented. The effects of inlet kinetic energy and the energy dissipation rate profiles are investigated for swirling and nonswirling flows. The effects of expansion ration and Reynolds number on the reattachment length are also presented. The results show that the inlet k and epsilon profiles have the most significant effect on the reattachment length and flow redevelopment for the case of coaxial jet of high velocity ratio. A comparison of k epsilon model predictions for the pipe expansion flow by the PHOENICS and TEACH codes reveals some discrepancies in the predicted results. TEACH prediction seems to produce unrealistic kinetic energy profiles in some regions of the flow. PHOENICS code produces a long tail in the recirculation region under certain conditions.

  16. Wall catalytic recombination and boundary conditions in nonequilibrium hypersonic flows - With applications (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.


    The meaning of catalysis and its relation to aerodynamic heating in nonequilibrium hypersonic flows are discussed. The species equations are described and boundary conditions for them are derived for a multicomponent gas and for a binary gas. Slip effects are included for application of continuum methods to low-density flows. Measurement techniques for determining catalytic wall recombination rates are discussed. Among them are experiments carried out in arc jets as well as flow reactors. Diagnostic methods for determining the atom or molecule concentrations in the flow are included. Results are given for a number of materials of interest to the aerospace community, including glassy coatings such as the RCG coating of the Space Shuttle and for high temperature refractory metals such as coated niobium. Methods of calculating the heat flux to space vehicles in nonequilibrium flows are described. These methods are applied to the Space Shuttle, the planned Aeroassist Flight Experiment, and a hypersonic slender vehicle such as a transatmospheric vehicle.

  17. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.


    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  18. Investigation and Modelling of Thermal Conditions in Low Flow SDHW Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan


    and compared with the CFD-predicted flow structures in the mantle. The results showed that the mantle flow was highly dominated by buoyancy and the CFD-models were able to model this flow. With a steel mantle tank, different dynamic thermal experiments were carried out in a heat storage test facility......The purpose of this study was to characterise the thermal conditions in low flow SDHW systems. As the heat storage has proved to be the most important system component, there has been an emphasis on this component in the study. A literature survey revealed that the mantle tank heat storage type...... is one of the most promising storage designs and therefore only the mantle tank is investigated in this study.To optimise the design of mantle tanks and low flow SDHW systems, it was found necessary to understand how the thermal stratification is built up in the heat storage. In addition...

  19. Efficient [2+2] photocycloadditions under equimolar conditions by employing a continuous UV-flow reactor


    Conradi, Matthias; Junkers, Thomas


    The [2 + 2] photocycloaddition between maleimide and various alkenes was optimized in a simple custom-made UV flow reactor. While complete maleimide conversion is only achieved with excesses of at least 10 eq. of alkene and reaction times of 12-24 h in batch, complete reactions with yields in the range >98% could be obtained in 5 min in the flow reactor under strictly equimolar conditions. Functional alkenes carrying allyl, alcohol, amine and ether moieties were successfully conjugated in goo...

  20. Making Optic Flow Robust to Dynamic Lighting Conditions for Real-Time Operation (United States)


    Brad,21 images are filtered prior to use in an optic flow algorithm, and like the work presented by Sellent et al.,20 they have used a Gaussian ...algorithms, allowing them to operate in dynamic lighting conditions at operational tempos. We posit that the use of a preprocessing filter based on...requires no a priori knowledge of the environment. In this report, we compare the results of optic flow with and without use of the filter , showing that

  1. Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2: the effect of the SFE pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Moreschi


    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrolysis of fresh and dried turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and ginger (Zingiber officinale R. in the presence of subcritical water + CO2 was studied. The hydrolysis of ginger and turmeric bagasses from supercritical fluid extraction was also studied. The reactions were done using subcritical water and CO2 at 150 bar, 200 °C and reaction time of 11 minutes; the degree of reaction was monitored through the amount of starch hydrolyzed. Process yields were calculated using the amount of reducing and total sugars formed. The effects of supercritical fluid extraction in the starchy structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Higher degree of hydrolysis (97- 98 % were obtained for fresh materials and the highest total sugar yield (74% was established for ginger bagasse. The supercritical fluid extraction did not significantly modify the degree of hydrolysis in the tested conditions.

  2. The Effect of Low Flow Inhalation Anesthesia on Operative Hemodynamic Condition in Comparison with High Flow Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eidi


    the two groups with regard to sex, age and weight. Conclusion: Maintenance of anesthesia with low flow anesthesia gasses maintains more hemodynamic condition during operation.

  3. Effects of variations in hydraulic conductivity and flow conditions on groundwater flow and solute transport in peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Erik [Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)


    In this report it is examined to what extent the variation in hydraulic conductivity within a peatland and adjoining sediments would affect the flow patterns within it under some certain hydraulic-head gradients and other certain border conditions. The first part of the report contains a short review of organic and mineral-soil sediment types and characteristics and what we know about present peatlands and underlying sediments in the SKB investigation areas today. In the next part, a 2-dimensional model is used to simulate flows and transports in different settings of a peatland, with the objective of studying the effects of some particular factors: 1. The magnitude of the hydraulic conductivity of the peat and of underlying layers. 2. Presence and positions of cracks in underlying clay layers. 3. Anisotropy and heterogeneity in peat hydraulic conductivity. 4. The size of the water recharge at the peatland surface. 5. The seasonal variation of the water recharge. The modelling results show that the importance of flow direction decreases with decreasing hydraulic conductivity in the peatland. This occurs as the convective flux is slowed down and the transport is taken over by the diffusive flux. Because the lowest hydraulic conductivity layer to large extent determines the size of the flow, presence of a low-conductivity layer, such as a layer of clay, is an important factor. Presence of cracks in such tight layers can increase the transport of solutes into the peat. The highest inflow rates are reached when such cracks occur in discharge areas with strong upward flow. On the other hand, a conservative solute can spread efficiently if there is a crack in low-flow locations. The effect of anisotropy is found to be small, partly because the horizontal gradients become smaller as distances are larger. The effect of layers with high or low permeability varies depending on the location and the prevailing gradients. One tight layer has a strong effect on the flow pattern

  4. Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction in Cranfield Multiphase Flow Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedorf, Søren; Shaker, Hamid Reza


    alarm and missed detection rates. While ACCEPT has shown to be an effective tool in some applications, its performance has not yet been evaluated on practical well-known benchmark examples. In this paper, ACCEPT is used for adverse condition and critical event prediction in a multiphase flow facility....... Cranfield multiphase flow facility is known to be an interesting benchmark which has been used to evaluate different methods from statistical process monitoring. In order to allow for the data from the flow facility to be used in ACCEPT, methods such as Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), PCA-and CVA...

  5. The Characteristics of Turbulence in Curved Pipes under Highly Pulsatile Flow Conditions (United States)

    Kalpakli, A.; Örlü, R.; Tillmark, N.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    High speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry has been employed to provide unique data from a steady and highly pulsatile turbulent flow at the exit of a 90 degree pipe bend. Both the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells under steady conditions, the so called "swirl switching" phenomenon, as well as the secondary flow under pulsations have been reconstructed through proper orthogonal decomposition. The present data set constitutes - to the authors' knowledge - the first detailed investigation of a turbulent, pulsatile flow through a pipe bend.

  6. Approximation of First Grade MHD Squeezing Fluid Flow with Slip Boundary Condition Using DTM and OHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayat Ullah


    Full Text Available A steady two-dimensional axisymmetric flow of an incompressible viscous fluid under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field with slip boundary condition is studied. An ordinary nonlinear differential equation is formed by transforming the Navier-Stokes equations using the transformation . Differential transform and optimal homotopy analysis methods have been used to obtain the solutions by varying pertinent flow parameters. By using residuals in each case, the validity of solutions is established. Excellent results are obtained by using the proposed schemes. The influence of different parameters on the flow is shown through graphs.

  7. Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization. (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Min; Pang, Hui-Li; Qin, Guang-Yong


    In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%-42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils.

  8. A Review of Critical Conditions for the Onset of Nonlinear Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Yu


    Full Text Available Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex Navier-Stokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from the Navier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.

  9. Analysis of reactivity determination methods in the subcritical experiment Yalina (United States)

    Persson, Carl-Magnus; Seltborg, Per; Åhlander, Alexandra; Gudowski, Waclaw; Stummer, Thomas; Kiyavitskaya, Hanna; Bournos, Victor; Fokov, Yurij; Serafimovich, Ivan; Chigrinov, Sergey


    Different reactivity determination methods have been investigated, based on experiments performed at the subcritical assembly Yalina in Minsk, Belarus. The development of techniques for on-line monitoring of the reactivity level in a future accelerator-driven system (ADS) is of major importance for safe operation. Since an ADS is operating in a subcritical mode, the safety margin to criticality must be sufficiently large. The investigated methods are the Slope Fit Method, the Sjöstrand Method and the Source Jerk Method. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with different nuclear data libraries. The results of the Slope Fit Method are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation results, whereas the Sjöstrand Method appears to underestimate the criticality somewhat. The Source Jerk Method is subject to inadequate statistical accuracy.

  10. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank


    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  11. What Magnetic Conditions Do Determine the Latitudinal Extent of SAPS/SAID Subauroral Flow Enhancements? (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Mishin, E. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Nishitani, N.


    Strong westward flows that lie just equatorward of the electron auroral oval are an important manifestation of plasma transport near the inner edge of the plasmasheet. These include latitudinally narrow flows in the premidnight sector named polarization jets or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) and broad flows on the duskside called subauroral polarization streams (SAPS). The formation of these two phenomena is usually explained in terms of voltage or current generators, which is called the SAID/SAPS paradigm. A full understanding of the SAPS and SAID development has not yet been achieved, therefore an analysis comparing the geomagnetic conditions under which these phenomena occur is necessary. We present auroral images from the THEMIS ground-based all-sky-imager array and 2-d line-of-sight flow observations from the SuperDARN radars that share fields of view with the imagers to compare SAPS and SAID type of events. To identify the electron equatorward boundary, we use Meridian Scanning Photometers (MSP) and DMSP satellite measurements. We surveyed storm time intervals from December 2007 to April 2013 for which high or mid-latitude SuperDARN radars were available to measure the subauroral flows. In addition, we compare TEC measurements and the IMF conditions for both types of events, SAPS and SAID. A preliminary survey suggests that broad SAPS events commonly (>80% of the time) occur in association with auroral streamers; while narrow ( flows.

  12. Fine powder flow under humid environmental conditions from the perspective of surface energy. (United States)

    Karde, Vikram; Ghoroi, Chinmay


    The influence of humidity on surface energetics and flow behavior of fine pharmaceutical powders was investigated. Amorphous and crystalline fine powders with hydrophilic (Corn starch and Avicel PH105) and hydrophobic (ibuprofen) nature were considered for this study. The surface energy was determined using surface energy analyzer and flow behavior was measured in terms of unconfined yield stress (UYS) using a shear tester. The study showed that unlike hydrophobic ibuprofen powder, surface energy and flow of hydrophilic excipient powders were affected by relative humidity (RH). The Lifshitz-van der Waals dispersive (γ(LW)) component of surface energy barely changed with varying RH for all pharmaceutical powders. For hydrophilic excipients, the specific component of surface energy (γ(SP)) was found to increase with increasing RH. Furthermore, for these excipients, flow deterioration at elevated RH was observed due to increased capillary bridge formation. Detailed analysis showed that γ(SP) component of surface energy can be an effective indicator for flow behavior of fine powders under varying humid conditions. The present study also brought out the existence of different regimes of probable interparticle forces which dictate the bulk flow behavior of fine hydrophilic powder under humid conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple proof of exponential decay of subcritical contact processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.


    Roč. 170, 1-2 (2018), s. 1-9 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15238S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : subcritical contact process * sharpness of the phase transition * eigenmeasure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2016 http:// library

  14. CFD Analysis of the Human Exhalation Flow using Different Boundary Conditions and Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafruela, J.M.; Olmedo, Inés; Ruiz de Adana, M.


    This paper analyses the dispersion of the exhaled contaminants by humans in indoor environments, with special attention to the exhalation jet and its interaction with the indoor airflow pattern in both mixing and displacement ventilation conditions. The way in which three different numerical...... different environmental conditions and to validate whether a steady boundary condition of the exhalation flow may simulate human breathing in an effective and accurate way. The results show a very good agreement of the numerical results obtained for Test a and the experimental data. This fact confirms...... the use of numerical simulation as a powerful tool to predict the contaminant distribution exhaled by a human. The numerical tests with steady boundary conditions for the exhalation flow require a transitory resolution procedure and the predictions provided by these models display some discrepancies...

  15. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra


    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  16. A Sufficient Condition on Convex Relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui


    This paper proposes a sufficient condition for the convex relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in radial distribution networks as a second order cone program (SOCP) to be exact. The condition requires that the allowed reverse power flow is only reactive or active, or none. Under the proposed...... sufficient condition, the feasible sub-injection region (power injections of nodes excluding the root node) of the AC OPF is convex. The exactness of the convex relaxation under the proposed condition is proved through constructing a group of monotonic series with limits, which ensures that the optimal...... solution of the SOCP can be converted to an optimal solution of the original AC OPF. The efficacy of the convex relaxation to solve the AC OPF is demonstrated by case studies of an optimal multi-period planning problem of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution networks....

  17. Parameterised Model of 2D Combustor Exit Flow Conditions for High-Pressure Turbine Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schneider


    Full Text Available An algorithm is presented generating a complete set of inlet boundary conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (RANS CFD of high-pressure turbines to investigate their interaction with lean and rich burn combustors. The method shall contribute to understanding the sensitivities of turbine aerothermal performance in a systematic approach. The boundary conditions are based on a set of input parameters controlling velocity, temperature, and turbulence fields. All other quantities are derived from operating conditions and additional modelling assumptions. The algorithm is coupled with a CFD solver by applying the generated profiles as inlet boundary conditions. The successive steps to derive consistent flow profiles are described and results are validated against flow fields extracted from combustor CFD.

  18. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  19. Dynamic Response of an Energy Harvesting Device Under Realistic Flow Conditions (United States)

    O'Connor, Joseph; Revell, Alistair


    The need for reliable, cost-efficient, green energy alternatives has led to increased research in the area of energy harvesting. One approach to energy harvesting is to take advantage of self-sustaining flow-induced vibrations. Through the use of a piezoelectric flag, the mechanical strain from the flapping motion can be converted into electrical energy. While such devices show a lot of promise, the fluid-structure-electrical interactions are highly nonlinear and their response to off-design variations in flow conditions, such as those likely to be encountered upon deployment, is relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present work is to examine how a representative energy harvesting device performs in realistic atmospheric flow conditions involving wind gusts with spatial and temporal variations. A recently developed lattice-Boltzmann-immersed boundary-finite element model is used to perform fully-coupled 3D simulations of the fluid-structure system. For a range of unsteady flow conditions the resulting flow features and structural motion are examined and key behaviour modes are mapped out. The findings of this work will be particularly relevant for self-powered remote sensing networks, which often require deployment in unpredictable and varied environments.

  20. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions in Greenland (phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, Olivier; Namar, Rabah; Siegel, Pascal [In2Earth Modelling Ltd, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)


    Within the framework of the GAP project, this second phase of geosphere modelling has enabled the development of an improved regional model that has led to a better representation of groundwater flow conditions likely to occur under ice sheet conditions. New data in relation to talik geometry and elevation, as well as to deformation zones were integrated in the geosphere model. In addition, more realistic hydraulic properties were considered for geosphere modelling; they were taken from the Laxemar site in Sweden. The geological medium with conductive deformation zones was modelled as a 3D continuum with stochastically hydraulic properties. Surface and basal glacial meltwater rates provided by a dynamic ice sheet model were assimilated into the groundwater flow model using mixed boundary conditions. The groundwater flow system is considered to be governed by infiltration of glacial meltwater in heterogeneous faulted crystalline rocks in the presence of permafrost and taliks. The characterisation of the permafrost-depth distribution was achieved using a coupled description of flow and heat transfer under steady state conditions. Using glaciological concepts and satellite data, an improved stochastic model was developed for the description at regional scale for the subglacial permafrost distribution in correlation with ice velocity and bed elevation data. Finally, the production of glacial meltwater by the ice sheet was traced for the determination of its depth and lateral extent. The major improvements are related to the type and handling of the subglacial boundary conditions. The use of meltwater rates provided by an ice sheet model applied as input to a mixed boundary condition enables to produce a more plausible flow field in the Eastern part of the domain, in comparison to previous modelling results (Jaquet et al. 2010). In addition, the integration of all potential taliks within the modelled domain provides a better characterisation of the likely groundwater

  1. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi


    Full Text Available Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 mm pitch. The fuel rods are based on PWR fuel structural pattern type, made of uranium oxide (UO2 with 3.4 wt% 235U enrichment in zirconium alloy (Zr-4 cladding. Design, optimization, and verification were performed using MCNP5 nuclear code; the computed effective multiplication factor is 0.95923. The JSA is designed to fulfill the training needs of students and is equipped to perform all of the fundamental experiments required for a typical nuclear engineering university program. This paper presents the design, development, modeling, core analysis, and utilization of Jordan’s first nuclear facility and why this simplified low cost reactor presents an attractive choice to fulfill the preliminary experimental needs of nuclear engineering education in developing countries.

  2. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lopes Carvalho


    Full Text Available Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the patients who related having systemic ailments, cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent, followed by depression and nervousness. Conclusion: It was concluded that xerostomia and quantitative alteration in salivary flow are common among post-menopausal women, and that ailments of a psychological nature were shown to be related to the manifestation of xerostomia.

  3. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Change regularity of water quality parameters in leakage flow conditions and their relationship with iron release. (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Shentu, Huabin; Chen, Huanyu; Ye, Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yifu; Bastani, Hamid; Peng, Hongxi; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Tuqiao


    The long-term stagnation in metal water supply pipes, usually caused by intermittent consumption patterns, will cause significant iron release and water quality deterioration, especially at the terminus of pipelines. Another common phenomenon at the terminus of pipelines is leakage, which is considered helpful by allowing seepage of low-quality drinking water resulting from long-term stagnation. In this study, the effect of laminar flow on alleviating water quality deterioration under different leakage conditions was investigated, and the potential thresholds of the flow rate, which can affect the iron release process, were discussed. Based on a galvanized pipe and ductile cast iron pipe pilot platform, which was established at the terminus of pipelines, this research was carried out by setting a series of leakage rate gradients to analyze the influence of different leakage flow rates on iron release, as well as the relationship with chemical and biological parameters. The results showed that the water quality parameters were obviously influenced by the change in flow velocity. Water quality was gradually improved with an increase in flow velocity, but its change regularity reflected a diversity under different flow rates (p water distribution system, when the bulk water was at the critical laminar flow velocity, the concentration of total iron, the quantity and rate of total iron release remain relatively in an ideal and safe situation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of local flow conditions in jailed side branch lesions using computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Na, Sang-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Chul; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae


    Lesions of vascular bifurcation and their treatment outcomes have been evaluated by anatomical and physiological methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, local changes in flow dynamics in lesions of bifurcation have not been well evaluated. This study aimed at evaluating changes in the local flow patterns of bifurcation lesions. Eight (n=8) representative simulation-models were constructed: 1 normal bifurcation, 5 main-branch (MB) stenting models with various side-branch (SB) stenoses (ostial or non-ostial 75% diameter stenosis with 1- or 2-cm lesion lengths, ostial 75% diameter stenosis caused by carina shift), and 2 post-kissing models (no or 50% SB residual stenosis). Pressure, velocity, and wall shear stress (WSS) profiles around the bifurcation sites were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Post-stenting models revealed significant pressure drop in the SB (FFRkissing models, there was no significant pressure drop. All post-stenting models revealed eccentric low velocity flow patterns and areas of low WSS, primarily in the lateral wall on distal MB. Post-kissing angioplasty improved pressure drop in the SB but resulted in alteration of flow distribution in the MB. In the carina shift model, kissing ballooning resulted in deteriorated local flow conditions due to increased area of low velocity and WSS. This study suggests that the most commonly used bifurcation intervention strategy may cause local flow disturbances, which may partially explain high restenosis and event rates in patients with bifurcation lesions.

  6. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)


    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  7. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)


    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  8. Mass flows of endocrine disruptors in the Glatt River during varying weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkers, Niels; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Dammshaeuser, Anna [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    This study focused on the occurrence and behaviour in wastewater and surface waters of several phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenolic compounds, phenylphenol (PhP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Analytical procedures using solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS/MS techniques were applied to samples of influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging into the Glatt River (Switzerland) as well as to river water samples. A mass flow analysis provided insight into the main sources and the fate of these contaminants during different weather conditions. Concentrations in influents were in the low {mu}g/L range for most analytes. Removal of parabens in the WWTPs was mostly above 99%. Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (A{sub 9}PEO) removal amounted to 98%, but in some cases nonylphenoxy acetic acid (A{sub 9}PEC) or nonylphenols (NP) were formed. In effluents, concentrations were highest for the A{sub 9}PEC, A{sub 9}PEO and NP. Concentrations in river water were in the high ng/L range for alkylphenolic compounds and in the low ng/L range for BPA, PhP and the parabens. During the sampling period, in which several rain events occurred, both water flows and mass flows varied strongly. Mass flows in WWTP effluents and in the river increased with increasing water flows for most compounds indicating that higher water flows do not lead necessarily to a proportional dilution of the pollutants. Throughout the low water flow period, mass flows predicted from the known inputs were similar to the actual mass flows at the end of the river for most analytes. For none of the EDCs, significant in-stream removal could be observed. In the periods with high water flows, mass flows in the river were much higher than can be explained by the initially defined sources. Discharge of untreated wastewater influent into the river was assessed as an additional source. Adding this source improved the mass balance for some, but not all of the analytes

  9. Evaluation of the performance of the Spherocel S80 sorbent under flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladislavovich Skvortsov


    The implemented process showed that the sorbent Spherocel S80 proved successful under flow conditions due to its selective, capacitive, and hydrodynamic characteristics. Moreover, the sorbent was as efficient in LPS elimination as the conventional ones, ensuring the required degree of LPS elimination both in biotechnological preparations and biological liquids.

  10. Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott


    In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...

  11. Thermal analysis of parallel flow multi pass channel condenser for automotive air conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, S.; Dehghandokht, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems Improvement Lab; Beigi, H.M.; Bahrami, S. [Sardsaz Khodro Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research and Development Div.


    The problem of ozone depletion was partly solved by replacing CFC refrigerant with HFC refrigerants. Since the risk of refrigerant leak in automotive air conditioning systems is much greater than that of common air conditioning systems and refrigerators, there is a need to develop new automotive air conditioning systems that consume less power and require less refrigerant. This paper presented and validated the thermal performance of a parallel flow multi-channel condenser developed by Sardsaz Khodro Company. The condenser is a brazed aluminium one with air in cross-flow; the refrigerant circulates inside multi-channel flat tubes composed of 7 parallel ports. The condenser is composed of 4 refrigerant passes and several small channel tubes. The air follows a single cross flow path across louvered fins. A computer program for performance analysis of parallel flow condensers widely used in mobile air conditioning systems, using an empirical equation for the heat transfer coefficient, was developed on the basis of pressure drop. The model was based on an effectiveness-NTU method. The simulated performance results for the condenser heat capacity, refrigerant pressure drop, subcooling at the outlet of condenser and condenser outlet air temperature were close to experimental data results from calorimeter tests. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Air-water flow measurement for ERVC conditions by LIF/PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Critical heat flux (CHF) of the external reactor vessel wall is a safety limit that indicate the integrity of the reactor vessel during the situation. Many research conducted CHF experiments in the IVR-ERVC conditions. However, the flow velocity field which is an important factor in the CHF mechanism were not studied enough in the IVR-ERVC situations. In this study, flow measurements including velocity vector field and the liquid velocity in the IVR-ERVC conditions were studied. The air-water two phase flow loop simulating IVRERVC conditions was set up and liquid velocity field was measured by LIF/PIV technique in this study. The experiment was conducted with and without air injection conditions. For the air-water flow experiment, liquid velocity at the outside of two phase boundary layer became higher and the two phase boundary layer thickness became smaller when the mass flux increases. The velocity data obtained in this study are expected to improve the CHF correlation in the IVR-ERVC situations.

  13. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB, Floda (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden)); Zugec, Nada (Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report is concerned with the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during periglacial and glacial climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Vidstrand et al. 2010/. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle at Laxemar. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 13,000 years. The simulation results comprise pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance and the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties

  14. Arsenic incorporation into pyrite at ambient environmental conditions: a continuous-flow experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Butler, I.B.; Rickard, D.; Mason, P.R.D.


    Pyrite was synthesized in the presence of arsenite, As(III), at concentrations approaching those in ambient environments, under controlled, monitored, anoxic conditions in a continuous-flow reaction system at pH 6 and 25°C. During the continuous pyrite growth in these experiments, a continued

  15. Combining geoelectrical and advanced lysimeter methods to characterize heterogeneous flow and transport under unsaturated transient conditions (United States)

    Wehrer, M.; Skowronski, J.; Binley, A. M.; Slater, L. D.


    Our ability to predict flow and transport processes in the unsaturated critical zone is considerably limited by two characteristics: heterogeneity of flow and transience of boundary conditions. The causes of heterogeneous - or preferential - flow and transport are fairly well understood, yet the characterization and quantification of such processes in natural profiles remains challenging. This is due to current methods of observation, such as staining and isotope tracers, being unable to observe multiple events on the same profile and offering limited spatial information. In our study we demonstrate an approach to characterize preferential flow and transport processes applying a combination of geoelectrical methods and advanced lysimeter techniques. On an agricultural soil profile, which was transferred undisturbed into a lysimeter container, we applied systematically varied input flow boundary conditions, resembling natural precipitation events. We simultaneously measured the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Flow and transport in the soil column were observed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), tensiometers, water content probes and a multicompartment suction plate (MSP). These techniques allowed a direct ground-truthing of soil moisture and pore fluid resistivity changes estimated noninvasively using ERT. We were able to image both the advancing infiltration front and the advancing tracer front using time lapse ERT. Water content changes associated with the advancing infiltration front dominated over pore fluid conductivity changes during short term precipitation events. Conversely, long term displacement of the solute front was monitored during periods of constant water content in between infiltration events. We observed preferential flow phenomena through ERT and through the MSP, which agreed in general terms. The preferential flow fraction was observed to be independent of precipitation rate. This suggests the presence of a fingering process

  16. Impact of flow conditions on ammonium uptake and microbial community structure in benthic biofilms (United States)

    Arnon, Shai; Yanuka, Keren; Nejidat, Ali


    Excess nitrogen in surface waters is widely recognized to be a major global problem that adversely affects ecosystems, human health, and the economy. Today, most efforts to understand and model nutrient dynamics at large scales relies on macro-scale parameterization, such as mean channel geometry and velocity with uniform flow assumptions, as well as gross averages of in-situ nutrient transformation rates. However, there is increasing evidence that nutrient transformations in hyporheic zone are regulated by coupling between physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Ignoring this greatly hinders the estimation of average biochemical transformation rates under the variable flow conditions found in aquatic systems. We used a combination of macro- and micro-scale observations in laboratory flumes to show that interplay between hydrodynamic transport, redox gradients, and microbial metabolism controls ammonium utilization by hyporheic microbial communities. Biofilm structural characteristics were quantified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real time PCR, while redox and pH gradients were measured using microelectrodes. We found that overlying velocities had profound effect on ammonium uptake due to mass transfer of ammonium from the bulk water to the benthic biofilms, but also due to the delivery of oxygen into the sediment bed. Under laminar flow conditions we didn't observe any change of ammonium uptake as a response to increase in overlying velocity. However, under non-laminar conditions we observe monotonic increase in ammonium uptake, with the greatest uptake under the fastest flow condition. We will discuss ammonium uptake rates results in the context of the different microbial communities and the micro-scale observations that were obtained using the microelectrodes. We anticipate that combined knowledge of the response of the microbial community and bulk nitrogen utilization rates to flow conditions will support the development of

  17. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions


    Jodeau, M.; Hauet, A.; Paquier, A.; Le Coz, J.; Dramais, G.


    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  18. Study on Performance and Internal Flow Condition of Mini Turbo-Pump (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Toru; Fukutomi, Junichiro; Nasada, Ryoichi


    Mini turbo-pumps which have a diameter smaller than 100mm are utilized in many fields; automobile radiator pump, artificial heart pump, cooling pump for electric devices, washing machine pump and so on. And the needs for the mini turbo-pumps would become larger with the increase of the application of it for electrical machines. It is desirable that the mini turbo-pump design is as simple as possible due to the limitation of the precision for manufacture. But the design method for the mini turbo-pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machineries is not clarified and conventional theory is not conductive for small-sized pumps because of the low Reynolds number and the size effects. Therefore, we started the research of the mini turbo-pump for the purpose of development of high performance mini turbo-pump with simple structure. As a first step of this research, mini turbo-pump with the 46mm rotor diameter was designed based on the conventional design method in order to clarify the problems for the application of conventional method for mini turbo-pump in details. The three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis was conducted with the commercial code (Fluent6.3). The numerical flow analysis was also performed under the condition with and without a tip clearance because the tip clearance influence on the performance and internal flow condition is extremely large for mini turbo-pumps. It was clarified from the numerical results that head of the mini turbo-pump at the designed point without the tip clearance satisfied the designed value head H = 1.2m and the efficiency is about η = 60% which is acceptable value for the centrifugal pump. On the other hand, head and efficiency decreased drastically with the increase of the tip clearance. The flow condition near the tip region was influenced by the leakage flow from the blade tip. And it is observed by the results of the total pressure distributions that the total

  19. Flow in Circular Cross Section Tube Using the Partial Surface Wetting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora FRODLOVÁ


    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the possibility of numerical modeling of fluid flow in horizontal pipes of circular cross section with boundary condition including the effect of wall partial wetting. ANSYS Fluent software was used for numerical modeling. Boundary condition including the effect of wall partial wetting is based on a theory where the adhesive coefficient k determines the wettability of the wall, defined by prof. Pochylý [1-5]. User defined function (UDF was created for this boundary condition and it was verified in both 2D and 3D geometry. The results of numerical modeling have been verified by theoretical assumptions. Furthermore, the article presents the physical experiment results of pressure losses measuring in pipes of circular cross section of different materials in laminar flow. Subsequently, the experiment results are compared with the theory of fully wettable and partially wettable walls to determine the adhesive coefficient k for the material of used pipes.

  20. Optical tweezers for measuring the interaction of the two single red blood cells in flow condition (United States)

    Lee, Kisung; Muravyov, Alexei; Semenov, Alexei; Wagner, Christian; Priezzhev, Alexander


    Aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) is an intrinsic property of blood, which has direct effect on the blood viscosity and therefore affects overall the blood circulation throughout the body. It is attracting interest for the research in both fundamental science and clinical application. Despite of the intensive research, the aggregation mechanism is remaining not fully clear. Recent advances in methods allowed measuring the interaction between single RBCs in a well-defined configuration leading the better understanding of the mechanism of the process. However the most of the studies were made on the static cells. Thus, the measurements in flow mimicking conditions are missing. In this work, we aim to study the interaction of two RBCs in the flow conditions. We demonstrate the characterization of the cells interaction strength (or flow tolerance) by measuring the flow velocity to be applied to separate two aggregated cells trapped by double channel optical tweezers in a desired configuration. The age-separated cells were used for this study. The obtained values for the minimum flow velocities needed to separate the two cells were found to be 78.9 +/- 6.1 μm/s and 110 +/- 13 μm/s for old and young cells respectively. The data obtained is in agreement with the observations reported by other authors. The significance of our results is in ability for obtaining a comprehensible and absolute physical value characterizing the cells interaction in flow conditions (not like the Aggregation Index measured in whole blood suspensions by other techniques, which is some abstract parameter)

  1. Air-lift pumps characteristics under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassab, Sadek Z.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Warda, Hassan A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University Alexandria (Egypt); Ahmed, Wael H. [Nuclear Safety Solution Ltd., AMEC, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Air-lift pumps are finding increasing use where pump reliability and low maintenance are required, where corrosive, abrasive, or radioactive fluids in nuclear applications must be handled and when a compressed air is readily available as a source of a renewable energy for water pumping applications. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the performance of a pump under predetermined operating conditions and to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose, an air-lift pump was designed and tested. Experiments were performed for nine submergence ratios, and three risers of different lengths with different air injection pressures. Moreover, the pump was tested under different two-phase flow patterns. A theoretical model is proposed in this study taking into account the flow patterns at the best efficiency range where the pump is operated. The present results showed that the pump capacity and efficiency are functions of the air mass flow rate, submergence ratio, and riser pipe length. The best efficiency range of the air-lift pumps operation was found to be in the slug and slug-churn flow regimes. The proposed model has been compared with experimental data and the most cited models available. The proposed model is in good agreement with experimental results and found to predict the liquid volumetric flux for different flow patterns including bubbly, slug and churn flow patterns.

  2. Effects of Reducing Convective Acceleration Terms in Modelling Supercritical and Transcritical Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared Abayneh Abebe


    Full Text Available Modelling floods and flood-related disasters has become priority for many researchers and practitioners. Currently, there are several options that can be used for modelling floods in urban areas and the present work attempts to investigate effectiveness of different model formulations in modelling supercritical and transcritical flow conditions. In our work, we use the following three methods for modelling one-dimensional (1D flows: the MIKE 11 flow model, Kutija’s method, and the Roe scheme. We use two methods for modelling two-dimensional (2D flows: the MIKE21 flow model and a non-inertia 2D model. Apart from the MIKE11 and MIKE21 models, the code for all other models was developed and used for the purposes of the present work. The performance of the models was evaluated using hypothetical case studies with the intention of representing some configurations that can be found in urban floodplains. The present work does not go into the assessment of these models in modelling various topographical features that may be found on urban floodplains, but rather focuses on how they perform in simulating supercritical and transcritical flows. The overall findings are that the simplified models which ignore convective acceleration terms (CATs in the momentum equations may be effectively used to model urban flood plains without a significant loss of accuracy.

  3. A Study of Anular Flow Characteristics in Microgravity and Hyper- Gravity Conditions (United States)

    Macgillvray, Ryan; Gabriel, Kamiel


    Annular flow is an important flow regime in many industrial applications. The need for a better understanding of this flow regime is driven by the desire to improve the design of many terrestrial and space-based systems. Annular two-phase flow is frequently present in the mining and transportation of oil and natural gas, boilers and condensers, and in heating and refrigeration systems. The flow regime is also important for the refueling of space vehicles, and heating and refrigeration systems for space use. On ground, gravity plays a major role in the process of heat and mass transport across the liquid film. In the presence of a gravitational pull, the film tends to be unstable and chaotic. This hinders accurate experimental measurements in the film and causes the process of deposition and entrainment unstable. In addition, the flow in the absence of gravity is axi-symmetrical and could be easily treated as a two-dimensional flow. These conditions allow for a convenient environment to study film characteristics. Past studies on annular flow have dealt with varying the gas or liquid Reynolds numbers and studying the effect of such changes on the flow regimes and pressure drops. Other studies by the same group focussed on the effect of reversing the direction of the gravity vector on the film flow characteristics. Two other relevant dimensionless groups, namely the gas-to-liquid density ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio, are noticeably absent. The present study explains the effect of the density ratio on the film characteristics. In particular, the film thickness and pressure drop were examined in the present study. The film thickness was measured using two-wire conductance probes. Experimental data was collected in microgravity aboard the Novespace Zero-G Airbus microgravity simulator. Data were collected for a range of annular flow set points by changing the liquid and gas mass flow rates, the liquid-to-gas density ratio and the gravitational

  4. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions (United States)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.


    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  5. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara


    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  6. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB, Floda (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Zugec, Nada (Bergab, Stockholm (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. Hydraulic-mechanical (H-M) issues are also handled but no coupled flow modelling is done. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle for subsequent use in safety assessment applications within SKB's project SR-Site. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 19,000 years. The simulation results comprise residual fluid pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance, the speed of the ice sheet margin, the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties, the temperature at the ice-subsurface interface close to the ice sheet margin, and the initial hydrochemical conditions.

  7. A pre-conditioned implicit direct forcing based immersed boundary method for incompressible viscous flows (United States)

    Park, Hyunwook; Pan, Xiaomin; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il


    A novel immersed boundary (IB) method based on an implicit direct forcing (IDF) scheme is developed for incompressible viscous flows. The key idea for the present IDF method is to use a block LU decomposition technique in momentum equations with Taylor series expansion to construct the implicit IB forcing in a recurrence form, which imposes more accurate no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surface. To accelerate the IB forcing convergence during the iterative procedure, a pre-conditioner matrix is introduced in the recurrence formulation of the IB forcing. A Jacobi-type parameter is determined in the pre-conditioner matrix by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the matrix function representing the difference between the IB forcing solution matrix and the pre-conditioner matrix. In addition, the pre-conditioning parameter is restricted due to the numerical stability in the recurrence formulation. Consequently, the present pre-conditioned IDF (PIDF) enables accurate calculation of the IB forcing within a few iterations. We perform numerical simulations of two-dimensional flows around a circular cylinder and three-dimensional flows around a sphere for low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The result shows that PIDF yields a better imposition of no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surfaces for low Reynolds number with a fairly larger time step than IB methods with different direct forcing schemes due to the implicit treatment of the diffusion term for determining the IB forcing. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of the present PIDF scheme by numerical simulations of flow around a circular array of cylinders, flows around a falling sphere, and two sedimenting spheres in gravity.

  8. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weili, L; Jinling, L; Xingqi, L; Yuan, L, E-mail: [Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology No.5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710048 (China)


    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun


    . Value from 2012 to 2013 reached to 316.5 mkg/kg in 5 cm soil layer and 217.8 mkg/kg in 5-20 cm soil layer that exceeded the BaP maximum concentration limit level in the soil up to 15 times. The maximum limited concentration of BaP in soil is 20 mkg/kg according Russian Federation legislation. Thus, a method of BaP determination in soils has been approved as based upon the subcritical water extraction under the optimum conditions. The efficiency of the given method involves the use of subcritical water as an environmentally friendly solvent, a shorter time for environmental analysis. BaP distribution and accumulation tendencies were investigated during the 2 years of monitoring researches in studied soils. The main factor of technogenic influence on the soil the investigated area are toxic emissions of a power complex plant from burning coal. Despite the environmental activities of in the enterprise, the impact of emissions on the environment location nearby today is still primary. This research was supported by projects of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, no. 5.885.2014/K and Grant of President of Russian Federation no. MK-6827.2015.4, RFBR no. 15-35-21134.

  10. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.


    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  11. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang


    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  12. Measurement of flow in supercritical flow regime using cutthroat flumes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cutthroat flume is commonly used for measurement of subcritical flow in open channel because of its simplicity and ease of construction. No experimental data is available in literature for measurement of flow in supercritical regime using cutthroat flume. The present paper finds the feasibility of cutthroat flume as a ...

  13. Compensation of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Brix, Wiebke; Elmegaard, Brian


    Compensation of flow maldistribution in multi-channel fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated by numerical modeling. The considered sources of maldistribution are distribution of the liquid and vapor phases in the distributor and non-uniform airflow distribution....... Fin-and-tube heat exchangers usually have a predefined circuitry, however, the evaporator model is simplified to have straight tubes, in order to perform a generic investigation. The compensation of flow maldistribution is performed by control of the superheat in the individual channels. Furthermore......, the effect of combinations of individual maldistribution sources is investigated for different evaporator sizes and outdoor temperatures. It is shown that a decrease in cooling capacity and coefficient of performance by flow maldistribution can be compensated by the control of individual channel superheat...

  14. Resistance coefficients for Stokes flow around a disk with a Navier slip condition (United States)

    Sherwood, J. D.


    The Stokes drag and couple acting on a disk of zero thickness as it moves through Newtonian fluid are investigated for the case when slip can occur at the surface of the disk. It is shown that when the disk translates parallel to its axis, the well-known velocity field for a no-slip boundary condition exerts zero shear stress on the surface of the disk. The flow is therefore unchanged if the boundary condition on the disk is modified to a stress-free or to a Navier slip boundary condition. This invariance also holds for a disk that rotates about a diameter. However, flow around a disk that rotates about its axis, or that translates in its own plane (edgewise), is modified when the no-slip boundary condition is changed to a Navier slip condition. The fluid velocity can be expressed in terms of Hankel transforms, and the resulting dual integral equations are solved numerically. Results for the torque and drag on the disk are presented as functions of the slip length in the Navier boundary condition.

  15. Estimating conditional probability of volcanic flows for forecasting event distribution and making evacuation decisions (United States)

    Stefanescu, E. R.; Patra, A.; Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G.


    In this study we propose a conditional probability framework for Galeras volcano, which is one of the most active volcanoes on the world. Nearly 400,000 people currently live near the volcano; 10,000 of them reside within the zone of high volcanic hazard. Pyroclastic flows pose a major hazard for this population. Some of the questions we try to answer when studying conditional probabilities for volcanic hazards are: "Should a village be evacuated and villagers moved to a different location?", "Should we construct a road along this valley or along a different one?", "Should this university be evacuated?" Here, we try to identify critical regions such as villages, infrastructures, cities, university to determine their relative probability of inundation in case of an volcanic eruption. In this study, a set of numerical simulation were performed using a computational tool TITAN2D which simulates granular flow over digital representation of the natural terrain. The particular choice from among the methods described below can be based on the amount of information necessary in the evacuation decision and on the complexity of the analysis required in taking such decision. A set of 4200 TITAN2D runs were performed for several different location so that the area of all probably vents is covered. The output of the geophysical model provides a flow map which contains the maximum flow depth over time. Frequency approach - In estimating the conditional probability of volcanic flows we define two discrete random variables (r.v.) A and B, where P(A =1) and P(B=1) represents the probability of having a flow at location A, and B, respectively. For this analysis we choose two critical locations identified by their UTM coordinates. The flow map is then used in identifying at the pixel level, flow or non-flow at the two locations. By counting the number of times there is flow or non-flow, we are able to find the marginal probabilities along with the joint probability associated with an

  16. Adsorption of vitamin K-dependent proteins to live cell membranes measured under flow conditions. (United States)

    McGee, M P; Teuschler, H


    Mechanisms mediating initial adsorption of coagulation proteins to live cells were investigated. Adsorption kinetics were examined under varying flow conditions using tracer-dilution techniques in perfused spherical monolayers of cells expressing tissue factor. At biologically relevant time and concentration ranges, rates exceeded by 2-12 fold the theoretical maximum calculated for steady-state diffusion. Rates were correlated with aqueous-phase flux of reactants and were found to be largely independent of the density of reactive sites on the membrane. Average adsorption rate of factor VIIa at 4 etaM and flow velocity of 0.8 etam s(-1) was 5 x 10(7) s(-1) cm(-2). Adsorption rates of homologous coagulation factors IX and X under similar conditions were 5 and 9 x 10(7) s(-1)cm(-2). Results indicate that flow can effectively increase the rate of coagulation factor adsorption to the membrane of live cells. They also imply that factors affecting blood flow velocity and vessel permeability influence the rate of membrane-dependent coagulation reactions.

  17. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.


    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  18. The influence of upstream boundary conditions on swirling flows undergoing vortex breakdown (United States)

    Rukes, Lothar; Sieber, Moritz; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, Oliver


    Swirling jets undergoing vortex breakdown are common in research and technology. In part this is because swirling jets are widely used to anchor the flame position in gas turbines. Recently, the benefit in terms of flashback safety of axial air injection via a center body in the upstream mixing tube of a simplified premixed burner was demonstrated, Reichel (ASME Turbo Expo 2014). However, the presence of a center body alone alters the upstream boundary conditions for the downstream swirling flow. This study investigates how different upstream conditions modify the downstream swirling jet in a more generic setup. A swirling jet facility is used, consisting of a swirler, a pipe, a nozzle and an unconfined part. The focus lies on two large-scale flow features: the precessing vortex core (PVC) and the recirculation bubble. The flow field is measured with Particle Image Velocimetry and proper orthogonal decomposition is conducted to extract the dominant coherent structures. Additionally, a feature tracking approach is used to track the instantaneous shape and position of the recirculation bubble. We find that different center bodies modify the inflow profiles of the unconfined part of the flow in a specific way. This leads to significant differences in the large scale dynamics. Financial support from the German Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Modelling Spillway Flow Conditions at Złotniki Storage Reservoir on the Kwisa River (United States)

    Machajski, Jerzy; Olearczyk, Dorota


    An important part of the work connected with planning modernization of outlet devices of Złotniki storage reservoir on the Kwisa river was numerical modelling of flow conditions in the flume of the side-channel spillway. The modelling was preceded by the analysis of operating principles of such a device and performing analytical calculations that defined the spillway capacity ability as a function of the required water levels in the reservoir and the conditions of water flow through the flume that are significant to spillway operation. The results of the numerical modelling performed pointed to the evident need to reconstruct this device, guaranteeing exploitation safety of the reservoir, mainly in view of the computational discharges, exceeding considerably the nominal capacity ability of the reservoir's outlet installation in the existing constructional state.

  20. Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing. (United States)

    Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula


    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface.

  1. Enstrophy transport conditional on local flow topologies in different regimes of premixed turbulent combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Papapostolou, Vassilios


    Enstrophy is an intrinsic feature of turbulent flows, and its transport properties are essential for the understanding of premixed flame-turbulence interaction. The interrelation between the enstrophy transport and flow topologies, which can be assigned to eight categories based on the three invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, has been analysed here. The enstrophy transport conditional on flow topologies in turbulent premixed flames has been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulation database representing the corrugated flamelets (CF), thin reaction zones (TRZ) and broken reaction zones (BRZ) combustion regimes. The flame in the CF regime exhibits considerable flame-generated enstrophy, and the dilatation rate and baroclinic torque contributions to the enstrophy transport act as leading order sink and source terms, respectively. Consequently, flow topologies associated with positive dilatation rate values, contribute significantly to the enstrophy transport in the CF regime. By contrast, enstrophy decreases from the unburned to the burned gas side for the cases representing the TRZ and BRZ regimes, with diminishing influences of dilatation rate and baroclinic torque. The enstrophy transport in the TRZ and BRZ regimes is governed by the vortex-stretching and viscous dissipation contributions, similar to non-reacting flows, and topologies existing for all values of dilatation rate remain significant contributors.

  2. Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Adawy


    Full Text Available The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm, 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1 eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  3. Enstrophy transport conditional on local flow topologies in different regimes of premixed turbulent combustion. (United States)

    Papapostolou, Vassilios; Wacks, Daniel H; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Klein, Markus; Im, Hong G


    Enstrophy is an intrinsic feature of turbulent flows, and its transport properties are essential for the understanding of premixed flame-turbulence interaction. The interrelation between the enstrophy transport and flow topologies, which can be assigned to eight categories based on the three invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, has been analysed here. The enstrophy transport conditional on flow topologies in turbulent premixed flames has been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulation database representing the corrugated flamelets (CF), thin reaction zones (TRZ) and broken reaction zones (BRZ) combustion regimes. The flame in the CF regime exhibits considerable flame-generated enstrophy, and the dilatation rate and baroclinic torque contributions to the enstrophy transport act as leading order sink and source terms, respectively. Consequently, flow topologies associated with positive dilatation rate values, contribute significantly to the enstrophy transport in the CF regime. By contrast, enstrophy decreases from the unburned to the burned gas side for the cases representing the TRZ and BRZ regimes, with diminishing influences of dilatation rate and baroclinic torque. The enstrophy transport in the TRZ and BRZ regimes is governed by the vortex-stretching and viscous dissipation contributions, similar to non-reacting flows, and topologies existing for all values of dilatation rate remain significant contributors.

  4. Violation mechanism of Kutta condition for low Reynolds number flows around two-dimensional NACA0012 aerofoil


    Yonemoto, Koichi; Takato, Keiichiro; OCHI, Hiroshi; Fujie, Satoshi; Sato, Takaya; 米本, 浩一; 高藤, 圭一郎; 越智, 廣志; 藤江, 哲; 佐藤, 喬也


    Direct Numerical Simulation is applied to simulate two dimensional low Reynolds number flows around NACA0012 aerofoil. The calculation results show negative lift curve slope and the existence of the reverse flow around the trailing edge at low angle of attack. This paper discusses the flow mechanism of negative lift curve slope phenomena from the view point of "Kutta condition violation".

  5. Groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary driven by intensified wave conditions (United States)

    Robinson, Clare; Xin, Pei; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.


    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model, was conducted to investigate flow and salt transport in a nearshore aquifer under intensified wave conditions caused by offshore storms. Temporally varying onshore hydraulic gradients due to wave setup were determined as the seaward boundary condition for the simulated aquifer. The results showed a rapid increase in influxes across the aquifer-ocean interface in response to the wave event followed by a more gradual increase in effluxes. The upper saline plume first widened horizontally as the wave setup point moved landward. It then expanded vertically with recirculating seawater pushed downward by the wave-induced hydraulic gradient. The time for the salt distribution to return to the prestorm condition was up to a hundred days and correlated strongly with the time for seawater to recirculate through the aquifer. The pathways of recirculating seawater and fresh groundwater were largely modified by the wave event. These pathways crossed through the same spatial locations at similar times, indicating significant salt-freshwater mixing. The flow and salt transport dynamics were more responsive to wave events of longer duration and higher intensity, especially in more permeable aquifers with lower fresh groundwater discharge. Despite their larger response, aquifers with higher permeability and beach slope recovered more rapidly postevent. The rapid recovery of the flows compared with the salinity distribution should be considered in field data interpretation. Due to their long-lasting impact, wave events may significantly influence the geochemical conditions and the fate of chemicals in a subterranean estuary.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Asnaashari


    Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.

  7. An Analysis of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Persson, P.


    A method of predicting the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts is presented. The analysis predicts that the burnout conditions are independent of the L/d-ratio and the inlet temperature, and that the burnout steam quality decreases with increasing surface heat flux and increasing mass velocity. It was also found that the burnout steam quality at low pressures increases with the pressure and reaches a maximum at approximately 70 kg/cm, and thereafter decreases with a further increase of the pressure. The theoretical result compares very well with experimental data from different sources.

  8. Effect of a boundary condition on the cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas (United States)

    Kosuge, Shingo


    The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated on the basis of kinetic theory. We perform a numerical analysis of the (BGK model) Boltzmann equation for a wide range of the Knudsen number and an asymptotic analysis for small Knudsen numbers employing two kinds of kinetic boundary conditions on the cylinders. One is the modified Maxwell-type boundary condition (proposed by S. K. Dadzie and J. G. Méolans) and the other is the Cercignani-Lampis condition, both of which have separate accommodation coefficients associated with the molecular velocity component normal to the boundary and with the tangential component. Our main interest is in the effect of those boundary conditions on the inverted velocity profile. The results show that the onset of the inversion is practically controlled by the tangential accommodation only.

  9. Kinetic model for the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate in subcritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chengcai; Deng, Tiansheng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Yongqin; Hou, Xianglin; Qin, Zhangfeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)


    The esterification of oleic acid in subcritical methanol catalyzed by zinc acetate was investigated in a batch-type autoclave. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure, reaction time and molar ratio of oleic acid to methanol on the esterification was examined. The oleic acid conversion reached 95.0% under 220 C and 6.0 MPa with the molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid being 4 and 1.0 wt% zinc acetate as catalyst. A kinetic model for the esterification was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2.2 and activation energy E{sub a} = 32.62 KJ/mol were obtained. (author)

  10. Nonlinear elastic behavior of sub-critically damaged body armor panel (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T.; Chimenti, D. E.


    A simple go/no-go test for body armor panels using pressure-sensitive, dye-indicator film (PSF) has been shown to be statistically effective in revealing subcritical damage to body armor panels. Previous measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Further impact tests on armor worn by a human resuscitation dummy using instrumented masses with an attached accelerometer and embedded force transducer have been performed and analyzed. New impact tests have shown a reliable correlation between PSF indication (as digitized images) and impact force for a wide range of impactor energies and masses. Numerical evaluation of digital PSF images is presented and correlated with impact parameters. Relationships between impactor mass and energy, and corresponding measured force are shown. We will also report on comparisons between ballistic testing performed on panels damaged under various impact conditions and tests performed on undamaged panels.

  11. Assessment of bridge abutment scour and sediment transport under various flow conditions (United States)

    Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon


    Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate

  12. A hydroelastic investigation of circular cylindrical shells-containing flowing fluid with different end conditions (United States)

    Uğurlu, B.; Ergin, A.


    This paper presents the effects of different end conditions on the response behavior of thin circular cylindrical shell structures fully in contact with flowing fluid. The investigated end conditions are as follows: simply supported, clamped-clamped, clamped-simply supported and clamped-free (cantilever shell) ends. Additionally, the dynamic responses of a tapered cylindrical shell conveying flowing fluid and simply supported at its ends were investigated. The method employed in this study is a hybrid method—a boundary integral equation method for the calculation of the fluid-structure interaction effects and a finite element method for the structural analysis. In this study, the mathematical model presented before [B. Uğurlu, A. Ergin, A hydroelasticity method for vibrating structures containing and/or submerged in flowing fluid, Journal of Sound and Vibration 290 (2006) 572-596] is extended by applying the direct boundary integral equation method, and by using a higher-order panel method (linear distribution). It should also be said that the method used in this study could be applied to any shape of cylindrical structure in contact with internal and/or external flowing fluid, in contrast to the studies found in the literature. In the analysis of the linear fluid-structure system, it is assumed that the fluid is ideal, i.e., inviscid, incompressible and its motion is irrotational. It is assumed that the flexible structure vibrates in its in-vacuo modes when it is in contact with flowing fluid, and that each mode gives rise to a corresponding surface pressure distribution on the wetted surface of the structure. The in-vacuo dynamic properties of the dry structure are obtained by using a standard finite element software. In the wet part of the analysis, the wetted surface is idealized by using appropriate boundary elements, referred to as hydrodynamic panels. The fluid-structure interaction forces are calculated in terms of the generalized added mass coefficients

  13. Adult Children's Serious Health Conditions and the Flow of Support Between the Generations. (United States)

    Gilligan, Megan; Suitor, J Jill; Rurka, Marissa; Con, Gulcin; Pillemer, Karl


    The life course perspective suggests that serious physical or mental health conditions that limit the daily activities of any one family member are likely to be consequential for other family members as well. In this article, we explored whether adult children's serious health conditions affected the flow of expressive and instrumental support between mothers and both the offspring with health conditions and other offspring in the family. We used data collected from 369 older mothers (M = 78 years) regarding 1,338 of their adult children (M = 49 years), as part of the Within-Family Differences Study-II. Adult children with serious health conditions were more likely than their siblings to be given support by their mothers. The presence of adult children with health issues did not reduce mothers' provision of expressive or instrumental support to their children without health conditions. However, in families in which a higher proportion of children had serious health conditions, mothers received expressive support from a greater proportion of their healthy adult children than in families with a smaller proportion of adult children with health conditions. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating the ways in which conditions in adult children's lives affect their mothers.

  14. Flow Control Under Low-Pressure Turbine Conditions Using Pulsed Jets: Experimental Data Archive (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.


    This publication is the final report of research performed under an NRA/Cooperative Interagency Agreement, and includes a supplemental CD-ROM with detailed data. It is complemented by NASA/CR-2012-217416 and NASA/CR-2012-217417 which include a Ph.D. Dissertation and an M.S. thesis respectively, performed under this contract. In this study the effects of unsteady wakes and flow control using vortex generator jets (VGJs) were studied experimentally and computationally on the flow over the L1A low pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. The experimental facility was a six passage linear cascade in a low speed wind tunnel at the U.S. Naval Academy. In parallel, computational work using the commercial code FLUENT (ANSYS, Inc.) was performed at Cleveland State University, using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) methods. In the first phase of the work, the baseline flow was documented under steady inflow conditions without flow control. URANS calculations were done using a variety of turbulence models. In the second phase of the work, flow control was added using steady and pulsed vortex generator jets. The VGJs successfully suppressed separation and reduced aerodynamic losses. Pulsed operation was more effective and mass flow requirements are very low. Numerical simulations of the VGJs cases showed that URANS failed to capture the effect of the jets. LES results were generally better. In the third phase, effects of unsteady wakes were studied. Computations with URANS and LES captured the wake effect and generally predicted separation and reattachment to match the experiments. Quantitatively the results were mixed. In the final phase of the study, wakes and VGJs were combined and synchronized using various timing schemes. The timing of the jets with respect to the wakes had some effect, but in general once the disturbance frequency was high enough to control separation, the timing was not very important. This is the supplemental CD-ROM

  15. Flow Control Under Low-Pressure Turbine Conditions Using Pulsed Jets (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.


    This publication is the final report of research performed under an NRA/Cooperative Interagency Agreement, and includes a supplemental CD-ROM with detailed data. It is complemented by NASA/CR-2012-217416 and NASA/CR-2012-217417 which include a Ph.D. Dissertation and an M.S. thesis respectively, performed under this contract. In this study the effects of unsteady wakes and flow control using vortex generator jets (VGJs) were studied experimentally and computationally on the flow over the L1A low pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. The experimental facility was a six passage linear cascade in a low speed wind tunnel at the U.S. Naval Academy. In parallel, computational work using the commercial code FLUENT (ANSYS, Inc.) was performed at Cleveland State University, using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) methods. In the first phase of the work, the baseline flow was documented under steady inflow conditions without flow control. URANS calculations were done using a variety of turbulence models. In the second phase of the work, flow control was added using steady and pulsed vortex generator jets. The VGJs successfully suppressed separation and reduced aerodynamic losses. Pulsed operation was more effective and mass flow requirements are very low. Numerical simulations of the VGJs cases showed that URANS failed to capture the effect of the jets. LES results were generally better. In the third phase, effects of unsteady wakes were studied. Computations with URANS and LES captured the wake effect and generally predicted separation and reattachment to match the experiments. Quantitatively the results were mixed. In the final phase of the study, wakes and VGJs were combined and synchronized using various timing schemes. The timing of the jets with respect to the wakes had some effect, but in general once the disturbance frequency was high enough to control separation, the timing was not very important.

  16. Determination of a setup correction function to obtain adsorption kinetic data at stagnation point flow conditions. (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Nejadnik, M Reza; Baylon-Cardiel, Javier L; Giacomelli, Carla E; Garcia, Carlos D


    This paper is the first report on the characterization of the hydrodynamic conditions in a flow cell designed to study adsorption processes by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The resulting cell enables combining the advantages of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with stagnation point flow conditions. An additional advantage is that the proposed cell features a fixed position of the "inlet tube" with respect to the substrate, thus facilitating the alignment of multiple substrates. Theoretical calculations were performed by computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data (adsorption kinetics) obtained for the adsorption of polyethylene glycol to silica under a variety of experimental conditions. Additionally, a simple methodology to correct experimental data for errors associated with the size of the measured spot and for variations of mass transfer in the vicinity of the stagnation point is herein introduced. The proposed correction method would allow researchers to reasonably estimate the adsorption kinetics at the stagnation point and quantitatively compare their results, even when using different experimental setups. The applicability of the proposed correction function was verified by evaluating the kinetics of protein adsorption under different experimental conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Numerical investigation of sand production under realistic reservoir/well flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, A.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vaziri, H. [BP America USA (United States)


    The limitations of existing sand production prediction methods were discussed and a critical review of various sand production models was presented. A new numerical model embedded into ABAQUS was then developed to predict the onset and severity of sand production under realistic reservoir/well flow conditions. ABAQUS is a finite element program that simulates the interaction between fluid flow and mechanical deformation of a medium. The model makes it possible to predict critical drawdown leading to the onset of sanding as well as the rate of sand production in real time. It is based on the continuum mechanics approach for modeling the process of sanding as a function of many parameters that have an effect on sand production. These include a time-dependent coupled fluid flow and deformation analysis of the rock, material disaggregation, sand removal, and operational conditions such as drawdown, depletion, and water-cut. The model has been validated against sanding experiments conducted on hollow cylinder samples involving real time sand production measurements under various conditions. The samples were subjected to a gradual increase of axial and radial loadings under a single-phase flow condition. The Mohr-Coulomb model captured the mechanical response of the porous medium to the applied loading and seepage conditions. Modeling strain softening of the material was required in the simulation of sand production. Seepage drag forces tend to generate tensile stresses in a material that has gone through strain softening process and has lost its ability to carry any effective stresses. The results of the numerical modeling study were in good agreement with experimental data in terms of the operational conditions leading to the onset of sanding as well as an estimation of the sanding rate. The model presents a real-time evaluation of the ongoing alterations in the material at the wellface during the production and provides insight into the role of the various parameters

  18. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo


    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate...... (type A) and constant load (type B). Fifty-four uniaxial-compression test specimens from 1327-2922 m were selected. Each test specimen (25 mm × 25 mm × 90 mm) was prepared with its uniaxial stress axis inclined 45° from the core axis in order to examine the flow behavior of strong single-maximum ice......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  19. Characterization of a Twin-Entry Radial Turbine under Pulsatile Flow Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfoudh Cerdoun


    Full Text Available In automotive applications radial gas turbines are commonly fitted with a twin-entry volute connected to a divided exhaust manifold, ensuring a better scavenge process owing to less interference between engines’ cylinders. This paper is concerned with the study of the unsteady performances related to the pulsating flows of a twin-entry radial turbine in engine-like conditions and the hysteresis-like behaviour during the pulses period. The results show that the aerodynamic performances deviate noticeably from the steady state and depend mainly on the time shifting between the actual output power and the isentropic power, which is distantly related to the apparent length. The maximum of efficiency and output shaft power are accompanied by low entropy generation through the shroud entry side, and their instantaneous behaviours tend to follow mainly the inlet total pressure curve. As revealed a billow is created by the interaction between the main flow and the infiltrated flow, affecting the flow incidence at rotor entry and producing high losses.

  20. Effective Height of a Floor Splitter Anti-Vortex Device under Varying Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jun Kim


    Full Text Available A pump station is a crucial flood control facility for mitigating inundation of urban lowland areas. Securing a site to increase the capacity of a pump station or to maximize the discharge capacity of the pump sump in an urban area is difficult because of various limitations. Moreover, adding a facility to improve the pump capacity of a pump station may affect flow characteristics, e.g., unexpected increases in flow velocity and vorticity, and cause severe problems in pump station operation. To solve those problems, anti-vortex devices (AVDs have been developed and adopted according to the appropriate design standards. The Korean design criteria for AVDs are based on experience and the standards of other countries because of the lack of adequate data on AVDs. In this study, flow in the sump was numerically simulated at various AVD heights to obtain data for improving the design and efficiency of a pump station. Consequently, the appropriate height for the AVD and changes in the flow pattern and vortex in the pump sump were determined and compared with 12 cases of inflow conditions with respect to the vertical location.

  1. The effect of anti-rosetting agents against malaria parasites under physiological flow conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Adams

    Full Text Available Rosetting remains the dominant malaria parasite adhesion phenotype associated with severe disease and pathogenicity in Africa. The formation of rosettes, whereby a Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte (IE adheres to two or more non-IEs, is thought to facilitate the occlusion of microvascular blood vessels by adhering to host endothelial cells and other bound IEs. Current methods of determining the rosette-disrupting capabilities of antibodies/drugs have focused on static assays. As IEs in vivo are exposed to shear stresses within the microvasculature, the effect of flow conditions on rosetting requires further examination. This study establishes a new rosetting flow assay using a closed perfusion system together with inverted fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, and confirms previous reports that rosettes exist under shear stresses equivalent to those present in the microvasculature (0.5-1.0 dyn/cm(2. Furthermore, we tested the effectiveness of rosette-disrupting PfEMP1 antibodies, heparin and fucoidan over a range of concentrations on two P. falciparum strains, and found no statistically significant differences between the results of static and flow assays. The new flow assay is a valuable addition to the tools available to study rosetting. However, the static assay has good predictive value and remains useful as the standard screening test for rosette-disrupting interventions.

  2. Distribution of indoor thoron in dwellings under normal and turbulent flow conditions using CFD simulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Rishi Pal


    Full Text Available Extensive work has been carried out on measurement of radon and thoron levels in indoor environment in last three decades. These studies are important from radiation protection point of view, if one considered the contribution of radon, thoron and their decay products to total inhalation dose. Numerous studies on radon measurement well established the behaviour of its dispersion in dwellings. But the short lives of thoron cause the difficulty to understand the distribution of thoron in dwellings. The problem becomes more complicated when thoron dispersion is studied under different inlet air flow rate. Different air flow pattern may cause different thoron level at different point in test dwellings causing uncertainty in the measurements. This work utilized the CFD simulation technique for study of indoor thoron dispersion in test dwellings under normal and turbulent flow of air. The simulation study for thoron distribution in a test room was performed for air velocities 0.10 ms-1, 0.25 ms-1, 0.50 ms-1, 1.0 ms-1, 1.5 ms-1, and 2.0 ms-1. The results show that the thoron distribution becomes uniform for the inlet velocity more than 0.5 ms-1 and appropriate to measure indoor thoron concentration. While in normal condition the measured thoron level varies depending upon the location of dosimeter. Thoron diffusion and migration length are also increased with air flow rate.

  3. Effect of the hydrodynamic conditions of electrolyte flow on critical states in electrochemical machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Jerzy


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of electrochemical machining process oriented on occurring in the treatment critical states caused by electrolyte flow hydrodynamic conditions in the gap between electrodes. Material forming in electrochemical machining is carried out by anodic dissolution. In general in ECM process, the essence of the treatment is that the workpiece is the anode and the tool is the cathode. The space between the anode and cathode is filled by electrolyte. The current flow between the electrodes causes anodic dissolution process, resulting in the removal of material from the anode. Choosing in the process of electrochemical machining, respectively: anode and cathode material, electrolyte and processing parameters, such conditions can be created that enable a high process efficiency and smoothness of the surface. Inappropriate selection of machining parameters can cause the emergence of critical states in the ECM, which are mainly related to the flow of the electrolyte in the gap between electrodes. This work is an attempt to assess the occurring critical states in ECM on the example of machining of curved surfaces with any sort of outline and curved rotating surfaces.

  4. Effect of the hydrodynamic conditions of electrolyte flow on critical states in electrochemical machining (United States)

    Sawicki, Jerzy; Paczkowski, Tomasz


    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of electrochemical machining process oriented on occurring in the treatment critical states caused by electrolyte flow hydrodynamic conditions in the gap between electrodes. Material forming in electrochemical machining is carried out by anodic dissolution. In general in ECM process, the essence of the treatment is that the workpiece is the anode and the tool is the cathode. The space between the anode and cathode is filled by electrolyte. The current flow between the electrodes causes anodic dissolution process, resulting in the removal of material from the anode. Choosing in the process of electrochemical machining, respectively: anode and cathode material, electrolyte and processing parameters, such conditions can be created that enable a high process efficiency and smoothness of the surface. Inappropriate selection of machining parameters can cause the emergence of critical states in the ECM, which are mainly related to the flow of the electrolyte in the gap between electrodes. This work is an attempt to assess the occurring critical states in ECM on the example of machining of curved surfaces with any sort of outline and curved rotating surfaces.

  5. Theory and numerical application of subsurface flow and transport for transient freezing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Center


    Protective barriers are being investigated for the containment of radioactive waste within subsurface environments. Predicting the effectiveness of cryogenic barriers and near-surface barriers in temperate or arctic climates requires capabilities for numerically modeling subsurface flow and transport for freezing soil conditions. A predictive numerical model is developed herein to simulate the flow and transport of radioactive solutes for three-phase (water-ice-air) systems under freezing conditions. This physically based model simulates the simultaneous flow of water, air, heat, and radioactive solutes through variably saturated and variably frozen geologic media. Expressions for ice (frozen water) and liquid water saturations as functions of temperature, interfacial pressure differences, and osmotic potential are developed from nonhysteretic versions of the Brooks and Corey and van Genuchten functions for soil moisture retention. Aqueous relative permeability functions for variably saturated and variably frozen geologic media are developed from the Mualem and Burdine theories for predicting relative permeability of unsaturated soil. Soil deformations, caused by freezing and melting transitions, are neglected. Algorithms developed for predicting ice and liquid water saturations and aqueous-phase permeabilities were incorporated into the finite-difference based numerical simulator STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). Application of the theory is demonstrated by the solution of heat and mass transport in a horizontal cylinder of partially saturated porous media with differentially cooled ends, with the colder end held below the liquid water freezing point. This problem represents an essential capability for modeling cryogenic barriers in variably saturated geologic media.

  6. Unsteady Casson nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet with thermal radiation, convective and slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun Sarah Oyelakin


    Full Text Available In this paper we report on combined Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer in a Casson nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation and heat generation. The effects of partial slip on the velocity at the boundary, convective thermal boundary condition, Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion coefficients on the concentration boundary condition are investigated. The model equations are solved using the spectral relaxation method. The results indicate that the fluid flow, temperature and concentration profiles are significantly influenced by the fluid unsteadiness, the Casson parameter, magnetic parameter and the velocity slip. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity and temperature growth. An increase in the Dufour parameter reduces the flow temperature, while an increase in the value of the Soret parameter causes increase in the concentration of the fluid. Again, increasing the velocity slip parameter reduces the velocity profile whereas increasing the heat generation parameter increases the temperature profile. A validation of the work is presented by comparing the current results with existing literature.

  7. Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from endothelial cells to peripheral granulocytes in vitro under shear flow conditions. (United States)

    Wang, Jinyong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Straubinger, Reinhard K


    Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) is a tick-borne pathogen, which can cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. In vivo this obligate intracellular pathogen is primarily located in circulating mature granulocytes, but it also infects endothelial cells. In order to study the interaction between Ap-infected endothelial cells and human granulocytes under conditions similar to those found naturally in the infected host, an in vitro model that mimics physiological flow conditions in the microvasculature was established. Cell-to-cell interactions were then visualized by microscopy, which showed that granulocytes adhered strongly to Ap-infected endothelial cells at a shear stress of 0.5 dyne/cm(2). In addition, Ap-transmission assays under flow conditions showed that the bacteria transferred from infected endothelial cells to circulating granulocytes and were able to establish infection in constantly moving granulocytes. Cell surface analysis showed that Ap induced up-regulation of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on infected endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion by endothelial cells indicated that the presence of Ap induced a pro-inflammatory response. In summary, the results of this study suggest that endothelial cells of the microvasculature (1) provide an excellent site for Ap dissemination to peripheral blood granulocytes under flow conditions and therefore may play a crucial role in the development of persistent infection, and (2) are stimulated by Ap to express surface molecules and cytokines that may lead to inflammatory responses at the site of the infection.

  8. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas


    Full Text Available Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take place, dehydration is the one that prevails. The mass and energy balance was affected by the treatment conditions than the severity of the treatment.

  9. Influence of temporally variable groundwater flow conditions on point measurements and contaminant mass flux estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer, S; Dietrich, P


    Monitoring of contaminant concentrations, e.g., for the estimation of mass discharge or contaminant degradation rates. often is based on point measurements at observation wells. In addition to the problem, that point measurements may not be spatially representative. a further complication may arise...... information representing observation wells installed along control planes using different well frequencies and configurations. Results of the scenario simulations show that temporally variable flow conditions can lead to significant temporal fluctuations of the concentration and thus are a substantial source...... is present, the concentration variability due to a fluctuating groundwater flow direction varies significantly within the control plane and between the different realizations. Determination of contaminant mass fluxes is also influenced by the temporal variability of the concentration measurement, especially...

  10. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams. (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús


    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  11. On the use of in vivo measured flow rates as boundary conditions for image-based hemodynamic models of the human aorta: implications for indicators of abnormal flow. (United States)

    Gallo, D; De Santis, G; Negri, F; Tresoldi, D; Ponzini, R; Massai, D; Deriu, M A; Segers, P; Verhegghe, B; Rizzo, G; Morbiducci, U


    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the imposition of personalized, non-invasively measured blood flow rates as boundary conditions (BCs) influences image-based computational hemodynamic studies in the human aorta. We extracted from 4D phase-contrast MRI acquisitions of a healthy human (1) the geometry of the thoracic aorta with supra-aortic arteries and (2) flow rate waveforms at all boundaries. Flow simulations were carried out, and the implications that the imposition of different BC schemes based on the measured flow rates have on wall shear stress (WSS)-based indicators of abnormal flow were analyzed. Our results show that both the flow rate repartition among the multiple outlets of the aorta and the distribution and magnitude of the WSS-based indicators are strongly influenced by the adopted BC strategy. Keeping as reference hemodynamic model the one where the applied BC scheme allowed to obtain a satisfactory agreement between the computed and the measured flow rate waveforms, differences in WSS-based indicators up to 49% were observed when the other BC strategies were applied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in subject-specific computational hemodynamics models of the human aorta the imposition of BC settings based on non-invasively measured flow rate waveforms influences indicators of abnormal flow to a large extent. Hence, a BCs set-up assuring realistic, subject-specific instantaneous flow rate distribution must be applied when BCs such as flow rates are prescribed.

  12. Highly Selective and Considerable Subcritical Butane Extraction to Separate Abamectin in Green Tea. (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong


    We specially carried out the subcritical butane extraction to separate abamectin from tea leaves. Four parameters, such as extraction temperature, extraction time, number of extraction cycles, and solid-liquid ratio were studied and optimized through the response surface methodology with design matrix developed by Box-Behnken. Seventeen experiments with three various factors and three variable levels were employed to investigate the effect of these parameters on the extraction of abamectin. Besides, catechins, theanine, caffeine, and aroma components were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the tea quality before and after the extraction. The results showed that the extraction temperature was the uppermost parameter compared with others. The optimal extraction conditions selected as follows: extraction temperature, 42°C; number of extraction cycles and extraction time, 1 and 30 min, respectively; and solid-liquid ratio, 1:10. Based on the above study, the separation efficiency of abamectin was up to 93.95%. It is notable that there has a quite low loss rate, including the negligible damage of aroma components, the bits reduce of catechins within the range of 0.7%-13.1%, and a handful lessen of caffeine and theanine of 1.81% and 2.6%, respectively. The proposed method suggested subcritical butane possesses solubility for lipid-soluble pesticides, and since most of the pesticides are attached to the surfaces of tea, thus the as-applied method was successfully effective to separate abamectin because of the so practical and promising method.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Fluid Flow in a Single Fracture under Loading and Unloading Conditions (United States)

    Kling, T.; Huo, D.; Schwarz, J. O.; Enzmann, F.; Blum, P.; Benson, S. M.


    Hydraulic aperture is one of the most important parameters to describe fluid flow in fractured rocks. Hydraulic apertures are typically determined indirectly by fluid flow experiments or hydraulic field tests based on the cubic law. Alternatively, there are different equations approximating an empirical relation between mechanical and hydraulic aperture. However, these methods most widely neglect mechanisms such as stress changes, where increasing stresses decrease the mechanical aperture and, therefore, also the effective hydraulic aperture. Hence, the objective of the present study is to simulate fluid flow in a single fracture under loading/unloading conditions and validate the results with core flooding experiments. Core flooding data and X-ray CT scans (voxel size 0.5 x 0.5 x 1 mm) of a sandstone sample with a single fracture (measured mean aperture of around 0.1 mm) were obtained by laboratory experiments. The fluid flow simulations are performed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation by using a finite volume method. Input data are given by experimental flow rates, pressures, applied stress levels and CT images of the fracture. In addition, an error analysis is performed to establish confidence in results. Results of the validation exhibit significant effects of stress on aperture distribution such as channeling and stress-dependent fracture permeability. A significant stress sensitivity of hydraulic aperture compared to the mechanical aperture was found, which can be explained by roughness changes resulting from loading. Observations indicate that with increasing stress, changes in mechanical aperture are small, while changes in hydraulic aperture can be very large. Since previous equations for hydraulic aperture do not consider changes in normal stress, a modification of these equations is proposed, including the stress-dependency of mechanical apertures to provide a better approximation to the observed hydraulic apertures.

  14. Investigation and modelling of thermal conditions in low flow SDHW systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, L.J.


    The purpose of this study was to characterise the thermal conditions in low flow SDHW systems. As the heat storage has proved to be the most important system component, there has been an emphasis on this component in the study. A literature survey revealed that the mantle tank heat storage type is one of the most promising storage designs and therefore only the mantle tank is investigated in this study. To optimise the design of mantle tanks and low flow SDHW systems, it was found necessary to understand how the thermal stratification is built up in the heat storage. In addition, it was necessary to model the flow and heat transfer in the tanks. Due to the complexity of the problems, CFD-models were used to take mantle tanks into calculation. Two CFD programs were used to model the mantle tank: CFX and Fluent. As the CFD-models formed the basis for the theoretical work, they were validated with experiments. In this study, both thermal measurements and experimentally visualised flow patterns were compared with CFD-predictions. The experimental flow visualisation was carried out with Particle image Velocimetry (PIV). With a transparent glass mantle tank, the structures in the mantle were visualised and compared with the CFD-predicted flow structures in the mantle. The results showed that the mantle flow was highly dominated by buoyancy and the CFD-models were able to model this flow. With a steel mantle tank, different dynamic thermal experiments were carried out in a heat storage test facility. These results were used to evaluate the CFD-predicted temperatures. Inner tank and mantle outlet temperatures were compared to the similar CFD-predictions and a good degree of similarity was found between measured and calculated temperatures. With the verified CFX models a parameter analysis was carried out. Based on this analysis, two Nusselt-Rayleigh heat transfer correlations were developed - one for the convective heat transfer in the mantle and one for the convective

  15. Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation. (United States)

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K


    Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions.

  16. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions. (United States)

    Böhlke, J K; O'Connell, Michael E; Prestegaard, Karen L


    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr(-1)) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds.

  17. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  18. Influence of convective conditions in radiative peristaltic flow of pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Iqbal, Rija; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A.


    This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature.

  19. Modelingof Acetylene Pyrolysis under Steel Vacuum Carburizing Conditions in a Tubular Flow Reactor


    Rainer Reimert; Frank Graf; Siegfried Bajohr; Rafi Ullah Khan


    In the present work, the pyrolysis of acetylene was studied under steel vacuumcarburizing conditions in a tubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis temperature ranged from650 °C to 1050 °C. The partial pressure of acetylene in the feed mixture was 10 and 20mbar, respectively, while the rest of the mixture consisted of nitrogen. The total pressureof the mixture was 1.6 bar. A kinetic mechanism which consists of seven species andnine reactions has been used in the commercial computational fluid...

  20. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...... countries and, specifically in Colombia, design and operation parameters are not defined yet. The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of filter medium, the feeding frequency and Heliconia psittacorum presence, a typical local plant, on the domestic wastewater treatment in tropical conditions....

  1. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.


    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  2. Influence of convective conditions in radiative peristaltic flow of pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Rija [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)


    This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for peristalsis of pseudoplastic nanofluid is formulated. • Analysis has been made in a tapered asymmetric channel. • Magnetohydrodynamic aspects have been outlined. • Influence of thermal radiation is investigated. • Convective conditions for both heat and mass transfer are present.

  3. Simulated statistics of polydisperse sedimenting inertial particles in a turbulent flow under experimental conditions (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ping; Parishani, Hossein; Rosa, Bogdan; Bateson, Colin; Aliseda, Alberto; Grabowski, Wojciech


    In recent years, point-particle based or hybrid direct numerical simulations (DNS) have increasingly been used to study pair statistics of inertial particles relevant to turbulent collision of cloud droplets. Equivalent experiment data are rare but are slowly becoming available. In this talk, we will discuss simulated statistics of sedimenting inertial particles under conditions similar to our parallel wind-tunnel experiment (to be reported here by Bateson et al.). The key parameters to be matched are flow Reynolds number, dissipation rate, particle Stokes number, and dimensionless settling velocity. A prescribed droplet size distribution will be used in the simulation to reproduce the polydisperse condition in the experiment. High-resolution DNS will be used to maximize the computational domain size. Single-particle and particle-pair statistics (e.g., fluctuation velocities, radial distribution function, relative velocity statistics) will be compared to the experimental data. Statistics obtained from lower dimensions will be linked to statistics in three dimensions.

  4. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  5. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto


    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  6. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)


    Daniel Maraver; Sylvain Quoilin; Javier Royo


    This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling deman...

  7. Sub-critical long-term operation of industrial scale hollow-fibre membranes in a submerged anaerobic MBR (HF-SAnMBR) system


    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Ferrer, J.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of hollow-fibre (HF) membranes used to treat urban wastewater in a submerged anaerobic MBR when operating sub-critically. To this end, a demonstration plant with two industrial scale HF ultrafiltration membrane modules was operated under different conditions. The main factor affecting membrane performance was the concentration of mixed liquor total solids (MLTS). The reversible fouling rate remained low even when MLTS levels (abo...

  8. Investigation on cross flow characteristics over side-by-side square cylinders at different spacing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthik Selva Kumar


    Full Text Available By employing the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM with respect to Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK collision model, a 2-D computational study is performed to investigate the flow structures, force coefficients and vortex-shedding characteristics behind a single-square cylinder and two side-by-side cylinders at different spacing conditions (1.0 ⩽ T/D ⩽ 4.5. The flow patterns around the square cylinders are determined using the contour plot. Significant observations from this study are as follows: (a a flip flop regime is observed for T/D = 1.0, whereas a wiggling/Flutter shielding pattern is observed at T/D = 3.5 and a synchronized flow pattern is observed for the spacing ratio of T/D = 4.5, (b the frequencies observed for the smaller spacing ratios (T/D = 1.0; 3.5 having numerous peaks in the spectra. Subsequently the frequencies were observed at T/D = 4.5 having a single dominating peak frequency, (c the main motivation for the significant variation in flow patterns is due to the changes in mean drag coefficients, root mean square values of the aerodynamic coefficients and Strouhal number, (d it is observed that the formation of vortex strongly depends on the spacing ratios between the cylinders. From the results, it is identified that the cylinders at higher spacing ratios (T/D = 4.5 produce minimum oscillation when compared to the smaller spacing ratios.

  9. Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography. I: characterizing solute dispersion under flow-through conditions. (United States)

    Francis, Patrick; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles A


    Conventional models of both packed-bed and stacked-membrane chromatography typically attribute elution band broadening to non-idealities within the column. However, when the column length to diameter ratio is greatly reduced, as in stacked-membrane chromatography, variations in solute residence times within the feed-distribution (inlet) and eluent-collection (outlet) manifolds can also contribute to band broadening. We report on a new zonal rate model (ZRM) for stacked-membrane chromatography that improves on existing hold-up volume models that rely on one plug-flow reactor and one stirred-tank reactor in series to describe dispersion of solute during transport into and out of the column. The ZRM radially partitions the membrane stack and the hold-up volumes within the inlet and outlet manifolds into zones to better capture non-uniform flow distribution effects associated with the large column diameter to height ratio. Breakthrough curves from a scaled-down anion-exchange membrane chromatography module using ovalbumin as a model protein were collected at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 20 mL min(-1) under non-binding conditions and used to evaluate the ZRM as well as previous models. The ZRM was shown to be significantly more accurate in describing protein dispersion and breakthrough. The model was then used to decompose breakthrough data, where it was found that variations in solute residence time distributions within the inlet and outlet manifolds make the dominant contribution to solute dispersion over the recommended range of feed flow rates. The ZRM therefore identifies manifold design as a critical contributor to separation quality within stacked-membrane chromatography units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication of a modular hybrid chip to mimic endothelial-lined microvessels in flow conditions (United States)

    Pitingolo, Gabriele; Vecchione, Raffaele; Falanga, Andrea P.; Guarnieri, Daniela; Netti, Paolo A.


    In vitro microvessel models exploiting microfluidic channels have been developed to replicate cardiovascular flow conditions and to more closely mimic the blood vessels by traditionally using plasma or solvent evaporation bonding methods. The drawback of these methods is represented by an irreversible sealing which prevents internal accessibility as well as the reuse of the device. This paper presents a novel, simple, and low cost procedure to fabricate a modular and reusable chip with endotheliazed microvessels in a hybrid configuration based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polydimethylsiloxane presenting a temporary magnetic bonding. In details, small magnets are embedded in the two poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates each of them carrying a thin polydimethylsiloxane layer which provides enhanced sealing during flow conditions as compared to conventional procedures and makes the microchannels circular as preferred in cell culture. Finally, an endothelial cell layer is formed by culturing brain endothelial bEnd.3 cells inside the proposed microchannels and characterized upon microchannel aperture, demonstrating the preservation of the cell layer.

  11. MCP-1 and IL-8 trigger firm adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions. (United States)

    Gerszten, R E; Garcia-Zepeda, E A; Lim, Y C; Yoshida, M; Ding, H A; Gimbrone, M A; Luster, A D; Luscinskas, F W; Rosenzweig, A


    Monocytes contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions in mouse models. The chemoattractant proteins (chemokines), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), are found in human atheroma, and mice lacking receptors for these chemokines are less susceptible to atherosclerosis and have fewer monocytes in vascular lesions. Although MCP-1 has a powerful effect on monocytes, IL-8 is thought to act predominantly on neutrophils and it is unclear how it could recruit monocytes. Here we investigate the ability of chemokines to control the interaction of monocytes under flow conditions with vascular endothelium that has been transduced to express specific leukocyte-adherence receptors. We find that MCP-1 and IL-8 can each rapidly cause rolling monocytes to adhere firmly onto monolayers expressing E-selectin, whereas related chemokines do not. These effects do not correlate with either the induction of a calcium transient or chemotaxis. We conclude that chemokines are important modulators of monocyte-endothelial interactions under flow conditions. Moreover, our finding that IL-8 is a powerful trigger for firm adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium reveals an unexpected role for this chemokine in monocyte recruitment.

  12. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA


    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

  13. Numerical Study of Outlet Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Turbulent Internal Flows Using the NCC (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing


    This paper presents the results of studies on the outlet boundary conditions for turbulent internal flow simulations. Several outlet boundary conditions have been investigated by applying the National Combustion Code (NCC) to the configuration of a LM6000 single injector flame tube. First of all, very large eddy simulations (VLES) have been performed using the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS) approach, in which both the nonlinear and linear dynamic subscale models were employed. Secondly, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier- Stokes (URANS) simulations have also been performed for the same configuration to investigate the effects of different outlet boundary conditions in the context of URANS. Thirdly, the possible role of the initial condition is inspected by using three different initial flow fields for both the PRNS/VLES simulation and the URANS simulation. The same grid is used for all the simulations and the number of mesh element is about 0.5 million. The main purpose of this study is to examine the long-time behavior of the solution as determined by the imposed outlet boundary conditions. For a particular simulation to be considered as successful under the given initial and boundary conditions, the solution must be sustainable in a physically meaningful manner over a sufficiently long period of time. The commonly used outlet boundary condition for steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is a fixed pressure at the outlet with all the other dependent variables being extrapolated from the interior. The results of the present study suggest that this is also workable for the URANS simulation of the LM6000 injector flame tube. However, it does not work for the PRNS/VLES simulation due to the unphysical reflections of the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. This undesirable situation can be practically alleviated by applying a simple unsteady convection equation for the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. The

  14. Heat transfer regimes for a flow of water at supercritcal conditions in vertical channels (United States)

    Deev, V. I.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Churkin, A. N.; Baisov, A. M.


    Heat transfer regimes observed in experiments with water at supercritical conditions flowing in vertical channels of various cross-sections (such as round pipes, annulus, or rod bundles) are analyzed. In accordance with the established practice, the normal and the deteriorated heat transfer regimes were singled out as the basic regimes specific for heat carriers with highly variable properties. At the same time, it has been established that most published experimental data on supercritical pressure water heat transfer along the length of test sections demonstrate combined (or transient) heat transfer regimes. The features can be presented as a superposition of characteristics of the above-mentioned basic regimes. The combined regimes are not stable in certain ranges of water flow conditions in which sudden transitions between the basic regimes can occur. A system of similarity criteria governing heat transfer rate in the vicinity of the critical point is examined. As applicable to cores of water-cooled reactors, due to a small hydraulic diameter of cooling channels, buoyancy forces acting in these channels are negligible as compared with the inertia effects caused by thermal acceleration of the flow and viscous force. This concept yields two integrated criteria whose use in the correction factors for the basic heat transfer equation, which we proposed previously for the normal regimes, adequately (with an error of 20-25%) describes the specific of the heat transfer coefficient in the normal, deteriorated, and combined regimes. A system of equations is proposed for design calculation of heat transfer in channels of nuclear reactors cooled with supercritical pressure water.

  15. The efficiency of turn-over processes in degraded peat as investigated under continuous flow conditions (United States)

    Kleimeier, Christian; Karsten, Ulf; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd


    Nitrate removal from run-off from agricultural land is in general required to reach a "good chemical status" of surface and groundwater bodies according to the European Water Framework Directive. Removing nitrates via heterotrophic denitrification is highly effective but requires stable anoxic environmental conditions as well as available organic carbon as an electron donator. Constructed wetlands, established on peat soils, through which the nitrate-loaded water is routed, may provide denitrification favorable conditions. A long-term flow experiment (mesocosm) was conducted employing a laboratory container set-up filled with decomposed peat aiming at quantifying the nitrate removal efficiency at various nitrate influx rates. The redox potential was measured at different depths to determine the spatial distribution of denitrificating zones. This new methodological approach allows the observation of biological nitrate turn over without interrupting the adjusted flow rate. We investigated the hydraulic properties and derived transport parameters for the mesocosm by analyzing experimental data from tracer tests. The obtained bromide breakthrough curves (BTC) were subjected to model analysis using the CXTFIT routine of the STANMOD software package. It could be demonstrated that the degraded peat has a dual porosity structure with roughly 40% of the pore water not participating in convective flow and transport processes. Further, the first flushing of mineralized nitrate upon rewetting and onset of flux may compromise any positive clean-up and nitrate removal effects occurring during long-term operation of peat wetlands. The development of the spatial sequence of bacterial cultures is characterized by the redox potential. It is dominated by the available substrates that serve as electron acceptors in bacterial respiration and occurs in a thermodynamically determined top-down order. The zonal development of the nitrate-consuming bacteria was observed and used to describe

  16. Silver and gold nanoparticle separation using asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation: Influence of run conditions and of particle and membrane charges. (United States)

    Meisterjahn, Boris; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Hennecke, Dieter; Hofmann, Thilo


    Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (Flow-FFF), coupled with online detection systems is one of the most promising tools available for the separation and quantification of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex matrices. To correctly relate the retention of nanoparticles in the Flow-FFF-channel to the particle size, ideal separation conditions must be met. This requires optimization of the parameters that influence the separation behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to systematically investigate and evaluate the influence of parameters such as the carrier liquid, the cross flow, and the membrane material, on the separation behavior of two metallic ENPs. For this purpose the retention, recovery, and separation efficiency of sterically stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which represent two materials widely used in investigations on environmental fate and ecotoxicology, were investigated against a parameter matrix of three different cross-flow densities, four representative carrier solutions, and two membrane materials. The use of a complex mixture of buffers, ionic and non-ionic surfactants (FL-70 solution) together with a medium cross-flow density provided an acceptable compromise in peak quality and recovery for both types of ENPs. However, these separation conditions do not represent a perfect match for both particle types at the same time (maximized recovery at maximized retention). It could be shown that the behavior of particles within Flow-FFF channels cannot be predicted or explained purely in terms of electrostatic interactions. Particles were irreversibly lost under conditions where the measured zeta potentials suggested that there should have been sufficient electrostatic repulsion to ensure stabilization of the particles in the Flow-FFF channel resulting in good recoveries. The wide variations that we observed in ENP behavior under different conditions, together with the different

  17. Thorium as a Fuel for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Electronuclear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Singh, V


    Neutron yield and energy production in a very large, practically infinite, uranium and thorium target-blocks irradiated by protons with energies in the range 0.1-2 GeV are studied by Monte Carlo method. Though the comparison of uranium and thorium targets shows that the neutron yield in the latter is 30-40 % less and the energy gain is approximatelly two times smaller, accelerator Driven subcritical Systems (ADS) with thorium fuel are very perspective at the bombarding energies higher than several hundreds MeV. An admixture of fissile elements U^{233}, U^{235}, Pu^{239} in the set-up gives larger neutron multiplication which in turn shows better energy amplification. It is argued that due to the practically complete burning of the fuel in such set-up there is no need of technology of conversion of the exhaust fuel.

  18. Flow visualization of bubble behavior under two-phase natural circulation flow conditions using high speed digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental


    The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)

  19. Effect on the load size on the efficiency of microwave heating under stop flow and continuous flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, N.G.; Rebrov, E.V.; Esveld, D.C.; Eränen, K.; Benaskar, F.; Meuldijk, Jan; Mikkola, J.P.; Hessel, V.; Hulshof, L.A.; Murzin, D.Y.; Schouten, J.C.


    A novel heating efficiency analysis of the microwave heated stop-flow (i.e. stagnant
    liquid) and continuous-flow reactors has been presented. The thermal losses to the surrounding
    air by natural convection have been taken into account for heating efficiency calculation of
    the microwave

  20. Probing fast ribozyme reactions under biological conditions with rapid quench-flow kinetics. (United States)

    Bingaman, Jamie L; Messina, Kyle J; Bevilacqua, Philip C


    Reaction kinetics on the millisecond timescale pervade the protein and RNA fields. To study such reactions, investigators often perturb the system with abiological solution conditions or substrates in order to slow the rate to timescales accessible by hand mixing; however, such perturbations can change the rate-limiting step and obscure key folding and chemical steps that are found under biological conditions. Mechanical methods for collecting data on the millisecond timescale, which allow these perturbations to be avoided, have been developed over the last few decades. These methods are relatively simple and can be conducted on affordable and commercially available instruments. Here, we focus on using the rapid quench-flow technique to study the fast reaction kinetics of RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, which often react on the millisecond timescale under biological conditions. Rapid quench of ribozymes is completely parallel to the familiar hand-mixing approach, including the use of radiolabeled RNAs and fractionation of reactions on polyacrylamide gels. We provide tips on addressing and preventing common problems that can arise with the rapid-quench technique. Guidance is also offered on ensuring the ribozyme is properly folded and fast-reacting. We hope that this article will facilitate the broader use of rapid-quench instrumentation to study fast-reacting ribozymes under biological reaction conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of VOC Composition and Reactor Conditions on the Aging of Biomass Cookstove Emissions in an Oxidation Flow Reactor (United States)

    Oxidation flow reactor (OFR) experiments in our lab have explored secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production during photochemical aging of emissions from cookstoves used by billions in developing countries. Previous experiments, conducted with red oak fuel under conditions of hig...

  2. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565


    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  3. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torelli, R.; Som, S.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael


    Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problem was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to varied fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation was

  4. Difference flow measurements under permafrost conditions in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland (United States)

    Lehtinen, A. M.; Rouhiainen, P.; Pöllänen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.


    To advance the understanding of the impact of glacial processes on the long-term performance of a deep geologic repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modeling study of the Greenland ice sheet (2009-2012), was established collaboratively by the Swedish, Finnish and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations (SKB, POSIVA and NWMO, respectively). In order to study how groundwater flow and water chemistry is influenced by an existing ice sheet and continuous permafrost, a 645 m deep drillhole (DH-GAP04) was drilled, hydraulically tested using the Posiva Difference Flowmeter (PFL DIFF) method and instrumented at the ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area in July 2011. PFL DIFF allows the quick and reliable characterization of flow-yielding fractures in bedrock. PFL DIFF measures the flow rate into or out of defined drillhole sections. The advantage that follows from measuring the flow rate in isolated sections is improved detection of incremental changes of flow along the drillhole. PFL DIFF can measure flows in the range 30 - 300 000 mLh-1. In addition, the PFL DIFF probe can be used to measure the electrical conductivity of both the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, the single point resistance (SPR) of the bedrock, the water pressure profile in a drillhole and the temperature of the drillhole water. Normally, PFL DIFF measurements in a new drillhole are conducted a week after the end of drilling in order to let the groundwater state recover in the drillhole. The PFL DIFF measurements were done in DH-GAP04 already three days after the drilling was completed. This measurement was the first PFL DIFF measurement ever conducted in an area of continuous permafrost and therefore, the measurement program was carefully designed. The length of the section in the flow logging measurements was 10 m and the interval spacing was two meters. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section

  5. Confined vortices in flow machinery (United States)

    Escudier, Marcel

    After noting such basic aspects of vortex flows as the concepts of supercritical and subcritical flow and vortex breakdown, swirling flow behavior in various practical devices is discussed. The devices in question encompass swirl-stabilized combustion in industrial combustion chambers, fluidic vortex amplifiers that may be used as large scale valves, turbomachine outlets that can efficiently divert axial throughflow in a tangential direction, 'cyclone' separators, turbine draft tube surge phenomena, and the Ranque-Hilsch refrigeration tube.

  6. Crystal nucleation mechanism in melts of short polymer chains under quiescent conditions and under shear flow (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad; Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja


    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study of crystal nucleation from undercooled melts of n-alkanes, and we identify the molecular mechanism of homogeneous crystal nucleation under quiescent conditions and under shear flow. We compare results for n-eicosane (C20) and n-pentacontahectane (C150), i.e., one system below the entanglement length and one above, at 20%-30% undercooling. Under quiescent conditions, we observe that entanglement does not have an effect on the nucleation mechanism. For both chain lengths, the chains first align and then straighten locally, then the local density increases and finally positional ordering sets in. At low shear rates the nucleation mechanism is the same as under quiescent conditions, while at high shear rates the chains align and straighten at the same time. We report on the effects of shear rate and temperature on the nucleation rates and estimate the critical shear rates, beyond which the nucleation rates increase with the shear rate. In agreement with previous experimental observation and theoretical work, we find that the critical shear rate corresponds to a Weissenberg number of order 1. Finally, we show that the viscosity of the system is not affected by the crystalline nuclei.

  7. Platelet PI3Kγ Contributes to Carotid Intima-Media Thickening under Severely Reduced Flow Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Wang

    Full Text Available Studies have begun to focus on the emerging function of platelets as immune and inflammatory cells that initiate and accelerate vascular inflammation. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ is critically involved in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This study aims to investigate the contribution of platelet PI3Kγ to vascular remodeling under flow severely reduced conditions. Mouse partial left carotid artery ligation with adoptive transfer of activated, washed wild-type or PI3Kγ-/- platelets was used as the model. Intima-media area, leukocyte recruitment, and proinflammatory mediator expression were assessed. In vitro PI3Kγ-/- platelets were used to verify the effect of PI3Kγ on platelet activation, interaction with leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Mice injected with activated platelets showed a significant increase in intima-media thickening, recruitment of neutrophils (at 3 d and macrophages (at 21 d, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 expression (at 3 d in the flow-reduced area. These effects were abrogated by platelet PI3Kγ deficiency. Circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates were reduced in PI3Kγ-/- mice after partial ligation. In vivo data confirmed that PI3Kγ mediated Adenine di-Phosphate -induced platelet activation through the Akt and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, platelet PI3Kγ deficiency reduced platelet-leukocyte aggregation and platelet-endothelial cell (EC interaction. These findings indicate that platelet PI3Kγ contributes to platelet-mediated vascular inflammation and carotid intima-media thickening after flow severely reduced. Platelet PI3Kγ may be a new target in the treatment of vascular diseases.

  8. Study on flow instability in a diffuser with swirling flow under several conditions of pipe length and swirl intensity (United States)

    Matsuzaka, R.; Nakashima, T.; Miyagawa, K.


    A swirling flow in a diffuser such as a draft tube of a hydro turbine may induce the flow instabilities accompanied by pressure fluctuations known as vortex rope behaviour and cavitation surge. Cavitation surge is the self-excited oscillation, which induces the large flow rate fluctuation that results from the change of the cavity volume. In this research, the investigation of the effect of the pipe length and the swirl intensity on the flow instabilities in a diffuser was performed by experiments and numerical analyses using the draft tube component experimental facility. The length of the pipe was modified by up to about 25 times as long as the diameter of the throat in order to validate the one-dimensional analyses. In addition, the swirl intensity was changed by replacing another swirl generator. The frequency of cavitation surge was changed with regard to the swirl intensity as the one-dimensional analyses in the previous study has predicted it. Unsteady numerical simulations of the swirling flow with cavitation in the diffuser was performed. The results of experiments and numerical analyses correspond qualitatively with the result of the one-dimensional analyses, which suggested that the coupling with the experiments, CFD analyses and the one-dimensional analyses is the more effective way in order to predict the flow instabilities in the diffuser.

  9. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc


    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows (;TRIG rainfalls;) were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows (;NonTRIG rainfalls;) were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  10. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.


    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  11. Competitive endothelial adhesion between Plasmodium falciparum isolates under physiological flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature of major organs involves a sequence of events that is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly composed of multiple subpopulations of parasites with varied adhesive properties. A key question is: do these subpopulations compete for adhesion to endothelium? This study investigated whether, in a laboratory model of cytoadherence, there is competition in binding to endothelium between pRBC infected with P. falciparum of variant adhesive phenotypes, particularly under flow conditions. Methods Four different P. falciparum isolates, of known adherence phenotypes, were matched in pairs, mixed in different proportions and allowed to bind to cultured human endothelium. Using in vitro competitive static and flow-based adhesion assays, that allow simultaneous testing of the adhesive properties of two different parasite lines, adherence levels of paired P. falciparum isolates were quantified and analysed using either non-parametric Wilcoxon's paired signed rank test or Student paired test. Results Study findings show that P. falciparum parasite lines show marked differences in the efficiency of adhesion to endothelium. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum variants will compete for adhesion to endothelia and variants can be ranked by their efficiency of binding. These findings suggest that variants from a mixed infection will not show uniform cytoadherence and so may vary in their ability to cause disease.

  12. Aerodynamic forces acting on a passive flow control equipped airfoil in turbulent inflow conditions (United States)

    Kampers, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim; Hölling, Michael


    Wind turbines work within turbulent atmospheric flows, with their well known challenging features of intermittent two point statistics. These intermittent statistics have a big impact on wind turbines, concerning fluctuating mechanical loads. Flow control is a promising approach for the reduction of these fluctuations. In this project, an airfoil profile is equipped with mechanically coupled flexible leading and trailing edge flaps, enabling to passively adapt its camber. We expose the profile to different reproducible turbulent inflow conditions, generated with an active grid in a wind tunnel and study the profile's ability to alleviate lift fluctuations. The first experiment is concerned with repeated mexican hat shaped inflow gusts. The corresponding lift reactions of the profile show, that the adaptive camber mechanism is able to alleviate lift fluctuations caused by the inflow gust. In the second experiment, we use different grid excitations to vary the flatness of the inflow angle increments and study the influence of the statistics at different angles of attack. We propose a stochastic Langevin approach to decompose the lift dynamics into a deterministic response and a stochastic part, allowing for a quantitative analysis of the response dynamics. Funded by the German Research Foundation, Ref. No. PE 478/15-1.

  13. Hydraulic Behavior Of Piano Key Weir Type B Under Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saleh Issa Khassaf


    Full Text Available In this study laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the weir geometry of a Piano Key Weir PKW type B on the discharge coefficient under free flow conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 15m long 0.3m wide and 0.45m deep rectangular glass-walled flume. The experimental work includes testing of fourteen PKW models which results 290 tests to cover the effects of weir length and height up-and downstream key widths upstream apex overhangs length dam height and noses length on the weir flow discharge coefficient as well PKW with outlet stepped key were considered in the analysis. Considering the experimental data the dimensional analysis allowed the development of relations between discharge coefficient and the shape of the PKW and gave a good agreement. Experimental results showed that the most influential parameters for the tested PKW models are the Relative length LW Key widths Wiamp8260Wo PKW Height BP and Overhangs length Boamp8260B. The effectiveness of Piano Key Weir at low heads ratio HP0.25 is up to 400 relative to Creager weir at the same head.

  14. Flow and heat transfer in Sisko fluid with convective boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Malik

    Full Text Available In this article, we have studied the flow and heat transfer in Sisko fluid with convective boundary condition over a nonisothermal stretching sheet. The flow is influenced by non-linearly stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations governing the problem have been reduced by similarity transformations into the ordinary differential equations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerically by the shooting method. Effects of different parameters like power-law index n, magnetic parameter M, stretching parameter s, generalized Prandtl number Pr and generalized Biot number γ are presented graphically. It is found that temperature profile increases with the increasing value of M and γ whereas it decreases for Pr. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are tabulated at various physical situations. In addition, a comparison between the HAM and exact solutions is also made as a special case and excellent agreement between results enhance a confidence in the HAM results.

  15. Salt removal using multiple microbial desalination cells under continuous flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng


    Four microbial desalination cells (MDCs) were hydraulically connected and operated under continuous flow conditions. The anode solution from the first MDC flowed into the cathode, and then on to the anode of the next reactor, which avoided pH imbalances that inhibit bacterial metabolism. The salt solution also moved through each desalination chamber in series. Increasing the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of the salt solution from 1 to 2. days increased total NaCl removal from 76 ± 1% to 97 ± 1%, but coulombic efficiencies decreased from 49 ± 4% to 35 ± 1%. Total COD removals were similar at both HRTs (60 ± 2%, 2. days; 59 ± 2%, 1. day). Community analysis of the anode biofilms showed that bacteria most similar to the xylose fermenting bacterium Klebsiella ornithinolytica predominated in the anode communities, and sequences most similar to Geobacter metallireducens were identified in all MDCs except the first one. These results demonstrated successful operation of a series of hydraulically connected MDCs and good desalination rates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  16. Three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid with thermal radiation and convective conditions. (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab


    The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.

  17. Velocity measurements of the liquid - gas flow using gamma absorption and modified conditional averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanus Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents idea and an exemplary application of gamma-absorption in the measurement of gas bubbles transportation in a gas-liquid mixture flow through a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl scintillation crystals have been used. For analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the modified conditional averaging of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV is proposed. The proposed method is based on the quotient of classical cross-correlation (CCF and CAAV. Results of the time delay estimation and gas-phase velocity measurements are compared with one obtained using CCF. The combined uncertainties of the mean velocity of air bubbles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 2.1% (CCF and 1.7% (CCF/CAAV, which is a satisfactory result in industrial applications.

  18. Biofilm-induced bioclogging produces sharp interfaces in hyporheic flow, redox conditions, and microbial community structure (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Boano, Fulvio; Ridolfi, Luca; Chopp, David L.; Packman, Aaron


    Riverbed sediments host important biogeochemical processes that play a key role in nutrient dynamics. Sedimentary nutrient transformations are mediated by bacteria in the form of attached biofilms. The influence of microbial metabolic activity on the hydrochemical conditions within the hyporheic zone is poorly understood. We present a hydrobiogeochemical model to assess how the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass affects the transport and transformation of dissolved nitrogen compounds in bed form-induced hyporheic zones. Coupling between hyporheic exchange, nitrogen metabolism, and biomass growth leads to an equilibrium between permeability reduction and microbial metabolism that yields shallow hyporheic flows in a region with low permeability and high rates of microbial metabolism near the stream-sediment interface. The results show that the bioclogging caused by microbial growth can constrain rates and patterns of hyporheic fluxes and microbial transformation rate in many streams.

  19. An unsteady MHD Maxwell nanofluid flow with convective boundary conditions using spectral local linearization method (United States)

    Sithole, Hloniphile M.; Mondal, Sabyasachi; Sibanda, Precious; Motsa, Sandile S.


    The main focus of this study is on unsteady Maxwell nanofluid flow over a shrinking surface with convective and slip boundary conditions. The objective is to give an evaluation of the impact and significance of Brownian motion and thermophoresis when the nanofluid particle volume fraction flux at the boundary is zero. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the spectral local linearization method. We present an analysis of the residual errors to show the accuracy and convergence of the spectral local linearization method. We explore the effect of magnetic field and thermophoresis parameters on the heat transfer rate. We show, among other results, that an increase in particle Brownian motion leads to a decrease in the concentration profiles but concentration profiles increase with the increasing value of thermophoresis parameter

  20. Modeling of acetylene pyrolysis under steel vacuum carburizing conditions in a tubular flow reactor. (United States)

    Khan, Rafi Ullah; Bajohr, Siegfried; Graf, Frank; Reimert, Rainer


    In the present work, the pyrolysis of acetylene was studied under steel vacuum carburizing conditions in a tubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis temperature ranged from 650 degrees C to 1050 degrees C. The partial pressure of acetylene in the feed mixture was 10 and 20 mbar, respectively, while the rest of the mixture consisted of nitrogen. The total pressure of the mixture was 1.6 bar. A kinetic mechanism which consists of seven species and nine reactions has been used in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent. The species transport and reaction model of Fluent was used in the simulations. A comparison of simulated and experimental results is presented in this paper.

  1. Modelingof Acetylene Pyrolysis under Steel Vacuum Carburizing Conditions in a Tubular Flow Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Reimert


    Full Text Available In the present work, the pyrolysis of acetylene was studied under steel vacuumcarburizing conditions in a tubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis temperature ranged from650 °C to 1050 °C. The partial pressure of acetylene in the feed mixture was 10 and 20mbar, respectively, while the rest of the mixture consisted of nitrogen. The total pressureof the mixture was 1.6 bar. A kinetic mechanism which consists of seven species andnine reactions has been used in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFDsoftware Fluent. The species transport and reaction model of Fluent was used in thesimulations. A comparison of simulated and experimental results is presented in thispaper.

  2. Weak imposition of the slip boundary condition on curved boundaries for Stokes flow (United States)

    Urquiza, José M.; Garon, André; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle


    We study the finite element approximation of two methods to weakly impose a slip boundary condition for incompressible fluid flows: the Lagrange multiplier method and Nitsche's method. For each method, we can distinguish several formulations depending on the values of some real parameters. In the case of a spatial domain with a polygonal or polyhedral boundary, we prove convergence results of their finite element approximations, extending previous results of Verfürth [33] and we show numerical results confirming them. In the case of a spatial domain with a smooth curved boundary, numerical results show that approximations computed on polygonal domains approximating the original domain may not converge to the exact solution, depending on the values of the aforementioned parameters and on the finite element discretization. These negative results seem to highlight Babuska's like paradox, due to the approximation of the boundary by polygonal ones. In particular, they seem to contradict some of Verfürth's theoretical convergence results.

  3. Surface functionalization of SPR chip for specific molecular interaction analysis under flow condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma


    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of sensor chip for probe immobilization is crucial for the biosensing applications of surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors. In this paper, we report a method circulating the dopamine aqueous solution to coat polydopamine film on sensing surface for surface functionalization of SPR chip. The polydopamine film with available thickness can be easily prepared by controlling the circulation time and the biorecognition elements can be immobilized on the polydopamine film for specific molecular interaction analysis. These operations are all performed under flow condition in the fluidic system, and have the advantages of easy implementation, less time consuming, and low cost, because the reagents and devices used in the operations are routinely applied in most laboratories. In this study, the specific absorption between the protein A probe immobilized on the sensing surface and human immunoglobulin G in the buffer is monitored based on this surface functionalization strategy to demonstrated its feasibility for SPR biosensing applications.

  4. Optimization of subcritical water extraction of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Qu, Hongyuan; Mao, Guanghua; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zhu, Bole; Zhang, Bingtao; Wu, Xiangyang


    Background: This research is among the few that has been conducted on the feasibility of subcritical water extraction (SWE) as a rapid and efficient extraction tool for polysaccharides. Objective: The aim of the study was to extractand optimize the parameter conditions of SWE of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: In the study, SWEwas applied to extractbioactive compounds from G. frondosa. A preliminary analysis was made on the physical properties and content determination of extracts using SWE and hot water extraction (HWE). Analysis of the sample residues and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides extracted by SWE and HWE were then evaluated. Results: The optimal extraction conditions include: extraction temperature of 210°C, extraction time of 43.65 min and the ratio of water to raw material of 26.15:1. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield of the polysaccharides (25.1 ± 0.3%) corresponded with the mean value predicted by the model and two times more than the mean value obtained by the traditional HWE. The antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted by SWE were generally higher than those extracted by HWE. From the study, the SWE technology could be a time-saving, high yield, and bioactive technique for production of polysaccharides. PMID:23772107

  5. Coupled Subcritical Water and Solid Phase Extraction for In-Situ Chemical Analysis Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) will design and develop a low volume analyte separation, concentration, and transfer system (ConTech), that couples a Subcritical...

  6. Water surface elevation from the upcoming SWOT mission under different flows conditions (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy J. P.; Wei, Rui; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando


    The upcoming SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) satellite mission will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of terrestrial water surface heights along rivers wider than 100m. Despite the literature reports several activities showing possible uses of SWOT products, potential and limitations of satellite observations still remain poorly understood and investigated. We present one of the first analyses regarding the spatial observation of water surface elevation expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 100-500 m in width and a floodplain delimited by a system of major embankments that can be as wide as 5 km. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2D model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2m resolution), while the simulation of remotely sensed hydrometric data is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow) this work characterizes the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. The analysis provides a robust reference for spatial water observations that will be available from SWOT and assesses possible effects of river embankments, river width and river topography under different hydraulic conditions. Results of the study characterize the expected accuracy of the upcoming SWOT mission and provide additional insights towards the appropriate exploitation of future hydrological observations.

  7. Vertical radar profiles for the calibration of unsaturated flow models under dynamic water table conditions (United States)

    Cassiani, G.; Gallotti, L.; Ventura, V.; Andreotti, G.


    The identification of flow and transport characteristics in the vadose zone is a fundamental step towards understanding the dynamics of contaminated sites and the resulting risk of groundwater pollution. Borehole radar has gained popularity for the monitoring of moisture content changes, thanks to its apparent simplicity and its high resolution characteristics. However, cross-hole radar requires closely spaced (a few meters), plastic-cased boreholes, that are rarely available as a standard feature in sites of practical interest. Unlike cross-hole applications, Vertical Radar Profiles (VRP) require only one borehole, with practical and financial benefits. High-resolution, time-lapse VRPs have been acquired at a crude oil contaminated site in Trecate, Northern Italy, on a few existing boreholes originally developed for remediation via bioventing. The dynamic water table conditions, with yearly oscillations of roughly 5 m from 6 to 11 m bgl, offers a good opportunity to observe via VRP a field scale drainage-imbibition process. Arrival time inversion has been carried out using a regularized tomographic algorithm, in order to overcome the noise introduced by first arrival picking. Interpretation of the vertical profiles in terms of moisture content has been based on standard models (Topp et al., 1980; Roth et al., 1990). The sedimentary sequence manifests itself as a cyclic pattern in moisture content over most of the profiles. We performed preliminary Richards' equation simulations with time varying later table boundary conditions, in order to estimate the unsaturated flow parameters, and the results have been compared with laboratory evidence from cores.

  8. Numerical study of the MHD flow characteristics in a three-surface-multi-layered channel with different inlet conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro, E-mail:; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi


    A 3D MHD flow simulation was conducted to clarify the effects of the inlet flow conditions on the results of the validation experiment carried out previously and on the design window of the first wall using a three-surface-multi-layered channel. MHD pressure drop was largely influenced by the inlet condition. The numerical model with turbulent velocity profile showed qualitatively good agreement with the experimental result. The first wall temperature and pressure distributions obtained by the 3D simulation corresponded well to those obtained by the 2D simulation assuming fully developed flow. This suggested that complicated three-dimensional inlet flow condition generated in the L-shape elbow would not affects the existing design window.

  9. Theoretical Analysis for Heat Transfer Optimization in Subcritical Electrothermal Energy Storage Systems


    Peng Hu; Gao-Wei Zhang; Long-Xiang Chen; Ming-Hou Liu


    Electrothermal energy storage (ETES) provides bulk electricity storage based on heat pump and heat engine technologies. A subcritical ETES is described in this paper. Based on the extremum principle of entransy dissipation, a geometry model is developed for heat transfer optimization for subcritical ETES. The exergy during the heat transfer process is deduced in terms of entropy production. The geometry model is validated by the extremum principle of entropy production. The theoretical analys...

  10. Complete degradation of Orange G by electrolysis in sub-critical water. (United States)

    Yuksel, Asli; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu


    Complete degradation of azo dye Orange G was studied using a 500 mL continuous flow reactor made of SUS 316 stainless steel. In this system, a titanium reactor wall acted as a cathode and a titanium plate-type electrode was used as an anode in a subcritical reaction medium. This hydrothermal electrolysis process provides an environmentally friendly route that does not use any organic solvents or catalysts to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Reactions were carried out from 30 to 90 min residence times at a pressure of 7 MPa, and at different temperatures of 180-250°C by applying various direct currents ranging from 0.5 to 1A. Removal of dye from the product solution and conversion of TOC increased with increasing current value. Moreover, the effect of salt addition on degradation of Orange G and TOC conversion was investigated, because in real textile wastewater, many salts are also included together with dye. Addition of Na(2)CO(3) resulted in a massive degradation of the dye itself and complete mineralization of TOC, while NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) obstructed the removal of Orange G. Greater than 99% of Orange G was successfully removed from the product solution with a 98% TOC conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.


    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses.

  12. Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  13. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India (United States)

    Sinha, Amar; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P. S.; Bishnoi, Saroj


    The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated keff of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor ks and external neutron source efficiency φ∗ in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  14. Modeling summer month hydrological drought probabilities in the United States using antecedent flow conditions (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Nelms, David L.


    Climate change raises concern that risks of hydrological drought may be increasing. We estimate hydrological drought probabilities for rivers and streams in the United States (U.S.) using maximum likelihood logistic regression (MLLR). Streamflow data from winter months are used to estimate the chance of hydrological drought during summer months. Daily streamflow data collected from 9,144 stream gages from January 1, 1884 through January 9, 2014 provide hydrological drought streamflow probabilities for July, August, and September as functions of streamflows during October, November, December, January, and February, estimating outcomes 5-11 months ahead of their occurrence. Few drought prediction methods exploit temporal links among streamflows. We find MLLR modeling of drought streamflow probabilities exploits the explanatory power of temporally linked water flows. MLLR models with strong correct classification rates were produced for streams throughout the U.S. One ad hoc test of correct prediction rates of September 2013 hydrological droughts exceeded 90% correct classification. Some of the best-performing models coincide with areas of high concern including the West, the Midwest, Texas, the Southeast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Using hydrological drought MLLR probability estimates in a water management context can inform understanding of drought streamflow conditions, provide warning of future drought conditions, and aid water management decision making.

  15. Altered cerebral blood flow velocity features in fibromyalgia patients in resting-state conditions. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Tembl, José; Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Montoya, Pedro; Rey, Beatriz


    The aim of this study is to characterize in resting-state conditions the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) signals of fibromyalgia patients. The anterior and middle cerebral arteries of both hemispheres from 15 women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were monitored using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) during a 5-minute eyes-closed resting period. Several signal processing methods based on time, information theory, frequency and time-frequency analyses were used in order to extract different features to characterize the CBFV signals in the different vessels. Main results indicated that, in comparison with control subjects, fibromyalgia patients showed a higher complexity of the envelope CBFV and a different distribution of the power spectral density. In addition, it has been observed that complexity and spectral features show correlations with clinical pain parameters and emotional factors. The characterization features were used in a lineal model to discriminate between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls, providing a high accuracy. These findings indicate that CBFV signals, specifically their complexity and spectral characteristics, contain information that may be relevant for the assessment of fibromyalgia patients in resting-state conditions.

  16. Personalized blood flow computations: A hierarchical parameter estimation framework for tuning boundary conditions. (United States)

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Suciu, Constantin; Moldoveanu, Florin; Comaniciu, Dorin


    We propose a hierarchical parameter estimation framework for performing patient-specific hemodynamic computations in arterial models, which use structured tree boundary conditions. A calibration problem is formulated at each stage of the hierarchical framework, which seeks the fixed point solution of a nonlinear system of equations. Common hemodynamic properties, like resistance and compliance, are estimated at the first stage in order to match the objectives given by clinical measurements of pressure and/or flow rate. The second stage estimates the parameters of the structured trees so as to match the values of the hemodynamic properties determined at the first stage. A key feature of the proposed method is that to ensure a large range of variation, two different structured tree parameters are personalized for each hemodynamic property. First, the second stage of the parameter estimation framework is evaluated based on the properties of the outlet boundary conditions in a full body arterial model: the calibration method converges for all structured trees in less than 10 iterations. Next, the proposed framework is successfully evaluated on a patient-specific aortic model with coarctation: only six iterations are required for the computational model to be in close agreement with the clinical measurements used as objectives, and overall, there is a good agreement between the measured and computed quantities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Characteristics of Caragana microphylla sap flow and water consumption under different weather conditions on Horqin sandy land of northeast China]. (United States)

    Yue, Guang-Yang; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yun, Jian-Ying; Niu, Li; He, Yu-Hui


    Employing heat balance Dynamax packaged sap flow measuring system and automatic weather recording system, the sap flow of artificial Caragana microphylla community on Horqin sandy land of northeast China was monitored consecutively in 2006, and the photosynthetically effective radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity were measured synchronously. According to the manual records of weather conditions, four most representative weather conditions were gathered up to analyze the relationships of C. microphylla sap flow and its single branch water consumption with test meteorological factors. The results showed that under high air temperature and intense radiation on sunny days, the diurnal variation of C. microphylla sap flow appeared a broad peak curve, so as to adapt the circumstance of drought and water shortage via lower transpiration. The diurnal variations of sap flow and its dominant affecting factors differed with weather conditions, and photosynthetically effective radiation was always the dominant factor affecting the sap flow. The variation of the sap flow was the result of comprehensive effects of multi-meteorological factors, and the overall variation trend of water consumption of single branch was declined in the order of sunny days > cloudy days > windy days > rainy days, with the mean value being 459, 310, 281 and 193 mg x d(-1), respectively.

  18. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water. (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki


    Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234°C and 3MPa (LT condition) and 295°C and 8MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental investigation of transverse mixing in porous media under helical flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A.


    Plume dilution and transverse mixing can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. In this study, we perform tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume...... proof of helical flow was obtained by freezing and slicing the porous media at different cross sections and observing the dye-tracer distribution. We simulated flow and transport to interpret our experimental observations and investigate the effects of helical flow on mixing-controlled reactive...

  20. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). (United States)

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam


    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subcritical carbon dioxide-water hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pith for reducing sugars production. (United States)

    Liang, Jiezhen; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Linlin; Wei, Xiaojie; Wang, Huasheng; Lu, Songzhou; Li, Yunhua


    The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) by hydrolysis in subcritical CO2-water from sugarcane bagasse pith (SCBP), the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L16(4(5)) orthogonal experiments. The TRS yield achieved 45.8% at the optimal conditions: 200°C, 40min, 500rmin(-1), CO2 initial pressure of 1MPa and liquid-to-solid ratio of 50:1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis. The severity factors had no correlation to TRS yield, indicating that the simple kinetic processes of biomass solubilisation cannot perfectly describe the SCBP hydrolysis. The first-order kinetic model based on consecutive reaction was used to obtain rate constants, activation energies and pre-exponential factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei


    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  3. Effect of residence time on two-step liquefaction of rice straw in a CO2 atmosphere: Differences between subcritical water and supercritical ethanol. (United States)

    Yang, Tianhua; Wang, Jian; Li, Bingshuo; Kai, Xingping; Li, Rundong


    This study investigated the influence of temperature and residence time on liquefaction of rice straw in subcritical CO2-subcritical water (subCO2-subH2O) and in subcritical CO2-supercritical ethanol (subCO2-scEtOH), considering the final reaction temperatures (270-345°C) and residence times (15 and 30min). Residence time was identified as a crucial parameter in the subCO2-subH2O liquefaction, whereas residence time had a marginal influence on subCO2-scEtOH liquefaction. When reaction conditions were 320°C and 15min, solvents have weak impact on the quality of bio-oil, HHV 28.57MJ/kg and 28.62MJ/kg, respectively. There was an obvious difference between the subCO2-subH2O and subCO2-scEtOH liquefaction mechanisms. In subCO2-subH2O, CO2 promoted the carbonyl reaction. In subCO2-scEtOH, supercritical ethanol have the function of donating hydrogen and promoting the reaction of hydroxyl-alkylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Field studies of estuarine turbidity under different freshwater flow conditions, Kaipara River, New Zealand (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven B.; Green, Malcolm O.; MacDonald, Iain T.; Pritchard, Mark


    We present a first interpretation of three days of measurements made in 2013 from the tidal reaches of the Kaipara River (New Zealand) under both low and high freshwater inputs and a neap tidal cycle. During the first day, we occupied two stations that were approximately 6 km apart in a tidal reach that runs for 25 km from the river mouth to the upstream limit of tidal influence. During the second day, longitudinal surveys were conducted over a distance of 6 km centred on the upstream station. The data reveal a turbidity maximum in the form of a high-concentration 'plug' of suspended mud that was advected downstream on the ebbing tide past the upper (HB) measurement station and which exchanged sediment with the seabed by settling at low slack water and by resuspension in the early flooding tide. The data suggest that fine sediment is transported landwards and trapped in the upper part of the tidal reach under these low-flow conditions. On the third day of measurements we repeated the experiments of the first day but later in the year, for a much higher freshwater flow. This interpretation of our data set highlights the potential contribution of a range of processes to the generation of the observed suspended-sediment signals, including resuspension of local bed sediment, advection by the tidal current, settling of suspended sediment over a long timescale compared to the advection timescale, advection of longitudinal gradients in suspended sediment, and suppression of vertical mixing by density stratification of the water column. The level of temporal and spatial detail afforded by these measurements allows a much clearer understanding of the timing and importance of vertical stratification on the transport of suspended particulate matter than is generally possible using fixed-point sensors.

  5. Computational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow Conditions (United States)

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Rakesh, Vineet; Reifman, Jaques; Mitrophanov, Alexander Y.


    A comprehensive understanding of thrombus formation as a physicochemical process that has evolved to protect the integrity of the human vasculature is critical to our ability to predict and control pathological states caused by a malfunctioning blood coagulation system. Despite numerous investigations, the spatial and temporal details of thrombus growth as a multicomponent process are not fully understood. Here, we used computational modeling to investigate the temporal changes in the spatial distributions of the key enzymatic (i.e., thrombin) and structural (i.e., platelets and fibrin) components within a growing thrombus. Moreover, we investigated the interplay between clot structure and its mechanical properties, such as hydraulic resistance to flow. Our model relied on the coupling of computational fluid dynamics and biochemical kinetics, and was validated using flow-chamber data from a previous experimental study. The model allowed us to identify the distinct patterns characterizing the spatial distributions of thrombin, platelets, and fibrin accumulating within a thrombus. Our modeling results suggested that under the simulated conditions, thrombin kinetics was determined predominantly by prothrombinase. Furthermore, our simulations showed that thrombus resistance imparted by fibrin was ∼30-fold higher than that imparted by platelets. Yet, thrombus-mediated bloodflow occlusion was driven primarily by the platelet deposition process, because the height of the platelet accumulation domain was approximately twice that of the fibrin accumulation domain. Fibrinogen supplementation in normal blood resulted in a nonlinear increase in thrombus resistance, and for a supplemented fibrinogen level of 48%, the thrombus resistance increased by ∼2.7-fold. Finally, our model predicted that restoring the normal levels of clotting factors II, IX, and X while simultaneously restoring fibrinogen (to 88% of its normal level) in diluted blood can restore fibrin generation to

  6. Bedforms formed by experimental supercritical density flows (United States)

    Naruse, Hajime; Izumi, Norihiro; Yokokawa, Miwa; Muto, Tetsuji


    This study reveals characteristics and formative conditions of bedforms produced by saline density flows in supercritical flow conditions, especially focusing on the mechanism of the formation of plane bed. The motion of sediment particles forming bedforms was resolved by high-speed cameras (1/1000 frame/seconds). Experimental density flows were produced by mixtures of salt water (1.01-1.04 in density) and plastic particles (1.5 in specific density, 140 or 240 mm in diameter). Salt water and plastic particles are analogue materials of muddy water and sand particles in turbidity currents respectively. Acrylic flume (4.0 m long, 2.0 cm wide and 0.5 m deep) was submerged in an experimental tank (6.0 m long, 1.8 m wide and 1.2 m deep) that was filled by clear water. Features of bedforms were observed when the bed state in the flume reached equilibrium condition. The experimental conditions range 1.5-4.2 in densimetric Froude number and 0.2-0.8 in Shields dimensionless stress. We report the two major discoveries as a result of the flume experiments: (1) Plane bed under Froude-supercritical flows and (2) Geometrical characteristics of cyclic steps formed by density flows. (1) Plane bed was formed under the condition of supercritical flow regime. In previous studies, plane bed has been known to be formed by subcritical unidirectional flows (ca. 0.8 in Froude number). However, this study implies that plane bed can also be formed by supercritical conditions with high Shields dimensionless stress (>0.4) and very high Froude number (> 4.0). This discovery may suggest that previous estimations of paleo-hydraulic conditions of parallel lamination in turbidites should be reconsidered. The previous experimental studies and data from high-speed camera suggest that the region of plane bed formation coincides with the region of the sheet flow developments. The particle transport in sheet flow (thick bedload layer) induces transform of profile of flow shear stress, which may be

  7. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.


    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  8. Numerical analysis of head degrade law under cavitation condition of contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump (United States)

    Huang, D.; Pan, Z. Y.


    In order to study the flow-head characteristic curve, the SST turbulence model, homogeneous multiphase model and Rayleigh-Plesset equation were applied to simulate the cavitation characteristics in contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump under different conditions based on ANSYS CFX software. The distribution of cavity, pressure coefficient of the blade at the design point under different cavitation conditions were obtained. The analysis results of flow field show that the vapour volume distribution on the impeller indicates that the vapour first appears at the leading edge of blade and then extends to the outlet of impeller with the reduction of Net Positive Suction Head Allowance (NPSHA). The present study illustrates that the main reason for the decline of the pump performance is the development of cavitation, and the simulation can truly reflect the cavitation performance of the contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump.

  9. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega


    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  10. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  11. Catalytic upgrading of duckweed biocrude in subcritical water. (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Duan, Peigao; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Bing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lei


    Herein, a duckweed biocrude produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Lemna minor was treated in subcritical water with added H₂. Effects of several different commercially available materials such as Ru/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, Pt/γ-Al₂O₃, Pt/C-sulfide, Rh/γ-Al₂O₃, activated carbon, MoS₂, Mo₂C, Co-Mo/γ-Al₂O₃, and zeolite on the yields of product fractions and the deoxygenation, denitrogenation, and desulfurization of biocrude at 350°C were examined, respectively. All the materials showed catalytic activity for deoxygenation and desulfurization of the biocrude and only Ru/C showed activity for denitrogenation. Of those catalysts examined, Pt/C showed the best performance for deoxygenation. Among all the upgraded oils, the oil produced with Ru/C shows the lowest sulfur, the highest hydrocarbon content (25.6%), the highest energy recovery (85.5%), and the highest higher heating value (42.6 MJ/kg). The gaseous products were mainly unreacted H₂, CH₄, CO₂, and C₂H6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group


    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  13. Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin


    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first

  14. Pesticides drive risk of micropollutants in wastewater-impacted streams during low flow conditions. (United States)

    Munz, Nicole A; Burdon, Francis J; de Zwart, Dick; Junghans, Marion; Melo, Laura; Reyes, Marta; Schönenberger, Urs; Singer, Heinz P; Spycher, Barbara; Hollender, Juliane; Stamm, Christian


    Micropollutants enter surface waters through various pathways, of which wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major source. The large diversity of micropollutants and their many modes of toxic action pose a challenge for assessing environmental risks. In this study, we investigated the potential impact of WWTPs on receiving ecosystems by describing concentration patterns of micropollutants, predicting acute risks for aquatic organisms and validating these results with macroinvertebrate biomonitoring data. Grab samples were taken upstream, downstream and at the effluent of 24 Swiss WWTPs during low flow conditions across independent catchments with different land uses. Using liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, a comprehensive target screening of almost 400 organic substances, focusing mainly on pesticides and pharmaceuticals, was conducted at two time points, and complemented with the analysis of a priority mixture of 57 substances over eight time points. Acute toxic pressure was predicted using the risk assessment approach of the multi-substance potentially affected fraction, first applying concentration addition for substances with the same toxic mode of action and subsequently response addition for the calculation of the risk of the total mixture. This toxic pressure was compared to macroinvertebrate sensitivity to pesticides (SPEAR index) upstream and downstream of the WWTPs. The concentrations were, as expected, especially for pharmaceuticals and other household chemicals higher downstream than upstream, with the detection frequency of plant protection products upstream correlating with the fraction of arable land in the catchments. While the concentration sums downstream were clearly dominated by pharmaceuticals or other household chemicals, the acute toxic pressure was mainly driven by pesticides, often caused by the episodic occurrence of these compounds even during low flow conditions. In general, five single substances

  15. Prognosis of flow conditions for de-centralized seepage of rainwater from roads (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Hasan, Issa; Sallwey, Jana; Graeber, Peter-Wolfgang


    Urbanization programs that include the construction of new settlements or roads lead to an increase in surface sealing. Conventional road drainage is being carried out by a rainwater sewage system coupled with collection and detention basins. This leads to local decreases in evaporation and groundwater recharge, disturbing the natural local water balance. The increased number of climate changed induced extreme precipitation events leads to a higher risk of road floodings as a result of a failure of these systems. Furthermore, the treatment of the discharge loaded with contaminants (such as heavy metals and MTBE) is resolved neither ecologically nor technologically. By using a natural, effective and sustainable evaporation and drainage strategy it is possible to reduce the probability of road floodings, to restore the natural local water balance and to establish ecologically and economically more beneficial rainwater drainage. By using PCSiWaPro®, a simulation tool for unsaturated soil zone processes developed at the Institute of Waste Management and the Technical University of Dresden, the effects of different atmospheric, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters and system conditions on the subsurface drainage flow conditions in the vicinity of a typical German highway road were studied. Special attention was given to the influence of extreme precipitation events on the drainage time at differently tilted parts of the surface, on surface drainages from lateral noise-protection barriers and on the probability of road surface underwashing. Differently constructed upper soil stratifications were tested for their ability to quickly drain water into the ground, which, besides the reduced risk of road flooding, also influence the duration time for the drainage water in each soil layer. Individual rainwater infiltration rates were applied for different regions of the model. The behaviours of three different types of soil (coarse sand, slightly silty sand and medium

  16. Investigation of heat transfer in liquid-metal flows under fusion-reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poddubnyi, I. I., E-mail: [Joint Stock Company Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (JSC NIKIET) (Russian Federation); Pyatnitskaya, N. Yu.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sviridov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Science, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Leshukov, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (JSC NIKIET) (Russian Federation); Aleskovskiy, K. V. [National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) (Russian Federation); Obukhov, D. M. [Joint Stock Company Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation)


    The effect discovered in studying a downward liquid-metal flow in vertical pipe and in a channel of rectangular cross section in, respectively, a transverse and a coplanar magnetic field is analyzed. In test blanket modules (TBM), which are prototypes of a blanket for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) and which are intended for experimental investigations at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), liquid metals are assumed to fulfil simultaneously the functions of (i) a tritium breeder, (ii) a coolant, and (iii) neutron moderator and multiplier. This approach to testing experimentally design solutions is motivated by plans to employ, in the majority of the currently developed DEMO blanket projects, liquid metals pumped through pipes and/or rectangular channels in a transvers magnetic field. At the present time, experiments that would directly simulate liquid-metal flows under conditions of ITER TBM and/or DEMO blanket operation (irradiation with thermonuclear neutrons, a cyclic temperature regime, and a magnetic-field strength of about 4 to 10 T) are not implementable for want of equipment that could reproduce simultaneously the aforementioned effects exerted by thermonuclear plasmas. This is the reason why use is made of an iterative approach to experimentally estimating the performance of design solutions for liquid-metal channels via simulating one or simultaneously two of the aforementioned factors. Therefore, the investigations reported in the present article are of considerable topical interest. The respective experiments were performed on the basis of the mercury magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) loop that is included in the structure of the MPEI—JIHT MHD experimental facility. Temperature fields were measured under conditions of two- and one-sided heating, and data on averaged-temperature fields, distributions of the wall temperature, and statistical fluctuation features were obtained. A substantial effect of counter thermo gravitational

  17. Stability of Wavy Films in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows at Normal and Microgravity Conditions (United States)

    Balakotaiah, V.; Jayawardena, S. S.


    For flow rates of technological interest, most gas-liquid flows in pipes are in the annular flow regime, in which, the liquid moves along the pipe wall in a thin, wavy film and the gas flows in the core region. The waves appearing on the liquid film have a profound influence on the transfer rates, and hence on the design of these systems. We have recently proposed and analyzed two boundary layer models that describe the characteristics of laminar wavy films at high Reynolds numbers (300-1200). Comparison of model predictions to 1-g experimental data showed good agreement. The goal of our present work is to understand through a combined program of experimental and modeling studies the characteristics of wavy films in annular two-phase gas-liquid flows under normal as well as microgravity conditions in the developed and entry regions.

  18. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model (United States)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.


    Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis

  19. Investigation of severe slugging under flow conditions of a parabolic trough power plant with direct steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety


    The DISS test facility at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain, produces high pressure steam directly within the parabolic trough collectors. Two collectors are connected with a U-shaped connection pipe which can suffer under the flow phenomenon of severe slugging at low mass flow operation. The objective is to investigate numerically the flow situations with ATHLET and state the relevance of severe slugging in the installed U-shaped pipes. The simulation results reveal that normal operation conditions are uncritical and no severe slugging can be expected.

  20. Continuous-flow pump model study: the effect on pump performance of pump characteristics and cardiovascular conditions. (United States)

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Fresiello, Libera; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Pałko, Krzysztof J; Darowski, Marek


    This model study evaluates the effect of pump characteristics and cardiovascular data on hemodynamics in atrio-aortic VAD assistance. The model includes a computational circulatory sub-model and an electrical sub-model representing two rotary blood pumps through their pressure-flow characteristics. The first is close to a pressure generator-PG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.047 l mmHg(-1)); the second is closer to a flow generator-FG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.0097 l mmHg(-1)). Interaction with VAD was achieved by means of two interfaces, behaving as impedance transformers. The model was verified by use of literature data and VAD onset conditions were used as a control for the experiments. Tests compared the two pumps, at constant pump speed, in different ventricular and circulatory conditions: maximum ventricular elastance (0.44-0.9 mmHg cm(-3)), systemic peripheral resistance (781-1200 g cm(-4) s(-1)), ventricular diastolic compliance C p (5-10-50 cm(3) mmHg(-1)), systemic arterial compliance (0.9-1.8 cm(3) mmHg(-1)). Analyzed variables were: arterial and venous pressures, flows, ventricular volume, external work, and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). The PG pump generated the highest SHE under almost all conditions, in particular for higher C p (+50 %). PG pump flow is also the most sensitive to E max and C p changes (-26 and -33 %, respectively). The FG pump generally guarantees higher external work reduction (54 %) and flow less dependent on circulatory and ventricular conditions. The results are evidence of the importance of pump speed regulation with changing ventricular conditions. The computational sub-model will be part of a hydro-numerical model, including autonomic controls, designed to test different VADs.

  1. Bubbly free and impinging jets under forced flow conditions: experimental study by means of PIV/PFBI (United States)

    Nichik, Mikhail Yu; Pervunin, Konstantin S.; Markovich, Dmitriy M.


    Jet flows are extensively used in various practical applications. Presently, the development of technical equipment where jets are employed is connected with the improvement and optimization of different methods of flow control. In the paper, an experimental investigation of the turbulent structure of forced bubbly free and impinging jets was carried out by means of PIV and PFBI techniques. PIV was applied to measure velocity distributions and turbulent characteristics in the continuous phase, while PFBI approach was applied to visualize bubbles in the flow and evaluate their sizes. The flow was studied at the Reynolds number of 12,500 and three void fractions β = 0, 1 and 2% for forced conditions St = 0.5. The mean air bubble diameter was estimated to be roughly 0.8 mm for all β. It was revealed that in the free jet the air bubbles and flow pulsations reduces substantially the longitudinal dimension of the jet core. In two-phase flow with forcing distribution of turbulence kinetic energy was similar to one-phase case but maximum value was two and a half times higher then for one-phase unforced jet. In the impinging jet flow, the bubbles produced a maximum of the turbulence kinetic energy near the wall, which increased two and a half times in forced conditions.

  2. Numerical study for nanofluid flow due to a nonlinear curved stretching surface with convective heat and mass conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available This article presents the simultaneous effects of convective heat and mass conditions in boundary-layer flow of nanoliquid due to a nonlinear curved stretching surface. A nonlinear curved stretching surface is used to generate the flow. Thermophoretic diffusion and random motion features are also incorporated. Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed at boundary. Suitable variables are utilized to convert the nonlinear partial differential system into nonlinear ordinary differential system. The obtained nonlinear systems are solved numerically through shooting technique. Plots are displayed in order to explore the role of physical flow variables on the solutions. The skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined. Our findings indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reduced for larger values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: Nonlinear curved stretching surface, Nanoparticles, Convective heat and mass conditions, Numerical solution

  3. Experiments performed with bubbly flow in vertical pipes at different flow conditions covering the transition region: simulation by coupling Eulerian, Lagrangian and 3D random walks models (United States)

    Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos


    Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the

  4. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amar, E-mail:; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P.S.; Bishnoi, Saroj


    Highlights: •Experimental subcritical facility BRAHMMA coupled to D-D/D-T neutron generator. •Preliminary results of PNS experiments reported. •Feynman-alpha noise measurements explored with continuous source. -- Abstract: The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated k{sub eff} of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor k{sub s} and external neutron source efficiency φ{sup ∗} in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  5. Performances of Three Miniature Bio-inspired Optic Flow Sensors under Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Viollet


    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been paid during the last decade to vision-based navigation systems based on optic flow (OF cues. OF-based systems have been implemented on an increasingly large number of sighted autonomous robotic platforms. Nowadays, the OF is measured using conventional cameras, custom-made sensors and even optical mouse chips. However, very few studies have dealt so far with the reliability of these OF sensors in terms of their precision, range and sensitivity to illuminance variations. Three miniature custom-made OF sensors developed at our laboratory, which were composed of photosensors connected to an OF processing unit were tested and compared in this study, focusing on their responses and characteristics in real indoor and outdoor environments in a large range of illuminance. It was concluded that by combining a custom-made aVLSI retina equipped with Adaptive Pixels for Insect-based Sensor (APIS with a bio-inspired visual processing system, it is possible to obtain highly effective miniature sensors for measuring the OF under real environmental conditions.

  6. Scaling capillary imbibition during static thermal and dynamic fracture flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babadagli, T. [Department of Petroleum and Min. Res. Eng., College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)


    To incorporate the effect of temperature, previously reported scaling formulations were modified considering the wettability, change in oil properties, and thermal expansion. The results of static imbibition experiments conducted using different types of heavy-oil samples at different temperatures up to 90 C were used to verify the formulation. The modified scaling formulations responded well if the thermal expansion effect is included, except in high-temperature crude oil imbibition cases. The results obtained through water injection experiments in artificially fractured core samples with matrix permeabilities ranging from 300 to 0.075 mD were used to verify the numerical model of core scale displacements. Then the convergence constant in Aranofsky's abstract recovery-time relationship was correlated to an imbibition group consisting of the injection rate and matrix properties. Three different formulations were presented and tested. Good agreement with the experimental observations could be achieved when the wettability and permeability of the matrix and the flow rate in fracture is included in the formulations. When the matrix size is included in the regression analysis, not all correlation types yielded a good agreement with the experimental data. This study will provide an insight into the scaling of the laboratory scale experiments to the reservoir conditions and constitute a base to define matrix fracture interaction in numerical models dealing with fractured reservoir modeling.

  7. [Nitrogen removal under the condition of carbon source supplement in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland]. (United States)

    She, Li-Hua; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Lin, Ji-Dong; Wu, Zhen-Bin


    Carbon source is the main factor influencing biological denitrification efficiency. In most cities of China, carbon content in sewage was observed to be low, herein carbon source supplement should be considered to provide electron donors needed in biological denitrification process. The influence of adding different carbon sources through aeration pipe of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) on nitrogen removal had been studied. Carbon source supplement to the bottom of IVCW could improve microbe conditions and intensify nitrogen removalfunction of IVCW. The results showed that glucose as external carbon source was better than carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on denitrification. Nitrogen removal had significant difference between adding glucose and no carbon source in IVCW system (p < 0.05). By the experiments of adding different quantity of glucose, the dose of 1.5 g glucose under 60 L x d(-1) hydraulic load was the optimization for denitrification. C6H12O6:NO3(-) -N was 4.3 and far lower than that by adding in inflow. So carbon source supplement to the bottom of IVCW through aeration pipe could save carbon source supplement cost. Additionally, adding glucose for four hours before influent feeding could improve nitrogen removal.

  8. Regularized characteristic boundary conditions for the Lattice-Boltzmann methods at high Reynolds number flows (United States)

    Wissocq, Gauthier; Gourdain, Nicolas; Malaspinas, Orestis; Eyssartier, Alexandre


    This paper reports the investigations done to adapt the Characteristic Boundary Conditions (CBC) to the Lattice-Boltzmann formalism for high Reynolds number applications. Three CBC formalisms are implemented and tested in an open source LBM code: the baseline local one-dimension inviscid (BL-LODI) approach, its extension including the effects of the transverse terms (CBC-2D) and a local streamline approach in which the problem is reformulated in the incident wave framework (LS-LODI). Then all implementations of the CBC methods are tested for a variety of test cases, ranging from canonical problems (such as 2D plane and spherical waves and 2D vortices) to a 2D NACA profile at high Reynolds number (Re =105), representative of aeronautic applications. The LS-LODI approach provides the best results for pure acoustics waves (plane and spherical waves). However, it is not well suited to the outflow of a convected vortex for which the CBC-2D associated with a relaxation on density and transverse waves provides the best results. As regards numerical stability, a regularized adaptation is necessary to simulate high Reynolds number flows. The so-called regularized FD (Finite Difference) adaptation, a modified regularized approach where the off-equilibrium part of the stress tensor is computed thanks to a finite difference scheme, is the only tested adaptation that can handle the high Reynolds computation.

  9. Microwave-Osmotic Dehydration of Cranberries under Continuous Flow Medium Spray Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wray


    Full Text Available Microwave-osmotic dehydration of cranberries was evaluated under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS conditions after some pretreatments. A central composite rotatable design was used with three input variables at five levels (temperature, 33°C–67°C; sucrose concentration, 33°B–67°B; and contact time, 5–55 min. Responses were moisture loss (ML, solids gain (SG, and weight reduction (WR as well as color and texture parameters. The responses were related to process variables using response surface methodology and statistical analysis: each model was tested for lack of fit to assure nonsignificance (P>0.05 and each process variable was tested for significance (P<0.05  or  P<0.0001. Temperature was found to have the most prominent effect as it was significant with all drying (ML, SG, and WR and quality (hardness and chewiness parameters, while contact time was found to be significant with ML and WR. Concentration wasn’t found to be significant for any response. Increasing skin pretreatment severity generally promoted SG but had little effect on ML. The exception was chemical peeling, which favored ML but had no effect on SG. Overall, MWODS enables food dehydration in a much faster period of time than conventional osmotic dehydration (COD, while specifically promoting moisture loss over solids gain.

  10. Experimental Study on Interfacial Area Transport of Two-Phase Flow under Vibration Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Xiao


    Full Text Available An experimental study on air-water two-phase flow under vibration condition has been conducted using double-sensor conductivity probe. The test section is an annular geometry with hydraulic diameter of 19.1 mm. The vibration frequency ranges from 0.47 Hz to 2.47 Hz. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC, and Sauter mean diameter have been performed along one radius in the vibration direction. The result shows that local parameters fluctuate continuously around the base values in the vibration cycle. Additional bubble force due to inertia is used to explain lateral bubble motions. The fluctuation amplitudes of local void fraction and IAC increase significantly with vibration frequency. The radial distribution of local parameters at the maximum vibration displacement is specifically analyzed. In the void fraction and IAC profiles, the peak near the inner wall is weakened or even disappearing and a strong peak skewed to outer wall is gradually observed with the increase of vibration frequency. The nondimensional peak void fraction can reach a maximum of 49% and the mean relative variation of local void fraction can increase to more than 29% as the vibration frequency increases to 2.47 Hz. But the increase of vibration frequency does not bring significant change to bubble diameter.

  11. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Persson, P.; Nilsson, L.; Eriksson, O.


    The present report deals with the results of the second phase of an experimental investigation of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts. The following ranges of variables were studied and 809 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 5. 3 < p < 37. 3 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet subcooling 56 < {delta}t{sub sub} < 212 deg C; Steam quality 0. 20 < x{sub BO} < 0.95; Heat Flux 50 < q/A < 515 W/cm{sup 2}; Mass velocity 100 < m'/F < 1890 kg/m{sup 2}s; Heated length 600 < L < 2500 mm; Duct diameter d = 10 mm. The results are presented in diagrams, where for a certain geometry, the burnout steam qualities, x{sub BO} , were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat flux as parameter. The data have been correlated by curves, and the scatter around the curves is less than {+-} 5 per cent. In the ranges investigated, the observed steam quality at burnout, X{sub BO} generally decreases with increasing heat flux and mass velocity but increases with increasing pressure. The data have been compared with the empirical correlation by Tong, and excellent agreement was found for pressures higher than 10 kg/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.


    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Gang Feng


    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a

  14. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li


    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  15. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, John K.


    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  16. The TRADE experiment: shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system. (United States)

    Burn, K W; Carta, M; Casalini, L; Kadi, Y; Monti, S; Nava, E; Palomba, M; Petrovich, C; Picardi, L; Rubbia, C; Troiani, F


    The TRADE project (TRiga Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS--the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket--are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial--in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues--for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits.

  17. Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts (United States)

    Osmane, A.; Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.; Dimmock, A. P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.


    The discovery of self-sustained coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (E ˜ 10 - 100 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which energy-momentum exchange can take place in planetary radiation belts. When originating from energetic electrons in Landau resonance with large-amplitude whistlers, phase-space electron holes form with small amplitudes of the order of the hot to cold electron density, i.e., qφ/T_e≃ n_h/n_c ≃ 10^{-3}, and orders of magnitude smaller than observed values of the largest phase-space holes amplitude, i.e., qφ /T_e ≃ 1. In this report we present a mechanism through which electron holes can grow nonlinearly (i.e. γ ∝ √{φ}) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange with passing (untrapped) electrons. Growth rates are computed analytically for plasma parameters consistent with those measured in the Earth's radiation belts under quiet and disturbed conditions. Our results provide an explanation for the fast growth of electron phase-space holes in the Earth's radiation belts from small initial values qφ/T_c ≃ 10^{-3}, to larger values of the order qφ /T_e ≃ 1.

  18. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation. (United States)

    Li, Jinwei; Sun, Dewei; Qian, Lige; Liu, Yuanfa


    Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO) production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE) and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  19. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.


    The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

  20. Sediment concentration profiles in bed-near-bed layers under unsteady flow and sediment conditions : a CT-Scanned flume investigation (United States)

    Leclair, Suzanne; Long, Bernard


    This paper presents a case study from a CT-scan flume experiment on the variation in sediment transport (concentration) under transitional, initially high-regime (but decreasing), sub-critical flow with bed erosion or no net aggradation. The objective is to better understand sediment transport during unsteady flows such as during a wining flood. In particular, the effect of mud-aggregate transport on sediment concentration in the bed-near-bed continuum was addressed. CT-scans were taken during sediment transport, with plane beds or dunes being the bed state. The density material (water and/or sediment) in over 105 volumes (voxels, each approximately equivalent to a grain of 0.8 mm) were analysed. Computed Tomography technology provides high-resolution results, both in time and space, and allows recognition of subtle changes in the shape of relative sediment concentration profile with bed states. The migration and attrition of mud aggregates in this experiment increased the mean volume fraction sediment concentration in the bed-near-bed layer (lower 5% of the flow) by a factor of about 2, from an inital value of 0.12 up to 0.25, and back to 0.13 when the supply ended. Also, the presence of mud-aggregates in the preserved deposits (transported as bedload) increases bed porosity. This case study demonstrates the great potential of Computed Tomography in process-oriented, experimental sedimentology. The community would benefit from more collaborative research using this technology, including data sharing as suggested by initiatives such as the Sediment Experimentalists Network (

  1. Morphological variation and different branch modularity across contrasting flow conditions in dominant Pocillopora reef-building corals. (United States)

    Paz-García, David A; Aldana-Moreno, Alejandro; Cabral-Tena, Rafael A; García-De-León, Francisco J; Hellberg, Michael E; Balart, Eduardo F


    Pocillopora corals, the dominant reef-builders in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, exhibit a high level of phenotypic plasticity, making the interpretation of morphological variation and the identification of species challenging. To test the hypothesis that different coral morphospecies represent phenotypes that develop in different flow conditions, we compared branch characters in three Pocillopora morphospecies (P. damicornis, P. verrucosa, and P. meandrina) from two communities in the Gulf of California exposed to contrasting flow conditions. Morphological variation and branch modularity (i.e., the tendency of different sets of branch traits to vary in a coordinated way) were assessed in colonies classified as Pocillopora type 1 according to two mitochondrial regions. Our results can be summarized as follows. (1) Pocillopora type 1 morphospecies corresponded to a pattern of morphological variation in the Gulf of California. Overall, P. damicornis had the thinnest branches and its colonies the highest branch density, followed by P. verrucosa, and then by P. meandrina, which had the thickest branches and its colonies the lowest branch density. (2) The differentiation among morphospecies was promoted by different levels of modularity of traits. P. verrucosa had the highest coordination of traits, followed by P. damicornis, and P. meandrina. (3) The variation and modularity of branch traits were related to water flow condition. Morphology under the high-flow condition was more similar among morphospecies than under the low-flow condition and seemed to be related to mechanisms for coping with these conditions. Our results provide the first evidence that in scleractinian corals different levels of modularity can be promoted by different environmental conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Local Flow Conditions in Jailed Side Branch Lesions Using Computational Fluid Dynamics


    Na, Sang-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Chul; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae


    Background and Objectives Lesions of vascular bifurcation and their treatment outcomes have been evaluated by anatomical and physiological methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, local changes in flow dynamics in lesions of bifurcation have not been well evaluated. This study aimed at evaluating changes in the local flow patterns of bifurcation lesions. Materials and Methods Eight (n=8) representative simulation-models were constructed: 1 normal b...

  3. Modeling of flow conditions in down draft gasifiers using tin film models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Kvist; Gøbel, Benny; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    In order to examine how an inhomogeneous char bed affects the gas flow through the bed, a dynamic model have been developed to describe the flow distribution in a down draft gasifier. The gas flow distribution through the bed was determined using a thin film model approach. The temperatures...... in the bed were determined from a thermodynamic model of the gasification process. Model calculations showed that a relatively small fraction of the gas was flowing through a part of the bed that was fuelled with smaller particles compared to a part of the bed that was fuelled with larger particles...

  4. A coupled metabolic-hydraulic model and calibration scheme for estimating of whole-river metabolism during dynamic flow conditions (United States)

    Payn, Robert A.; Hall, Robert O Jr.; Kennedy, Theodore; Poole, Geoff C; Marshall, Lucy A.


    Conventional methods for estimating whole-stream metabolic rates from measured dissolved oxygen dynamics do not account for the variation in solute transport times created by dynamic flow conditions. Changes in flow at hourly time scales are common downstream of hydroelectric dams (i.e. hydropeaking), and hydrologic limitations of conventional metabolic models have resulted in a poor understanding of the controls on biological production in these highly managed river ecosystems. To overcome these limitations, we coupled a two-station metabolic model of dissolved oxygen dynamics with a hydrologic river routing model. We designed calibration and parameter estimation tools to infer values for hydrologic and metabolic parameters based on time series of water quality data, achieving the ultimate goal of estimating whole-river gross primary production and ecosystem respiration during dynamic flow conditions. Our case study data for model design and calibration were collected in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam (Arizona, USA), a large hydropower facility where the mean discharge was 325 m3 s 1 and the average daily coefficient of variation of flow was 0.17 (i.e. the hydropeaking index averaged from 2006 to 2016). We demonstrate the coupled model’s conceptual consistency with conventional models during steady flow conditions, and illustrate the potential bias in metabolism estimates with conventional models during unsteady flow conditions. This effort contributes an approach to solute transport modeling and parameter estimation that allows study of whole-ecosystem metabolic regimes across a more diverse range of hydrologic conditions commonly encountered in streams and rivers.

  5. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)


    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  6. Field Analysis of Stepwise Effective Thermal Conductivity along a Borehole Heat Exchanger under Artificial Conditions of Groundwater Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Sakata


    Full Text Available Heat advection caused by groundwater flow can potentially improve the performance of a borehole heat exchanger. However, the required flow velocity is not achieved under most natural conditions. This study focuses on artificial groundwater flow generated by pumping and investigates the associated effect in a lowland area near the Toyohira River alluvial fan, Sapporo, Japan. Thermal response test results are compared under natural and artificial groundwater flow conditions. A pumping well is constructed one meter from the borehole. Temperature profiles are measured in the U-tube during testing, using a pair of optic fiber distributed temperature sensors. The effective thermal conductivity is calculated from the profiles obtained in each 10-m sub-layer; this thermal conductivity is termed the stepwise thermal conductivity. Additionally, the upward flow velocity in the pumping well is measured to estimate the mean groundwater flow velocity at the borehole. The results show that effective thermal conductivity increases at depths less than 50 m, where the pumping creates mean velocities greater than 0.1 m d−1 in each sub-layer (1.5 md−1 on average. Thus, a borehole length of 50 m is more reasonable at the test site for its efficiency in a ground source heat pump system coupled with the pumping well than that used.

  7. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hee Jang

    Full Text Available The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA. In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4 nm than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters.

  8. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4). (United States)

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lee, Seungho; Hwang, Yu Sik


    The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM) on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability) of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA). In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating) of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC) showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4 nm) than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters.

  9. Inactive supply wells as conduits for flow and contaminant migration: conditions of occurrence and suggestions for management (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.


    Water supply wells can act as conduits for vertical flow and contaminant migration between water-bearing strata under common hydrogeologic and well construction conditions. While recognized by some for decades, there is little published data on the magnitude of flows and extent of resulting water quality impacts. Consequently, the issue may not be acknowledged widely enough and the need for better management persists. This is especially true for unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins that are hydrologically stressed by agricultural activities. Theoretical and practical considerations indicate that significant water volumes can migrate vertically through wells. The flow is often downward, with shallow groundwater, usually poorer in quality, migrating through conduit wells to degrade deeper water quality. Field data from locations in California, USA, are presented in combination with modeling results to illustrate both the prevalence of conditions conducive to intraborehole flow and the resulting impacts to water quality. Suggestions for management of planned wells include better enforcement of current regulations and more detailed consideration of hydrogeologic conditions during design and installation. A potentially greater management challenge is presented by the large number of existing wells. Monitoring for evidence of conduit flow and solute transport in areas of high well density is recommended to identify wells that pose greater risks to water quality. Conduit wells that are discovered may be addressed through approaches that include structural modification and changes in operations.

  10. Flow features and device-induced blood trauma in CF-VADs under a pulsatile blood flow condition: A CFD comparative study. (United States)

    Chen, Zengsheng; Jena, Sofen K; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J


    In this study, the flow features and device-associated blood trauma in 4 clinical ventricular assist devices (VADs; 2 implantable axial VADs, 1 implantable centrifugal VAD, and 1 extracorporeal VAD) were computationally analyzed under clinically relevant pulsatile flow conditions. The 4 VADs were operated at fixed pump speed at a mean rate of 4.5 L/min. Mean pressure difference, wall shear stress, volume distribution of scalar shear stress (SSS), and shear-induced hemolysis index (HI) were derived from the flow field of each VAD and were compared. The computationally predicted mean pressure difference across the 3 implantable VADs was ~70 mmHg, and the extracorporeal VAD was ~345 mmHg, which matched well with their reported pressure-flow curves. The axial VADs had higher mean wall shear stress and SSS compared with the centrifugal VADs. However, the residence time of the centrifugal VADs was much longer compared with the axial VADs because of the large volume of the centrifugal VADs. The highest SSS was observed in one axial VAD, and the longest exposure time was observed in 1 centrifugal VAD. These 2 VADs generated the highest HI. The shear-induced HI varied as a function of flow rate within each cardiac cycle. At fixed pump speed, the HI was greatest at low flow rate due to longer exposure time to shear stress compared with at high flow rate. Subsequently, we hypothesize that to reduce the risk of blood trauma during VAD support, shear stress magnitude and exposure time need to be minimized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Visualizing and simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Cepuritis, Rolands; Peng, Ya


    Flow variation at surfaces and reinforcement during form filling was visualized with grey and black SCC. The border between grey and black (pigmented) SCC was captured as frozen images on hardened sawn- and formwork surfaces in a flow box experiment. Maximum velocity occurred at the centre of the...

  12. Subharmonic contrast microbubble signals for noninvasive pressure estimation under static and dynamic flow conditions. (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Dave, Jaydev K; Leodore, Lauren M; Eisenbrey, John R; Park, Suhyun; Hall, Anne L; Thomenius, Kai; Forsberg, Flemming


    Our group has proposed the concept of subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) utilizing microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent signals for the noninvasive estimation of hydrostatic blood pressures. An experimental system for in vitro SHAPE was constructed based on two single-element transducers assembled confocally at a 60 degree angle to each other. Changes in the first, second and subharmonic amplitudes of five different ultrasound contrast agents were measured in vitro at static hydrostatic pressures from 0-186 mmHg, acoustic pressures from 0.35-0.60 MPa peak-to-peak and frequencies of 2.5-6.6 MHz. The most sensitive agent and optimal parameters for SHAPE were determined using linear regression analysis and implemented on a Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). This implementation of SHAPE was then tested under dynamic-flow conditions and compared to pressure-catheter measurements. Over the pressure range studied, the first and second harmonic amplitudes reduced approximately 2 dB for all contrast agents. Over the same pressure range, the subharmonic amplitudes decreased by 9-14 dB and excellent linear regressions were achieved with the hydrostatic pressure variations (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). Optimal sensitivity was achieved at a transmit frequency of 2.5 MHz and acoustic pressure of 0.35 MPa using Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). A Logiq 9 scanner was modified to implement SHAPE on a convex transducer with a frequency range from 1.5-4.5 MHz and acoustic pressures from 0-3.34 MPa. Results matched the pressure catheter (r2 = 0.87). In conclusion, subharmonic contrast signals are a good indicator of hydrostatic pressure. Out of the five ultrasound contrast agents tested, Sonazoid was the most sensitive for subharmonic pressure estimation. Real-time SHAPE has been implemented on a commercial scanner and offers the possibility of allowing pressures in the heart and elsewhere to be obtained noninvasively.

  13. BTEX removal in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor under denitrifying conditions. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rogers; de Nardi, Ivana Ribeiro; Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Foresti, Eugenio; Zaiat, Marcelo


    Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and ethanol are important contaminants present in Brazilian gasoline, it is essential to develop technology that can be used in the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated aquifers. This paper evaluates the performance of a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor fed with water containing gasoline constituents under denitrifying conditions. Two HAIB reactors filled with polyurethane foam matrices (5 mm cubes, 23 kg/m(3) density and 95 % porosity) for biomass attachment were assayed. The reactor fed with synthetic substrate containing protein, carbohydrates, sodium bicarbonate and BTEX solution in ethanol, at an Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.5 h, presented hydrocarbon removal efficiencies of 99 % at the following initial concentrations: benzene 6.7 mg/L, toluene 4.9 mg/L, m-xylene and p-xylene 7.2 mg/L, ethylbenzene 3.7 mg/L, and nitrate 60 mg N/L. The HAIB reactor fed with gasoline-contaminated water at an HRT of 20 h showed hydrocarbon removal efficiencies of 96 % at the following initial concentrations: benzene, 4.9 mg/L; toluene, 7.2 mg/L; m-xylene, 3.7 mg/L; and nitrate 400 mg N/L. Microbiological observations along the length of the HAIB reactor fed with gasoline-contaminated water confirmed that in the first segment of the reactor, denitrifying metabolism predominated, whereas from the first sampling port on, the metabolism observed was predominantly methanogenic.

  14. Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Abdelhakeem


    Full Text Available The performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSFCW for sewage effluent treatment was studied in an eight month experiment under different operational conditions including: vegetation (the presence or absence of common reeds “Phragmites australis”, media type (gravel or vermiculite, and mode of sewage feeding (continuous or batch. Plants had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the removal efficiency and mass removal rate of all pollutants, except phosphorous. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, ammonium (NH4 and total-P (TP were 75%, 84%, 75%, 32% and 22% for the planted beds compared to 29%, 37%, 42%, 26% and 17%, respectively, for the unplanted beds. The VSSFCW was ineffective in removing nitrate (NO3. The effect of either media type or feeding mode system on the removal efficiency of COD and BOD was insignificant. Vermiculite media significantly (P < 0.05 increased the efficiency of the wetland in removing NH4, TP and dissolved phosphorous (DP when compared with gravel particularly in the planted beds. The batch mode was more effective in removing TSS and NH4 compared to the continuous mode. Volumetric rate constant (kV was different for various pollutants and significantly increased due to the presence of plants. Media type had no significant effect on the values of kV for COD, BOD and TSS, while kV for NH4 and TP under vermiculite in the planted beds and kV for P in the unplanted beds were significantly higher than those under gravel.

  15. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition]. (United States)

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin


    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.

  16. A 3D DLM/FD method for simulating the motion of spheres and ellipsoids under creeping flow conditions (United States)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Guo, Aixia; Chiu, Shang-Huan; Glowinski, Roland


    We present in this article a novel distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain (DLM/FD) method for simulating fluid-particle interaction in three-dimensional (3D) Stokes flow. The methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results for a neutrally buoyant particle, of either spherical or prolate shape, with the associated Jeffrey's solutions for a simple shear flow. The results concerning two balls, interacting under creeping flow conditions in a bounded shear flow, are consistent with those available in the literature. We will discuss also the interactions of two balls in a bounded shear flow, when these balls are very close initially. For a prolate ellipsoid rotating in a shear flow under the sole effect of the particle inertia, shear plane tumbling is stable, while log-rolling is unstable. For two prolate ellipsoids interacting in a bounded shear flow, the results are similar to those for two balls if the major axes are initially orthogonal to the shear plane (a result not at all surprising considering that the intersections of the ellipsoids with the shear pane are circular).

  17. Fourier Collocation Approach With Mesh Refinement Method for Simulating Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeters Under Multiphase Flow Conditions. (United States)

    Simurda, Matej; Duggen, Lars; Basse, Nils T; Lassen, Benny


    A numerical model for transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions previously presented by us is extended by mesh refinement and grid point redistribution. The method solves modified first-order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics with additional terms to account for the effect of the background flow. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the fast Fourier transform, while the time integration is realized by the explicit third-order Runge-Kutta finite-difference scheme. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements to verify the benefit of using mapped grids. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions is carried out.

  18. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions (United States)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan


    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  19. Transient flow conditions in probabilistic wellhead protection: importance and ways to manage spatial and temporal uncertainty in capture zone delineation (United States)

    Enzenhoefer, R.; Rodriguez-Pretelin, A.; Nowak, W.


    "From an engineering standpoint, the quantification of uncertainty is extremely important not only because it allows estimating risk but mostly because it allows taking optimal decisions in an uncertain framework" (Renard, 2007). The most common way to account for uncertainty in the field of subsurface hydrology and wellhead protection is to randomize spatial parameters, e.g. the log-hydraulic conductivity or porosity. This enables water managers to take robust decisions in delineating wellhead protection zones with rationally chosen safety margins in the spirit of probabilistic risk management. Probabilistic wellhead protection zones are commonly based on steady-state flow fields. However, several past studies showed that transient flow conditions may substantially influence the shape and extent of catchments. Therefore, we believe they should be accounted for in the probabilistic assessment and in the delineation process. The aim of our work is to show the significance of flow transients and to investigate the interplay between spatial uncertainty and flow transients in wellhead protection zone delineation. To this end, we advance our concept of probabilistic capture zone delineation (Enzenhoefer et al., 2012) that works with capture probabilities and other probabilistic criteria for delineation. The extended framework is able to evaluate the time fraction that any point on a map falls within a capture zone. In short, we separate capture probabilities into spatial/statistical and time-related frequencies. This will provide water managers additional information on how to manage a well catchment in the light of possible hazard conditions close to the capture boundary under uncertain and time-variable flow conditions. In order to save computational costs, we take advantage of super-positioned flow components with time-variable coefficients. We assume an instantaneous development of steady-state flow conditions after each temporal change in driving forces, following

  20. Hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of a mobile bed confluence under equilibrium conditions for different values of the flow discharge ratio (United States)

    Birjukova Canelas, Olga; Lage Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Heleno Cardoso, António


    Under steady water and sediment feeding in laboratory conditions, sediment fluxes tend to reach a steady state and bed morphology tends to equilibrium. This laboratory study states two objectives: i) to provide a detailed three-dimensional characterization of the flow field at a movable bed confluence and ii) to contribute to the characterization of the effect of the flow discharge ratio (Qr = Qt/Qm, Qt - tributary flow discharge and Qm - main channel flow discharge) on the flow field. While the junction angle between the main channel and the tributary as well as the sediment discharge ratio were kept constant, two scenarios corresponding to two different flow discharge ratios with dominant main channel flow discharge (Qm > Qt) were analyzed. Prior to the flow velocity measurements, both channels were fed with water and sand mixtures and tests were run until the equilibrium condition was reached, i.e. until the moment where the difference between the total supplied sand discharge and the total outgoing sand discharge was smaller than ± 5%. During the experiments, bed topography was systematically recorded. Then, the flow was stopped, the water was slowly drained and the bed was carefully fixed with a cement and vernix coat and allowed to dry to guarantee that it remained stable from there on, while the clear water (free of sand) discharges were fed again to the fixed bed converging channels. A 3D side looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), installed on a remotely controlled and precisely positioned (± 0.1 mm) robotic arm, was used to measure the instantaneous velocities at a very dense mesh. Once the velocities measured and recorded, the water surface levels were surveyed. For the case with more dominant tributary flow (Qr = 0.17), as expected, the scour hole formed at the tributary mouth is much deeper and larger and extends towards the outer bank of the post-confluence channel, as well as upstream the junction corner. The avalanche slopes are, consequently

  1. Turbulence modeling, local grid refinement and absorbing boundary conditions for free-surface flow simulations in offshore applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur; Luppes, Roelf; van der Heiden, Hendrik; van der Plas, Peter; Duz, Bulent; Huijsmans, Rene


    To study extreme hydrodynamic wave impact in offshore and coastal engineering, the VOF-based CFD simulation tool ComFLOW is being developed. Recently, much attention has been paid to turbulence modeling, local grid refinement, wave propagation and absorbing boundary conditions. The turbulence model

  2. Process-based modelling of a headwater catchment in semi-arid conditions: the influence of macropore flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, N.L.M.B.; Bronstert, A.; Jong, S.M.; Jetten, V.G.; Dam, van J.C.; Ritsema, C.J.; Schnabel, S.


    Subsurface stormflow is thought to occur mainly in humid environments with steep terrains. However, in semi-arid areas, preferential flow through macropores can also result in a significant contribution of subsurface stormflow to catchment runoff for varying catchment conditions. Most hydrological

  3. Eddy-correlation measurements of benthic fluxes under complex flow conditions: Effects of coordinate transformations and averaging time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, Andreas; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Maeck, Andreas


    hours of continuous eddy-correlation measurements of sediment oxygen fluxes in an impounded river, we demonstrate that rotation of measured current velocities into streamline coordinates can be a crucial and necessary step in data processing under complex flow conditions in non-flat environments...

  4. Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S


    The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 μm microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. © 2013.

  5. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue. (United States)

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang


    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively.

  6. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  7. Investigation of Multiphase Flow in a Packed Bed Reactor Under Microgravity Conditions (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Motil, Brian; Rame, Enrique


    In this paper we study the two-phase flow phenomena in a packed bed reactor using an integrated experimental and numerical method. The cylindrical bed is filled with uniformly sized spheres. In the experiment water and air are injected into the bed simultaneously. The pressure distribution along the bed will be measured. The numerical simulation is based on a two-phase flow solver which solves the Navier-Stokes equations on Cartesian grids. A novel coupled level set and moment of fluid method is used to construct the interface. A sequential method is used to position spheres in the cylinder. Preliminary experimental results showed that the tested flow rates resulted in pulse flow. The numerical simulation revealed that air bubbles could merge into larger bubbles and also could break up into smaller bubbles to pass through the pores in the bed. Preliminary results showed that flow passed through regions where the porosity is high. Comparison between the experimental and numerical results in terms of pressure distributions at different flow injection rates will be conducted. Comparison of flow phenomena under terrestrial gravity and microgravity will be made.

  8. Quantifying conceptual hydrological flow paths across heterogeneous conditions using a tailored catchment model (United States)

    Mockler, Eva M.; Bruen, Michael


    As hydrology drives the nutrient and sediment processes at catchment scale, the hydrological processes in a model must be adequately represented in order for water quality simulations to be meaningful. Focus is increasingly turning to the internal movement of water within conceptual rainfall runoff models to investigate if the simulated processes contributing to the total flows are realistic. Difficulty arises when defining two or more flow paths that are conceptually distinct in relation to nutrient and sediment signatures, but have similar or overlapping discharge hydrograph responses. When this occurs, methods relating to physical hydrograph separation cannot be expected to distinguish between the different responses. There is a wealth of knowledge and conceptual understanding of hydrological and hydrogeological processes across Ireland. This knowledge has been incorporated into several spatial datasets of catchment characteristics including the Geological Survey of Ireland Groundwater Vulnerability Map and National Recharge Map. A tailored conceptual model for simulating flows in Irish catchments was developed that is linked with catchment characteristics to constrain internal flow paths and guide parameterisation. Simulations for 31 catchments were compared with output from two established models. The additional process information in the new model structure resulted in an improved or equalled performance in most catchment, with an increase in overall average performance criteria. This was attributed to the tailored model structure that more closely reflects the dominant hydrological processes in Irish catchments. The proportion of flow through groundwater or 'quick' flow paths varies considerably depending on catchment settings, with examples of groundwater dominated and 'flashy' catchments included in the study. In contrast to earlier studies, results showed interflow, as opposed to overland flow, as the dominant flow path in Irish catchments. This new

  9. Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank experiment using the source-jerk technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, G.D.; Hansen, G.E.; Martin, E.R.; Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.; Schlesser, J.A.; Krawczyk, T.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Smolen, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))


    Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank using the source-jerk technique are presented. This technique determines subcriticality by analyzing the transient response produced by the sudden removal of an extraneous neutron source (i.e., a source jerk). We have found that the technique can provide an accurate means of measuring k in configurations that are close to critical (i.e., 0.90 < k < 1.0). As the system becomes more subcritical (i.e., k < 0.90), spatial effects introduce significant biases depending on the source and detector positions. A comparison between the measurements and Monte Carlo code calculations is also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.





    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identifyif there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of flow in teaching, means that the teacher has control in their actions, feel joy and a deep sense of satisfaction. The music teachers show a higher g...

  11. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Flow on Oxygen and pH Conditions of Developing Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) Egg Cases (United States)

    Panyi, A.; Long, M. H.; Mooney, T. A.


    While young animals found future cohorts and populations, these early life stages are often particularly susceptible to conditions of the local environment in which they develop. The oxygen and pH of this critical developmental environment is likely impacted by the nearby physical conditions and the animals own respirations. Yet, in nearly all cases, this microenvironment is unknown, limiting our understanding of animal tolerances to current and future OA and hypoxic conditions. This study investigated the oxygen and pH environment adjacent to and within the egg cases of a keystone species, the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, under ambient and elevated CO2 (400 and 2200 ppm), and across differing water flow rates (0, 1, and 10 cm/s) using microprobes. Under both CO2 treatments, oxygen and pH in the egg case centers dropped dramatically across development to levels generally considered metabolically stressful even for adults. In the ambient CO2 trial, oxygen concentrations reached a minimum of 4.351 µmol/L, and pH reached a minimum of 7.36. In the elevated CO2 trial, oxygen concentrations reached a minimum of 9.910 µmol/L, and pH reached a minimum of 6.79. Flow appeared to alleviate these conditions, with highest O2 concentrations in the egg cases exposed to 10 cm/s flow in both CO2 trials, across all age classes measured. Surprisingly, all tested egg cases successfully hatched, demonstrating that developing D. pealeii embryos have a strong tolerance for low oxygen and pH, but there were more unsuccessful embryos counted in the 0 and 1 cm/s flow conditions. Further climate change could place young, keystone squid outside of their physiological limits, but water flow may play a key role in mitigating developmental stress to egg case bound embryos by increasing available oxygen.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of pressure-driven flows in microchannels using Navier–Maxwell slip boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, Tim


    We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

  14. The Relative Effectiveness of Empirical and Physical Models for Simulating the Dense Undercurrent of Pyroclastic Flows under Different Emplacement Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Ogburn


    Full Text Available High concentration pyroclastic density currents (PDCs are hot avalanches of volcanic rock and gas and are among the most destructive volcanic hazards due to their speed and mobility. Mitigating the risk associated with these flows depends upon accurate forecasting of possible impacted areas, often using empirical or physical models. TITAN2D, VolcFlow, LAHARZ, and ΔH/L or energy cone models each employ different rheologies or empirical relationships and therefore differ in appropriateness of application for different types of mass flows and topographic environments. This work seeks to test different statistically- and physically-based models against a range of PDCs of different volumes, emplaced under different conditions, over different topography in order to test the relative effectiveness, operational aspects, and ultimately, the utility of each model for use in hazard assessments. The purpose of this work is not to rank models, but rather to understand the extent to which the different modeling approaches can replicate reality in certain conditions, and to explore the dynamics of PDCs themselves. In this work, these models are used to recreate the inundation areas of the dense-basal undercurrent of all 13 mapped, land-confined, Soufrière Hills Volcano dome-collapse PDCs emplaced from 1996 to 2010 to test the relative effectiveness of different computational models. Best-fit model results and their input parameters are compared with results using observation- and deposit-derived input parameters. Additional comparison is made between best-fit model results and those using empirically-derived input parameters from the FlowDat global database, which represent “forward” modeling simulations as would be completed for hazard assessment purposes. Results indicate that TITAN2D is able to reproduce inundated areas well using flux sources, although velocities are often unrealistically high. VolcFlow is also able to replicate flow runout well, but

  15. Experimental Recreation of Large-Scale Coastal Bedforms and Hummocky Cross-Stratification in Sheet Flow Conditions (United States)

    Vermaas, T.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Huisman, C.; Schretlen, J. L.; van der Werf, J. J.; Ribberink, J. S.; Ruessink, G.


    In shallow marine environments various types of large bed forms emerge under waves and currents. There is no consensus on whether and how these bedforms can be classified in a genetically meaningful sense. Hypotheses for their genesis vary from a large variety of causal mechanisms for a number of different ripples to a single growing instability mechanism, reflecting a limited understanding. Our objective is to understand the formative mechanism of a family of large bedforms referred to as Large Wave Ripples in coastal literature and Hummocks in sedimentological literature, which also describes the hummocky cross stratification (HCS) found in the sedimentary rock record. The formative conditions for hummocks have been debated extensively, particularly whether currents or specific particle sizes were required. We collected and compared existing field and laboratory data and we conducted a full scale experiment in the Hannover Grosse Welle wave flume (300 m long, 5 m wide and 7 m deep). Experiments were done for several conditions, including a storm sequence, with 0.7-1.7 m regular trochoidal waves or irregular waves with periods of 5-7.5 s over sand with mean particle sizes of 0.256 (in 2007) or 0.137 mm (in 2008). Bed profiles were collected mechanically and acoustically. A conductivity probe (CCM) was used to measure sheet flow thickness or absence and near-bed flow and suspended sand concentrations were measured in detail with acoustical profilers. From the data collection, we found that there is no distinction empirically between LWR and Hummocks. Both are found around the inception of sheet flow and have the same dimensions. In the experiments we produced short wave ripples superimposed on large wave ripples below and in the transition to sheet flow conditions. The SWR were well predicted by a recent particle-size dependent ripple length predictor. No available predictor matched the LWR dimensions. The LWR remained present in strong sheet flow conditions and

  16. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  17. The effect of aneurysm geometry on the intra-aneurysmal flow condition. (United States)

    Tateshima, Satoshi; Chien, Aichi; Sayre, James; Cebral, Juan; Viñuela, Fernando


    Various anatomical parameters affect on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics. Nevertheless, how the shapes of real patient aneurysms affect on their intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics remains unanswered. Quantitative computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted using eight patients' angiograms of internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery aneurysms. The mean size of the intracranial aneurysms was 11.5 mm (range 5.8 to 19.9 mm). Intra-aneurysmal blood flow velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) were collected from three measurement planes in each aneurysm dome. The correlation coefficients (r) were obtained between hemodynamic values (flow velocity and WSS) and the following anatomical parameters: averaged dimension of aneurysm dome, the largest aneurysm dome dimension, aspect ratio, and dome-neck ratio. Negative linear correlations were observed between the averaged dimension of aneurysm dome and intra-aneurysmal flow velocity (r= -0.735) and also WSS (r= -0.736). The largest dome diameter showed a negative correlation with intra-aneurysmal flow velocity (r= -0.731) and WSS (r= -0.496). The aspect ratio demonstrated a weak negative correlation with the intra-aneurysmal flow velocity (r= -0.381) and WSS (r= -0.501). A clear negative correlation was seen between the intra-aneurysmal flow velocity and the dome-neck ratio (r= -0.708). A weak negative correlation is observed between the intra-aneurysmal WSS and the dome-neck ratio (r= -0.392). The aneurysm dome size showed a negative linear correlation with intra-aneurysmal flow velocity and WSS. Wide-necked aneurysm geometry was associated with faster intra-aneurysmal flow velocity.

  18. Power Flow Control using Fuzzy Based UPFC under different operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi M. Albatsh


    Full Text Available Now a days power system network operates at different states due to variation in load demand. As a result, the power flow in transmission line keeps on changing which needs to be controlled precisely. Therefore, in this paper an attempt to control power flow in transmission line at various operating states of power system network using Unified power flow controller (UPFC is considered. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC has been employed to provide dynamic control of series and shunt converters of UPFC because it adapts wide range of dynamic changes of power sys-tem operations easily. The performance of the FLC based UPFC to control power flow under three operating states (nominal loading, variable loading and different referencing of power of IEEE-14 bus system has been observed in PSCAD environment. The results show that FLC based UPFC is capable of controlling power flow in transmission line in whatever states the power system network is operating. In addition, to validate the statement that FLC based UPFC cope up with networks variation flexibly, the simulation results are compared with proportional integral (PI based UPFC. The results show that the FLC based UPFC has better power flow capability compared to PI controller.

  19. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow. (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori


    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Nathan E.


    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  1. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse;Calculo de subcriticidad del almacen del material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  2. A One-Dimensional Flow Model with Adiabatic Friction for Rapid Estimation of Cold Spray Flow Conditions (United States)

    Ye, Hezhou; Yin, Yanhua; Wang, Jianfeng


    While commercially available computational fluid dynamic packages are employed nowadays to analyze the spraying behavior of the cold spray (CS) system and optimize the nozzle geometry design, using these packages is often prohibitive because of complex computational resource requirements and expensive copyright licenses. This paper proposes a quick and economical method for predicting the performance of the CS system, while asking for minimal computational resource. A one-dimensional adiabatic friction model with the consideration of friction was developed to calculate the critical pressure of nozzles under different expansion ratios and the gas/particle velocity at different spraying conditions. The accuracy of the critical pressure calculation was evidenced by polymeric nozzle destructive tests. The particle velocities achieved from the nozzles with different expansion ratios were measured and compared with the velocity values calculated by the model. The suggested adiabatic friction model is validated by the well-matched values between the calculated results and the experimental data.

  3. Boundary Condition Study for the Juncture Flow Experiment in the NASA Langley 14x22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Carlson, J.-R.; Hannon, J. A.; Jenkins, L. N.; Bartram, S. M.; Pulliam, T. H.; Lee, H. C.


    Because future wind tunnel tests associated with the NASA Juncture Flow project are being designed for the purpose of CFD validation, considerable effort is going into the characterization of the wind tunnel boundary conditions, particularly at inflow. This is important not only because wind tunnel flowfield nonuniformities can play a role in integrated testing uncertainties, but also because the better the boundary conditions are known, the better CFD can accurately represent the experiment. This paper describes recent investigative wind tunnel tests involving two methods to measure and characterize the oncoming flow in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The features of each method, as well as some of their pros and cons, are highlighted. Boundary conditions and modeling tactics currently used by CFD for empty-tunnel simulations are also described, and some results using three different CFD codes are shown. Preliminary CFD parametric studies associated with the Juncture Flow model are summarized, to determine sensitivities of the flow near the wing-body juncture region of the model to a variety of modeling decisions.

  4. Comparison of patient-specific inlet boundary conditions in the numerical modelling of blood flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. (United States)

    Hardman, David; Semple, Scott I; Richards, Jennifer M J; Hoskins, Peter R


    Three inlet boundary condition datasets were derived from phase-contrast MRI: (i) centre line velocity data converted to two-dimensional (2D) velocity profile using Womersley equations (Womersley), (ii) 2D velocity profile with one axial component of velocity (1CV), (iii) 2D velocity profile with three components of velocity (3CV). Computational fluid dynamics was performed using a rigid wall approach with geometry data extracted from the computed tomography dataset. Helical flow was present in the 1CV and 3CV simulations, with more complex patterns for the 3CV case. The Womersley method produced simplified flow patterns with an absence of helical flow. Mean values of quantitative indices (helical flow index, mean wall shear stress, oscillatory index) were compared with the 3CV inlet data. These were lower for both the Womersley inlet data (28%, 71%, 56%) and the 1CV inlet data (9%, 24%, 69%). It was concluded that inlet methods based on centre line velocity, such as might be obtained from Doppler ultrasound, lead to significantly simplified abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics and thus are not recommended. Single velocity component (axial) data from MRI might suffice when general flow characteristics and spatial wall shear stress are required. Ideally 2D MRI velocity profiles with 3-velocity component data are preferred to fully account for helical flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Triggering conditions and depositional characteristics of a disastrous debris flow event in Zhouqu city, Gansu Province, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tang


    Full Text Available On 7 August 2010, catastrophic debris flows were triggered by a rainstorm in the catchments of the Sanyanyu and Luojiayu torrents, Zhouqu County, Gansu Province northwestern China. These two debris flows originated shortly after a rainstorm with an intensity of 77.3 mm h−1 and transported a total volume of about 2.2 million m3, which was deposited on an existing debris fan and into a river. This catastrophic event killed 1765 people living on this densely urbanised fan. The poorly sorted sediment contains boulders up to 3–4 m in diameter. In this study, the geomorphological features of both debris flow catchment areas are analyzed based on the interpretation of high-resolution remote sensing imagery combined with field investigation. The characteristics of the triggering rainfall and the initiation of the debris flow occurrence are discussed. Using empirical equations, the peak velocities and discharges of the debris flows were estimated to be around 9.7 m s−1 and 1358 m3 s−1 for the Sanyanyu torrent and 11 m s−1 and 572 m3 s−1 for the Luojiayu torrent. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the conditions leading to catastrophic debris flow events.

  6. Border control! Capillary pressure / saturation relationships in a diphasic flow in a random medium: Influence of the boundary conditions (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Moura, Marcel; Jankov, Mihailo; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut


    Solving problems involving biphasic flows in porous media, at a scale larger than the pore one, normally requires the use of relationships between pressure and saturation. These allow the closure of generalized Darcy flow models for two phases, commonly used in hydrology or large scale problems of diphasic flow in porous media. There are mathematical models which approximate experimental records with curve-fitting equations. The two most common models are the Brooks-Corey and van Genüchten ones, they are used to complete a system of generalized Darcy equations. The purpose of the current study is the influence of the boundary conditions on the relationship between pressure and saturation. We perform numerical simulations of drainage experiments. Water is the wetting fluid and air is the non wetting fluid. The results highlight the fact that a filter which allows only water to flow at the exit face of the system modifies both the shape of the curve and the value of the residual saturation. The pressure of the models that are commonly used does not match with the pressure of real flows since there is no filter to cross, to flow from an elementary volume to another. Experiments performed in transparent Hele-Shaw cells exhibit the same features, showing the influence of the semi permeable boundary conditions on the pressure-saturation measures obtained. This effect corresponding to the formation of localized plugging clusters at the boundaries, is obtained in slow flow conditions, and is independent of any dynamic fingering, also known to affect such relations (1,2,3). Modeling flows in open media thus would require to use the central part of the curves pressure saturation where the effect of the boundaries is the least important, or to modify properly these relationships to extract the behavior unaffected by boundaries. References: (1) Two-phase flow: structure, upscaling, and consequences for macroscopic transport properties Renaud Toussaint ; Knut Jørgen M

  7. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils. (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart


    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  8. Thermal radiation effects on stagnation point flow past a stretching/shrinking sheet in a Maxwell fluid with slip condition (United States)

    Ishak, Nazila; Hashim, Hasmawani; Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Muhammad; Sarif, Norhafizah Md; Rosli, Norhayati; Zuki Salleh, Mohd


    In this study, the numerical solution of the thermal radiation effects on a stagnation point flow past a stretching/shrinking sheet in a Maxwell fluid with slip condition is considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF) method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the skin friction coefficient and the wall temperature as well as the temperature and the velocity profiles. The features of the flow and the heat transfer characteristics for various values of Prandtl number, stretching/shrinking parameter, thermal radiation parameter, Maxwell parameter, dimensionless velocity slip parameter and thermal slip parameter are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.


    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  10. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik


    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  11. Measurements of myocardial flow vs. extraction of rubidium under varying physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Moyer, B.R.; Twitchell, J.A.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.


    The relationship between myocardial rubidium extraction (E) and flow (F) are well described by the single capillary model E = (1-exp(-PS/F)) with a permeability surface product PS = 0.87 cc/min/gm. Some effects of alkalosis and acidosis have been reported. Here the authors investigate the effects of dipyridamole, norepinephrine-atropine, exsanguination, pacing, ouabain and calcium on extraction using Rb-82 PET and Rb-86 acute studies with microspheres in dogs. Thoracotomies were performed for left atrial microsphere infusion. Anesthesia was by N/sub 2/O and methoxyflurane. The degree of exsanguination, drug levels administered and pacing rates were sufficient to produce flow modifications. Extraction was calculated by dividing FE from Rb observations by F from microsphere data. These results of extraction vs. flow do not show a significant dependence on the method used for flow modification. There was less than a 20% change in FE after an infusion of 0.04 mg/kg ouabain over 5 minutes in 3 replicate studies each on 4 dogs. An important finding not previously explained in flow vs. extraction studies is the occurrence of extraction values greater than 1.0 which is possible only if the distribution opportunities of small cations are greater than that of microspheres. This is equivalent to the well known hematocrit effect in small channels.

  12. The effects of arbitrary injection angle and flow conditions on venturi-jet mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararaj S.


    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of jet injection angle, cross flow Reynolds number and velocity ratio on entrainment and mixing of jet with incompressible cross flow in venturi-jet mixer. Five different jet injection angles 45o, 60o, 90o, 125o, 135o are tested to evaluate the entrainment of jet and mixing performances of the mixer. Tracer concentration along the downstream of the jet injection, cross flow velocity, jet velocity and pressure drop across the mixer are determined experimentally to characterize the mixing performance of the mixer. The experiments show that the performance of a venturi-jet-mixer substantially improves at high injection angle and can be augmented still by increasing velocity ratio. The jet deflects much and penetrates less in the cross flow as the cross flow Reynolds number is increased. The effect could contribute substantially to the better mixing index with moderate pressure drop. Normalized jet profile, concentration decay, jet velocity profile are computed from equations of conservation of mass, momentum and concentration written in natural co-ordinate systems. The comparison between the experimental and numerical results confirms the accuracy of the simulations. Correlations for jet trajectory and entrainment ratio of the mixer are obtained by multivariate-linear regression analysis using power law.

  13. Characteristics of slug flow in narrow rectangular channels under vertical condition (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Yan, Chaoxing; Tian, Daogui


    Gas-liquid slug flow is widely encountered in many practical industrial applications. A detailed understanding of the hydrodynamics of gas slug has important significance for modeling of the slug flow. Non-intrusive flow visualization using a high speed video camera system is applied to study characteristics of slug flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel (3.25×40 mm2). Ideal Taylor bubbles are hardly observed, and most of the gas slugs are deformed, much more seriously at high liquid superficial velocity. The liquid film thicknesses of left and right narrow sides surrounding gas slug are divergent and wavy, but it has weak effect on liquid film velocity. The gas and liquid velocity as well as the length of gas slug have significant effect on the separating liquid film thickness. The separating liquid film velocity is decreased with the increase of gas superficial velocity at low liquid velocity, and increased with the increase of liquid superficial velocity. The film stops descending and the gas superficial velocity has no significant effect on liquid film separating velocity at high liquid velocity (jL≥1.204 m/s), and it is mainly determined by the liquid flow rate. The shape of slug nose has a significant effect on its velocity, while the effect of its length is very weak. The Ishii&Jones-Zuber drift flux correlation could predict slug velocity well, except at low liquid superficial velocity by reason of that the calculated drift velocity is less than experimental values.

  14. Experimental study and empirical prediction of fuel flow parameters under air evolution conditions (United States)

    Kitanina, E. E.; Kitanin, E. L.; Bondarenko, D. A.; Kravtsov, P. A.; Peganova, M. M.; Stepanov, S. G.; Zherebzov, V. L.


    Air evolution in kerosene under the effect of gravity flow with various hydraulic resistances in the pipeline was studied experimentally. The study was conducted at pressure ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 bar and temperature varying between -20°C and +20°C. Through these experiments, the oversaturation limit beyond which dissolved air starts evolving intensively from the fuel was established and the correlations for the calculation of pressure losses and air evolution on local loss elements were obtained. A method of calculating two-phase flow behaviour in a titled pipeline segment with very low mass flow quality and fairly high volume flow quality was developed. The complete set of empirical correlations obtained by experimental analysis was implemented in the engineering code. The software simulation results were repeatedly verified against our experimental findings and Airbus test data to show that the two-phase flow simulation agrees quite well with the experimental results obtained in the complex branched pipelines.

  15. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip


    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  16. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions. (United States)

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo


    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identifyif there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of flow in teaching, means that the teacher has control in their actions, feel joy and a deep sense of satisfaction. The music teachers show a higher grade of satisfaction without an external reward. The teachers do not identify the loss of self-consciousness or inhibition or they do not maintain this dimension. The optimal experience and intrinsic motivation are highly related with satisfaction without external rewards in teacher and music teacher.

  18. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David


    were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...... for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5......A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast...

  19. Numerical analysis of high-speed Lithium jet flow under vacuum conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, Sergej, E-mail:; Groeschel, Friedrich; Stieglitz, Robert


    The EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) [1] is aimed at validating the hydraulic stability of the Lithium (Li) target at a velocity up to 20 m/s at vacuum (≈10{sup −3} Pa). The ELTL has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the major components providing a neutron production liquid Li target for IFMIF. The rectangular shaped Li jet (cross-section 25 mm × 100 mm) necessitates for heat removal flow velocities of 15–20 m/s along a concave shaped back wall (curvature radius 250 mm) towards the outlet pipe, where the Li jet is subjected to vacuum before it finally enters the collecting quench tank. During the validation experiments within the ELTL acoustic waves within the target outlet pipe have been recorded, indicating potential cavitation processes in the jet impinging region, which may cause premature failures. In order to identify potential cavitation phenomena in correlation with the free jet flow in the outlet pipe a numerical study has been performed. The comparison measured and simulated acoustic emissions exhibits that experimentally deduced cavitation area coincides with the location of the jet wall impingement. The simulations further reveal that a part of the fluid after striking the wall even flows opposite to the gravity vector. This reversed flow is inherently unstable and characterized by waves at first growing and then bursting into droplets. The intense generation of small droplets increases significantly the Li free surface area and lead to a production of Li vapour, which is captured by the jet flow and reintroduced in the main flow. As the static pressure is recovered downstream due to jet impact, the vapour bubbles collapse and hence cavitation likely occurs.

  20. Cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas: Effect of a boundary condition on the inverted velocity profile (United States)

    Kosuge, Shingo


    The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated under the following two kinds of kinetic boundary conditions. One is the modified Maxwell-type boundary condition proposed by Dadzie and Méolans [J. Math. Phys. 45, 1804 (2004), 10.1063/1.1690491] and the other is the Cercignani-Lampis condition, both of which have separate accommodation coefficients associated with the molecular velocity component normal to the boundary and with the tangential component. An asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation for small Knudsen numbers and a numerical analysis of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model equation for a wide range of the Knudsen number are performed to clarify the effect of each accommodation coefficient as well as of the boundary condition itself on the behavior of the gas, especially on the flow-velocity profile. As a result, the velocity-slip and temperature-jump conditions corresponding to the above kinetic boundary conditions are derived, which are necessary for the fluid-dynamic description of the problem for small Knudsen numbers. The parameter range for the onset of the velocity inversion phenomenon, which is related mainly to the decrease in the tangential momentum accommodation, is also obtained.

  1. Comparative evaluation of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors with antiplatelet agents under flow and static conditions: an in vitro flow chamber model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. The aim of this study is to elucidate antithrombotic properties of these anticoagulant agents under arterial and venous shear conditions. Whole blood samples treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban at 250, 500, and 1000 nM, with/without aspirin and AR-C66096, a P2Y12 antagonist, were perfused over a microchip coated with collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates of 240 and 600 s(-1. Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was quantified by monitoring flow pressure changes. Dabigatran at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 nM potently inhibited thrombus formation at both shear rates, whereas 1000 nM of rivaroxaban delayed, but did not completely inhibit, thrombus formation. Dual antiplatelet agents weakly suppressed thrombus formation at both shear rates, but intensified the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. The anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were also evaluated under static conditions using thrombin generation (TG assay. In platelet-poor plasma, dabigatran at 250 and 500 nM efficiently prolonged the lag time (LT and moderately reduce peak height (PH of TG, whereas rivaroxaban at 250 nM efficiently prolonged LT and reduced PH of TG. In platelet-rich plasma, however, both anticoagulants efficiently delayed LT and reduced PH of TG. Our results suggest that dabigatran and rivaroxaban may exert distinct antithrombotic effects under flow conditions, particularly in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy.

  2. Transient flow conditions change how we should think about WHPA delineation: a joint frequency and probability analysis (United States)

    Rodriguez Pretelin (1), Abelardo; Nowak (1), Wolfgang


    Well head protection areas (WHPAs) are frequently used as safety measures for drinking water wells, preventing them from being polluted by restricting land use activities in their proximities. Two sources of uncertainty are involved during delineation: 1) uncertainty in aquifer parameters and 2) time-varying groundwater flow scenarios and their own inherent uncertainties. The former has been studied by Enzenhoefer et al (2012 [1] and 2014 [2]) as probabilistic risk version of WHPA delineation. The latter is frequently neglected and replaced by steady-state assumptions; thereby ignoring time-variant flow conditions triggered either by anthropogenic causes or climatic conditions. In this study we analyze the influence of transient flow considerations in WHPA delineation, following annual seasonality behavior; with transiency represented by four transient conditions: (I) regional groundwater flow direction, (II) strength of the regional hydraulic gradient, (III) natural recharge to the groundwater and (IV) pumping rate. Addressing WHPA delineation in transient flow scenarios is computationally expensive. Thus, we develop an efficient method using a dynamic superposition of steady-state flow solutions coupled with a reversed formulation of advective-dispersive transport based on a Lagrangian particle tracking with continuous injection. This analysis results in a time-frequency map of pixel-wise membership to the well catchment. Additional to transient flow conditions, we recognize two sources of uncertainty, inexact knowledge of transient drivers and parameters. The uncertainties are accommodated through Monte Carlo simulation. With the help of a global sensitivity analysis, we investigate the impact of transiency in WHPA solutions. In particular, we evaluate: (1) Among all considered transients, which ones are the most influential. (2) How influential in WHPA delineation is the transience-related uncertainty compared to aquifer parameter uncertainty. Literature [1] R

  3. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall. (United States)

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J


    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  4. Experiments on the flow past long circular cylinders in a shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hydromechanik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helmut-Schmidt-Universitaet, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Rodi, W. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hydromechanik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Szepessy, S. [Alfa Laval, Tumba (Sweden); Badran, O. [Al-Balqa' Applied University, FET, Amman (Jordan)


    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the flow past circular cylinders, with the mean flow perpendicular to the cylinder axis, at conditions that yield a strong three-dimensional behaviour. The experiments were carried out in the subcritical regime. Long cylinders with end plates were subjected to shear flow with a linear velocity profile in the spanwise direction generated by means of a curved gauze. It was concluded that spanwise cellular structures of vortex shedding emerged in the wake, more clearly for some boundary conditions than others. These structures are characterised by a portion of spanwise length, a cell, having constant shedding frequency over a time average, which implies that there were no vortex dislocations inside that cell during that time. These features were studied using flow visualisation and hot-film anemometry. Spectra of the local shedding frequency are shown, revealing the effect of the shear parameter {beta}(=0.02 and 0.04) and aspect ratio L/D(=20.6 and 8) on the stability and geometry of the cells at several Reynolds numbers in the range of 3.13 x 10{sup 3}{<=}Re{sub m}{<=}1.25 x 10{sup 4}. (orig.)

  5. Influence of main parameters of a parallel-plate dialyzer under laminar flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.


    A mathematical model describing the mass transfer in a parallel-plate dialyser with co-current laminar flow in both channels based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Fick's second law was developed. Numerical solutions are presented for pulse- and stepwise concentration changes of the solute in one

  6. Methylation of 2-Naphthol Using Dimethyl Carbonate under Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Conditions