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Sample records for subcortical frontal lobe

  1. Temporal Lobe and Frontal-Subcortical Dissociations in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease with Verbal Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jared J; Mareci, Thomas H; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn; Libon, David J; Price, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examined verbal memory in idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson's disease and the significance of the left entorhinal cortex and left entorhinal-retrosplenial region connections (via temporal cingulum) on memory impairment in Parkinson's disease. Forty non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and forty non-Parkinson's disease controls completed two verbal memory tests--a wordlist measure (Philadelphia repeatable Verbal Memory Test) and a story measure (Logical Memory). All participants received T1-weighted and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (3T; Siemens) sequences. Left entorhinal volume and left entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity (temporal cingulum edge weight) were the primary imaging variables of interest with frontal lobe thickness and subcortical structure volumes as dissociating variables. Individuals with Parkinson's disease showed worse verbal memory, smaller entorhinal volumes, but did not differ in entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity. For Parkinson's disease entorhinal-retrosplenial edge weight had the strongest associations with verbal memory. A subset of Parkinson's disease patients (23%) had deficits (z-scores frontal-subcortical gray or frontal white matter regions. These findings argue for additional investigation into medial temporal lobe gray and white matter connectivity for understanding memory in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Temporal Lobe and Frontal-Subcortical Dissociations in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease with Verbal Memory Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared J Tanner

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined verbal memory in idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson's disease and the significance of the left entorhinal cortex and left entorhinal-retrosplenial region connections (via temporal cingulum on memory impairment in Parkinson's disease.Forty non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and forty non-Parkinson's disease controls completed two verbal memory tests--a wordlist measure (Philadelphia repeatable Verbal Memory Test and a story measure (Logical Memory. All participants received T1-weighted and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (3T; Siemens sequences. Left entorhinal volume and left entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity (temporal cingulum edge weight were the primary imaging variables of interest with frontal lobe thickness and subcortical structure volumes as dissociating variables.Individuals with Parkinson's disease showed worse verbal memory, smaller entorhinal volumes, but did not differ in entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity. For Parkinson's disease entorhinal-retrosplenial edge weight had the strongest associations with verbal memory. A subset of Parkinson's disease patients (23% had deficits (z-scores < -1.5 across both memory measures. Relative to non-impaired Parkinson's peers, this memory-impaired group had smaller entorhinal volumes.Although entorhinal cortex volume was significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease patients relative to non-Parkinson's peers, only white matter connections associated with the entorhinal cortex were significantly associated with verbal memory performance in our sample. There was also no suggestion of contribution from frontal-subcortical gray or frontal white matter regions. These findings argue for additional investigation into medial temporal lobe gray and white matter connectivity for understanding memory in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors, stroke, infection or traumatic injuries — in the brain's frontal lobes. Frontal lobe seizures are also associated with a rare inherited disorder called autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. If one of your ...

  4. Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryvlin, Philippe; Rheims, Sylvain; Risse, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a condition primarily characterized by seizures occurring exclusively or predominantly during sleep, the semiology of which suggest a frontal lobe origin and, more specifically, the involvement...

  5. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're having signs or symptoms of a seizure. Call 911 or call for emergency medical help if you observe someone having a ... which seizure activity lasts much longer than usual. Seizures that last longer than ... emergency. Injury. The motions that occur during frontal lobe ...

  6. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  7. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A

    2012-10-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  8. Chapter 35: the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The frontal lobes occupy an exalted position in neuroscience. The largest and most recently evolved of the cerebrum's four lobes, these regions have long been regarded as harboring unique capacities most specific to the human mind. Understanding has been steadily developed, but a unitary function that captures the role of the frontal lobes has proven elusive. In antiquity, Hippocrates and Galen speculated that mental activities were located in the brain, and in the Renaissance, Leonardo and Vesalius made important advances in brain neuroanatomy. The 17th century witnessed Willis recognizing frontal brain regions, and in the 18th, Swedenborg first associated these areas with intellect. Defined neuroanatomically by Chaussier in 1807, the frontal lobes were soon assigned higher faculties by Gall and Spurzheim, and later, the case of Phineas Gage and the work of Broca clarified comportmental and linguistic dimensions of frontal lobe function. In the 20th century, progress came with Luria's observations of frontal lobe injuries and from the psychosurgery era, followed by contributions of behavioral neurology, neuroimaging, and neuroanatomy, which helped delineate frontal regions, circuits, and networks relevant to specific cognitive and emotional operations. Today, a host of important societal implications merit attention as neuroscientific investigation continues to enrich knowledge of the frontal lobes by identifying the basis of singular human behaviors.

  9. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  10. Historical Evolution of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of

  11. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  12. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  13. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome : Results of a Large Brain Bank Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Bosman, Sjanne; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Verwey, Nicolaas A; Stek, Max L; Scheltens, Philip; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: A clinical frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is generally attributed to functional or structural disturbances within frontal-subcortical circuits. We studied the distribution of pathological brain changes in FLS. Additionally, the prevalence of FLS among various disorders was studied. METHODS: We

  14. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

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    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail: mnaik@broadpark.no; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  16. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions ADNFLE Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy ( ADNFLE ) is an uncommon form of epilepsy ...

  20. Transcortical sensory aphasia due to a left frontal subcortical haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, S; Kuwata, T; Masuo, O; Yamaga, H; Okita, R; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H; Roger, P

    1999-11-01

    A case of transcortical sensory aphasia caused by a cerebral haemorrhage in the left frontal lobe is presented. A 72-year-old right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital, with a history of acute onset of speech disturbance and headache. On initial assessment, her spontaneous speech was fluent. She had no difficulty initiating speech, articulated normally, and did not exhibit logorrhea. Her ability to repeat phonemes and short sentences (5-6 words) was fully preserved, however she had severe difficulty with visual recognition of words, and with aural comprehension at the word level, although she was able to read words aloud. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebral haemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, involving the superior and middle frontal gyrus. Single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left frontal lobe, including the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyrus. The aphasia symptoms, mainly poor comprehension, disappeared quickly several weeks after the event. This may have been due to a reduction in the size of the haematoma and a resolution of the oedema around the haematoma. Clinically, the transcortical sensory aphasia in this case was indistinguishable from that caused by damage to the posterior language areas. Further case reports of transcortical sensory aphasia associated with frontal lobe lesions would help to confirm whether a relatively rapid recovery is characteristic in cases such as this.

  1. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  2. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura, psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  3. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  5. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  6. [Transcortical sensory aphasia in a patient with metastatic brain tumor in the left frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Maeshima, S; Nakai, M; Ozaki, F; Itakura, T; Komai, N; Kuriyama, T

    1994-11-01

    We reported a case of a 62-year-old right-handed woman who had transcortical sensory aphasia caused by a metastatic brain tumor in the left frontal lobe. She had mild right hemiparesis involving the face, without hyperactive tendon reflexes. She had neither sensory disturbance nor other cranial nerve deficits. Her spontaneous speech was fluent, and she sometimes had echolalia. Her object naming, word fluency, verbal comprehension and writing were severely disturbed. This contrasted with full preservation of repetition of phonemes and short sentences. Reading of words was preserved. CT scan revealed a subcortical lesion in the left superior frontal gyrus. Gd-enhanced MRI showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in the frontal lobe outside of Broca's area. We thereby concluded that transcortical sensory aphasia may be caused by frontal lobe lesion independent of the perisylvian speech areas.

  7. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  8. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  9. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  10. Asymmetrical involvement of frontal lobes in social reasoning.

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    Goel, Vinod; Shuren, Jeffrey; Sheesley, Laura; Grafman, Jordan

    2004-04-01

    The frontal lobes are widely implicated in logical reasoning. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and increases with the presence of familiar, meaningful content in the reasoning situation. However, neuroimaging data can only provide sufficiency criteria. To determine the necessity of prefrontal involvement in logical reasoning, we tested 19 patients with focal frontal lobe lesions and 19 age- and education-matched normal controls on the Wason Card Selection Task, while manipulating social knowledge. Patients and controls performed equivalently on the arbitrary rule condition. Normal controls showed the expected improvement in the social knowledge conditions, but frontal lobe patients failed to show this facilitation in performance. Furthermore, left hemisphere patients were more affected than right hemisphere patients, suggesting that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and necessary for reasoning about social situations.

  11. Clinical seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia Beatrice; Lurger, Stefanie; Zimprich, Fritz; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Baumgartner, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    We systematically analyzed the lateralizing value of clinical seizure semiology in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We studied the incidence, positive predictive value (PPV), and the lateralizing significance of various clinical symptoms in 228 seizures (s) of 31 patients (p) with medically refractory FLE (17 with left-sided and 14 with right-sided seizure onset). Seizures recorded during prolonged video-EEG monitoring were assessed by two independent reviewers blinded for the patient's clinical data. Analysis was performed both for patients and seizures. Version [16 p (52%); PPV, 94%; p=0.001; 47 s (21%); PPV, 75%; p=0.001], unilateral clonic movements [16 p (52%); PPV, 81%; p=0.021; 32 s (14%); PPV, 81%; p=0.001], unilateral dystonic posturing [eight p (26%); PPV, 75%; p=0.289; 46 s (20%); PPV, 80%; p=0.001], unilateral tonic posturing [10 p (32%); PPV, 80%; p=0.109; 19 s (7.4%); PPV, 79%; p=0.019], and unilateral grimacing [10 p (32%); PPV, 100%; p=0.002; 19 s (8%); PPV, 100%; p=0.001] were of lateralizing significance, indicating a contralateral seizure onset. Asymmetric ending [five p (16%); PPV, 80%; p=0.375; nine s (4%); PPV, 89%; p=0.039] after secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly associated with an ipsilateral seizure onset. Pure ictal vocalizations occurred significantly more frequently in seizures of right hemispheric onset [13 p (42%); PPV, 62%; p=0.581; 63 s (28%); PPV, 73%; p=0. 001], whereas in individual patients, this symptom showed no lateralizing significance. The remaining clinical symptoms (figure 4 sign, unilateral hand automatisms, early head turning, postictal nose wiping, and unilateral eye blinking) were not of lateralizing significance in our patients. The results of clinical seizure lateralization corresponded with the final lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in 81% of our patients. Clinical seizure semiology can provide correct information on the lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in >80

  12. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  13. Prognostic factors in presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, C.; Engelsman, J; Alarcon, G; Binnie, C.; Polkey, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine predictors for surgical outcome in the presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy.
METHODS—Thirty seven patients were operated on for frontal lobe epilepsy between 1975 and 1996. Their medical records were reviewed for ictal semiology, age at onset, duration of the epilepsy, age at operation, preoperative interictal and ictal encephalographic findings, and abnormalities on neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing. In addition, type of re...

  14. Case Report: Frontal lobe tuberculoma: A clinical and imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal ...

  15. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  16. Impulsivity, Frontal Lobes and Risk for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton Timm; Boettiger, Charlotte Ann

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and substance abuse disorders involve continued use of substances despite negative consequences, i.e. loss of behavioral control of drug use. The frontal cortical areas of brain oversee behavioral control through executive functions. Executive functions include abstract thinking, motivation, planning, attention to tasks and inhibition of impulsive responses. Impulsiveness generally refers to premature, unduly risky, poorly conceived actions. Dysfunctional impulsivity includes deficits...

  17. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  18. Frontal lobe epilepsy manifesting with seizures consisting of isolated vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Ricardo; Arnold, Stephan; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2006-12-01

    Vocalizations may occur in focal epileptic seizures, which typically arise from frontal and temporal regions. They are commonly associated with other motor phenomena such as automatisms, tonic posturing, or head version. We report on a patient whose seizures were documented by video-EEG monitoring, but in whom the observable ictal semiology consisted solely of a brief, monotonous vocalization. Ictal EEGs showed left frontal seizure patterns. Isolated vocalizations can constitute an ictal epileptic event and may be the only observable clinical manifestation of a left frontal lobe epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  19. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2013-11-16

    The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility, motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB conceptualization score, as well as for the FAB inhibitory control score. Furthermore, the FAB conceptualization and mental flexibility scores were sensitive to damage of the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA9). Finally, the FAB inhibitory control score was sensitive to damage of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA44/45). These findings indicate that several FAB scores (including composite and item scores) provide valid measures of right hemispheric lateral frontal lobe dysfunction, specifically of focal lesions near the anterior insula, in the MFG and in the IFG.

  20. Apolipoprotein E gene and sporadic frontal lobe dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stevens (Martijn); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. de Knijff (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); J.C. van Swieten (John); P. Heutink (Peter); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe apolipoprotein E gene has been associated with various types of dementia. We studied the connection between the APOE gene and the risk and onset of disease in 34 patients with clinically diagnosed frontal lobe dementia (FLD) derived from a population-based study in the Netherlands. A

  1. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  3. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  4. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  5. [Assessing frontal lobe function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by frontal assessment battery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Obi, Tomokazu; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Mizoguchi, Kouichi

    2010-06-01

    Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is short neuropsychological battery for the bed side screening of frontal lobe function. Several studies have indicated that frontal lobe dysfunction is the main neuropsychological feature in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We examined frontal lobe function in patients with ALS and in age-matched normal subjects by using the FAB. We examined 24 patients with sporadic ALS aged 66.0 +/- 10.1 years, with a mean disease duration of 2.0 +/- 0.7 years, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of > or = 24, a normal self-rating depression score, no dyspnea, and no or only slight disturbances in speech, cutting food, and handling utensils on the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Total FAB score, similarity score, and lexical fluency score were significantly lower in ALS patients. Total FAB score did not correlate with age, disease duration, ALS Functional Rating Scale, spirometry, or blood gas analyses. These results suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ALS patients.

  6. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  7. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. Subcortical frontal lesions on MRI in patients with motor neurone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadou, E.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Varelas, P.; Papageorgiou, C. [Eginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [Department of Radiology, CT/MRI Unit, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens (Greece)

    1998-05-01

    MRI was performed in 32 patients with motor neurone disease (26 men and 6 women, aged 40-77 years) and in a control group of 21 subjects. Of the patients studied, 19 had definite and 11 probable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and two had progressive bulbar palsy. In 10 patients there were asymmetrical bilateral foci of increased signal intensity on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted images, confined to the white matter. Two patients had only cortical frontal atrophy and slightly increased ventricular size, whereas 20 had normal MRI. The focal lesions were not confined to corticospinal tracts, but were also observed in subcortical frontal areas. While the lesions along the corticospinal tracts correspond to pyramidal tract degeneration, the subcortical foci correlate with degeneration of the frontal bundles and indicate generalised involvement of the central nervous system. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  9. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  10. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G; Lundberg, Kelly J; McGlade, Erin C; Hellem, Tracy L; Huber, Rebekah S; Fiedler, Kristen K; Harrell, Renee E; Nickerson, Bethany R; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with high-energy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0g) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7g), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=.02). The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.

    1988-12-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  12. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  13. The role of frontal-subcortical circuits in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Kutlubaev

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concise review of investigations into the role of impaired frontal-subcortical circuits in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It gives data on the frequency of neurosis-like symptoms of the OCD spectrum in neurological diseases.The development of OCD is associated with an imbalance between the activity of the direct (activating) and indirect (inhibitory) pathways of the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical feedback loop. These data are confirmed by the r...

  14. Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: frontal lobe deficits and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S; Pearce, S

    1996-04-01

    The validity of psycholinguistic theories of sarcasm was explored by examining subjects with mainly frontal lobe (FL) damage and concomitant concreteness of thought. The majority of FL subjects could interpret consistent verbal exchanges but not literally contradictory (sarcastic) verbal exchanges which implied that the literal meaning of a sarcastic comment needs to be rejected in order for the inference to be detected. Subsidiary analyses confirmed that failure on sarcasm tasks was associated with poor conceptual skills. Ability to process attitude was not associated with success at recognizing sarcasm. This suggested that attitude is not pivotal to the detection of sarcastic inference.

  15. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  16. Prognostic factors in presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, C H; Engelsman, J; Alarcón, G; Binnie, C D; Polkey, C E

    1999-03-01

    To determine predictors for surgical outcome in the presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy. Thirty seven patients were operated on for frontal lobe epilepsy between 1975 and 1996. Their medical records were reviewed for ictal semiology, age at onset, duration of the epilepsy, age at operation, preoperative interictal and ictal encephalographic findings, and abnormalities on neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing. In addition, type of resection and pathology were compared with surgical outcome. Univariate statistical analysis showed that the presence of a focal abnormality on neuroimaging was associated with favourable outcome. The presence of the following ictal findings was associated with poor outcome: autonomic manifestations, eye deviation, head version contralateral to the operated side, and bilateral or multifocal ictal onset. Fifteen patients had secondarily generalised interictal discharges and, interestingly, their presence was not associated with poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of a focal abnormality on neuroimaging was significantly associated with a favourable outcome while contralateral head version was the only variable significantly associated with poor surgical outcome. A focal abnormality on neuroimaging was the only variable which was significantly associated with a favourable surgical outcome, whereas contralateral head version was the most significant predictor for a poor outcome. The presence of generalised discharges before surgery was not associated with poor outcome.

  17. Obsessions appear after the removal a brain tumor in the right frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    A series of case reports and neuroimaging research points to the underlying neuropathological substrate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the underlying associations between OCD and areas of the frontal lobe. We report a patient wherein the onset of OCD occurred after resection of meningioma of the right frontal lobe and who was treated successfully with paroxetine hydrochloride. We suggest that the onset of secondary (organic) OCD is associated with the frontal lobe, and we propose that the origin of obsessions is located in the right frontal lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Human Frontal Lobes and Frontal Network Systems: An Evolutionary, Clinical, and Treatment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe syndromes, better termed as frontal network systems, are relatively unique in that they may manifest from almost any brain region, due to their widespread connectivity. The understandings of the manifold expressions seen clinically are helped by considering evolutionary origins, the contribution of the state-dependent ascending monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and cerebral connectivity. Hence, the so-called networktopathies may be a better term for the syndromes encountered clinically. An increasing array of metric tests are becoming available that complement that long standing history of qualitative bedside assessments pioneered by Alexander Luria, for example. An understanding of the vast panoply of frontal systems' syndromes has been pivotal in understanding and diagnosing the most common dementia syndrome under the age of 60, for example, frontotemporal lobe degeneration. New treatment options are also progressively becoming available, with recent evidence of dopaminergic augmentation, for example, being helpful in traumatic brain injury. The latter include not only psychopharmacological options but also device-based therapies including mirror visual feedback therapy. PMID:23577266

  19. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventromedial frontal lobe damage disrupts value maximization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille, Nathalie; Griffiths, Cathryn A; Vo, Khoi; Fellows, Lesley K; Kable, Joseph W

    2011-05-18

    Recent work in neuroeconomics has shown that regions in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex encode the subjective value of different options during choice. However, these electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies cannot demonstrate whether such signals are necessary for value-maximizing choices. Here we used a paradigm developed in experimental economics to empirically measure and quantify violations of utility theory in humans with damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF). We show that people with such damage are more likely to make choices that violate the generalized axiom of revealed preference, which is the one necessary and sufficient condition for choices to be consistent with value maximization. These results demonstrate that the VMF plays a critical role in value-maximizing choice.

  1. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Y Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.

  2. Seizure semiology of lesional frontal lobe epilepsies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D; Lettori, D; Contaldo, I; Veredice, C; Sacco, A; Vasco, J; Martinelli, D; Chieffo, D; Tartaglione, T; Colosimo, C; Di Rocco, C; Guzzetta, F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the semiology of seizures in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and to compare them with other paediatric cohorts described in the literature as well as with adult counterparts. We analysed 174 registered seizures of 18 cases under 12 years with lesional epilepsy whose frontal origin was defined by the concordance of neuroimaging and ictal electrographic findings, and confirmed by surgery in the six cases operated on. Seizures were generally short, with a high daily frequency and usually related to sleep. The most characteristic semiological pattern consisted of complex motor seizures, particularly hypermotor. Often seizures corresponded to a mixture of different semiological patterns (tonic, gelastic, automotor, hypermotor, versive) presenting in the same seizure, often as a unique type in the same patient. With regard to several aspects the semiology of FLE in our cohort looks like that reported in adult series, in particular as to the frequency of complex motor seizures. However, our cohort was also characterised by a more protean array of seizure semiology, stressing the occurrence of seizures typically present in adults (versive and complex motor) and of some seizure patterns more characteristic in children such as epileptic spasms; moreover, the rare occurrence of secondarily generalised tonic clonic seizures (SGTCS) was confirmed.

  3. Mother and daughter with adolescent-onset severe frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Passos, Giordani Rodrigues; Fernández, Alonso Cuadrado; Vasques, Adriana Machado; Martins, William Alves; Palmini, André

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Familial cases of early-onset prominent frontal lobe dysfunction associated with epilepsy have not been reported to date. We report a mother and her only daughter with incapacitating behavioral manifestations of frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy of variable severity. The possibility of a hitherto undescribed genetic condition is discussed. PMID:29213461

  4. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  5. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  6. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co-existing in frontal lobe of human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue

    2013-09-01

    Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co-existed inside one frontal lobe. This neuron system is particularly for human beings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered synchrony and loss of consciousness during frontal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Lambert, Isabelle; Wendling, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2016-02-01

    Loss of consciousness (LOC) in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has been rarely specifically studied until now. In this study we evaluated the LOC in a population of patients with FLE and studied the relationship between changes in synchrony and degree of LOC. 24 patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during pre-surgical evaluation of FLE were studied. The LOC intensity was scored using the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS). For each studied seizure (n=52), interdependencies between signals recorded from 5 brain regions were estimated as a function of time by using non-linear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient). Seizures were divided into 3 groups according to the CSS scale: group A (no LOC) with a score ⩽2, group B (intermediate or partial LOC) with a score ranging from 3 to 5, and group C (maximal LOC) with a score ⩾6. The majority of seizures in FLE patients disclosed significant LOC, particularly for patients with prefrontal lobe seizures. Mean correlation values were significantly different between groups A and C (p<0.001), the maximal values of synchrony being observed in group C. Differences were significant for interaction affecting the external prefrontal cortex (p=0.004) (p=0.01) and the parietal cortex. In addition, a significant correlation was found between CSS scores and correlations values (h(2)) of the prefrontal and the parietal region but not with the premotor cortex. This study indicates that in FLE, prefrontal seizures frequently alter consciousness. As in other focal seizures, LOC appears to be related to changes in synchrony in prefrontal and parietal associative cortices. LOC in FLE is frequent and as in other focal epilepsies is related to an alteration of prefrontal-parietal network. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  9. A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steffen A; Hall, Rebecca; Hund, Lauren; Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hurley, Timothy; Holbrook, Bradley D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2017-01-01

    While prenatal 3D ultrasonography results in improved diagnostic accuracy, no data are available on biometric assessment of the fetal frontal lobe. This study was designed to assess feasibility of a standardized approach to biometric measurement of the fetal frontal lobe and to construct frontal lobe growth trajectories throughout gestation. A sonographic 3D volume set was obtained and measured in 101 patients between 16.1 and 33.7 gestational weeks. Measurements were obtained by two independent raters. To model the relationship between gestational age and each frontal lobe measurement, flexible linear regression models were fit using penalized regression splines. The sample contained an ethnically diverse population (7.9% Native Americans, 45.5% Hispanic/Latina). There was high inter-rater reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.95, 1.0, and 0.87 for frontal lobe length, width, and height; p-values frontal lobe growth were 0.096 cm/week, 0.247 cm/week, and 0.111 cm/week for length, width, and height. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine fetal frontal lobe growth trajectories through 3D prenatal ultrasound examination. Such normative data will allow for future prenatal evaluation of a particular disease state by 3D ultrasound imaging.

  10. Patterns of verbal learning and memory in children with intractable temporal lobe or frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Amanda; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the verbal learning and memory (VLM) patterns that might differentiate children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) from children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to examine the impact of variables thought to influence outcomes (seizure laterality, age at seizure onset, age at assessment, epilepsy duration, number of antiepileptic drugs). Retrospective analyses were carried out for children with intractable unilateral TLE (n=100) and FLE (n=27) who completed standardized measures of VLM entailing lists of single words or lists of word pairs. Mean intelligent quotients and VLM scores on single words fell within the average range for both groups, whereas scores fell within the low average to borderline range on word pairs. No significant overall differences in VLM were found between the group with TLE and the group with FLE. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset were generally associated with better VLM in both groups but were related to better performance in a number of indices in the group with TLE and only fewer intrusions in the group with FLE. The VLM profiles of children with TLE and FLE are generally similar. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset have a favorable impact on both groups but are related to better encoding, retrieval, and monitoring processes for the group with TLE and improved memory monitoring (i.e., as indicated by fewer intrusions) in the group with FLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frontal lobe function in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akiko; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Masato; Iida, Junzo; Jikumaru, Kiyoko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    Understanding of the relationship between caregiver burden and the degree of behavioural deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is relatively limited. Therefore, it is worthwhile to examine the correlations between the various relevant factors to improve the efficacy of care for patients with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contributions of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients to caregiver burden, while controlling for other predictor variables. Participants included 30 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD. The Zarit Burden Interview and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to measure the caregiver burden and patients' frontal lobe function, respectively. To investigate the effects of frontal lobe dysfunction on caregiver burden, hierarchical regression equations with steps incorporating additional predictor variables were fitted. We also performed a correlation analysis between the individual subdomains of the Zarit Burden Interview and the predictor variables. Our study suggests that the degree of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients predicts their caregiver burden, when other factors of daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms are controlled. Daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms affected caregivers' psychosocial burden, whereas frontal lobe dysfunction affected caregivers' burden due to the increase in the dependency of the patients. Our findings indicate that to ameliorate the disabilities of patients and reduce caregiver burden, there is a need for interventions that focus on psychosocial burdens, as shown in previous studies, as well as on excessive dependency due to frontal lobe dysfunction. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. [Planning disorders in men with schizophrenia and in men with localized frontal lobe lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Łukasz; Rutkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Planning disorders have been observed in people with frontal lobe lesions for many decades. There's also growing body of evidence of frontal dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the planning abilities in men with schizophrenia, men with localized frontal lobe lesions and healthy men. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Planning abilities were assessed with a clinical trial based on Tower of London task. Significant differences in ToL measures were found between controls and men with schizophrenia (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesions (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesion groups. Similar deficits in planning and solving problems, which require planning, may be observed in men with schizophrenia and men with frontal lobe lesions. In both groups time spent on thinking is less effective than in healthy men. Not only quantitative, but also qualitative assessment should be carried when examining patients' performance on Tower of London task.

  13. Effect of phenylephrine vs. ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Visti T; Christensen, Robin; Rokamp, Kim Z

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During caesarean section spinal anesthesia may provoke maternal hypotension that we prevent by administration of phenylephrine and/or ephedrine. Phenylephrine is however reported to reduce the near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) but whether...... anesthesia, ephedrine maintains frontal lobe oxygenation and maternal heart rate with a similar increase in fetal heart rate as elicited by phenylephrine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT 01509521 and EudraCT 2001 006103 35....

  14. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  15. Frontal lobe function and behavioral changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Huang, Rui; Guo, XiaoYan; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-12-01

    Despite growing interest, the frequency and characteristics of frontal lobe functional and behavioral deficits in Chinese people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as their impact on the survival of ALS patients, remain unknown. The Chinese version of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) were used to evaluate 126 sporadic ALS patients and 50 healthy controls. The prevalence of frontal lobe dysfunction was 32.5%. The most notable impairment domain of the FAB was lexical fluency (30.7%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that an onset age older than 45 years (OR 5.976, P = 0.002) and a lower educational level (OR 0.858, P = 0.002) were potential determinants of an abnormal FAB. Based on the FBI score, 46.0% of patients showed varied degrees of frontal behavioral changes. The most common impaired neurobehavioral domains were irritability (25.4%), logopenia (20.6%) and apathy (19.0%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scale score (OR 0.127, P = 0.001) was a potential determinant of an abnormal FBI. Frontal functional impairment and the severity of frontal behavioral changes were not associated with the survival status or the progression of ALS by the cox proportional hazard model and multivariate regression analyses, respectively. Frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal behavioral changes are common in Chinese ALS patients. Frontal lobe dysfunction may be related to the onset age and educational level. The severity of frontal behavioral changes may be associated with the ALSFRS-R. However, the frontal functional impairment and the frontal behavioral changes do not worsen the progression or survival of ALS.

  16. Frontal Lobe Decortication (Frontal Lobectomy with Ventricular Preservation) in Epilepsy-Part 1: Anatomic Landmarks and Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hung Tzu; Da Róz, Leila Maria; Rhoton, Albert L; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2017-02-01

    An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is a paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. We sought to present the anatomic landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals were to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserve the frontal horn. The anatomic study was based on dissections performed in 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads. The clinical experience with 15 patients is summarized. FLD consists of 5 steps: 1) coagulation and section of arterial branches of lateral surface; 2) paramedian subpial resection 3 cm ahead of the precentral sulcus to reach the genu of corpus callosum; 3) resection of gray matter of lateral surface, preserving the frontal horn; 4) removal of gray matter of basal surface preserving olfactory tract; 5) removal of gray matter of the medial surface under the rostrum of corpus callosum. The frontal horn was preserved in all 15 patients; 12 patients (80%) had no complications; 2 patients presented temporary hemiparesis; and 1 Rasmussen syndrome patient developed postoperative fever. The best seizure control was in cases with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities limited to the frontal lobe. FLD is an anatomy-based surgical technique for extensive frontal lobe resection. It presents reliable anatomic landmarks, selective gray matter removal, preservation of frontal horn, and low complication rate in our series. It can be an alternative option to the classical frontal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Necessary Contributions of Human Frontal Lobe Subregions to Reward Learning in a Dynamic, Multidimensional Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-09-21

    Real-world decisions are typically made between options that vary along multiple dimensions, requiring prioritization of the important dimensions to support optimal choice. Learning in this setting depends on attributing decision outcomes to the dimensions with predictive relevance rather than to dimensions that are irrelevant and nonpredictive. This attribution problem is computationally challenging, and likely requires an interplay between selective attention and reward learning. Both these processes have been separately linked to the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about how they combine to support learning the reward value of multidimensional stimuli. Here, we examined the necessary contributions of frontal lobe subregions in attributing feedback to relevant and irrelevant dimensions on a trial-by-trial basis in humans. Patients with focal frontal lobe damage completed a demanding reward learning task where options varied on three dimensions, only one of which predicted reward. Participants with left lateral frontal lobe damage attributed rewards to irrelevant dimensions, rather than the relevant dimension. Damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe also impaired learning about the relevant dimension, but did not increase reward attribution to irrelevant dimensions. The results argue for distinct roles for these two regions in learning the value of multidimensional decision options under dynamic conditions, with the lateral frontal lobe required for selecting the relevant dimension to associate with reward, and the ventromedial frontal lobe required to learn the reward association itself. The real world is complex and multidimensional; how do we attribute rewards to predictive features when surrounded by competing cues? Here, we tested the critical involvement of human frontal lobe subregions in a probabilistic, multidimensional learning environment, asking whether focal lesions affected trial-by-trial attribution of feedback to relevant and irrelevant

  18. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  19. The role of frontal-subcortical circuits in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kutlubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concise review of investigations into the role of impaired frontal-subcortical circuits in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. It gives data on the frequency of neurosis-like symptoms of the OCD spectrum in neurological diseases.The development of OCD is associated with an imbalance between the activity of the direct (activating and indirect (inhibitory pathways of the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical feedback loop. These data are confirmed by the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies in patients with OCD. The frequency of OCD symptoms is high in organic brain lesions. OCP may be a manifestation of neurological diseases so their timely detection is an important aspect of a neurologist's work. The treatment of patients with neurosis-like disorders of the OCD spectrum within neurological diseases requires a multidisciplinary approach with the participation of a neurologist, a psychiatrist/psychotherapist, and a psychologist. It is necessary to combine pathogenetic treatment of the underlying disease and its neurosis-like manifestations. 

  20. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  1. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Austin; Morganti, Josh M; Rosi, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  2. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  3. Quantitative electroencephalographic and neuropsychological investigation of an alternative measure of frontal lobe executive functions: the Figure Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Ferguson, Brad J; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Harrison, David W

    2015-12-01

    The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men. The results indicated a significant relationship between the FTMT and both the TMT and the RFFT. Performance on the FTMT was also related to high beta EEG over the right frontal lobe. Thus, the FTMT appears to be an equivalent measure of executive functioning that may be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Applications for use in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other patient populations are discussed.

  4. Relationships of Behavioral Measures of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction with Underlying Electrophysiology in Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjini, Klevest; Qazi, Aisha; Greenwald, Mark K.; Sandhu, Ravinder; Gooding, Diane C.; Boutros, Nash N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite evidence that frontal lobe functioning is impaired in cocaine-dependent individuals, relationships between behavioral measures of frontal dysfunction and electrophysiological measures of inhibition in cocaine use have not been explored. Methods Using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe), frontal dysfunction was assessed in a group of abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects (N=49) and healthy controls (N=32). Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and evoked potential (EP)-based electrophysiological measures of inhibition, we assessed associations between these measures and FrSBe estimates of frontal dysfunction. Results Patients had significantly higher FrSBe scores for executive dysfunction, disinhibition and apathy than controls. Lower TMS-based resting motor thresholds (i.e., hyperexcitability) were significantly associated with higher Executive Dysfunction scores in the patients. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Relationships between FrSBe scores and TMS-based measures highlight neurophysiological aberrations underlying frontal lobe dysfunction in cocaine abusers. TMS and EP measures may be useful probes of the intermediary steps between frontal lobe dysfunction and addictive behavior. PMID:24724884

  5. Phenylephrine but not ephedrine reduces frontal lobe oxygenation following anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are used to correct anesthesia-induced hypotension. We describe the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c)O(2)) following anesthesia-induced hypotension. METHODS: Following induction of anesthesia by fentanyl (0.15 mg kg(-1......)) and propofol (2.0 mg kg(-1)), 13 patients received phenylephrine (0.1 mg iv) and 12 patients received ephedrine (10 mg iv) to restore mean arterial pressure (MAP). Heart rate (HR), MAP, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c)O(2)) were registered. RESULTS: Induction...... induced by anesthesia has a negative impact on S(c)O(2) while ephedrine maintains frontal lobe oxygenation potentially related to an increase in CO....

  6. Prognostic factors for outcome in pediatric probable lesional frontal lobe epilepsy with an unknown cause (cryptogenic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inn-Chi; Chen, Yung-Jung; Lee, Hong-Shen; Li, Shuan-Yow

    2014-12-01

    The outcomes of children with cryptogenic seizures most probably arising from the frontal lobe are difficult to predict. We retrospectively collected data on 865 pediatric patients with epilepsy. In 78 patients with cryptogenic frontal lobe epilepsy, the age at first seizure was inversely correlated with the outcome, including the degree of intellectual disability/developmental delay (P = .002) and seizure frequency (P = .02) after adequate treatment. Intellectual disability was more prevalent in children with a first seizure at 0 to 3 years old (P = .002), and seizures were more frequent in those with a first seizure at 0 to 6 years old than at 7 to 16 years old (P = .026). For pediatric cryptogenic frontal lobe epilepsy, the age at first seizure is important and inversely correlated with outcome, including seizure frequency and intellectual disability. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Use of statistical parametric mapping of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET in frontal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.; Amthauer, H.; Luedemann, L.; Hartkop, E.; Ruf, J.; Gutberlet, M.; Bertram, H.; Felix, R.; Venz, St. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Med. Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Merschhemke, M.; Meencke, H.-J. [Epilepsie-Zentrum Berlin-Brandenburg am Ev. Krkh. Koenigin Elisabeth Herzberge, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the use of statistical parametrical mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET for seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. Patients: 38 patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy supported by clinical findings and video-EEG monitoring. Method: Statistical parametrical maps were generated by subtraction of individual scans from a control group, formed by 16 patients with negative neurological/psychiatric history and no abnormalities in the MR scan. The scans were also analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively by manually drawn ROIs. Results: SPM showed a better accordance to the results of surface EEG monitoring compared with visual scan analysis and ROI quantification. In comparison with intracranial EEG recordings, the best performance was achieved by combining the ROI based quantification with SPM analysis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SPM analysis of FDG-PET data could be a useful as complementary tool in the evaluation of seizure focus lateralization in patients with supposed frontal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  8. Frontal gray matter abnormalities predict seizure outcome in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    Developing more reliable predictors of seizure outcome following temporal lobe surgery for intractable epilepsy is an important clinical goal. In this context, we investigated patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) before and after temporal resection. In detail, we explored gray matter (GM) volume change in relation with seizure outcome, using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. To do so, this study was divided into two parts. The first one involved group analysis of differences in regional GM volume between the groups (good outcome (GO), e.g., no seizures after surgery; poor outcome (PO), e.g., persistent postoperative seizures; and controls, N = 24 in each group), pre- and post-surgery. The second part of the study focused on pre-surgical data only (N = 61), determining whether the degree of GM abnormalities can predict surgical outcomes. For this second step, GM abnormalities were identified, within each lobe, in each patient when compared with an ad hoc sample of age-matched controls. For the first analysis, the results showed larger GM atrophy, mostly in the frontal lobe, in PO patients, relative to both GO patients and controls, pre-surgery. When comparing pre-to-post changes, we found relative GM gains in the GO but not in the PO patients, mostly in the non-resected hemisphere. For the second analysis, only the frontal lobe displayed reliable prediction of seizure outcome. 81% of the patients showing pre-surgical increased GM volume in the frontal lobe became seizure free, post-surgery; while 77% of the patients with pre-surgical reduced frontal GM volume had refractory seizures, post-surgery. A regression analysis revealed that the proportion of voxels with reduced frontal GM volume was a significant predictor of seizure outcome (p = 0.014). Importantly, having less than 1% of the frontal voxels with GM atrophy increased the likelihood of being seizure-free, post-surgery, by seven times. Overall, our results suggest that using pre

  9. Use of opium as antiepileptic in patient with frontal lobe epilepsy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE manifests with brief, nocturnal seizures arising in the frontal lobe along with unusual behavioral symptoms or postures, frequently misdiagnosed as a psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES or a sleep disorder. Ancient literature has rarely mentioned the antiepileptic effect of opium or different opioids. Here we are presenting a case with FLE, though initially diagnosed PNES, who had significant relief in his symptoms on using opium, and this led to opium dependence. Index case further emphasizes concern and caution as misdiagnosis of FLE may lead to substance dependenc.

  10. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal functional network connectivity among resting-state networks in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, E; Zamyadi, M; Raybaud, C; Snead, O C; Smith, M L

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is considered a disorder of neural networks. The aims of this study were to assess functional connectivity within resting-state networks and functional network connectivity across resting-state networks by use of resting-state fMRI in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and to relate changes in resting-state networks with neuropsychological function. Fifteen patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and normal MR imaging and 14 healthy control subjects were recruited. Spatial independent component analysis was used to identify the resting-state networks, including frontal, attention, default mode network, sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks. The Z-maps of resting-state networks were compared between patients and control subjects. The relation between abnormal connectivity and neuropsychological function was assessed. Correlations from all pair-wise combinations of independent components were performed for each group and compared between groups. The frontal network was the only network that showed reduced connectivity in patients relative to control subjects. The remaining 5 networks demonstrated both reduced and increased functional connectivity within resting-state networks in patients. There was a weak association between connectivity in frontal network and executive function (P = .029) and a significant association between sensorimotor network and fine motor function (P = .004). Control subjects had 79 pair-wise independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks except for default mode network-auditory network. Patients had 66 pairs of independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks. Group comparison showed reduced functional network connectivity between default mode network-attention, frontal-sensorimotor, and frontal-visual networks and increased functional network connectivity between frontal-attention, default mode network-sensorimotor, and frontal

  12. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Dissociation between Conceptual and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Evidence from Patients with Frontal and Occipital Lobe Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Wang, JiHua; Yang, XuDong; Feng, Lei; Li, Xiu; Gu, Cui; Wang, MeiHong; Hu, JiaYun; Cheng, Huaidong

    2016-01-01

    The latest neuroimaging studies about implicit memory (IM) have revealed that different IM types may be processed by different parts of the brain. However, studies have rarely examined what subtypes of IM processes are affected in patients with various brain injuries. Twenty patients with frontal lobe injury, 25 patients with occipital lobe injury, and 29 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for the study. Two subtypes of IM were investigated by using structurally parallel perceptual (picture identification task) and conceptual (category exemplar generation task) IM tests in the three groups, as well as explicit memory (EM) tests. The results indicated that the priming of conceptual IM and EM tasks in patients with frontal lobe injury was poorer than that observed in HC, while perceptual IM was identical between the two groups. By contrast, the priming of perceptual IM in patients with occipital lobe injury was poorer than that in HC, whereas the priming of conceptual IM and EM was similar to that in HC. This double dissociation between perceptual and conceptual IM across the brain areas implies that occipital lobes may participate in perceptual IM, while frontal lobes may be involved in processing conceptual memory. PMID:26793093

  14. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. White matter microstructural abnormalities in the frontal lobe of adults with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Deeley, Quinton; Sarkar, Sagari; Daly, Eileen; Latham, Richard; Craig, Michael; Raczek, Malgorzata; Fahy, Tom; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J; Murphy, Declan G M

    2012-02-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about their underlying neurobiology and in particular, abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure. A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) study of adult psychopaths employing tractography revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF) (Craig et al., 2009), indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity. However, it is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to this tract or are or more widespread, including other tracts which are involved in connectivity with the frontal lobe. We performed whole brain voxel-based analyses on WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps acquired with DT-MRI to compare 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects we related differences in FA and MD to measures of psychopathy. Significant WM FA reduction and MD increases were found respectively in ASPD subjects relative to controls. FA was bilaterally reduced in the genu of corpus callosum while in the right frontal lobe FA reduction was found in the UF, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), anterior corona radiata and anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. These differences negatively correlated with measures of psychopathy. Also in the right frontal lobe, increased MD was found in the IFOF and UF, and the corpus callosum and anterior corona radiata. There was a significant positive correlation between MD and psychopathy scores. The present study confirms a previous report of reduced FA in the UF. Additionally, we report for the first time, FA deficits in tracts involved in interhemispheric as well as frontal lobe connectivity in conjunction with MD increases in the frontal lobe. Hence, we provide evidence of significant WM microstructural abnormalities in frontal brain regions in ASPD and psychopathy

  16. Identifying bvFTD Within the Wide Spectrum of Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: A Clinical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Kerssens, C.J.; Dols, A.; Prins, N.D.; Moller, C.; Schouws, S.N.T.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Sikkes, S.A.M.; Stek, M.L.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be difficult to diagnose because of the extensive differential diagnosis, including many other diseases presenting with a frontal lobe syndrome. We aimed to identify the diagnostic spectrum causing a late onset frontal lobe

  17. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text]. METHODS...

  18. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    -infrared spectroscopy-derived frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) at rest and during exercise. At rest, nine healthy male subjects received bolus injections of phenylephrine (0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg), and changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), MCA Vmean, internal jugular venous O2 saturation (SjvO2), ScO2), and arterial...

  19. Frontal lobe neurodegeneration - Use of songs in the music therapy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2005-01-01

    When the frontal lobes are damaged by neurodegeneration certain qualities of psychosocial functioning are changed. The person might show lack of initiative, poor social judgment, and loss of personal and social awareness. When these symptoms co-occur with other cortical degeneration (e...

  20. Frontal lobe oxygenation is maintained during hypotension following propofol-fentanyl anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Nielsen, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses cerebral oxygen saturation (Sco2) as a balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption. In 71 patients, we evaluated whether marked reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during propofol-fentanyl anesthesia induction affects frontal lobe Sco2...

  1. Capillary-oxygenation-level-dependent near-infrared spectrometry in frontal lobe of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Dawson, Ellen A.; Nybo, Lars; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Secher, Niels H.; Gjedde, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Brain function requires oxygen and maintenance of brain capillary oxygenation is important. We evaluated how faithfully frontal lobe near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) follows haemoglobin saturation (SCap) and how calculated mitochondrial oxygen tension (PMitoO2) influences motor performance. Twelve

  2. The Human Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Is Critical for Learning from Negative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Elizabeth Z.; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2008-01-01

    Are positive and negative feedback weighed in a common balance in the brain, or do they influence behaviour through distinct neural mechanisms? Recent neuroeconomic studies in both human and non-human primates indicate that the ventromedial frontal lobe carries information about both losses and gains, suggesting that this region may encode value…

  3. Behavioral profiles in frontal lobe epilepsy: Autobiographic memory versus mood impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme D; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-02-01

    Autobiographic memory encompasses the encoding and retrieval of episodes, people, and places encountered in everyday life. It can be impaired in both epilepsy and frontal lobe damage. Here, we performed an initial investigation of how autobiographic memory is impacted by chronic frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) together with its underlying pathology. We prospectively studied a series of nine consecutive patients with medically refractory FLE, relative to 24 matched healthy controls. Seven of the nine patients had frontal lobe structural abnormalities. Episodic and semantic autobiographic memory functioning was profiled, and factors associated with impaired autobiographic memory were identified among epileptologic, neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive variables including auditory-verbal and visual memory, and the executive function of cognitive control. Results showed that the FLE group experienced significantly higher rates of autobiographic memory and mood disturbance (p frontal lobe seizure activity with its underlying pathology may selectively disrupt large-scale cognitive or affective networks, giving rise to different neurobehavioral profiles that may be used to inform clinical management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  5. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  6. Frontal lobe oxygenation is maintained during hypotension following propofol-fentanyl anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissen, Peter; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Nielsen, Henning B.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses cerebral oxygen saturation (Sco2) as a balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption. In 71 patients, we evaluated whether marked reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during propofol-fentanyl anesthesia induction affects frontal lobe Sco2.

  7. Paranormal and religious beliefs may be mediated differentially by subcortical and cortical phenomenological processes of the temporal (limbic) lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A

    1993-02-01

    The vectorial hemisphericity concept predicts that endorsements of beliefs in paranormal phenomena are associated with elevated subcortical (complex partial epileptic-like signs) temporal lobe experiences while endorsements of religious beliefs are associated with experiences of the right (cortical) hemispheric equivalent (the sensed presence) of the linguistic sense of self. Partial correlation analyses, which removed the expected shared variance, supported this hypothesis for 400 men and 400 women; religious affiliation did not contribute any statistically significant influence. However, agreements with extreme religious beliefs, such as killing others in God's name, were associated with weekly church attendance and were primarily endorsed by men but not by women.

  8. Female verbal memory advantage in temporal, but not frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Justus; Demin, Katharina; Holtkamp, Martin; Bengner, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Women show better performance than men on a range of episodic memory tasks. Evidence regarding a neuroanatomical localization of this effect remains ambiguous. It has been suggested that anterior temporal lobe structures are responsible for sex differences in verbal memory, yet temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE surgery do not affect women's verbal memory advantage. Instead, frontal lobe regions may be relevant for female verbal memory superiority, i.e. by enabling more efficient encoding and retrieval strategies in women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether women's verbal memory advantage can be found in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and how patients with FLE and those with TLE differ with regard to sex differences in verbal memory. Fifty patients with unilateral FLE (26 women, 24 men) were compared with 183 patients with unilateral TLE (90 women, 93 men) on both verbal learning and delayed memory. We found that women showed better verbal memory than men in the TLE group, but not in the FLE group. In addition, we found that patients with TLE showed worse verbal learning than those with FLE. Our findings support the idea that women's advantage in verbal memory may be related to frontal lobe function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global increase in task-related fronto-parietal activity after focal frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Bor, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2013-09-01

    A critical question for neuropsychology is how complex brain networks react to damage. Here, we address this question for the well-known executive control or multiple-demand (MD) system, a fronto-parietal network showing increased activity with many different kinds of cognitive demand, including standard tests of fluid intelligence. Using fMRI, we ask how focal frontal lobe damage affects MD activity during a standard fluid intelligence task. Despite poor behavioral performance, frontal patients showed increased fronto-parietal activity relative to controls. The activation difference was not accounted for by difference in IQ. Moreover, rather than specific focus on perilesional or contralesional cortex, additional recruitment was distributed throughout the MD regions and surrounding cortex and included parietal MD regions distant from the injury. The data suggest that, following local frontal lobe damage, there is a global compensatory recruitment of an adaptive and integrated fronto-parietal network.

  10. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.

  11. A Consensus Network of Gene Regulatory Factors in the Human Frontal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Stefano; Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Gerighausen, Daniel; Qin, Jing; Nowick, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs) we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies. PMID:27014338

  12. A consensus network of gene regulatory factors in the human frontal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eBerto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID or autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies.

  13. The Dorsal Striatum and the Dynamics of the Consensus Connectomes in the Frontal Lobe of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Varga, Bálint; Szalkai, Balázs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2018-02-26

    In the applications of the graph theory, it is unusual that one considers numerous, pairwise different graphs on the very same set of vertices. In the case of human braingraphs or connectomes, however, this is the standard situation: the nodes correspond to anatomically identified cerebral regions, and two vertices are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow identifies a fiber of axons, running between the two regions, corresponding to the two vertices. Therefore, if we examine the braingraphs of n subjects, then we have n graphs on the very same, anatomically identified vertex set. It is a natural idea to describe the k-frequently appearing edges in these graphs: the edges that are present between the same two vertices in at least k out of the n graphs. Based on the NIH-funded large Human Connectome Project's public data release, we have reported the construction of the Budapest Reference Connectome Server http://www.connectome.pitgroup.org that generates and visualizes these k-frequently appearing edges. We call the graphs of the k-frequently appearing edges "k-consensus connectomes" since an edge could be included only if it is present in at least k graphs out of n. Considering the whole human brain, we have reported a surprising property of these consensus connectomes earlier. In the present work we are focusing on the frontal lobe of the brain, and we report here a similarly surprising dynamical property of the consensus connectomes when k is gradually changed from k=n to k=1: the connections between the nodes of the frontal lobe are seemingly emanating from those nodes that were connected to sub-cortical structures of the dorsal striatum: the caudate nucleus, and the putamen. We hypothesize that this dynamic behavior copies the axonal fiber development of the frontal lobe. An animation of the phenomenon is presented at https://youtu.be/wBciB2eW6_8. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Memory functioning in children with epilepsy: frontal lobe epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Filipa Lopes; José Paulo Monteiro; Maria José Fonseca; Conceição Robalo; Mário Rodrigues Simões

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  15. Rethinking cognition and behavior in the new classification for childhood epilepsy: Examples from frontal lobe and temporal lobe epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    2016-11-01

    The new approach to classification of the epilepsies emphasizes the role of dysfunction in networks in defining types of epilepsies. This paper reviews the structural and neuropsychological deficits in two types of childhood epilepsy: frontal lobe and temporal lobe epilepsy. The evidence for and against a pattern of specificity of deficits in executive function and memory associated with these two types of epilepsies is presented. The evidence varies with the methodologies used in the studies, but direct comparison of the two types of epilepsies does not suggest a clear-cut mapping of function onto structure. These findings are discussed in light of the concept of network dysfunction. The evidence supports the conceptualization of epilepsy as a network disease. Implications for future work in the neuropsychology of pediatric epilepsy are suggested. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The new approach to classification: Rethinking cognition and behavior in epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frontal lobe epileptic seizures are accompanied by elevated pitch during verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Iva; Echternach, Matthias; Sammler, Daniela; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2018-01-31

    The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances was significantly higher than ƒo in interictal recordings (p = 0.016). Ictal ƒo increases occurred in both FLE of right and left seizure origin. In contrast, a matched temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) group showed less pronounced increases in ƒo, and only in patients with right-sided seizure foci. This study for the first time shows significant voice alterations in ictal speech in a cohort of patients with FLE. This may contribute to the localization of the epileptic focus. Increases in ƒo were interestingly found in frontal lobe seizures with origin in either hemisphere, suggesting a bilateral involvement to the planning of speech production, in contrast to a more right-sided lateralization of pitch perception in prosodic processing. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Patrice; Pelletier, Claudine; Martin, Mickaël; Gagné, Nathalie; Poirier, Paul; Ainslie, Philip N; Caouette, Manon; Bussières, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Although utilization of vasopressors recently has been associated with reduced cerebral oxygenation, the influence of vasopressors on cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes is unknown. The aim of this study was to document the impact of norepinephrine and phenylephrine utilization on cerebral oxygenation in patients with and without diabetes during cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective, clinical study. Academic medical center. Fourteen patients with diabetes and 17 patients without diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery. During cardiopulmonary bypass, norepinephrine (diabetics n = 6; non-diabetics n = 8) or phenylephrine (diabetics n = 8; non-diabetics n = 9) was administered intravenously to maintain mean arterial pressure above 60 mmHg. Mean arterial pressure, venous temperature, arterial oxygenation, and frontal lobe oxygenation (monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy) were recorded before anesthesia induction (baseline) and continuously during cardiopulmonary bypass. Frontal lobe oxygenation was lowered to a greater extent in diabetics versus non-diabetics with administration of norepinephrine (-14±13 v 3±12%; pfrontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics but not in patients without diabetes. Administration of phenylephrine also were associated with a trend towards a greater reduction in frontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics. The clinical implications of these findings deserve future consideration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Frontal lobe decortication (frontal lobectomy with ventricular preservation) in epilepsy: anatomical landmarks and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Maria Da Róz

    2016-01-01

    A lobectomia frontal é um procedimento neurocirúrgico frequentemente realizado para o tratamento de tumores cerebrais, epilepsia refratária, e outras patologias que requerem remoção extensa do lobo frontal. Embora seja um procedimento relativamente comum, foram encontrados apenas alguns relatos na literatura acerca da técnica cirúrgica, com pouca consideração acerca da anatomia relevante para esse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: O principal objetivo desta tese é apresentar parâmetros anatômicos e co...

  19. Frontal Lobe Hemodynamic Responses to Painful Stimulation: A Potential Brain Marker of Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasted, Christopher M; Yücel, Meryem A; Steele, Sarah C; Peng, Ke; Boas, David A; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine patterns of both activation and deactivation that occur in the frontal lobe in response to noxious stimuli. The frontal lobe was selected because it has been shown to be activated by noxious stimuli in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The brain region is located behind the forehead which is devoid of hair, providing a relative ease of placement for fNIRS probes on this area of the head. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showing blood-oxygenation-level dependent changes in the frontal lobes, we evaluated functional near-infrared spectroscopy measures in response to two levels of electrical pain in awake, healthy human subjects (n = 10; male = 10). Each subject underwent two recording sessions separated by a 30-minute resting period. Data collected from 7 subjects were analyzed, containing a total of 38/36 low/high intensity pain stimuli for the first recording session and 27/31 pain stimuli for the second session. Our results show that there is a robust and significant deactivation in sections of the frontal cortices. Further development and definition of the specificity and sensitivity of the approach may provide an objective measure of nociceptive activity in the brain that can be easily applied in the surgical setting.

  20. Executive functioning and depressed mood before and after unilateral frontal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Mario F; Busch, Robyn M; Chapin, Jessica S; Jehi, Lara; Najm, Imad

    2013-06-01

    Executive dysfunction occurs in a variety of patients who have sustained damage to the frontal lobes. In individuals with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) or after unilateral frontal lobe resection (FLR), a unique neuropsychological profile linking executive functions (EF) with the frontal lobe has been elusive, with conflicting findings in the literature. Some studies show greater risk of executive impairment with left-sided FLE or FLR, while others report greater risk for right-sided patients. Some studies report no relationship between FLE and EF impairment, while others show EF impairment regardless of side of seizure foci or surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, executive dysfunction is associated with depressed mood possibly reflecting disruption of cortical-limbic pathways and/or frontal-striatal circuitry. Although not previously examined, depression level may affect executive functioning in those with FLE or FLR. We hypothesized that FLE patients with poor mood state would show greater executive dysfunction than FLE patients without poor mood state. The relationship among EF, side of surgery and depressed mood before and 8 months after unilateral FLR was evaluated in 64 patients using validated measures of EF and mood state (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Results indicated that individuals with depressed mood before surgery had greater difficulty on a task of mental flexibility compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Further, individuals with depressed mood before surgery had significant increases in perseverative responding and completed fewer categories on a card-sorting task after surgery compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Regression analyses showed that among side of surgery, seizure freedom status after surgery and depression status, only pre-surgical depression status explained a significant amount of variance in executive functioning performance after surgery. Results suggest that clinically elevated

  1. Impaired social cognition in patients with interictal epileptiform discharges in the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Jiang, Yubao; Hu, Panpan; Ma, Huijuan; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Patients with epilepsy frequently experience cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition. However, there is a lack of direct examinations of the affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in such patients. The neural correlates remain to be identified. The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairments in different aspects of social cognition including empathy, emotion recognition, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in patients with epilepsy. In addition, we further explored factors related to the impairments, highlighting the specific importance of the frontal region. After 24-hour EEG monitoring, 53 patients with epilepsy were administered a neuropsychological battery of tests for basic intelligence assessment and then were tested with the Interpersonal Reactive Index, the "Yoni" task, the Emotion Recognition Test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and other neuropsychological tests. The clinical variables potentially affecting the ability to accomplish these tests were taken into account. We divided the patients into those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges (group with frontal IEDs) and those with seizures originating outside the frontal or temporal lobes (group with extrafrontal IEDs). Sixty healthy individuals served as controls. The group with frontal IEDs achieved the most severe deficits in emotion recognition, ToM, and cognitive empathy, while affective empathy was intact. Moreover, the performance scores of empathy in the group with frontal IEDs were selectively correlated with their executive function scores, which are believed to be associated with orbitofrontal functioning. In contrast, patients with epilepsies not originating from the frontal or temporal lobes may also be at risk of impairments in social cognition, albeit to a lesser extent. The preliminary findings suggest that patients with epilepsy, especially those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges, have associated

  2. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy caused by a mutation in the GATOR1 complex gene NPRL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenke, Georg-Christoph; Eggert, Marlene; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in NPRL3, one of three genes that encode proteins of the mTORC1-regulating GATOR1 complex, have recently been reported to cause cortical dysplasia with focal epilepsy. We have now analyzed a multiplex epilepsy family by whole exome sequencing and identified a frameshift mutation (NM_001077350.2; c.1522delG; p.E508Rfs*46) within exon 13 of NPRL3. This truncating mutation causes an epilepsy phenotype characterized by early childhood onset of mainly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The penetrance in our family was low (three affected out of six mutation carriers), compared to families with either ion channel- or DEPDC5-associated familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The absence of apparent structural brain abnormalities suggests that mutations in NPRL3 are not necessarily associated with focal cortical dysplasia but might be able to cause epilepsy by different, yet unknown pathomechanisms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Frontal Lobe Degeneration in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; Yokomizo, Juliana Emy; Bottino, Cassio Machado; Fuentes, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    There is a proven link between Down syndrome and the early development of the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Changes in the personality and behavior of adults with Down syndrome might indicate the early stages of dementia or of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the executive functions and changes in behavior associated with frontal lobe degeneration in individuals with Down syndrome who develop AD. We conducted a systematic review selecting studies employing cognitive assessments. We identified few studies using objective measurements to determine whether cognitive aspects associated with the frontal lobe correlate with dementia in this population. We observed a tendency toward such correlations. There is a need for further studies in which objective measures of cognitive and behavioral factors are evaluated together with data related to brain function and morphology. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Migration of Sparganum of the Frontal Lobe to the Ipsilateral Cerebellar Hemisphere: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Eun A; Choi, See Sung; Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Hey Won; Lee, Young Hwan [Wonkwang University Hopital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Most cerebral sparganosis lesions are located in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere. A few cases of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum have migrated into the contralateral cerebral hemisphere have been reported. We report a case of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum migrated from the white matter of the left frontal lobe to the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere after failure of surgical removal of the worm

  5. Multitasking in the frontal lobes: An exploration of the effects of stress on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Frontal lobe research has fractionated many of the higher-level processes associated with this area of the brain into specific aspects of executive functions. The current study furthers this investigation into the complex behaviour of multitasking and the modern impact of stress on these processes. A student sample of 41 participants (18 male, 23 female), were recruited and randomly assigned to either stressed or non-stressed groups. The experimental manipulation of stress was induced via a v...

  6. Use of frontal lobe hemodynamics as reinforcement signals to an adaptive controller.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello M DiStasio

    Full Text Available Decision-making ability in the frontal lobe (among other brain structures relies on the assignment of value to states of the animal and its environment. Then higher valued states can be pursued and lower (or negative valued states avoided. The same principle forms the basis for computational reinforcement learning controllers, which have been fruitfully applied both as models of value estimation in the brain, and as artificial controllers in their own right. This work shows how state desirability signals decoded from frontal lobe hemodynamics, as measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, can be applied as reinforcers to an adaptable artificial learning agent in order to guide its acquisition of skills. A set of experiments carried out on an alert macaque demonstrate that both oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in the frontal lobe show differences in response to both primarily and secondarily desirable (versus undesirable stimuli. This difference allows a NIRS signal classifier to serve successfully as a reinforcer for an adaptive controller performing a virtual tool-retrieval task. The agent's adaptability allows its performance to exceed the limits of the NIRS classifier decoding accuracy. We also show that decoding state desirabilities is more accurate when using relative concentrations of both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, rather than either species alone.

  7. Can ACTH therapy improve the long-term outcome of drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Giulia; Boni, Antonella; Marangio, Lucia; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common focal epilepsy in children and is often difficult to treat. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or steroids have been used for patients with several forms of medically intractable epilepsy. We evaluated the short, medium, and long-term evolution of patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and secondary bilateral synchrony on the EEG, who received ACTH treatment. Patients were recruited for an add-on trial during clinical practice, and data was retrospectively analysed. The study group comprised 6 patients treated with ACTH. The effects of ACTH were assessed in the short term (at the end of a 6-week period of ACTH treatment), medium term (at 6 months after the end of treatment), and long term (at 12 months after the end of treatment). At short-term follow-up, ACTH treatment was effective for all types of seizures in 5 of 6 patients and ineffective in 1 patient. All patients who were seizure-free at the end of ACTH treatment maintained an excellent outcome, remaining seizure-free at the end of follow-up. Our study demonstrates that ACTH may represent an effective treatment for frontal lobe epilepsy with secondary bilateral synchrony. Further double-blind prospective studies are required to confirm our initial findings.

  8. Neuromagnetic Vistas into Typical and Atypical Development of Frontal Lobe Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Margot J.; Doesburg, Sam M.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups – children with autism spectrum disorder and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms. PMID:24994980

  9. Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot J Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups – children with ASD and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

  10. Noninvasive continuous functional near-infrared spectroscopy combined with electroencephalography recording of frontal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Tremblay, Julie; Pouliot, Philippe; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Florea, Olivia; Carmant, Lionel; Lepore, Franco; Sawan, Mohamad; Lesage, Frédéric; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-02-01

    To investigate spatial and metabolic changes associated with frontal lobe seizures. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy combined with electroencephalography (EEG-fNIRS) recordings of patients with confirmed nonlesional refractory frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Eighteen seizures from nine patients (seven male, mean age 27 years, range 13-46 years) with drug-refractory FLE were captured during EEG-fNIRS recordings. All seizures were coupled with significant hemodynamic variations that were greater with electroclinical than with electrical seizures. fNIRS helped in the identification of seizures in three patients with more subtle ictal EEG abnormalities. Hemodynamic changes consisted of local increases in oxygenated (HbO) and total hemoglobin (HbT) but heterogeneous deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR) behavior. Furthermore, rapid hemodynamic alterations were observed in the homologous contralateral region, even in the absence of obvious propagated epileptic activity. The extent of HbO activation adequately lateralized the epileptogenic side in the majority of patients. EEG-fNIRS reveals complex spatial and metabolic changes during focal frontal lobe seizures. Further characterization of these changes could improve seizure detection, localization, and understanding of the impact of focal seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  12. The correlation between ictal semiology and magnetoencephalographic localization in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xintong; Rampp, Stefan; Weigel, Daniel; Kasper, Burkhard; Zhou, Dong; Stefan, Hermann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of ictal semiology with localization and/or lateralization by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Seven patients from the Neurology Department of the University Hospital Erlangen who underwent resective surgery for frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) with an Engel 1a outcome were investigated retrospectively. MEG localizations were classified according to five compartments (separate or combined) of the frontal lobe: frontal basal (FB), frontal lateral (FL), frontal polar (FP), frontal mesial (FM), and frontal precentral (FPr). On the basis of previous studies that investigated the value of ictal semiology in localization and lateralization, we compared the experiential localization and/or lateralization of the epileptogenic region deduced from ictal semiology, that is, both seizure history and ictal video/EEG monitoring, with MEG localization. It is easier to determine lateralization than localization from ictal semiology because of the variety of signs and fast propagation in FLE. All of the patients had specific MEG localizations according to favorable postoperative outcome. Three patients had MEG foci associated with ictal semiology; in another four, the MEG localization was adjacent to the estimated area suggested by ictal semiology. Head version signs could be observed in all compartments of the frontal lobe: clonic in FB and FP areas; postural in FPr, FL, and FM areas; hypermotor in FB, FP, FPr, and FM areas; sensation aura in FB, FL, and FM areas; and automatisms in FP, FPr, and FL areas. All patients had concordant lateralizing and limited valuable locating information from ictal semiology, but no complete correlation with MEG foci. Ictal semiology may indicate the involvement of a symptomatogenic brain region during a seizure, but extent of seizure onset in central motor or sensorimotor area is not reliable enough to indicate the seizure onset zone and favorable postoperative outcome in FLE. MEG provided specific

  13. Sex differences in frontal lobe connectivity in adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeestraten, E A; Gudbrandsen, M C; Daly, E; de Schotten, M T; Catani, M; Dell'Acqua, F; Lai, M-C; Ruigrok, A N V; Lombardo, M V; Chakrabarti, B; Baron-Cohen, S; Ecker, C; Murphy, D G M; Craig, M C

    2017-04-11

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are more prevalent in males than females. The biological basis of this difference remains unclear. It has been postulated that one of the primary causes of ASC is a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe from higher-order association areas during development (that is, a frontal 'disconnection syndrome'). Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether frontal connectivity differs between males and females with ASC. We recruited 98 adults with a confirmed high-functioning ASC diagnosis (61 males: aged 18-41 years; 37 females: aged 18-37 years) and 115 neurotypical controls (61 males: aged 18-45 years; 54 females: aged 18-52 years). Current ASC symptoms were evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were created. Mean FA values were determined for five frontal fiber bundles and two non-frontal fiber tracts. Between-group differences in mean tract FA, as well as sex-by-diagnosis interactions were assessed. Additional analyses including ADOS scores informed us on the influence of current ASC symptom severity on frontal connectivity. We found that males with ASC had higher scores of current symptom severity than females, and had significantly lower mean FA values for all but one tract compared to controls. No differences were found between females with or without ASC. Significant sex-by-diagnosis effects were limited to the frontal tracts. Taking current ASC symptom severity scores into account did not alter the findings, although the observed power for these analyses varied. We suggest these findings of frontal connectivity abnormalities in males with ASC, but not in females with ASC, have the potential to inform us on some of the sex differences reported in the behavioral phenotype of ASC.

  14. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Different types of aphasia caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe: Broca's aphasia and Broca area's aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Chiho; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Osawa, Aiko; Kanai, Naoko; Kohyama, Shinya; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2009-10-01

    We reported two cases of aphasia that exhibited different characteristics of aphasia following cerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe involving the Broca's area. Case 1 is a 74-year-old right-handed woman. She was hospitalized with speech disturbance. Spontanoues speech was fluent and articulation was normal, but she showed verbal paraphasia and speech perseveration. She demonstrated a preserved ability to repeat short sentences and was able to read words aloud. This type of aphasia is called "Broca area's aphasia". MRI and CT showed hematoma involving the left inferior frontal lobe, operculum and insula cortex. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed low perfusion in the frontal lobe without involvement of the postcentral gyrus. Case 2 is a 76-year-old right-handed man. He was also hospitalized with speech disturbance. Spontanoues speech was non-fluent and articulation was poor. He sometimes showed phonemic paraphasia with anarthria, but he demonstrated a preserved ability to repeat short sentences. He was able to read words aloud in a manner comparatively similar to. This type of aphasia is called "Broca's aphasia". MRI and CT showed hematoma involving the left inferior frontal lobe, operculum and precentral cortex. SPECT revealed low perfusion in the frontal lobe extending to the postcentral gyrus. We supposed that the different characteristics of aphasia in those cases were due to extended lesion in the frontal lobe.

  16. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  17. Interictal epileptic discharge correlates with global and frontal cognitive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, Vera; Xin, Xu; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has widespread effects on structural and functional connectivity and often entails cognitive dysfunction. EEG is mandatory to disentangle interactions in epileptic and physiological networks which underlie these cognitive comorbidities. Here, we examined how interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) affect cognitive performance. Thirty-four patients (right TLE=17, left TLE=17) were examined with 24-hour video-EEG and a battery of neuropsychological tests to measure intelligence quotient and separate frontal and temporal lobe functions. Hippocampal segmentation of high-resolution T1-weighted imaging was performed with FreeSurfer. Partial correlations were used to compare the number and distribution of clinical interictal spikes and sharp waves with data from imagery and psychological tests. The number of IEDs was negatively correlated with executive functions, including verbal fluency and intelligence quotient (IQ). Interictal epileptic discharge affected cognitive function in patients with left and right TLE differentially, with verbal fluency strongly related to temporofrontal spiking. In contrast, IEDs had no clear effects on memory functions after corrections with partial correlations for age, age at disease onset, disease duration, and hippocampal volume. In patients with TLE of long duration, IED occurrence was strongly related to cognitive deficits, most pronounced for frontal lobe function. These data suggest that IEDs reflect dysfunctional brain circuitry and may serve as an independent biomarker for cognitive comorbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kopp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility, commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice—the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  19. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT) are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility), commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures) using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice-the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  20. Frontal lobe morphometry with MRI in a normal age group of 6-17 year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkay Koşar, M; Otağ, Ilhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

  1. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Whole-brain MRI phenotyping in dysplasia-related frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-Jun; Bernhardt, Boris C; Schrader, Dewi S; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    To perform whole-brain morphometry in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and evaluate the utility of group-level patterns for individualized diagnosis and prognosis. We compared MRI-based cortical thickness and folding complexity between 2 frontal lobe epilepsy cohorts with histologically verified focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) (13 type I; 28 type II) and 41 closely matched controls. Pattern learning algorithms evaluated the utility of group-level findings to predict histologic FCD subtype, the side of the seizure focus, and postsurgical seizure outcome in single individuals. Relative to controls, FCD type I displayed multilobar cortical thinning that was most marked in ipsilateral frontal cortices. Conversely, type II showed thickening in temporal and postcentral cortices. Cortical folding also diverged, with increased complexity in prefrontal cortices in type I and decreases in type II. Group-level findings successfully guided automated FCD subtype classification (type I: 100%; type II: 96%), seizure focus lateralization (type I: 92%; type II: 86%), and outcome prediction (type I: 92%; type II: 82%). FCD subtypes relate to diverse whole-brain structural phenotypes. While cortical thickening in type II may indicate delayed pruning, a thin cortex in type I likely results from combined effects of seizure excitotoxicity and the primary malformation. Group-level patterns have a high translational value in guiding individualized diagnostics. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Transcortical Sensory Aphasia after Left Frontal Lobe Infarction: Loss of Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Miseon; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kim, Jong S

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) caused by lesions occurring in the left frontal lobe remains unclear. We attempted to investigate the mechanism with the use of functional MRI (fMRI). We studied 2 patients with TSA after a left frontal infarction identified by diffusion-weighted MRI. As control subjects, a patient with transcortical motor aphasia and a healthy normal adult were chosen. The Korean version of Western Aphasia Battery was performed initially and at 3 months post stroke. We performed fMRI using verb generation and sentence completion tasks. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was also obtained for network-level analysis initially and at 3 months post stroke. The results of diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI revealed no diffusion-perfusion mismatch. Initial fMRI in patients with TSA showed no reversed inter-/intrahemispheric activation patterns. rs-fMRI showed significantly decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the language network in patients with TSA compared with the control subjects. Follow-up rs-fMRI studies showed improvement in functional connectivity along with the recovery of patients' language function. Our data showed that the auditory comprehension deficits in patients with frontal lobe infarcts is attributed to difficulty accessing the posterior language area due to functional disconnection between language centers in the acute stage of stroke. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The doors and people test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, S; Turner, M; Bozzali, M.; Cipolotti, L.; Shallice, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition...

  5. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  6. Olfactory Groove Meningiomas: Comparison of Extent of Frontal Lobe Changes After Lateral and Bifrontal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Bir, Shyamal C; Konar, Subhas K; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-10-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas often are behaviorally silent. Numerous surgical approaches have been described in the literature for the successful removal of these meningiomas. Lateral (pterional/frontolateral) and anterior (bifrontal/fronto-orbito-basal) approaches with their various modifications remain the 2 major corridors in resecting them. In this study, we discuss our experience in microsurgical treatment of these tumors at our institution and assess the extent of frontal lobe damage after the resection of tumor. We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgical excision of olfactory groove meningiomas from 1990 to 2014. To measure the extent of frontal lobe damage via lateral and anterior approaches, we measured the volume of porencephalic cave in the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging by using Brainlab software. The ratio of volume of porencephalic cave to tumor was measured between 2 sides and 2 approaches. Fifty-seven patients with olfactory groove meningiomas, who underwent 62 microsurgical resection procedures in 1990-2014 were included in the study (74% were more than 5 cm at presentation). Pterional and bifrontal craniotomies were the most commonly used approaches. At follow-up, the volume of porencephalic cave after lateral approach was significantly less in the side contralateral to craniotomy irrespective of tumor size. The difference between ratio of volume of porencephalic cave and initial tumor was significantly less after lateral approaches, when compared to anterior approaches. Lateral approaches (pterional/frontolateral) resulted in less frontal lobe change and better olfactory preservation in comparison to anterior approaches in present series. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The role of cholinergic networks of the anterior basal and inferior frontal lobes in the predatory behaviour of Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M P; Chichery, M P; Chichery, R

    2002-06-01

    The predatory behaviour of the cuttlefish has been the subject of a few detailed studies and can be divided into several stages: prey detection, orientation, positioning, prey-seizing, prey-manipulation and ingestion. Nevertheless, the data about its control by the CNS remain fragmentary. By injecting a cholinergic agonist (nicotine) and antagonists (alpha-bungarotoxin, mecamylamine), the implication of cholinergic networks of the anterior basal and inferior frontal lobes in the control of predatory behaviour are demonstrated. Through these cholinergic networks, the anterior basal lobe takes an important part in the orientation and positioning. The inferior frontal lobe seems to play a role in the control of brachial manipulative and buccal mass activities. The implication of cholinergic networks of the anterior basal and inferior frontal lobes in the predatory behaviour and the pharmacology of nicotinic receptors are discussed.

  8. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, J; Sullivan, S; Chung, JM; Ross, IB; Mamelak, AN; Rutishauser, U

    2017-01-01

    Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors, and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans, direct evidence for a distributed network of persistently active neurons supporting working memory maintenance. PMID:28218914

  9. Assessing cognitive functioning in ALS: A focus on frontal lobe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, S M; Yunusova, Y; Ganda, A; Rogaeva, E; Black, S E; Stuss, D T; Zinman, L

    2017-05-01

    It is generally acknowledged that at least 50% of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) will exhibit cognitive deficits outside of the characteristic motor neuron involvement. However, a specific cognitive profile has been difficult to ascertain due to disease-related testing barriers and limitations in the sensitivity and specificity of available assessment methods. This study assessed the level of functioning of extramotor frontal cognitive processes in ALS, and the amount of change in the functioning in these processes over time as disease progresses. Empirical tests validated for a model of frontal lobe functioning were modified into an assessment battery appropriate for individuals with ALS in a clinical setting (the ALS-CFB, Computerised Frontal Battery). Twenty ALS participants and 36 age- and education-matched neurologically healthy controls were tested, and a sub-sample of each group (11 ALS and 20 controls) re-tested after approximately nine months. Compared to standard neuropsychological screening tests that did not show a difference between ALS participants and healthy controls, the ALS-CFB illustrated a profile of extramotor frontal dysfunction involving energisation (preparing the neural system to respond) and executive functions, a profile that may be indicative of the nature of neurodegeneration in ALS.

  10. Theory of mind and the frontal lobes Teoria da mente e lobos frontais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco C. Igliori

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. Its cerebral organization is not enough established, even though the literature suggests the relevant role of the frontal lobes. OBEJECTIVE: To evaluate frontal lobe patients and controls in ToM tests. METHOD:We studied 20 patients with lesions limited to the frontal lobes (as shown by CT or MRI, and 10 normal control subjects by means of ToM tests (recognizing himself in mirrors, false belief, first and second order ToM tasks, as well as tests of other cognitive functions (counter-proofs. RESULTS: Patients and controls performed similarly in ToM tests. There was significant difference between frontal subgroups (left, right, bifrontal in the double-bluff task (second order ToM (p=0.021, without relation to verbal fluency (p=0.302 or delayed recall ability (p=0.159. The only two patients with deficits in ToM tasks had impairment of social behavior. CONCLUSION: Frontal lesions do not necessarily implicate in ToM deficits, which may occur when such lesions are associated to disturbance of social behavior.CONTEXTO: Teoria da mente (TM é a capacidade de atribuir estados mentais aos outros. Sua organização cerebral não está suficientemente esclarecida, embora a literatura indique que os lobos frontais desempenham papel relevante. OBEJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes com lesões frontais e controles em testes de TM. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 20 pacientes com lesões restritas aos lobos frontais (conforme imagens de CT ou RM e 10 controles normais em testes de TM (reconhecimento da própria imagem no espelho, falsa crença, TM de 1ª ordem e TM de 2ª ordem, usando como contra-provas testes de outras funções cognitivas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre pacientes e controles nos testes de TM. Os subgrupos frontais (direito, esquerdo, bilateral diferiram significativamente no teste de "duplo blefe" (TM 2ª ordem (p=0,021, sem relação com a flu

  11. Frontal lobe regulation of blood glucose levels: support for the limited capacity model in hostile violence-prone men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Robert P; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Campbell, Ransom W; Harrison, David W

    2016-12-01

    Hostile men have reliably displayed an exaggerated sympathetic stress response across multiple experimental settings, with cardiovascular reactivity for blood pressure and heart rate concurrent with lateralized right frontal lobe stress (Trajanoski et al., in Diabetes Care 19(12):1412-1415, 1996; see Heilman et al., in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38(1):69-72, 1975). The current experiment examined frontal lobe regulatory control of glucose in high and low hostile men with concurrent left frontal lobe (Control Oral Word Association Test [verbal]) or right frontal lobe (Ruff Figural Fluency Test [nonverbal]) stress. A significant interaction was found for Group × Condition, F (1,22) = 4.16, p ≤ .05 with glucose levels (mg/dl) of high hostile men significantly elevated as a function of the right frontal stressor (M = 101.37, SD = 13.75) when compared to the verbal stressor (M = 95.79, SD = 11.20). Glucose levels in the low hostile group remained stable for both types of stress. High hostile men made significantly more errors on the right frontal but not the left frontal stressor (M = 17.18, SD = 19.88) when compared to the low hostile men (M = 5.81, SD = 4.33). These findings support our existing frontal capacity model of hostility (Iribarren et al., in J Am Med Assoc 17(19):2546-2551, 2000; McCrimmon et al., in Physiol Behav 67(1):35-39, 1999; Brunner et al., in Diabetes Care 21(4):585-590, 1998), extending the role of the right frontal lobe to regulatory control over glucose mobilization.

  12. Frontal versus dysexecutive syndromes: relevance of an interactionist approach in a case series of patients with prefrontal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe; Lerma, Vanesa; Aubin, Ghislaine; Chauviré, Valérie; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Le Gall, Didier

    2016-07-19

    The concepts of "frontal" and "dysexecutive" syndromes are still a matter of debate in the literature. These terms are often used interchangeably but can be distinguished when considering specific frontal behavioural deficits which occur during social interaction. Despite being of interest for the clinical assessment and care management of patients with anterior brain damage, few studies have tried to disentangle the specificity of each syndrome. We report the case of eight patients with frontal lobe damage who were assigned to one of two groups based on whether or not they showed a dysexecutive syndrome. The nondysexecutive group differed from the dysexecutive group in showing environmental dependency phenomena, behavioural disorders triggered by social interaction. By adopting an interactionist perspective, this pilot study contributes to defining more precisely the distinction between "frontal" and "dysexecutive" syndromes. The discussion focuses on the potential interest of the interactionist approach in designing appropriate methodologies of assessment and rehabilitation of patients with frontal lobe syndrome.

  13. Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: A Primer for Psychiatrists and a Systematic Review of Psychiatric Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jessica A; Sher, Yelizaveta; Maldonado, José R

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) can masquerade as a primary psychiatric condition, be misdiagnosed in-lieu of a true psychiatric disorder, or may be comorbid with psychiatric illness. To (1) qualitatively review psychiatric manifestations of FLE and (2) to systematically review the cases/case series of psychiatric manifestations of FLE presented in the literature to date. A systematic review of the literature was performed following the PRISMA guidelines and using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews to identify cases and case series of psychiatric manifestations of FLE. A total of 35 separate articles were identified. Further, 17 patients primarily presented with psychosis, 33 with affective symptoms, and 16 with personality changes. Also, 62% of cases were males and 38% were females. Ages ranged from 2-83 years with the average age of 32.7. Prior psychiatric history was reported in 27.3% of cases. Causes of seizure were known in 53%, with the most common causes being dysplasia and tumor. Only 6 cases (frontal lobes, FLE can present with complex, psychiatric manifestations, with associated motor, cognitive, and medical changes; thus, psychiatrists should keep FLE on the differential diagnosis of complex neuropsychiatric cases. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frontal lobe function and social adjustment in patients with schizophrenia: near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori; Urakami, Takahiro; Hongo, Seiji; Ohtsubo, Tenpei

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated relationships between frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia and both their social adjustment and medication, using 22-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). One hundred ninety-nine stable patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia, whose medication had not been changed within the preceding 3 months and who were able to visit our clinics for NIRS, were the study subjects. As a comparator, 144 healthy volunteers who underwent a physical examination and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview also received NIRS. The main outcomes evaluated were frontal lobe oxyhemoglobin concentration (OxHb) measured by NIRS, current medication, social adjustment, and scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OxHb in schizophrenic patients (0.878 ± 1.1801 mM mm; n = 199) was significantly lower than that in the healthy volunteers (2.085 ± 1.7480 mM mm: n = 100) (p adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Patients with higher OxHb values were socially better adjusted than those with lower OxHb values. Patients treated with atypical antipsychotic monotherapy showed lower treatment resistance and better social adjustment than those treated with combination therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Damage Alters how Specific Attributes are Weighed in Subjective Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Sefranek, Marcus; Fellows, Lesley K

    2017-10-23

    The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments. We asked how distinct attributes of visual artworks influenced the subjective value ratings of subjects with VMF damage, compared to healthy participants and a frontal lobe damaged control group. Subjects with VMF damage were less influenced by the energy (emotion, complexity) and color radiance (warmth, saturation) of the artwork, while they were similar to control groups in considering saliency, balance and concreteness. These dissociations argue that VMF is critical for allowing certain affective content to influence subjective value, while sparing the influence of perceptual or representational information. These distinctions are important for better defining the often-underspecified concept of subjective value and developing more detailed models of the brain mechanisms underlying decision behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Rehabilitation of executive functioning in patients with frontal lobe brain damage with Goal Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eLevine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning deficits due to brain disease affecting frontal lobe functions cause significant real-life disability, yet solid evidence in support of executive functioning interventions is lacking. Goal Management Training (GMT, an executive functioning intervention that draws upon theories concerning goal processing and sustained attention, has received empirical support in studies of patients with traumatic brain injury, normal aging, and case studies. GMT promotes a mindful approach to complex real-life tasks that pose problems for patients with executive functioning deficits, with a main goal of periodically stopping ongoing behavior to monitor and adjust goals. In this controlled trial, an expanded version of GMT was compared to an alternative intervention, Brain Health Workshop (BHW that was matched to GMT on non-specific characteristics that can affect intervention outcome. Participants included 19 individuals in the chronic phase of recovery from brain disease (predominantly stroke affecting frontal lobe function. Outcome data indicated specific effects of GMT on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART as well as the Tower Test, a visuospatial problem solving measure that reflected far transfer of training effects. There were no significant effects on self-report questionnaires, likely owing to the complexity of these measures in this heterogeneous patient sample. Overall, these data support the efficacy of GMT in the rehabilitation of executive functioning deficits.

  17. Examining cognitive emotion regulation in frontal lobe patients: The mediating role of response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquez, Rosalux; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Stopsack, Malte; Arens, Elisabeth A; Wick, Wolfgang; Barnow, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated the relationship between inhibitory deficits and maladaptive emotion regulation. Although several neuropsychological studies show that frontal lobe damage can lead to extreme inhibition impairments, there have been no investigations regarding the influence of frontal lobe damage and related inhibition impairments on the use of maladaptive strategies. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of executive functions impairments due to frontal lobe damage on cognitive emotion regulation. Fifteen patients with frontal lobe damage were compared to twenty-two healthy controls on their reported use of maladaptive strategies. The effect of behavioral inhibition deficits among the frontal lobe damage group was examined. Patients reflected a heightened use of maladaptive strategies compared to healthy controls, significantly mediated by Go/NoGo task errors, which are an indicator for response inhibition deficits. Results suggest that a heightened use of maladaptive strategies by patients relies to a strong extent on their impaired impulse control, highlighting the complex interplay between executive functions and emotional regulation.

  18. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  19. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  20. Impaired frontal lobe functions in patients with Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Naveen; Lenka, Abhishek; George, Lija; Hegde, Shantala; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Prasad, Shweta; Stezin, Albert; Kamble, Nitish; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop several non-motor symptoms (NMS). Psychosis is one of the debilitating NMS of PD. The neurobiology of psychosis is not fully understood. This study aims to compare the frontal lobe functions of PD patients with and without psychosis using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). This study included 69 patients with PD; 34 with psychosis (PD-P) and 35 without psychosis (PD-NP). Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for cognitive impairment. Unified Parkinson's disease Rating scale part-III (UPDRS-III) was used to measure the severity and Hoehn and Yahr score (H&Y) was used to measure the stage of PD. Frontal lobe functions were assessed by FAB. The PD-P and PD-NP groups were comparable for age (58.7±8.4 vs 55.7±8.2, p=0.14), age at onset of symptoms (51.4±8.1 vs 50.0±8.8, p=0.48), gender distribution (men: 88%vs 80%, p=0.51), MMSE (28.2±1.9 vs 28.7±1.2 p=0.12), levodopa equivalent dose/day (736.0±376.3 vs 625.2±332.2, p=0.19), UPDRS-III OFF-score (36.7±8.8 vs 35.4±13.2, p=0.64), UPDRS-III ON-score (13.2±5.4 vs 12.4±6.6, p=0.44) and H&Y stage (2.3±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3, p=0.07). PD-P group had lower total FAB score compared to PD-NP group (13.9±2.2 vs 16.5±1.8, pfrontal lobe dysfunction compared to PD-NP. FAB may be a simple and useful bedside tool to assess frontal dysfunction in patients with PD in a busy neurological set up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The additional lateralizing and localizing value of the postictal EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kimberley; Gollwitzer, Stephanie; Millward, Helen; Wehner, Tim; Scott, Catherine; Diehl, Beate

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the additional lateralizing and localizing value of the postictal EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The ictal EEG in FLE is frequently challenging to localize. We identified patients investigated for epilepsy surgery with unilateral FLE based on consistent semiology, a clear lesion and/or with frontal onset on intracranial EEG. A one hour section of postictal EEG was analyzed by two raters for new or activated EEG features and it was assessed whether these features offered additional information when compared to the ictal EEG. Postictal features assessed included asymmetrical return of the posterior dominant rhythm and potentiated lateralized or regional frontal slowing, spikes or sharp waves. Thirty-eight patients were included who had a combined total of ninety-six seizures. 47/96 (49%) postictal periods contained correctly lateralizing or localizing information. The sensitivity for asymmetrical return of the posterior dominant rhythm was 24%. The sensitivity for regional frontal slow and frontal spikes was 23% and 20% respectively. Further analysis showed that in 14/38 (39%) patients, at least one seizure with an unhelpful ictal EEG was followed by postictal EEG features that added new localizing or lateralizing information. A subgroup of 11 patients who were ⩾1 year seizure-free (ILAE class 1) and thus classified as having a 'gold-standard' FLE diagnosis were analyzed separately and it was found that 14/30 of their seizures (47%) had extra postictal information. The new postictal information was always concordant with the ultimate diagnosis, except for asymmetric postictal return of background activity ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone in three patients. This study shows that a close examination of the postictal EEG can offer additional information which can contribute to the identification of a potentially resectable epileptogenic zone. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

  2. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

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    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  3. Impact of Frontal Lobe Function and Behavioral Changes on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study from Southwest China.

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    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, Xueping; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment may negatively impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, information on the effects of frontal lobe function and behavior changes on the HRQoL of the Chinese PD population is limited. Studies on the associations among frontal lobe function, behavioral changes and the HRQoL may help optimize the treatment and improve the HRQoL of PD patients. A total of 309 PD patients were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the PD Questionnaire 39-item version (PDQ-39). Patients with worse frontal lobe function were older (p frontal lobe function. In addition, the disease duration (p = 0.008), UPDRS-III scores (p frontal behavioral changes increased. The total FBI score (p Frontal behavioral changes were closely associated with poor HRQoL in Chinese PD patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 3D ultrasound in assessment of growth and development of frontal lobes in children with perinatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfeng; Zhou, Congle; Wang, Hongmei; Tang, Zezhong; Ding, Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the functions of cranial 3D ultrasound in the assessment of growth and development of the volume of frontal lobes in children with perinatal brain injury, 226 neonates of different gestational ages and 86 full term with perinatal brain injury were selected as subjects. The volume of frontal lobe of neonate increased with gestational age within 7 days after birth (r=0.676, Pchildren with serious brain injury was lower than that in the control group at 1 month and the difference was significant at 3 and 6 months (Pbrain injury during the perinatal period affects the development of frontal lobe and is related with neural dysplasia. 3D ultrasound is useful for evaluating the normal and abnormal brain development.

  5. Changes in gait while backward counting in demented older adults with frontal lobe dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Gilles; Kressig, Reto W; Assal, Frédéric; Herrmann, François R; Dubost, Véronique; Beauchet, Olivier

    2007-10-01

    Gait disorders caused by dementia have been associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. Dual-tasking is used to explore the involvement of cortical level in gait control. It has been shown that dual-task induced gait changes that could be related to (1) the efficiency of executive function, (2) the level of difficulty involved in the walking-associated task, or (3) the articulo-motor components comprised in the walking-associated task. A better understanding of dual-task related changes in demented subjects with frontal lobe dysfunction could help us to clarify the role of the frontal lobe in motor gait control. To assess and compare the effects of two mental arithmetic tasks involving similar articulo-motor components but different level of difficulty on the mean values and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time among demented older adults with impaired executive function. The mean values and coefficients of variation of stride time were measured using a GAITRite-System among 16 demented older adults with impaired executive function while walking with and without forward counting (FC) and backward counting (BC). The mean values and CV of stride time were significantly higher under both dual-task conditions than during a simple walking task (p<0.05). The change in CV of stride time during BC was significantly higher when compared with the change during FC (p=0.015), whereas the change in mean value was not significant (p=0.056). There was no difference between the dual-task and single task condition as far the number of enumerated figures were concerned (p=0.678 for FC and p=0.069 for BC), but significantly fewer figures were enumerated while BC compared with FC (p<0.001). BC provoked more changes in gait parameters than FC with major modification in gait variability related to an inappropriate focusing of attention. These findings suggest that the CV may be a suitable criterion for the assessment of gait control.

  6. Disturbed small-world networks and neurocognitive function in frontal lobe low-grade glioma patients.

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    Qingling Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain tumor patients often associated with losses of the small-world configuration and neurocognitive functions before operations. However, few studies were performed on the impairments of frontal lobe low-grade gliomas (LGG after tumor resection using small-world network features. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To detect differences in the whole brain topology among LGG patients before and after operation, a combined study of neurocognitive assessment and graph theoretical network analysis of fMRI data was performed. We collected resting-state fMRI data of 12 carefully selected frontal lobe LGG patients before and after operation. We calculated the topological properties of brain functional networks in the 12 LGG, and compared with 12 healthy controls (HCs. We also applied Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA in a subset of patients (n = 12, including before and after operation groups and HCs (n = 12. The resulting functional connectivity matrices were constructed for all 12 patients, and binary network analysis was performed. In the range of 0.05 ≤ Kcos t ≤ 0.35, the functional networks in preoperative LGG and postoperative one both fitted the definition of small-worldness. We proposed Knet = 0.20 as small-world network interval, and the results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in the two LGG groups, meanwhile the global efficiency increased and the local efficiency decreased. Lnet in the two LGG groups both were longer than HCs. Cnet in the LGG groups were smaller than HCs. Compared with the Hcs, MoCA in the two LGG groups were lower than HCs with significant difference, and the disturbed networks in the LGG were negatively related to worse MoCA scores. CONCLUSIONS: Disturbed small-worldness preperty in the two LGG groups was found and widely spread in the strength and spatial organization of brain networks, and the alterated small-world network may be responsible for cognitive

  7. Neural network underlying ictal pouting ("chapeau de gendarme") in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Landré, Elisabeth; Mellerio, Charles; Devaux, Bertrand; Chassoux, Francine

    2014-08-01

    In order to determine the anatomical neural network underlying ictal pouting (IP), with the mouth turned down like a "chapeau de gendarme", in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), we reviewed the video-EEG recordings of 36 patients with FLE who became seizure-free after surgery. We selected the cases presenting IP, defined as a symmetrical and sustained (>5s) lowering of labial commissures with contraction of chin, mimicking an expression of fear, disgust, or menace. Ictal pouting was identified in 11 patients (8 males; 16-48 years old). We analyzed the clinical semiology, imaging, and electrophysiological data associated with IP, including FDG-PET in 10 and SEEG in 9 cases. In 37 analyzed seizures (2-7/patient), IP was an early symptom, occurring during the first 10s in 9 cases. The main associated features consisted of fear, anguish, vegetative disturbances, behavioral disorders (sudden agitation, insults, and fighting), tonic posturing, and complex motor activities. The epileptogenic zone assessed by SEEG involved the mesial frontal areas, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 8 patients, whereas lateral frontal onset with an early spread to the ACC was seen in the other patient. Ictal pouting associated with emotional changes and hypermotor behavior had high localizing value for rostroventral "affective" ACC, whereas less intense facial expressions were related to the dorsal "cognitive" ACC. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography demonstrated the involvement of both the ACC and lateral cortex including the anterior insula in all cases. We propose that IP is sustained by reciprocal mesial and lateral frontal interactions involved in emotional and cognitive processes, in which the ACC plays a pivotal role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissociation between conceptual and perceptual implicit memory:Evidence from patients with frontal and occipital lobe lesions

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    Liang eGong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest neuroimaging studies about implicit memory have revealed that different implicit memory types may be processed by different parts of the brain. However, studies have rarely examined what subtypes of implicit memory processes are affected in patients with various brain-injuries. Twenty patients with frontal lobe injury, 25 patients with occipital lobe injury, and 29 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Two subtypes of implicit memory were investigated by using structurally parallel perceptual (picture identification task and conceptual (category exemplar generation task implicit memory tests in the three groups, as well as explicit memory tests. The results indicated that the priming of conceptual implicit memory and explicit memory tasks in patients with frontal lobe injury was poorer than that observed in healthy controls, while perceptual implicit memory was identical between the two groups. In contrast, the priming of perceptual implicit memory in patients with occipital lobe injury was poorer than that in healthy controls, while the priming of conceptual implicit memory and explicit memory was similar to that in healthy controls. This double dissociation between perceptual and conceptual implicit memory across the brain areas implies that occipital lobes may participate in perceptual implicit memory, while frontal lobes may be involved in processing conceptual memory.

  9. ADC mapping of the aging frontal lobes in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, K.O.; Delavelle, J.; Wetzel, S.; Kelekis, A.D.; Yilmaz, H.; Ruiz, D. San Millan; Lazeyras, F.; Mehdizade, A.; Ruefenacht, D.A. [Neuroradiology SRRI, Geneva University Hospital, HUG, Rue Micheli-du-Crest 24, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Assal, F.; Palmesino, M. [Clinique de Neurologie, Hopital Universitaire de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Gold, G. [Service de Geriatrie, Hopital Belle-Idee, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-04-01

    Normal aging, leukoaraiosis (LA) and vascular disease particularly involve the human frontal lobes. We decided to investigate a population of elderly patients referred for neuroimaging because of progressive minor cognitive deficits but no dementia. They underwent conventional Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using axial T1 and T2-weighted imaging as well as coronal FLAIR sequences in addition to the axial diffusion-weighted MRI. MRI allowed us to differentiate patients with leukoaraiosis (LA+) from those without it (LA-) and mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to investigate local tissular water motion.We observed an increase in the ADC in all investigated patients with increasing age (r=0.326, p=0.002). This increase was observed in both patients groups (LA+ and LA-). In addition, the LA+ group had significant higher ADC values than the LA- group after controlling for age (p<0.0001). (orig.)

  10. Daily rhythms of benzodiazepine receptor numbers in frontal lobe and cerebellum of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, M.J.W.; Volicer, L.; Moore-Ede, M.C.; Borsook, D.

    1985-06-17

    Behavioral, biochemical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may play an important role in the neural control of circadian rhythms. Central receptors for benzodiazepines are functionally coupled to GABA receptors and appear to mediate behavioral effects of exogenous benzodiazepines. The binding of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam to synaptic plasma membranes prepared from various regions of rat brain was examined at 6-hour intervals over a 36-hour period. Prominent daily rhythms in receptor number (Bmax) were observed in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum but not in the temporoparietal regions, hypothalamus or medulla/pons. Binding was highest during periods of sleep/low activity with a significant decrease occurring just prior to waking. These results suggest that daily fluctuations in benzodiazepine receptor numbers may be related to the temporal control of sleep/wake and muscle activity cycles. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  12. Neural Correlates for Apathy: Frontal-Prefrontal and Parietal Cortical- Subcortical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Signori, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia; “emotional affective” apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; “cognitive apathy” may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of “autoactivation” may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to gray matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies, and a reduced speedness in action decision, major responsible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control. We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  13. HD-tDCS in refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvigh, Sanaz Ahmadi; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Arzani, Mahsa; Roshan, Javad Hasan Nia

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the novel high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) method on patients with refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy. The effects of HD-tDCS on working memory were also examined. 10 adult patients with intractable lateral frontal lobe epilepsy were studied. A central cathode electrode was placed on the epileptogenic zone according to LTM, and 20-min sessions of 2mA HD-tDCS were applied for 10 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was to make changes in the epileptiform discharges (EDs) during a 1-h EEG. Moreover, the seizure frequency based on seizure diary and neuropsychiatric parameters was evaluated. All patients tolerated HD-tDCS stimulation course without any adverse reaction. The frequency of EDs increased immediately and one month after the stimulation course by an average of 6.4% and 1.2%, respectively. However, these changes in the EDs frequency were not statistically significant (p-value >0.05). The mean seizure frequency changes showed decrement by an average of 17.9% immediately, and increment by an average of 38.1% one month after the HD-tDCS. These changes were not significant statistically (p-value >0.05). One patient experienced exacerbation of seizures during the stimulations hence dropped out of the study. Attention and working memory improved significantly immediately and one month after the HD-tDCS in all patients. Changes of EDs and mean seizure frequency caused by HD-tDCS were not statistically significant for the whole group; however, this method could improve the patients' working memory scores. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy with paroxysmal arousals due to CHRNA2 loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Valerio; Aracri, Patrizia; Chiti, Laura; Brusco, Simone; Mari, Francesco; Marini, Carla; Albanese, Maria; Marchi, Angela; Liguori, Claudio; Placidi, Fabio; Romigi, Andrea; Becchetti, Andrea; Guerrini, Renzo

    2015-04-14

    We assessed the mutation frequency in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits CHRNA4, CHRNB2, and CHRNA2 in a cohort including autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) and sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). Upon finding a novel mutation in CHRNA2 in a large family, we tested in vitro its functional effects. We sequenced all the coding exons and their flanking intronic regions in 150 probands (73 NFLE, 77 ADNFLE), in most of whom diagnosis had been validated by EEG recording of seizures. Upon finding a missense mutation in CHRNA2, we measured whole-cell currents in human embryonic kidney cells in both wild-type and mutant α2β4 and α2β2 nAChR subtypes stimulated with nicotine. We found a c.889A>T (p.Ile297Phe) mutation in the proband (≈0.6% of the whole cohort) of a large ADNFLE family (1.2% of familial cases) and confirmed its segregation in all 6 living affected individuals. Video-EEG studies demonstrated sleep-related paroxysmal epileptic arousals in all mutation carriers. Oxcarbazepine treatment was effective in all. Whole-cell current density was reduced to about 40% in heterozygosity and to 0% in homozygosity, with minor effects on channel permeability and sensitivity to nicotine. ADNFLE had previously been associated with CHRNA2 dysfunction in one family, in which a gain of function mutation was demonstrated. We confirm the causative role of CHRNA2 mutations in ADNFLE and demonstrate that also loss of function of α2 nAChRs may have pathogenic effects. CHRNA2 mutations are a rare cause of ADNFLE but this gene should be included in mutation screening. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors during sleep: frontal lobe epilepsy or parasomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Oldani, A; Ferini-Strambi, L; Bizzozero, D; Smirne, S

    1997-11-01

    Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors have been described in a few individuals, and their possible epileptic origin as nocturnal frontal lobe seizures has been suggested. However, the clinical and polysomnographic differentiation from parasomnias and physiologic movements during sleep have not been clarified yet. In this study, we evaluated a group of patients with nocturnal motor behaviors and tried to characterize paroxysmal arousals. Thirty-four participants (mean [+/-SD] age 22.7 [+/-12.9] years) noting nocturnal motor agitation or behaviors and 12 healthy controls (mean age 24.1 [+/-3.1] years) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with video-tape recording and motor behaviors analysis. Arousals with motor attacks were classified as minimal, minor, or major depending on semiology, complexity, and duration of behaviors. All patients showed several minimal (e.g., scratching or rubbing the nose and the head) and minor (e.g., pelvic thrusting or swinging with dystonic component) attacks, and 53% also had major episodes (e.g., sudden elevation of the head and trunk from the bed with complex behaviors) occurring mainly in non-rapid eye movement sleep. In all the patients, motor attacks were characterized by stereotypy, sudden onset, short duration, and repetitiveness. In 80%, epileptiform abnormalities were found. All control subjects showed motor events, but they were fewer, slower, nonstereotyped, and semiologically different from the patients'. No significant difference in conventional sleep parameters between the two groups were found. Paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors probably represent a particular form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy rather than an unusual parasomnia. The semiologic characteristics of these type of arousals are difficult to recognize and differentiate from physiologic movements or parasomnias without video-polygraphic analysis.

  16. The seizure semiology consistent with frontal lobe symptomatogenic zone in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztoprak, Ülkühan; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Ergun, Eser Lay; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Bilginer, Burçak; Akalan, Nejat; Topçu, Meral; Turanlı, Güzide

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the seizure semiology consistent with frontal lobe symptomatogenic zone in childhood. We analyzed 549 videotaped seizures from 79 patients (mean age 9.9 ± 3.8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 30 patients. The seizures in the time interval of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. were considered as nocturnal. The mean number of seizures per patient was 6.8 ± 7.3. The mean seizure duration was 25.7 ± 26.9 sec; postictal confusion was 27 ± 16.1 sec (7-92 seconds). The seizures were observed in sleep with a rate of 56.8%; 43.1% of them were during wakefulness. Overall 50.4% of the seizures occured during night-time sleep. Tonic seizure (77.2%) was the most frequent simple motor seizure. Versive seizures were the second most frequent type of simple motor seizure (26.7%). Clonic seizures were 17.7%, complex motor seizures were 20.5%, and dialeptic seizures were 3% of all the seizures. Epileptic spasm, myoclonic seizures, aphasia, and akinetic semiologies were not observed. Vocalization was observed in 16% of the seizures. Frontal lobe seizures in childhood have a short duration, occur frequently, especially during night time sleep, and have a brief postictal period. Tonic semiology, versive semiology are the most frequent seizure semiologies; hypermotor and secondary generalized tonic clonic seizures and vocalizations are observed less in children compared to adults.

  17. Contributions of frontal and medial temporal lobe functioning to the errorless learning advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Guild, Emma B; Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Roberts, Judith; Clare, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals with episodic memory impairments, trial-and-error learning is less successful than when errors are avoided. This "errorless learning advantage" has been replicated numerous times, but its neurocognitive mechanism is uncertain, with existing evidence pointing to both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal lobe (FL) involvement. To test the relative contribution of MTL and FL functioning to the errorless learning advantage, 51 healthy older adults were pre-experimentally assigned to one of four groups based on their neuropsychological test performance: Low MTL-Low FL, Low MTL-High FL, High MTL-Low FL, High MTL-High FL. Participants learned two word lists under errorless learning conditions, and two word lists under errorful learning conditions, and memory was tested via free recall, cued recall, and source recognition. Performance on all three tests was better for those with High relative to Low MTL functioning. An errorless learning advantage was found in free and cued recall, in cued recall marginally more so for those with Low than High MTL functioning. Participants with Low MTL functioning were also more likely to misclassify learning errors as target words. Overall, these results are consistent with a MTL locus of the errorless learning advantage. The results are discussed in terms of the multi-componential nature of neuropsychological tests and the impact of demographic and mood variables on cognitive functioning.

  18. Recall and recognition memory in amnesia: patients with hippocampal, medial temporal, temporal lobe or frontal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D; Bright, Peter; Buckman, Joseph; Fradera, Alex; Yoshimasu, Haruo; Jacobson, Clare; Colchester, Alan C F

    2007-03-25

    The relationship between recall and recognition memory impairments was examined in memory-disordered patients with either hippocampal, medial temporal, more widespread temporal lobe or frontal pathology. The Hirst [Hirst, W., Johnson, M. K., Phelps, E. A., & Volpe, B. T. (1988). More on recognition and recall in amnesics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 14, 758-762] technique for titrating exposure times was used to match recognition memory performance as closely as possible before comparing recall memory scores. Data were available from two different control groups given differing exposure times. Each of the patient groups showed poorer recall memory performance than recognition scores, proportionate to the difference seen in healthy participants. When patients' scores were converted to Z-scores, there was no significant difference between mean Z-recall and Z-recognition scores. When plotted on a scatterplot, the majority of the data-points indicating disproportionately low recall memory scores came from healthy controls or patients with pathology extending into the lateral temporal lobes, rather than from patients with pathology confined to the medial temporal lobes. Patients with atrophy extending into the parahippocampal gyrus (H+) performed worse than patients with atrophy confined to the hippocampi (H-); but, when H- patients were given a shorter exposure time (5s) and compared with H+ at a longer exposure (10s), their performance was virtually identical and did not indicate any disproportionate recall memory impairment in the H- group. Parahippocampal volumes on MRI correlated significantly with both recall and recognition memory. The possibility that findings were confounded by inter-stimulus artefacts was examined and rejected. These findings argue against the view that hippocampal amnesia or memory disorders in general are typically characterised by a disproportionate impairment in recall memory. Disproportionate recall

  19. Clinical NOE 13C MRS for neuropsychiatric disorders of the frontal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Robertson, Larry W.; Harris, Kent C.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Allen, Peter S.; Ross, Brian D.

    2008-12-01

    In this communication, a scheme is described whereby in vivo 13C MRS can safely be performed in the frontal lobe, a human brain region hitherto precluded on grounds of SAR, but important in being the seat of impaired cognitive function in many neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. By combining two well known features of 13C NMR—the use of low power NOE and the focus on 13C carbon atoms which are only minimally coupled to protons, we are able to overcome the obstacle of SAR and develop means of monitoring the 13C fluxes of critically important metabolic pathways in frontal brain structures of normal volunteers and patients. Using a combination of low-power WALTZ decoupling, variants of random noise for nuclear overhauser effect enhancement it was possible to reduce power deposition to 20% of the advised maximum specific absorption rate (SAR). In model solutions 13C signal enhancement achieved with this scheme were comparable to that obtained with WALTZ-4. In human brain, the low power procedure effectively determined glutamine, glutamate and bicarbonate in the posterior parietal brain after [1- 13C] glucose infusion. The same 13C enriched metabolites were defined in frontal brain of human volunteers after administration of [1- 13C] acetate, a recognized probe of glial metabolism. Time courses of incorporation of 13C into cerebral glutamate, glutamine and bicarbonate were constructed. The results suggest efficacy for measurement of in vivo cerebral metabolic rates of the glutamate-glutamine and tricarboxylic acid cycles in 20 min MR scans in previously inaccessible brain regions in humans at 1.5T. We predict these will be clinically useful biomarkers in many human neuropsychiatric and genetic conditions.

  20. Extra-cerebral oxygenation influence on near-infrared-spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc O2 ) is assessed by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) although it seems influenced by extra-cerebral oxygenation. We aimed to quantify the impact of extra-cerebral oxygenation on two SR-NIRS derived Sc O2 . METHODS: Multiple...

  1. Bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, and frontal and parietal lobes of a patient with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Selman Vefa; Tiker, Filiz; Cengiz, Nurcan [Adana Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Baskent University Medical Faculty, Seyhan-Adana (Turkey); Barutcu, Ozlem [Fatih University Medical Faculty, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    Previous authors have described a specific syndrome of coeliac disease, bilateral cerebral calcifications and epileptic seizures. We report a 4-year-old boy with coeliac disease who had bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and frontal and parietal lobes, but did not exhibit epileptic seizures. (orig.)

  2. Intellectual functioning in children with epilepsy: Frontal lobe epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Filipa; Simões, Mário R.; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Martins, Cristina; Ventosa, Lurdes; Lourenço, Laura; Robalo, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe intellectual functioning in three common childhood epilepsy syndromes - frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS). And also to determine the influence of epilepsy related variables, type of epilepsy, age at epilepsy onset, duration and frequency of epilepsy, and treatment on the scores.

  3. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naive depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  4. Disorganized behavior on Link's cube test is sensitive to right hemispheric frontal lobe damage in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2014-01-01

    One of Luria's favorite neuropsychological tasks for challenging frontal lobe functions was Link's cube test (LCT). The LCT is a cube construction task in which the subject must assemble 27 small cubes into one large cube in such a manner that only the painted surfaces of the small cubes are visible. We computed two new LCT composite scores, the constructive plan composite score, reflecting the capability to envisage a cubical-shaped volume, and the behavioral (dis-) organization composite score, reflecting the goal-directedness of cube construction. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) was used to test the relationship between performance on the LCT and brain injury in a sample of stroke patients with right hemisphere damage (N = 32), concentrated in the frontal lobe. We observed a relationship between the measure of behavioral (dis-) organization on the LCT and right frontal lesions. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether this observation is specific for right frontal lesions. PMID:24596552

  5. Identifying bvFTD Within the Wide Spectrum of Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: A Clinical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Kerssens, Cora J; Dols, Annemiek; Prins, Niels D; Möller, Christiane; Schouws, Sigfried; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sikkes, Sietske; Stek, Max L; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-10-01

    The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be difficult to diagnose because of the extensive differential diagnosis, including many other diseases presenting with a frontal lobe syndrome. We aimed to identify the diagnostic spectrum causing a late onset frontal lobe syndrome and examine the quality of commonly used instruments to distinguish between bvFTD and non-bvFTD patients, within this syndrome. A total of 137 patients fulfilling the criteria of late onset frontal lobe syndrome, aged 45 to 75 years, were included in a prospective observational study. Diagnoses were made after clinical and neuropsychological examination, and neuroimaging and cerebral spinal fluid results were taken into account. Baseline characteristics and the scores on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI), and Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI) were compared between the bvFTD and the non-bvFTD group. Fifty-five (40%) of the patients received a bvFTD diagnosis (33% probable and 7% possible bvFTD). Fifty-one patients (37%) had a psychiatric disorder, including 20 with major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients received an alternative neurological, including neurodegenerative, diagnosis. MMSE and FAB scores were unspecific for a particular diagnosis. A score above 12 on the positive FBI subscale or a score above 5 on the SRI were indicative of a bvFTD diagnosis. A broad spectrum of both neurological and psychiatric disorders underlies late onset frontal lobe syndrome, of which bvFTD was the most prevalent diagnosis in our cohort. The commonly used MMSE and the FAB could not successfully distinguish between bvFTD and non-bvFTD, but this could be achieved with the more specific FBI and SRI. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary or working memory in frontal lobe epilepsy: An 18FDG-PET study of dysfunctional zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, B E; Halgren, E; Simpkins, F; Fuster, J; Mandelkern, M; Krisdakumtorn, T; Gee, M; Brown, C; Ropchan, J R; Blahd, W H

    1996-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that patients with frontal lobe epilepsy show deficits on a visual working memory paradigm and that this paradigm produces increased 18FDG uptake in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), premotor cortex, angular and supramarginal gyri, basal forebrain, and ventral frontal poles of normal subjects when compared with a control task. We hypothesized that subjects with frontal lobe epilepsy would have impaired frontal activation during this task. One resting and two activated images were obtained with 18FDG-PET in 15 subjects and 14 controls. One was a delayed (DMS) and one an immediate (IMS) match to sample paradigm. Discriminant and factor analyses were used to analyze the data, supplemented by selected t tests. No differences in glucose uptake were found between the DMS and IMS in the epilepsy subjects, in distinct contrast to controls. A comparison between controls and epilepsy subjects showed differences both ipsilateral and contralateral to the epileptic focus in the frontal regions involved in the task, with small changes in nonfrontal, task-related regions as well. The task itself brought out or highly exaggerated differences seen at rest. There was weak evidence that other frontal and temporal regions were attempting to compensate for the DPFC deficit. A unilateral epileptic focus is capable of suppressing function along a large task-related circuit ipsilateral and contralateral to the focus. Peripheral cortical regions compensate poorly for the area of dysfunction.

  7. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children, aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  9. Frontal Lobe Function Correlates with One-Year Incidence of Urinary Incontinence in Elderly with Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Yoshida, Masaki; Ono, Rei; Murata, Shunsuke; Saji, Naoki; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although previous works highlight the association between frontal lobe-related function and UI, causal relationship is unclear. To clarify the longitudinal association between frontal lobe function and the incidence of UI at 1 year in patients with AD. The subjects were 215 continent AD patients who attended the Memory Clinic of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from March 2011 to December 2014. The absence or presence of UI was operationally assigned by the dementia behavior disturbance scale subscale, which was completed by the patients' caregivers. Frontal lobe function was assessed using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Other confounding factors including demographic data, cognitive status, vitality, mood, physical performance, and use of medication (cholinesterase inhibitors, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], diuretics, alpha blockers and anticholinergic drugs) were assessed. During 1-year follow up (mean: 377.4±83.7 days), the incidence of UI was 12.1% (n = 26). Patients with UI had significantly lower FAB performance at baseline (no UI versus UI = 9.3±2.8 versus 7.8±2.7). In multivariate analysis, stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FAB (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.94) and the use of CCB (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.09-6.77) were significantly associated with UI at 1 year. The results of study indicate that frontal lobe dysfunction is predictor for UI in patients with AD.

  10. From nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy to Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy: A 35-year diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. The long-debated epileptic origin of the condition was finally demonstrated in 1990 and the term NFLE introduced. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. To address controversial issues and define the diagnostic criteria for NFLE, a Consensus Conference was held in Bologna, Italy in 2014. Major points of agreement emerged on: (i) the relationship of the seizures with sleep and not with the circadian pattern of seizure occurrence; (ii) the possible extrafrontal origin of hypermotor seizures, without substantial differences in seizure semiology. In the wake of the Consensus, the syndrome was renamed Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy (SHE). Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atlasing the frontal lobe connections and their variability due to age and education: a spherical deconvolution tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojkova, K; Volle, E; Urbanski, M; Humbert, F; Dell'Acqua, F; Thiebaut de Schotten, M

    2016-04-01

    In neuroscience, there is a growing consensus that higher cognitive functions may be supported by distributed networks involving different cerebral regions, rather than by single brain areas. Communication within these networks is mediated by white matter tracts and is particularly prominent in the frontal lobes for the control and integration of information. However, the detailed mapping of frontal connections remains incomplete, albeit crucial to an increased understanding of these cognitive functions. Based on 47 high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging datasets (age range 22-71 years), we built a statistical normative atlas of the frontal lobe connections in stereotaxic space, using state-of-the-art spherical deconvolution tractography. We dissected 55 tracts including U-shaped fibers. We further characterized these tracts by measuring their correlation with age and education level. We reported age-related differences in the microstructural organization of several, specific frontal fiber tracts, but found no correlation with education level. Future voxel-based analyses, such as voxel-based morphometry or tract-based spatial statistics studies, may benefit from our atlas by identifying the tracts and networks involved in frontal functions. Our atlas will also build the capacity of clinicians to further understand the mechanisms involved in brain recovery and plasticity, as well as assist clinicians in the diagnosis of disconnection or abnormality within specific tracts of individual patients with various brain diseases.

  12. Intravenous or local injections of flavoxate in the rostral pontine reticular formation inhibit urinary frequency induced by activation of medial frontal lobe neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2014-10-01

    The rostral pontine reticular formation has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition by facilitating lumbosacral glycinergic neurons. We assessed the influence of the rostral pontine reticular formation on the micturition reflex after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation. Continuous cystometry was performed in 28 female rats. After the interval between bladder contractions was shortened by noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe we injected glutamate or flavoxate hydrochloride in the rostral pontine reticular formation or intravenously injected flavoxate or propiverine. The change in bladder activity was examined. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions. In contrast to the bladder contraction interval before and after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe, the interval was prolonged after noradrenaline injection when glutamate or flavoxate was injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation, or flavoxate was injected intravenously. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous propiverine injection also prolonged the interval compared to that after noradrenaline injection alone. However, the interval after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous injection of propiverine was shorter than that before noradrenaline injection only. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline may facilitate the micturition reflex via activation of inhibitory interneurons, which inhibit descending rostral pontine reticular formation neurons that innervate the lumbosacral glycinergic inhibitory neurons. Therefore, the mechanism of micturition reflex facilitation by the activation of medial frontal lobe neurons involves the rostral pontine reticular formation. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education

  13. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Media violence exposure and frontal lobe activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in aggressive and nonaggressive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Vincent P; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Lurito, Joseph T; Lowe, Mark J; Dunn, David W

    2005-01-01

    To understand better the relation between media violence exposure, brain functioning, and trait aggression, this study investigated the association between media violence exposure and brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in groups of normal adolescents and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggressive features. Seventy-one participants underwent neuropsychologic evaluation and assessment of exposure to violent media. Subjects also were evaluated with fMRI while performing a counting Stroop (CS) task. Frontal lobe activation was reduced in aggressive subjects compared with control subjects. In addition, differences in frontal lobe activation were associated with differences in media violence exposure. Specifically, activation during performance of the CS in control subjects with high media violence exposure resembled that seen in DBD subjects. Our findings suggest that media violence exposure may be associated with alterations in brain functioning whether or not trait aggression is present.

  15. Right Dorsolateral Frontal Lobe N-Acetyl Aspartate and Myoinositol Concentration Estimation in Type 2 Diabetes with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagothu, Rajani Santhakumari; Reddy, Yogananda Indla; Rajagopalan, Archana; Varma, Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, effects the central nervous system by altering the concentrations of brain metabolites like N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol (mI), which are indicators of neuronal integrity and glial cell damage respectively. Dorsolateral frontal lobe is associated with aspects of cognition especially right frontal lobe is involved in episodic memory retrieval, ninety percent of the diabetic cases are type 2 in nature globally and yoga is very effective in stabilizing the brain metabolites by bringing the blood glucose levels to near or within the physiological range in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to observe the effects of yogasana and pranayama on glycosilated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and right dorsolateral frontal cortical NAA and mI concentration in type 2 diabetic subjects. It's a case control study. Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-65 years are included in the study, subjects are divided in to test and control group 34 each. Test group subjects did the yogasana and pranayama for a period of 6 months, 6 days in a week, 45-60 minutes daily under the supervision of a qualified yoga teacher. Control group subjects are not on any specific exercise regimen. Both the group subjects are taking oral hypoglycaemic agents. HbA1c levels are measured using the Bio-Rad D-10™ haemoglobin A1c program and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is used in assessing the metabolite concentrations. Analysis of data was done by using unpaired t-test. P-value for HbA1c level is frontal lobe of control and test group are 1.44 ± 0.15 and 1.54 ± 0.19 respectively. The mI concentrations in the right dorsolateral frontal lobe of control and test group are 0.61 ± 0.22 and 0.47 ± 0.24 respectively. Yogasana and pranayama minimized the neuronal and glial cellular damage in test group, which is evident by minimal changes in right dorsolateral frontal lobe NAA and mI levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  16. ROLE OF YOGA IN ALIENATING THE MEMORY DECLINE AND FRONTAL LOBE METABOLITE CHANGES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumari, Rajani; Reddy, Indla Yogananda; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    Recent research studies have established the fact, that glycosylation is causing the memory decline and this is further supported by the alteration of brain metabolite concentrations in diabetes. The present study is hypothesized that yoga is having alienating ability of memory decline and alteration of frontal lobe metabolite concentrations, which are the result of glycosylation in type 2 diabetes. Five type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga over a period of six months in a yoga institute, were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched five type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group, both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycaemic agents. Glycosylated haemoglobin percentage was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, frontal lobe metabolites were estimated with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H-MRS), memory was calculated with PGI-Memory Scale (PGIMS) that is a part of PGI-Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGI-BBD), which is a neuropsychological battery. Mean glycosylated haemoglobin percentage and memory dysfunction rating in control and test group subjects are 6.9±0.4 & 7.8±1.84 (p=0.03), and 14±1& 6±1 (p=0.0001) respectively. Right and left frontal lobe N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and Myoionositol (mI) concentrations were more or less similar in both the groups. Yoga is having a significant role in alienating the decline in memory caused by glycosylation in type 2 diabetes but not on the alteration of frontal lobe NAA and mI concentrations.

  17. Intellectual functioning in children with epilepsy: Frontal lobe epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Filipa; Simões, Mário Rodrigues; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Martins, Cristina; Ventosa, Lurdes; Lourenço, Laura; Robalo, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study is to describe intellectual functioning in three common childhood epilepsy syndromes – frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS). And also to determine the influence of epilepsy related variables, type of epilepsy, age at epilepsy onset, duration and frequency of epilepsy, and treatment on the scores. Methods Intellectual functioning was examined in a group of 90 children wit...

  18. The relationship between theory of mind and the executive functions: Evidence from patients with frontal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Kaw-Chen

    2017-01-01

    "Theory of mind" (ToM) refers to the ability to predict others' thoughts, intentions, beliefs, and feelings. Evidence from neuropsychology and functional imaging indicates that ToM is a domain-specific or modular architecture; however, research in development psychology has suggested that ToM is the full development of the executive functions in individuals. Therefore, the relationship between ToM and the executive functions needs to be clarified. Since the frontal lobe plays a critical role in the abilities of ToM and the executive functions, patients with frontal lobe damage were recruited for the present study. Assessments of ToM and the executive functions were performed on 23 patients with frontal lobe damage and 20 healthy controls. When controlling for the executive functions, significant differences between the patient and normal groups were found in the affective component of ToM, but not in the cognitive component. The present study suggests that in various social situations, executing ToM abilities requires logical reasoning processes provided by the executive functions. However, the reasoning processes of affective ToM are independent of executive functions.

  19. Correlation between frontal lobe oxy-hemoglobin and severity of depression assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Makoto; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Kikuyama, Hiroki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Shinya; Kawabata, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Shigeru; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kawashige, Seiya; Imazu, Shinichi; Toyoda, Katsutaka; Nishizawa, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Mayuko; Okayama, Tatsushi; Odo, Wakako; Ide, Kentaro; Maruyama, Soichiro; Tarutani, Seiichiro; Koh, Jun; Yoneda, Hiroshi

    2016-11-15

    The search for objective biomarkers of psychiatric disorders has a long history. Despite this, no universally accepted instruments or methods to detect biomarkers have been developed. One potential exception is near-infrared spectroscopy, although interpreting the measures of blood flow recorded with this technique remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between recorded blood flow and depression severity assessed using the Hamilton depression scale in patients with various psychiatric disorders. Enrolled patients (n=43) had DSM-IV diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n=25), bipolar disorder I (n=5), schizophrenia (n=3), dysthymic disorder (n=3), psychotic disorder (n=3), panic disorder (n=2), and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n=2). The verbal fluency task was administered during blood flow recording from the frontal and temporal lobes. We found that severity of depression was negatively correlated with the integral value of blood flow in the frontal lobe, irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis (F=5.94, p=0.02). Our results support blood flow in the frontal lobe as a potential biomarker of depression severity across various psychiatric disorders. Limited sample size, no replication in the second set. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of executive functioning in children and young adults treated for frontal lobe tumours using ecologically valid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaud-Valès, A; Chevignard, M; Dufour, C; Grill, J; Puget, S; Sainte-Rose, C; Valteau-Couanet, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing executive functions (EF) using ecologically valid tests in children with frontal lobe lesions. This study aimed to (1) evaluate EF in children, adolescents and young adults treated for childhood frontal lobe tumours, (2) identify factors influencing performance, such as age at diagnosis or type of treatment, and (3) examine correlations between intellectual ability and classical and ecological tests of EF. Twenty-one patients, aged 8-27 years, treated for a childhood benign or malignant frontal lobe tumour, and 42 healthy controls (matched for gender, age and socio-economic status) were assessed using classical tests of EF, and the BADS-C ecological battery. Patients also underwent assessment of intellectual ability and parent and teacher ratings of the BRIEF questionnaire. IQ scores ranged from 45 to 125 (mean FSIQ = 84) and were lower in case of epilepsy, hydrocephalus and lower parental education. Patients displayed deficits in most, but not all measures of EF. Most classical and ecological measures of EF were strongly correlated to IQ. This study confirms the frequency of EF deficits in this population; it also highlights the utility of ecological measures of EF and some limitations of classical tests of EF in children.

  1. Source reconstruction based on subdural EEG recordings adds to the presurgical evaluation in refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramantani, Georgia; Cosandier-Rimélé, Delphine; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Maillard, Louis; Zentner, Josef; Dümpelmann, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    In presurgical investigations of refractory frontal lobe epilepsy, subdural EEG recordings offer extensive cortical coverage, but may overlook deep sources. Electrical Source Localization (ESL) from subdural recordings could overcome this sampling limitation. This study aims to assess the clinical relevance of this new method in refractory frontal lobe epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. In 14 consecutive patients, we retrospectively compared: (i) the ESL of interictal spikes to the conventional irritative and seizure onset zones; (ii) the surgical outcome of cases with congruent ESL and resection volume to cases with incongruent ESL and resection volume. Each spike type was averaged to serve as a template for ESL by the MUSIC and sLORETA algorithms. Results were superimposed on the corresponding pre and post-surgical MRI. Both ESL methods were congruent and consistent with conventional electroclinical analysis in all patients. In 7 cases, ESL identified a common deep source for spikes of different 2D localizations. The inclusion of ESL in the resection volume correlated with seizure freedom. ESL from subdural recordings provided clinically relevant results in patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy. ESL complements the conventional analysis of subdural recordings. Its potential in improving tailored resections and surgical outcomes should be prospectively assessed. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is often misdiagnosed as sleep disorders in children: a case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION. We present a series of children who underwent a video-polysomnographic recording at our Sleep and Epilepsy Unit, who received a diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). AIMS. To describe electroclinical and video polygraphic features of paediatric NFLE that differentiate this condition from other sleep disorders that overlap and mimic the sleep motor and autonomic events of NFLE. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The inclusion criterion was that the patients have their first video-EEG-PSG recording in our laboratory. RESULTS. Twenty-four out of 190 children were diagnosed with NFLE (group 1); while 166 had other sleep disorders (group 2). Among children diagnosed with NFLE, seven were referred for sleep-disordered breathing, seven for parasomnias, two for insomnia, two for hypersomnia, and one for periodic limb movements, while five were referred for epilepsy. In group 1, perinatal history was normal in most cases (21 out of 24) and a familiar history of epilepsy was found in four cases. Sleep-disordered breathing was diagnosed as a comorbid condition in four children. Standard EEG was normal in 21 cases. Interictal EEG showed epileptic discharges in four cases, while ictal EEG was expressed by a rhythmic theta activity preceded by an arousal and/or a short background desynchronization, movement artifacts, and autonomic changes. All seizures, repeated highly stereotyped motor events, were followed by stage shifts and/or a postural change and, by short awakenings. CONCLUSIONS. We found a high percentage of children with NFLE, often misdiagnosed or associated with other sleep disorders, which may be a trigger for nocturnal seizures.

  3. The relationship between frontal lobe lesions, course of post-stroke depression, and 1-year prognosis in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Zhi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wu, Shuo-Lin; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Juan; Bai, Ying; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Chun-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on post-stroke depression (PSD) have focused on a certain time point after stroke instead of the time course of PSD. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between frontal lobe lesions, course of PSD over a year following the stroke onset, and the 1-year prognosis in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. A total of 1067 patients from the prospective cohort study on the incidence and outcome of patients with post stroke depression in China who were diagnosed with first-ever ischemic stroke and attended 4 follow-up visits at 14±2 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after stroke onset, were enrolled in the study. PSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV. The course of PSD was divided into the following two categories: persistent/recurrent depression and no/transient depression. Patients with any ischemic lesion responsible for the indexed stroke event located in the frontal lobe were defined as patients with frontal lobe lesions. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥2 at 1-year was considered to be poor prognosis. There were 109 patients with and 958 patients without frontal lobe lesions that formed the frontal lobe (FL) and no-frontal lobe (NFL) groups, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, frontal lobe lesion was significantly associated with persistent/recurrent PSD (OR 2.025, 95%CI 1.039-3.949). Overall, 32.7% of patients in the FL group had poor prognosis at 1- year compared with 22.7% in the NFL group (P = 0.021). Compared with no/transient depression, persistent/recurrent depression was found to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis at 1-year both in FL and NFL groups. Long-term and periodical screening, evaluation and treatment are needed for PSD after the onset of ischemic stroke, particularly for patients with frontal lobe infarction.

  4. Unique transcriptome patterns of the white and grey matter corroborate structural and functional heterogeneity in the human frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Mills

    Full Text Available The human frontal lobe has undergone accelerated evolution, leading to the development of unique human features such as language and self-reflection. Cortical grey matter and underlying white matter reflect distinct cellular compositions in the frontal lobe. Surprisingly little is known about the transcriptomal landscape of these distinct regions. Here, for the first time, we report a detailed transcriptomal profile of the frontal grey (GM and white matter (WM with resolution to alternatively spliced isoforms obtained using the RNA-Seq approach. We observed more vigorous transcriptome activity in GM compared to WM, presumably because of the presence of cellular bodies of neurons in the GM and RNA associated with the nucleus and perinuclear space. Among the top differentially expressed genes, we also identified a number of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs, specifically expressed in white matter, such as LINC00162. Furthermore, along with confirmation of expression of known markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes, we identified a number of genes and splicing isoforms that are exclusively expressed in GM or WM with examples of GABRB2 and PAK2 transcripts, respectively. Pathway analysis identified distinct physiological and biochemical processes specific to grey and white matter samples with a prevalence of synaptic processes in GM and myelination regulation and axonogenesis in the WM. Our study also revealed that expression of many genes, for example, the GPR123, is characterized by isoform switching, depending in which structure the gene is expressed. Our report clearly shows that GM and WM have perhaps surprisingly divergent transcriptome profiles, reflecting distinct roles in brain physiology. Further, this study provides the first reference data set for a normal human frontal lobe, which will be useful in comparative transcriptome studies of cerebral disorders, in particular, neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The frontal lobe and thalamus have different sensitivities to hypoxia-hypotension after traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanié, Antonia; Vigué, Bernard; Benhamou, Dan; Duranteau, Jacques; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2012-12-10

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), lesions are anatomically heterogeneous, but the spatial heterogeneity of the post-traumatic brain's vulnerability to hypoxia-hypotension (HH) has been poorly studied. Our objective was to compare the effect of HH after TBI on brain energy metabolism into two regions: the frontal lobe and the thalamus. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: sham, TBI (brain trauma alone, impact acceleration, 450-g weight drop from 1.8 m), HH (blood depletion to mean arterial pressure 40 mm Hg, FiO(2) 10%, 15 min), and TBI-HH (TBI followed by HH, 45-min delay). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was continuously measured. Brain microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtiO(2)) probes were both inserted stereotaxically into the right thalamus and frontal lobe. Except during the HH period, CPP was always above 60 mm Hg. During the hour following the HH period, significant increases in cerebral lactate-pyruvate ratio, glycerol, and glutamate were observed, and were always higher in the frontal lobe than in the thalamus (pfrontal lobe, increases in glutamate and glycerol were significantly higher than in the HH group (pfrontal lobe than in the thalamus. These findings demonstrate that in the early post-traumatic period, the metabolic cerebral response to HH is higher in the frontal lobe than in the thalamus, and is worsened by TBI, suggesting a higher vulnerability for the frontal lobes.

  6. How can we explain the frontal presentation of insular lobe epilepsy? The impact of non-linear analysis of insular seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Abdallah, Chifaou; Guénot, Marc; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mauguière, François; Rheims, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean

    2017-05-01

    For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures. A directed functional coupling index was calculated during clonic discharge periods that were accompanied either with frontal or insular semiology. We found significant functional coupling between the insula and mesial frontal/cingulate regions, with the former being a leader region for seizures propagation. Extra-insular regions showed significantly less or even no coupling with the mesial hemispheric regions. The three patients with frontal semiology showed strong couplings with the mesial frontal as well as cingulate regions, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, and the anterior to posterior cingulate. The two patients with the insular semiology only showed couplings between the insula and cingulate regions. The frontal semiology was expressed by strong functional couplings between the insula and mesial frontal regions. The insular origin of seizure should be considered in cryptogenic mesial frontal epilepsies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroanatomic overlap between intelligence and cognitive factors: morphometry methods provide support for the key role of the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Karama, Sherif; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Abad, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Quiroga, Ma Ángeles; Haier, Richard J

    2013-05-15

    Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that intelligence differences may be supported by a parieto-frontal network. Research shows that this network is also relevant for cognitive functions such as working memory and attention. However, previous studies have not explicitly analyzed the commonality of brain areas between a broad array of intelligence factors and cognitive functions tested in the same sample. Here fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory, executive updating, attention, and processing speed were each measured by three diverse tests or tasks. These twenty-one measures were completed by a group of one hundred and four healthy young adults. Three cortical measures (cortical gray matter volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness) were regressed against psychological latent scores obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis for removing test and task specific variance. For cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area, the main overlapping clusters were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and involved fluid intelligence and working memory. Crystallized intelligence showed an overlapping cluster with fluid intelligence and working memory in the middle frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal gyrus showed overlap for crystallized intelligence, spatial intelligence, attention, and processing speed. The fusiform gyrus in temporal cortex showed overlap for spatial intelligence and attention. Parietal and occipital areas did not show any overlap across intelligence and cognitive factors. Taken together, these findings underscore that structural features of gray matter in the frontal lobes support those aspects of intelligence related to basic cognitive processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Dynamics of functional MRI and speech function in patients after resection of frontal and temporal lobe tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Batalov, A I; Smirnov, A S; Poddubskaya, A A; Pitskhelauri, D I; Kobyakov, G L; Zhukov, V Yu; Goryaynov, S A; Kulikov, A S; Ogurtsova, A A; Golanov, A V; Varyukhina, M D; Pronin, I N

    2017-01-01

    There are no studies on application of functional MRI (fMRI) for long-term monitoring of the condition of patients after resection of frontal and temporal lobe tumors. The study purpose was to correlate, using fMRI, reorganization of the speech system and dynamics of speech disorders in patients with left hemisphere gliomas before surgery and in the early and late postoperative periods. A total of 20 patients with left hemisphere gliomas were dynamically monitored using fMRI and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. The tumor was located in the frontal lobe in 12 patients and in the temporal lobe in 8 patients. Fifteen patients underwent primary surgery; 5 patients had repeated surgery. Sixteen patients had WHO Grade II and Grade III gliomas; the others had WHO Grade IV gliomas. Nineteen patients were examined preoperatively; 20 patients were examined at different times after surgery. Speech functions were assessed by a Luria's test; the dominant hand was determined using the Annette questionnaire; a family history of left-handedness was investigated. Functional MRI was performed on an HDtx 3.0 T scanner using BrainWavePA 2.0, Z software for fMRI data processing program for all calculations >7, pfrontal lobe tumors than in those with temporal lobe tumors. No additional activation foci in the left hemisphere were found at the thresholds used to process fMRI data. Recovery of the speech function, to a certain degree, occurred in all patients, but no clear correlation with fMRI data was found. Complex fMRI and neuropsychological studies in 20 patients after resection of frontal and temporal lobe tumors revealed individual features of speech system reorganization within one year follow-up. Probably, activation of right-sided homologues of the speech areas in the presence of left hemisphere tumors depends not only on the severity of speech disorder but also reflects individual involvement of the right hemisphere in enabling speech function. This is confirmed by

  9. Magnetoencephalography-guided surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Björn; Roessler, Karl; Rampp, Stefan; Hamer, Hajo M; Blumcke, Ingmar; Stefan, Hermann; Buchfelder, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Especially in hidden lesions causing drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the localization of the epileptic zone EZ can be a challenge. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can raise the chances for localization of the (EZ) in combination with electroencephalography (EEG). We investigated the impact of MEG-guided epilepsy surgery with the aid of neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging (iopMRI) on seizure outcome of FLE patients. Twenty-eight patients (15 females, 13 males; mean age 31.0±11.1 years) underwent surgery in our department. All patients underwent presurgical MEG monitoring (two-sensor Magnes II or whole head WH3600 MEG system; 4-D Neuroimaging, San Diego, CA, USA). Of those, six patients (group 1) with MRI-negative FLE were operated on before 2002 with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) and invasive EEG mapping only. Eleven patients with MRI-negative FLE (group 2) and eleven with lesional FLE (group 3) underwent surgery using 1.5T-iopMRI and neuronavigation, including intraoperative visualization of the MEG localizations in 22 and functional MR imaging (for motor and speech areas) as well as DTI fiber tracking (for language and pyramidal tracts) in 13 patients. In the first group, complete resection of the defined EZ including the MEG localization according to the latest postoperative MRI was achieved in four out of six patients. Groups two and three had complete removal of the MEG localizations in 20/22 (91%, 10 of 11 each). Intraoperative MRI revealed incomplete resection of the MEG localizations of four patients (12%; two in both groups), leading to successful re-resection. Transient and permanent neurological deficits alike occurred in 7.1%, surgery-associated complications in 11% of all patients. In the first group, excellent seizure outcome (Engel Class IA) was achieved in three (50%), in the second in 7 patients (61%) and third group in 8 patients (64%, two iopMRI-based re-resections). Mean follow-up was 70.3 months (from 12 to 284

  10. Rationale for an adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligheddu, Monica; Melis, Miriam; Pillolla, Giuliano; Milioli, Giulia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Giovanni Mario; Aroni, Sonia; Sagheddu, Claudia; Marrosu, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Muntoni, Anna Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an idiopathic partial epilepsy with a family history in about 25% of cases, with autosomal dominant inheritance (autosomal dominant NFLE [ADNFLE]). Traditional antiepileptic drugs are effective in about 55% of patients, whereas the rest remains refractory. One of the key pathogenetic mechanisms is a gain of function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the mutated α4 or β2 subunits. Fenofibrate, a common lipid-regulating drug, is an agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which negatively modulates the function of β2-containing nAChR. To test clinical efficacy of adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant ADNFLE\\NFLE patients, we first demonstrated the effectiveness of fenofibrate in a mutated mouse model displaying both disease genotype and phenotype. We first tested the efficacy of fenofibrate in transgenic mice carrying the mutation in the α4-nAChR subunit (Chrna4S252F) homologous to that found in humans. Subsequently, an add-on protocol was implemented in a clinical setting and fenofibrate was administered to pharmacoresistant NFLE patients. Here, we show that a chronic fenofibrate diet markedly reduced the frequency of large inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded from cortical pyramidal neurons in Chrna4S252F mice, and prevented nicotine-induced increase of IPSC frequency. Moreover, fenofibrate abolished differences between genotypes in the frequency of sleep-related movements observed under basal conditions. Patients affected by NFLE, nonresponders to traditional therapy, by means of adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate displayed a reduction of seizure frequency. Furthermore, digital video-polysomnographic recordings acquired in NFLE subjects after 6 months of adjunctive fenofibrate substantiated the significant effects on control of motor-behavioral seizures. Our preclinical and

  11. Altered basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in frontal lobe epilepsy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Pu; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds. Two sample t-test was used to determine the difference between patients and controls, while controlling the age, gender and head motions. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FCs between basal ganglia and regions including the right fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cingulate gyrus, the precuneus and anterior cingulate gyrus. Reduced FCs were mainly located in a range of brain regions including the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, the ventral frontal lobe, the right putamen, the left fusiform gyrus and right rolandic operculum. In addition, the relationships between basal ganglia-cingulate connections and durations of epilepsy were also found. The alterations of functional integrity within the basal ganglia, as well as its connections to limbic and ventral frontal areas, indicate the important roles of the basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in FLE, and provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanism of FLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [A case of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E with frontal lobe dysfunction as an initial symptom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Matsumoto, Yushi; Okamoto, Kensho; Okuda, Bungo; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2017-12-27

    A 49-year-old man had developed gradually personality change, gait disturbance, and hearing loss for five years. On admission, he presented with frontal release signs, stuttering, vertical gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, muscle rigidity, ataxia, and sensory disturbance with areflexia in the lower extremities. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum and midbrain tegmentum as well as cerebral atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobe. He was tentatively diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy on the basis of clinical features and imagings. On nerve conduction study, no sensory nerve action potentials were elicited in the upper and lower extremities. Details of family history revealed a hereditary sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance in his relatives. Because genetic analysis showed a rare missense mutation (c.1483T>C, p.Y495H) in DNA methyltransferase 1 gene, we diagnosed him as having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E). In addition, p.M232R mutation in prion protein gene was detected. It should be kept in mind that there are some patients with HSAN1E presenting with frontal lobe dysfunction as an initial symptom and with clinical features mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy.

  13. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with frontal lobe function in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Hashimoto, Akiko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Takahashi, Masato; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Iida, Junzo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-27

    Caregivers of patients with dementia experience physical and mental deterioration. We have previously reported a correlation between caregiver burden and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) total scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially regarding the dependency factor from the Zarit Burden Interview. The present study aimed to identify an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. The participants were 26 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD and mild-to-moderate dementia. Correlations between regional gray matter volumes in the patients with AD and the FAB total scores were explored by using whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analysis. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships between regional gray matter volumes, FAB total scores, and caregiver burden based on the Zarit Burden Interview. The voxel-based morphometric revealed a significant positive correlation between the FAB total scores and the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This positive correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of general cognitive dysfunction, which was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Path analysis revealed that decreases in FAB scores, caused by reduced frontal lobe volumes, negatively affected caregiver burden. The present study revealed that frontal lobe function, based on FAB scores, was affected by the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased scores were associated with greater caregiver burden, especially for the dependency factor. These findings may facilitate the development of an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  15. Effects of duloxetine on microRNA expression profile in frontal lobe and hippocampus in a mouse model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Liu, Yamei

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major mood disorder affecting people worldwide. The posttranscriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) which may have critical roles in the pathogenesis of depression. However, to date, little is known about the effects of the antidepressant drug duloxetine on miRNA expression profile in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression model in mice. Healthy adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group and duloxetine group. Sucrose preference test and open field test were used to represent the behavioral change. MiRNAs levels in frontal lobe and hippocampus of mice were analyzed using miRNA microarrays assay. We observed that long-term treatment with duloxetine significantly ameliorated the CUMS procedure-induced sucrose preference decreases and mice treated with duloxetine demonstrated a reversal of the number of crossings, and rearings reduced by CUMS. A significant upregulation of miR-132 and miR-18a in hippocampus in the duloxetine treatment group compared with model group, whereas the levels of miR-134 and miR-124a were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, miR-18a showed significant upregulation in frontal lobe in the duloxetine treatment group relative to model group. Our data showed that miRNA expression profile in frontal lobe and hippocampus was affected by duloxetine in mice model of depression. The effect was especially pronounced in the hippocampus, suggesting that hippocampus might be the action site of duloxetine, which presumably worked by regulating the expression of miRNA levels.

  16. Assessment of frontal lobe sagging after endoscopic endonasal transcribriform resection of anterior skull base tumors: is rigid structural reconstruction of the cranial base defect necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Singh, Rahul; Liu, James K

    2012-12-01

    The endoscopic endonasal transcribriform approach (EETA) is a viable alternative option for resection of selected anterior skull base (ASB) tumors. However, this technique results in the creation of large cribriform defects. Some have reported the use of a rigid substitute for ASB reconstruction to prevent postoperative frontal lobe sagging. We evaluate the degree of frontal lobe sagging using our triple-layer technique [fascia lata, acellular dermal allograft, and pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF)] without the use of rigid structural reconstruction for large cribriform defects. Retrospective analysis. Nine patients underwent an EETA for resection of large ASB tumors from August 2010 to November 2011. The degree of frontal lobe displacement after EETA, defined as the ASB position, was calculated based on the most inferior position of the frontal lobe relative to the nasion-sellar line defined on preoperative and postoperative imaging. A positive value signified upward displacement, and a negative value represented inferior displacement of the frontal lobe. The average cribriform defect size was 9.3 cm(2) (range, 5.0-13.8 cm(2) ). The average distance of postoperative frontal lobe displacement was 0.2 mm (range, -3.9 to 2.9 mm) without any cases of significant brain sagging. The mean follow-up period was 10.1 months (range, 4-19 months). There were no postoperative CSF leaks. Rigid structural repair may not be necessary for ASB defect repair after endoscopic endonasal resection of the cribriform plate. Our technique for multilayer cranial base reconstruction appears to be satisfactory in preventing delayed frontal lobe sagging. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Revisiting the effects of Parkinson's disease and frontal lobe lesions on task switching: the role of rule reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Angie A; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that rule reconfiguration in task switching can isolate aspects of intact and impaired control at different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) by comparing switches between concrete naming rules pertaining to stimulus selection, to switches between abstract rules which allocate categorization responses to these stimuli. Based on previous findings, it was hypothesized that attentional switches, where task set competition emerges at the stimulus but not response set level, highlights striatal dopaminergic function. Conversely, increasing the degree of task set competition to encompass reconfiguration of response set when switching between abstract rules, represents a condition which engages the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and renders this manipulation sensitive to frontal damage. To this end, we investigated task switching with concrete and abstract rules in unilaterally (Hoehn & Yahr stage I) and bilaterally (Hoehn & Yahr stage II) affected PD patients, as well as striatally intact frontal lesion patients. As predicted, frontal lesion patients demonstrated switching deficits only with abstract categorization rules, where switching engendered complete task set reconfiguration and a new response, as did stage II PD patients with presumed frontal cortical pathology. Replicating previous findings, stage I PD patients with relatively circumscribed striatal pathology demonstrated no such impairment. Disease severity also impacted on attentional switching indexed by naming rules, since medicated stage II but not stage I patients demonstrated switching deficits emerging from stimulus set reconfiguration, suggesting that the ameliorative efficacy of dopaminergic medication is inversely related to the severity of the striatal deficit. These findings illustrate that the nature of the rules that are switched, and its implication in terms of reconfiguring different task set elements, highlights different neural characters of cognitive

  18. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Usta

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  19. Developmental changes in frontal lobe function during a verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, Tomoko; Kaga, Yoshimi; Ishii, Sayaka; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Sano, Fumikazu; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2014-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to investigate continuous changes of brain activation and has excellent time resolution. Verbal fluency task (VFT) is widely used as a neuropsychological test of frontal lobe function. The aim of this study was to investigate normal developmental change in frontal lobe function during VFT performance using multi-channel NIRS, specifically focusing on oxygenation hemoglobin (oxyHb) changes. The subjects were 9 adults and 37 childrens who were all healthy right-handed volunteers. Children were divided into four age groups (group A, 6-8 years; group B, 9-11 years; group C, 12-14 years; group D, 15-18 years). The [oxyHb] changes were measured with 22 channels of NIRS during VFT. We defined the frontopolar region as the region of interest for analysis, and calculated the Z-score to compare the data between groups. The task performance changed with age. There were significant differences between group A and other groups. The Z-score of [oxyHb] also significantly increased with age, when comparing adults to groups A and B. The task performances decreased with time in all groups. In contrast, [oxyHb] only continued to increase in the adult group. The verbal retrieval functions begin to mature in early adolescence and continue to grow up to adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TERT promoter mutated WHO grades II and III gliomas are located preferentially in the frontal lobe and avoid the midline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ze-Lin; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Chen, Ling-Chao; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Chong-Ran; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been regarded as biomarkers with distinct clinical and phenotypic features. Investigated the possible correlations between tumor location and genetic alterations would enhance our understanding of gliomagenesis and heterogeneity of glioma. We examined mutations of TERTp and IDH by direct sequencing and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in a cohort of 225 grades II and III diffuse gliomas. Correlation analysis between molecular markers and tumor locations was performed by Chi-square tests/Fisher’s exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found gliomas in frontal lobe showed higher frequency of TERTp mutation (P=0.0337) and simultaneously mutations of IDH and TERTp (IDH mut-TERTpmut) (P=0.0281) than frequency of biomarkers mutation of tumors in no-Frontal lobes, while lower frequency of TERTp mutation (PIDH and TERTp (IDH wt-TERTpwt) (PIDH and TERTp (IDH mut-TERTp mut vs. IDH wt-TERTp wt OR=0.162, 95% CI 0.075-0.350, PIDH-TERTp status and tumor location suggests their potential values in molecular classification of grades II and III gliomas. PMID:26617880

  1. The early argument for prefrontal leucotomy: the collision of frontal lobe theory and psychosurgery at the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Lillian B; Menacho, Sarah T

    2017-09-01

    The pathophysiology of mental illness and its relationship to the frontal lobe were subjects of immense interest in the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous studies emerged during this time on cortical localization and frontal lobe theory, drawing upon various ideas from neurology and psychiatry. Reflecting the intense interest in this region of the brain, the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London hosted a special session on the frontal lobe. Among other presentations, Yale physiologists John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen presented a study on frontal lobectomy in primates, and neurologist Richard Brickner presented a case of frontal ablation for olfactory meningioma performed by the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon Walter Dandy. Both occurrences are said to have influenced Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz (1874-1955) to commence performing leucotomies on patients beginning in late 1935. Here the authors review the relevant events related to frontal lobe theory leading up to the 1935 Neurological Congress as well as the extent of this meeting's role in the genesis of the modern era of psychosurgery.

  2. Cortical light scattering during interictal epileptic spikes in frontal lobe epilepsy in children: A fast optical signal and electroencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoochehri, Mana; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Bourel-Ponchel, Emilie; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES. The complex pathophysiological mechanisms require a global approach to the interactions between neural synaptic and nonsynaptic, vascular, and metabolic systems. In the present study, we focused on the interaction between synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms through the simultaneous noninvasive multimodal multiscale recording of high-density EEG (HD-EEG; synaptic) and fast optical signal (FOS; nonsynaptic), which evaluate rapid changes in light scattering related to changes in membrane configuration occurring during neuronal activation of IES. To evaluate changes in light scattering occurring around IES, three children with frontal IES were simultaneously recorded with HD-EEG and FOS. To evaluate change in synchronization, time-frequency representation analysis of the HD-EEG was performed simultaneously around the IES. To independently evaluate our multimodal method, a control experiment with somatosensory stimuli was designed and applied to five healthy volunteers. Alternating increase-decrease-increase in optical signals occurred 200 ms before to 180 ms after the IES peak. These changes started before any changes in EEG signal. In addition, time-frequency domain EEG analysis revealed alternating decrease-increase-decrease in the EEG spectral power concomitantly with changes in the optical signal during IES. These results suggest a relationship between (de)synchronization and neuronal volume changes in frontal lobe epilepsy during IES. These changes in the neuronal environment around IES in frontal lobe epilepsy observed in children, as they have been in rats, raise new questions about the synaptic/nonsynaptic mechanisms that propel

  3. Discriminative use of SPECT in frontal lobe-type dementia versus (senile) dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, B A; Saerens, J; Mariën, P; Borggreve, F; Goeman, J; Vandevivere, J; Vervaet, A; Dierckx, R; de Deyn, P P

    1997-06-01

    Dementia of the Alzheimer's type [(S)DAT] and dementia with frontal features (FLD) are nosological entities with different prognoses and presumed pathophysiology. There is a need for noninvasive differential diagnostic tools. To evaluate whether SPECT perfusion imaging could discriminate between these neurodegenerative disorders, we performed a comparative study. SPECT scans using 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) of 21 patients with FLD were compared with those obtained in a group of 19 age- and severity-matched patients suffering from (S)DAT. Brain SPECT perfusion deficits were scored by visual qualitative analysis with respect to location, lateralization and severity. A total severity score of cerebral hypoperfusion (maximal value = 18) was calculated by adding all severity scores (scored between 0 and 3; 0 = no perfusion deficit; 1 = 13%-30% hypoperfusion; 2 = 30%-50%, hypoperfusion and 3 = > 50% hypoperfusion including breaching of the cortex) for right and left frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Moreover, bifrontal hypoperfusion (Fa) was scored, yielding a value between 0 and 6 by adding the two frontal severity scores. No significant correlation was found between MMSE scores and total severity scores on SPECT. A statistically significant correlation was found between the Middelheim frontality score and frontal severity score. Statistically more significant bilateral hypoperfusion of the parietal lobes was found in the (S)DAT group. Conversely, bifrontal hypoperfusion was found more in the FLD group. Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified the severity of bifrontal hypoperfusion as the most significant contributing parameter to correctly classifying (S)DAT versus FLD on SPECT. The probability of predicting (S)DAT based on the SPECT scan is calculated with the following formula: [equation: see text] Using this equation, a value above 0.5 was predictive for (S)DAT and a calculated value under 0.5 was predictive for FLD. Using this

  4. Altered local spontaneous activity in frontal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Hechun; He, Zhongqiong; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Pu; Tan, Song; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states). Then, two-sample t test was performed to detect the FOCA differences between two groups. Partial correlations between the FOCA values and durations of epilepsy were further analyzed. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FOCA in distant brain regions including the frontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. The decreased FOCA was located in the temporal cortex, posterior default model regions, and cerebellum. In addition, the FOCA measure was linked to the duration of epilepsy in basal ganglia. Our study suggested that alterations of local spontaneous activity in frontoparietal cortex and basal ganglia was associated with the pathophysiology of FLE; and the abnormality in frontal and default model regions might account for the potential cognitive impairment in FLE. We also presumed that the FOCA measure had potential to provide important insights into understanding epilepsy such as FLE.

  5. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  6. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist's pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchiglia, Domenico; Della Torre, Attilio; Murrone, Domenico; Chirchiglia, Pasquale; Marotta, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion.

  7. Measurement of frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with congenital heart disease at different gestational weeks using three dimensional ultra sonography and its clinical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Fei, Zhu; Hong-Xiong, Liu; Ying, H E

    2016-11-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the measurement of frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) at different gestational weeks using three dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography and its clinical value. Then, 238 pregnant women who received obstetric ultrasonography in ultrasound department of Internal Medicine of our hospital were enrolled between March 2013 to April 2014. In this study, 85 fetuses were diagnosed to develop CHD by prenatal fetal echocardiography, and the other 153 fetuses were normal. Frontal lobe volume, thalamic volume and cerebral blood flow was determined by color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus (type: GE Voluson E8). The level of MCA-PI and CPR in CHD fetus group performed significantly lower than that in normal fetus group (Pfrontal lobe volume between the two groups (Pfrontal lobe volume than that in normal fetus group (Pfrontal lobe volume and thalamic volume; if gestational age frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with CHD performed significantly lower than that in normal fetuses.

  8. A prospective study of cerebral, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes and neuropsychological performance in children with primary brain tumors treated with cranial radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbahiwe, Harold; Rashid, Arif; Horska, Alena; Mahone, E Mark; Lin, Doris; McNutt, Todd; Cohen, Kenneth; Redmond, Kristin; Wharam, Moody; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (RT) is an important component in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. However, it can result in long-term effects on the developing brain. This prospective study assessed the effects of cranial RT on cerebral, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes and their correlation with higher cognitive functioning. Ten pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy children serving as controls were evaluated. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessments (language, memory, auditory and visual processing, and vocabulary) were performed at the baseline and 6, 15, and 27 months after RT. The effects of age, the time since RT, and the cerebral RT dose on brain volumes and neuropsychological performance were analyzed with linear mixed effects model analyses. Cerebral volume increased significantly with age in both groups (P = .01); this increase in volume was more pronounced in younger children. Vocabulary performance was found to be significantly associated with a greater cerebral volume (P = .05) and a lower RT dose (P = .003). No relation was observed between the RT dose and the cerebral volume. There was no difference in the corresponding neuropsychological tests between the 2 groups. This prospective study found significant relations among the RT dose, cerebral volumes, and rate of vocabulary development among children receiving RT. The results of this study provide further support for clinical trials aimed at reducing cranial RT doses in the pediatric population. Cancer 2017;161-168. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Radionecrosis of the frontal lobe as a consequence of malignant ethmoid tumor management: incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Lang, P; Bresson, D; George, B; Guichard, J-P; Wassef, M; Sauvaget, E; Froelich, S; Kania, R; Herman, P

    2014-12-01

    Malignant ethmoid tumors are treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of radionecrosis of frontal lobe and determine preventive measures. Retrospective study of ethmoid malignancies treated from 2000 to 2011. All patients underwent surgery with/without anterior skull base resection using endoscopic or external approaches followed by irradiation (mean dose 64 Gy). Median follow-up was 50 months. Eight of 50 patients (16 %) presented with fronto-basal radionecrosis, connected to duraplasty, with a latent interval of 18.5 months. Although asymptomatic in six, radionecrosis triggered seizures and required surgery in two cases. Survival was not impacted. Risk factors included dyslipidemia, occurrence of epilepsy and dural resection. Radionecrosis may result from the combination of anterior skull base resection and radiotherapy for the treatment of ethmoid malignancies. Preventive measures rely on improving the duraplasty and optimization of the Gy-dose delivery.

  10. Adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse demonstrate altered frontal lobe activation during Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McCaffrey, Alexandra; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2011-02-01

    Children and adolescents, family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism, exhibit differences in brain structure and functional activation when compared to family history negative (FH-) counterparts. Given that frontal brain regions, and associated reciprocal connections with limbic structures, undergo the most dramatic maturational changes during adolescence, the objective of this study was to compare functional brain activation during a frontally mediated test of response inhibition in 32 adolescents separated into low-risk (FH-) and high-risk (FH+) groups. Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent data were acquired at 1.5 Tesla during performance of Stroop Color Naming, Word Reading, and Interference. Preprocessing and statistical analyses, covaried for age, were conducted in SPM99 using a search territory that included superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri (trigone region), anterior cingulate gyrus (CG), and left and right amygdala. Significantly greater activation in the fronto-limbic search territory was observed in FH+ relative to FH- subjects during Stroop Interference. In addition, a significant regression between brain activation and family history density was observed, with a greater density being associated with increased activation in regions including middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and CG (BA24). These data demonstrate a significant influence of FH status on brain activation during the performance of a response inhibition task, perhaps reflecting a neurobiological vulnerability associated with FH status that may include reduced neuronal efficiency and/or recruitment of additional neuronal resources. These findings are important given that the adolescent developmental period is already associated with reduced inhibitory capacity, even prior to the onset of alcohol use. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Distinguishing Intentions from Desires: Contributions of the Frontal and Parietal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to represent desires and intentions as two distinct mental states was investigated in patients with parietal (N = 8) and frontal (N = 6) lesions and in age-matched controls (N = 7). A task was used where the satisfaction of the desire and the fulfilment of the intention did not co-vary and were manipulated in a 2 x 2 set. In two…

  12. Transcortical sensory aphasia following a left frontal lobe infarction probably due to anomalously represented language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Suh, M K; Lee, B H; Park, K C; Ku, B D; Chung, C S; Na, D L

    2009-11-01

    A 57-year-old right-handed man presented with speech disturbance 1 day prior to his admission. The standardized aphasia test batteries showed transcortical sensory aphasia. MRI revealed a left frontal and insular infarct. Positron emission tomography scans also revealed a glucose hypometabolism in the same region as the infarcted area on MRI. Repeated aphasia testing showed that his aphasia only partially improved.

  13. Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery in Childhood and Adolescence: Predictors of Long-Term Seizure Freedom, Overall Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramantani, Georgia; Kadish, Navah Ester; Mayer, Hans; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Wagner, Kathrin; Reuner, Gitta; Strobl, Karl; Schubert-Bast, Susanne; Wiegand, Gert; Brandt, Armin; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Mader, Irina; van Velthoven, Vera; Zentner, Josef; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Bast, Thomas

    2017-07-05

    Although frontal lobe resections account for one-third of intralobar resections in pediatric epilepsy surgery, there is a dearth of information regarding long-term seizure freedom, overall cognitive and adaptive functioning. To identify outcome predictors and define the appropriate timing for surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 75 consecutive patients aged 10.0 ± 4.9 yr at surgery that had an 8.1 yr mean follow-up. Etiology comprised focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in 71% and benign tumors in 16% cases. All patients but one had a magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion. At last follow-up, 63% patients remained seizure-free and 37% had discontinued antiepileptic drugs. Presurgical predictors of seizure freedom were a shorter epilepsy duration, strictly regional epileptic discharges in electroencephalography (EEG), and an epileptogenic zone and/or lesion distant from eloquent cortex. Postsurgical predictors were the completeness of resection and the lack of early postoperative seizures or epileptic discharges in EEG. Higher presurgical overall cognitive and adaptive functioning was related to later epilepsy onset and to a sublobar epileptogenic zone and/or lesion. Following surgery, scores remained stable in the majority of patients. Postsurgical gains were determined by higher presurgical performance and tumors vs FCD. Our findings highlight the favorable long-term outcomes following frontal lobe epilepsy surgery in childhood and adolescence and underline the importance of early surgical intervention in selected candidates. Early postsurgical relapses and epileptic discharges in EEG constitute key markers of treatment failure and should prompt timely reevaluation. Postsurgical overall cognitive and adaptive functioning is stable in most patients, whereas those with benign tumors have higher chances of improvement.

  14. Interaction between DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bongseog; Chae, Jonghee; Roh, Jaewoo; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2018-03-02

    The dopamine receptor D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and lead exposure are both thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is characterized by delay in brain maturation, most prominent in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The D2 receptor is also mainly located in the PFC, and animal studies show that lead exposure affects the dopaminergic system of the frontal lobe, indicating an overlap in neural correlates of ADHD, DRD2, and lead exposure. We examined the interaction effects of DRD2 rs1800497 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in patients with ADHD. A 1:1 age- and gender-matched sample of 75 participants with ADHD and 75 healthy participants was included in the analysis. The interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of 12 regions of interest in the frontal lobe were examined by multivariable linear regression analyses. When we investigated the DRD2×lead effects in the ADHD and HC groups separately, significant DRD2×lead effects were found in the ADHD group, but not in the healthy control group in multiple ROIs of the frontal lobe. There was a significant negative correlation between the cortical thickness of the right superior frontal gyrus and inattention scores. The present findings demonstrated significant interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in ADHD. Replication studies with larger sample sizes, using a prospective design, are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Frontal Lobe Meningioma in a Child Leading to Visual Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedime Sahinoglu-Keşkek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Meningiomas are benign primary meningeal tumors and are seen rare in children and adolescents. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. A 15-year-old Turkish boy reported a 1-month history of headache and blurred vision in both eyes. His visual acuity was 0.3 in both eyes with papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 77×97×77 mm intracranial-extra-axial frontal lesion which compresses the chiasm. He was diagnosed with intracranial meningioma and referred to neurosurgery clinic. Conclusion. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the fact that papilledema and low vision can be caused by an intracranial tumor which compresses optic chiasm.

  16. A Decrease in Spatially Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Determined Frontal Lobe Tissue Oxygenation by Phenylephrine Reflects Reduced Skin Blood Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) is reduced with administration of phenylephrine, while cerebral blood flow may remain unaffected. We hypothesized that extracranial vasoconstriction explains the effect of phenylephrine on Sc...

  17. Treated for psychosis and presenting with prominent speech and language abnormalities: A case report of an adult with a frontal lobe teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Lippi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a rare case of an adult presenting with psychotic symptoms, including prominent thought form disorder and an aphasia. Further investigation revealed the presence of a mature teratoma in the left frontal lobe, which could have played a pathophysiological role in the development of both the psychosis and the language impairment.

  18. Seizure semiology reflects spread from frontal to temporal lobe: evolution of hyperkinetic to automotor seizures as documented by invasive EEG video recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Fadime Irsel; Agan, Kadriye; Borggraefe, Ingo; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2013-09-01

    This patient report demonstrates the importance of seizure evolution in the localising value of seizure semiology. Spread of epileptic activity from frontal to temporal lobe, as demonstrated by invasive recordings, was reflected by change from hyperkinetic movements to arrest of activity with mild oral and manual automatisms. [Published with video sequences].

  19. Developmental frontal lobe imaging in moral judgment: Arthur Benton's enduring influence 60 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul J; Robinson-Long, Melissa; Realmuto, Jennifer; Moll, Jorge; deOliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Wang, Jianli; Yang, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Early prefrontal cortex damage has been associated with developmental deficits in social adaptation, moral behavior, and empathy that alter the maturation of social cognition and social emotions. The seminal case of Ackerly and Benton (1948) continues to provide the most striking clinical example of prefrontal-related neurodevelopmental impairments, with more recent case reports confirming and elaborating these influential observations. This study investigated the prefrontal hypothesis of moral decision making in healthy, typically developing children and adolescents (10-17 years of age) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants judged the actions in age-appropriate moral vignettes as right or wrong, and results were contrasted to a nonsocial/nonmoral baseline condition requiring similar right versus wrong judgments. Results confirmed a predominant cluster of activity in the most rostral-medial (frontal polar) prefrontal region across moral judgment conditions, along with left lateroposterior orbitofrontal/ventrolateral prefrontal, left temporoparietal junction, midline thalamus and globus pallidus, and bilateral inferior occipital clusters. Trials entailing ambiguous moral situations activated considerably more prefrontal and parietal regions than did routine moral situations, suggesting the need for more neurocognitive resources. While age regression analysis identified a few regions of greater or lesser activity with age, the frontal polar activations did not change with age. Findings confirm a significant role for anterior-medial prefrontal cortex in the typical development and maturation of moral decision making, consistent with clinical lesion case descriptions.

  20. Difficulty with learning of exercise instructions associated with 'working memory' dysfunction and frontal glucose hypometabolism in a patient with very mild subcortical vascular dementia with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenji; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanaka, Naofumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2013-07-25

    We present a patient with no dementia, depression or apathy, who had difficulty in learning self-exercise instructions. The patient was an 80-year-old right-handed woman who was admitted to a rehabilitation unit to receive postoperative rehabilitation after a femoral neck fracture. She was instructed quadriceps isometric exercises to perform 10 repetitions and to hold each stretch for 10 s. She performed the exercise correctly with motivation, but she had difficulty in learning the number of repetitions and the duration of each stretch. She had no history of cerebrovascular accident and the neurological examination was normal. Neuropsychological testing, MRI and (18)F-fluoro- D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed to examine the neural mechanisms associated with this difficulty in learning instructions. Neuropsychological tests revealed dysfunction of working memory while other cognitive domains were relatively preserved. Her neuropsychological tests scores were (1) Mini-Mental State Examination: 24 (mild cognitive impairment), (2) Geriatric Depression Scale-15: 2 (no depression), (3) Apathy Scale: 2 (no apathy), (4) digit span forward: 5 (normal), (5) digit span backward: 2 (impaired), (6) visuospatial span forward: 4 (normal), (7) visuospatial span backward: 2 (impaired), (8) frontal assessment battery: 11 (normal), (9) Weigl test: 0 (impaired), (10) trail making test A: 52 s (normal), (11) train making test B: failed (impaired). T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI showed high signal-intensity lesions in the cerebral deep white matter. FDG-PET revealed hypometabolic areas in the bilateral frontal lobes, particularly in the bilateral dorsolateral frontal area, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. One of the possible neural mechanisms underlying the learning difficulties in this patient may have been partial blockage of the cingulofrontal network by deep white matter lesions.

  1. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist’s pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirchiglia D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,1 Domenico Murrone,2 Pasquale Chirchiglia,3 Rosa Marotta4 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, 3School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion. Keywords: cerebral cavernoma, cavernous angioma, headache, frontal syndrome, pseudodepression syndrome 

  2. Binding in working memory and frontal lobe in normal aging: is there any similarity with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eLecouvey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some studies highlight similarities between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and healthy aging. Indeed, the decline in older individuals’ ability to create a unified representation of the individual features of an event is thought to arise from a disruption of integration within the episodic buffer of working memory as the same way as observed in ASD. In both cases, this deficit may result from an abnormal engagement of a frontohippocampal network. The objective of the present study is to identify both cognitive processes and neural substrates associated to the deficit of integration in healthy aging. We studied the capacity of integration and the cognitive processes that might mediate its decline in 72 healthy participants aged 18-84 years. We confronted the behavioral data to the changes in brain metabolism associated with the age-related decline in a subgroup of 34 healthy participants aged 20-77 years using the resting-state [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Forward stepwise regression analyses showed that the age-related decline in binding was partially explained by a decline in inhibition and processing speed. PET correlation analyses indicated that metabolism of the medial frontal regions, anterior and middle cingulate cortices is implicated in this phenomenon. These data suggest that executive functions and processing speed may play a crucial rule in the capacity to integrate unified representations in memory in aging. Possible implications are discussed in ASD.

  3. Looking for complexity in quantitative semiology of frontal and temporal lobe seizures using neuroethology and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertti, Poliana; Tejada, Julian; Martins, Ana Paula Pinheiro; Dal-Cól, Maria Luiza Cleto; Terra, Vera Cristina; de Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2014-09-01

    Epileptic syndromes and seizures are the expression of complex brain systems. Because no analysis of complexity has been applied to epileptic seizure semiology, our goal was to apply neuroethology and graph analysis to the study of the complexity of behavioral manifestations of epileptic seizures in human frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We analyzed the video recordings of 120 seizures of 18 patients with FLE and 28 seizures of 28 patients with TLE. All patients were seizure-free >1 year after surgery (Engel Class I). All patients' behavioral sequences were analyzed by means of a glossary containing all behaviors and analyzed for neuroethology (Ethomatic software). The same series were used for graph analysis (CYTOSCAPE). Behaviors, displayed as nodes, were connected by edges to other nodes according to their temporal sequence of appearance. Using neuroethology analysis, we confirmed data in the literature such as in FLE: brief/frequent seizures, complex motor behaviors, head and eye version, unilateral/bilateral tonic posturing, speech arrest, vocalization, and rapid postictal recovery and in the case of TLE: presence of epigastric aura, lateralized dystonias, impairment of consciousness/speech during ictal and postictal periods, and development of secondary generalization. Using graph analysis metrics of FLE and TLE confirmed data from flowcharts. However, because of the algorithms we used, they highlighted more powerfully the connectivity and complex associations among behaviors in a quite selective manner, depending on the origin of the seizures. The algorithms we used are commonly employed to track brain connectivity from EEG and MRI sources, which makes our study very promising for future studies of complexity in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptoms of aphasia and lesions in the brain. The relationship between speech and language function and the frontal lobe as studied by the use of cranial computed tomography

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    Totsuka, G.; Fujibayashi, M. (Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Funai, H.; Fukusako, Y.; Sasanuma, S.

    1981-04-01

    Sixty-nine cases with a variety of types of aphasia were studied to determine the relationship between the locus and extent of the lesion, as demonstrated by cranial tomography, and the speech and language function of the patients, as evaluated by the Comprehensive Examination of Aphasia (CEA, the latest revised version of the Schuell-Sasanuma Diagnosis Test of Aphasia). The figure of the lateral view of the brain illustrating the lesion site was made from the horizontal tomogram for each patient. The figures thus obtained for all the patients in each subtest of ECA were processed by the following two methods: (1) a superimposed illustration showing only the patients whose test scores were smaller than the average and (2) an illustration showing the distribution of the average test scores on the lateral view of the brain. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Of 14 speech and language tests, the performance in the 6 areas listed below was exclusively related to the frontal lobe: description of pictured situation phonemic paraphasia fluency imitating examiner; palatal movements rapid repetition of monosyllables rapid repetition of three-syllables (e.g., pa-ta-ka) 2. Concerning the speech areas in the frontal lobe, they were distributed throughout instead of being limited to Broca's area. 3. It became clear that the performance in all the areas except those mentioned above had a close connection with the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, while, at the same time, partly involving the frontal lobe.

  5. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Migraineurs without aura show microstructural abnormalities in the cerebellum and frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granziera, C; Romascano, D; Daducci, A; Roche, A; Vincent, M; Krueger, G; Hadjikhani, N

    2013-12-01

    The involvement of the cerebellum in migraine pathophysiology is not well understood. We used a biparametric approach at high-field MRI (3 T) to assess the structural integrity of the cerebellum in 15 migraineurs with aura (MWA), 23 migraineurs without aura (MWoA), and 20 healthy controls (HC). High-resolution T1 relaxation maps were acquired together with magnetization transfer images in order to probe microstructural and myelin integrity. Clusterwise analysis was performed on T1 and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps of the cerebellum of MWA, MWoA, and HC using an ANOVA and a non-parametric clusterwise permutation F test, with age and gender as covariates and correction for familywise error rate. In addition, mean MTR and T1 in frontal regions known to be highly connected to the cerebellum were computed. Clusterwise comparison among groups showed a cluster of lower MTR in the right Crus I of MWoA patients vs. HC and MWA subjects (p = 0.04). Univariate and bivariate analysis on T1 and MTR contrasts showed that MWoA patients had longer T1 and lower MTR in the right and left pars orbitalis compared to MWA (p < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively), but no differences were found with HC. Lower MTR and longer T1 point at a loss of macromolecules and/or micro-edema in Crus I and pars orbitalis in MWoA patients vs. HC and vs. MWA. The pathophysiological implications of these findings are discussed in light of recent literature.

  7. Mild Malformation of Cortical Development with Oligodendroglial Hyperplasia in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: A New Clinico-Pathological Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Johannes; Coras, Roland; Rössler, Karl; Pieper, Tom; Kudernatsch, Manfred; Holthausen, Hans; Winkler, Peter; Woermann, Friedrich; Bien, Christian G; Polster, Tilman; Schulz, Reinhard; Kalbhenn, Thilo; Urbach, Horst; Becker, Albert; Grunwald, Thomas; Huppertz, Hans-Juergen; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Toledano, Rafael; Feucht, Martha; Mühlebner, Angelika; Czech, Thomas; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    The histopathological spectrum of human epileptogenic brain lesions is widespread including common and rare variants of cortical malformations. However, 2-26% of epilepsy surgery specimens are histopathologically classified as nonlesional. We hypothesized that these specimens include also new diagnostic entities, in particular when presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify abnormal signal intensities within the anatomical region of seizure onset. In our series of 1381 en bloc resected epilepsy surgery brain specimens, 52 cases could not be histopathologically classified and were considered nonlesional (3.7%). An increase of Olig2-, and PDGFR-alpha-immunoreactive oligodendroglia was observed in white matter and deep cortical layers in 22 of these patients (42%). Increased proliferation activity as well as heterotopic neurons in white matter were additional histopathological hallmarks. All patients suffered from frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) with a median age of epilepsy onset at 4 years and 16 years at epilepsy surgery. Presurgical MRI suggested focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in all patients. We suggest to classify this characteristic histopathology pattern as "mild malformation of cortical development with oligodendroglial hyperplasia (MOGHE)." Further insights into pathomechanisms of MOGHE may help to bridge the diagnostic gap in children and young adults with difficult-to-treat FLE. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Abutalebi, Jubin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2005-12-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological language switching and mixing were found in both languages. Remission of these phenomena was reflected on brain perfusion SPECT revealing improved perfusion in the left frontal lobe and left caudate nucleus. The parallelism between the evolution of language symptoms and the SPECT findings may demonstrate that a subcortical left frontal lobe circuity is crucially involved in language switching and mixing.

  9. Theoretical Exploration of the Neural Bases of Behavioural Disinhibition, Apathy and Executive Dysfunction in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease in People with Down's Syndrome: Potential Involvement of Multiple Frontal-Subcortical Neuronal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S. L.; Holland, A. J.; Watson, P. C.; Huppert, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent research has suggested a specific impairment in frontal-lobe functioning in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people with Down's syndrome (DS), characterised by prominent changes in personality or behaviour. The aim of the current paper is to explore whether particular kinds of change (namely executive…

  10. Differential diagnosis of frontal lobe atrophy from chronic subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma on CT in aged patients. Usefulness of CT cisternogram

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    Hayashi, Hideaki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    Metrizamide CT cisternograms (CTC) were performed in order to examine the CSF passage to subarachnoid space, cerebral sulci and Sylvian fissure. The old aged 20 patients (from 63 to 88 years old) with the layer of low density area around bilateral frontal lobe (bi-frontal LDA) in plain CT finding were selected from 2000 aged patients hospitalized in Hanwa-Senboku Hospital. In these 20 patients, it was difficult to differentiate frontal lobe atrophy from the chronic subdural hematoma and subdural hygroma. Conservative therapy was applied in 19 patients for their old age or their complicated diseases. Only 1 patient was operated for subdural hygroma. The 20 patients were investigated in EEGs, severity of dementia, disturbance of consciousness, activity of daily life, their clinical course and prognosis. Only 2 of the 11 patients with type 1 CTC findings (cerebral sulci, Sylvian fissure and bi-frontal LDA were simultaneously enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness and/or delirium for their serious somatic disorders. All of 6 patients with type 3 CTC findings (only bi-frontal LDA was not enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness. Three patients with type 2 CTC findings (atypical findings) were reported independently. Subdural disorder elevating intracranial pressure were clarified in the cases with type 3 CTC findings. (author).

  11. Acute Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Following Prefrontal Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Carle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients.

  12. Traumatic injury to the immature frontal lobe: A new murine model of long-term motor impairment in the absence of psychosocial or cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Ferriero, Donna; Semple, Bridgette D

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury in children commonly involves the frontal lobes, and is associated with distinct structural and behavioral changes. Despite the clinical significance of injuries localized to this region during brain development, the mechanisms underlying secondary damage and long-term recovery are poorly understood. Here we have characterized the first model of unilateral focal traumatic injury to the developing frontal lobe. Male C57Bl/6J mice at postnatal day (p) 21, an age approximating a toddler-aged child, received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery to the left frontal lobe and were euthanized 1 and 7 d later. A necrotic cavity and local inflammatory response were largely confined to the unilateral frontal lobe, dorsal corpus callosum and striatum anterior to Bregma. While cell death and accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein were characteristic features of the peri-contusional motor cortex, corpus callosum, cingulum and dorsal striatum, underlying structures including the hippocampus showed no overt pathology. To determine the long-term functional consequences of injury at p21, two additional cohorts were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests in adolescence (p35-45) or adulthood (p70-80). In both cohorts, brain-injured mice showed normal levels of anxiety, sociability, spatial learning and memory. The signature phenotypic features were deficits in motor function and motor learning, coincident with a reduction in ipsilateral cortical brain volumes. Together, these findings demonstrate classic morphological features of a focal traumatic injury, including early cell death and axonal injury, and long-term volumetric loss of cortical volumes. The presence of deficits in sensorimotor function and coordination in the absence of abnormal findings related to anxiety, sociability and memory, likely reflect several variables including the unique location of the injury and the emergence of favorable compensatory mechanisms during subsequent

  13. Family history and frontal lobe seizures predict long-term remission in newly diagnosed cryptogenic focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Sara; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Beghi, Ettore; Tripepi, Giovanni; Labate, Angelo; Mumoli, Laura; Leonardi, Cinzia G; Cianci, Vittoria; Latella, Maria Adele; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2013-11-01

    Cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) is a heterogeneous clinical disorder including patients with severe refractory forms and patients with a fairly good prognosis. Predictors of prognosis in CFE are poorly understood. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify long-term (5-year) prognostic predictors in patients with newly diagnosed CFE. Subjects with cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) seen from April 1987 to September 2011 in two twin Epilepsy Centres located in Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro, Calabria, Southern Italy, were screened. Patients were excluded if they had psychogenic seizures, major psychiatric disorders presence of brain lesions except for non-specific white matter T2-hyperintensities, short follow-up (less than five years) or for having received the diagnosis of CFE elsewhere. One hundred and eighty-six patients, firstly diagnosed in our Centres, constituted the study sample. Survival curves were generated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The endpoint was the cumulative time-dependent chance of 5-year remission after treatment start. Independent predictors of remission were tested by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards function models. The accuracy of the resulting model was tested with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The cumulative incidence of remission was 23%. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the only factor predicting remission was family history of epilepsy or febrile seizures (FS; p=0.02). At Cox regression, family history and frontal lobe epilepsy showed to be independent predictors of outcome (p=0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The accuracy of these predictors was good (area under ROC curve 0.648, 95% CI 0.575-0.716). Interestingly, we also found a considerable (7 years) diagnostic delay that did not result in a worse prognosis. About one quarter of subjects with newly diagnosed CFE attains 5-year seizure remission during follow-up. Family history of epilepsy or FS

  14. A new approach for improving diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia utilising the intrinsic properties of the SPET dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technology, CNR, Viale Marx 15, 00137, Rome (Italy); Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Kovalev, Vassili A. [Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Belarus National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Max-Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany); Lundqvist, Roger; Thurfjell, Lennart [Applied Medical Imaging, Uppsala (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Stig A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontal lobe dementia (FLD) show characteristic patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However, these patterns may overlap with those observed in the aging brain in elderly normal individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for better classification and recognition of AD and FLD cases as compared with normal controls. Forty-six patients with AD, 7 patients with FLD and 34 normal controls (CTR) were included in the study. rCBF was assessed by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and a three-headed single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera. A brain atlas was used to define volumes of interest (VOIs) corresponding to the brain lobes. In addition to conventional image processing methods, based on count density/voxel, the new approach also analysed other intrinsic properties of the data by means of gradient computation steps. Hereby, five factors were assessed and tested separately: the mean count density/voxel and its histogram, the mean gradient and its histogram, and the gradient angle co-occurrence matrix. A feature vector concatenating single features was also created and tested. Preliminary feature discrimination was performed using a two-sided t-test and a K-means clustering was then used to classify the image sets into categories. Finally, five-dimensional co-occurrence matrices combining the different intrinsic properties were computed for each VOI, and their ability to recognise the group to which each individual scan belonged was investigated. For correct classification of the AD-CTR groups, the gradient histogram in the parieto-temporal lobes was the most useful single feature (accuracy 91%). FLD and CTR were better classified by the count density/voxel histogram (frontal and occipital lobes) and by the mean gradient (frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, accuracy 98%). For AD and FLD the count density/voxel histogram in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes classified the

  15. Identifying Specific Clinical Symptoms of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Differential Psychiatric Disorders in Patients Presenting With a Late-Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; van Liempt, Saskia; Gossink, Flora; Krudop, Welmoed A; Sikkes, Sietske; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Stek, Max L

    2016-10-01

    Early differentiation between psychiatric disorders and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is of paramount importance in patients with the late-onset frontal lobe syndrome. As bvFTD in patients will deteriorate, psychiatric disorders are treatable. To date, misdiagnosis often occurs due to an overlap of symptoms and lack of specific biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether specific symptoms could separate bvFTD from psychiatric disorders. In a naturalistic, prospective, multicenter study, 137 patients (aged 45-75 years, 72% male) with a late-onset frontal lobe syndrome were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI) from April 2011 to June 2013. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, diagnoses were established based on elaborate neuropsychological testing, magnetic resonance imaging, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and clinical examination by a neurologist and a psychiatrist based on the International bvFTD Criteria Consortium for bvFTD and DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychiatric disorders. Forty-four subjects (32.8%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, 10 (7.3%) with possible bvFTD, and 45 (32.8%) with probable bvFTD. A logistic regression analysis was performed with "psychiatry or bvFTD" as dependent variable and clinical variables (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], SRI, FBI) and demographics as independent variables. A positive history of psychiatric illness, male gender, lower SRI scores and higher MADRS scores were predictive of psychiatric disorders, explaining 65.2% of the variance in diagnosis of psychiatry versus bvFTD (χ²₅ = 60.04, P onset frontal lobe syndrome may aid in differentiating bvFTD patients from psychiatric patients and may provide guidance in patient management.

  16. Role of the striatum, cerebellum and frontal lobes in the automatization of a repeated visuomotor sequence of movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, J; Laforce, R; Bouchard, G; Gaudreau, D; Roy, J; Poirier, M; Bédard, P J; Bédard, F; Bouchard, J P

    1998-07-01

    Recently, Doyon et al. [20] demonstrated that lesions to both the striatum and to the cerebellum in humans produce a similar deficit in the learning of a repeated visuomotor sequence, which occurs late in the acquisition process. We now report the results of two experiments that were designed to examine whether this impairment was due to a lack of automatization of the repeating sequence of finger movements by using a dual-task paradigm and by testing for long-term retention of this skill. In Experiment 1, the performance of groups of patients with Parkinson's disease, or with damage to the cerebellum or to the frontal lobes, was compared to that of matched control subjects on the Repeated Sequence Test (primary task) and the Brooks' Matrices Test (secondary task). These two tests were administered concomitantly in both early and late learning phases of the visuomotor sequence. Overall, the groups did not differ in their ability to execute the primary task. By contrast, in accordance with the predictions, patients in Stages 2-3 of Parkinson's disease or with a cerebellar lesion failed to reveal the expected increase in performance on the secondary task seen with learning, suggesting that the latter groups of patients did not have access to the same level of residual cognitive resources to complete the matrices compared to controls. In Experiment 2, the same groups of patients and control subjects were retested again 10-18 months later. They were given four blocks of 100 trials each of the repeating sequence task, followed by a questionnaire and a self-generation task that measured their declarative knowledge of that sequence. The results revealed a long-term retention impairment only in patients who changed from Stage I to Stage II of the disease (suggesting further striatal degeneration) during the one-year interval, or who had a cerebellar lesion. By contrast, performance of the three clinical groups did not differ from controls on declarative memory tests. These

  17. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1 There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2 Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3 Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  18. Cognitive deficits are associated with frontal and temporal lobe white matter lesions in middle-aged adults living in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bunce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in old age is well established. However, little is known about this association in midlife. As this information will inform policy for early preventative healthcare initiatives, we investigated non-periventricular frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe white matter hyperintensities (WMH in relation to cognitive function in 428 (232 women community-dwelling adults aged 44 to 48 years. RESULTS: Frontal white matter lesions were significantly associated with greater intraindividual RT variability in women, while temporal WMH were associated with face recognition deficits in men. Parietal and occipital lobe lesions were unrelated to cognitive performance. These findings did not differ when education and a range of health variables, including vascular risk factors, were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Gender differences in WMH-cognition associations are discussed, and we conclude that small vessel disease is present in midlife and has functional consequences which are generally not recognized. Preventative strategies should, therefore, begin early in life.

  19. The Role of the Frontal Lobe in Complex Walking Among Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Older Adults: An fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidan, Inbal; Nieuwhof, Freek; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Reelick, Miriam F; Bloem, Bas R; Giladi, Nir; Deutsch, Judith E; Hausdorff, Jeffery M; Claassen, Jurgen A H; Mirelman, Anat

    2016-11-01

    Gait is influenced by higher order cognitive and cortical control mechanisms. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been used to examine frontal activation during walking in healthy older adults, reporting increased oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during dual task walking (DT), compared with usual walking. To investigate the role of the frontal lobe during DT and obstacle negotiation, in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 70.4 ± 0.9 years) and 68 patients with PD (mean age 71.7 ± 1.1 years,) performed 3 walking tasks: (a) usual walking, (b) DT walking, and (c) obstacles negotiation, with fNIRS and accelerometers. Linear-mix models were used to detect changes between groups and within tasks. Patients with PD had higher activation during usual walking (P frontal activation during walking was observed between groups. The higher activation during usual walking in patients with PD suggests that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role already during simple walking. However, higher activation relative to baseline during obstacle negotiation and not during DT in the patients with PD demonstrates that prefrontal activation depends on the nature of the task. These findings may have important implications for rehabilitation of gait in patients with PD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  1. The Superior Frontal Transsulcal Approach to the Anterior Ventricular System: Exploring the Sulcal and Subcortical Anatomy Using Anatomic Dissections and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsarnakis, Christos; Liakos, Faidon; Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Skandalakis, Georgios P; Komaitis, Spyros; Christidi, Fotini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Liouta, Evangelia; Stranjalis, George

    2017-10-01

    To explore the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) morphology, trajectory of the applied surgical corridor, and white matter bundles that are traversed during the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. Twenty normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres and 2 cadaveric heads were included in the study. The topography, morphology, and dimensions of the SFS were recorded in all specimens. Fourteen hemispheres were investigated through the fiber dissection technique whereas the remaining 6 were explored using coronal cuts. The cadaveric heads were used to perform the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. In addition, 2 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging and tractography reconstruction studies. The SFS was interrupted in 40% of the specimens studied and was always parallel to the interhemispheric fissure. The proximal 5 cm of the SFS (starting from the SFS precentral sulcus meeting point) were found to overlie the anterior ventricular system in all hemispheres. Five discrete white matter layers were identified en route to the anterior ventricular system (i.e., the arcuate fibers, the frontal aslant tract, the external capsule, internal capsule, and the callosal radiations). Diffusion tensor imaging studies confirmed the fiber tract architecture. When feasible, the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach offers a safe and effective corridor to the anterior part of the lateral ventricle because it minimizes brain retraction and transgression and offers a wide and straightforward working corridor. Meticulous preoperative planning coupled with a sound microneurosurgical technique are prerequisites to perform the approach successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotine-induced dystonic arousal complex in a mouse line harboring a human autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper, Yaroslav; Whyte, Douglas; Cahir, Elizabeth; Lester, Henry A; Grady, Sharon R; Marks, Michael J; Cohen, Bruce N; Fonck, Carlos; McClure-Begley, Tristan; McIntosh, J Michael; Labarca, Cesar; Lawrence, Andrew; Chen, Feng; Gantois, Ilse; Davies, Philip J; Petrou, Steven; Murphy, Mark; Waddington, John; Horne, Malcolm K; Berkovic, Samuel F; Drago, John

    2007-09-19

    We generated a mouse line harboring an autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) mutation: the alpha4 nicotinic receptor S248F knock-in strain. In this mouse, modest nicotine doses (1-2 mg/kg) elicit a novel behavior termed the dystonic arousal complex (DAC). The DAC includes stereotypical head movements, body jerking, and forelimb dystonia; these behaviors resemble some core features of ADNFLE. A marked Straub tail is an additional component of the DAC. Similar to attacks in ADNFLE, the DAC can be partially suppressed by the sodium channel blocker carbamazepine or by pre-exposure to a very low dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg). The DAC is centrally mediated, genetically highly penetrant, and, surprisingly, not associated with overt ictal electrical activity as assessed by (1) epidural or frontal lobe depth-electrode electroencephalography or (2) hippocampal c-fos-regulated gene expression. Heterozygous knock-in mice are partially protected from nicotine-induced seizures. The noncompetitive antagonist mecamylamine does not suppress the DAC, although it suppresses high-dose nicotine-induced wild-type-like seizures. Experiments on agonist-induced 86Rb+ and neurotransmitter efflux from synaptosomes and on alpha4S248Fbeta2 receptors expressed in oocytes confirm that the S248F mutation confers resistance to mecamylamine blockade. Genetic background, gender, and mutant gene expression levels modulate expression of the DAC phenotype in mice. The S248F mouse thus appears to provide a model for the paroxysmal dystonic element of ADNFLE semiology. Our model complements what is seen in other ADNFLE animal models. Together, these mice cover the spectrum of behavioral and electrographic events seen in the human condition.

  3. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Functional impairment of the frontal lobe in methamphetamine dependent patients detected on FDG-PET and WCST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Tae; Kwon, Do Hoon [Bugok National Hostipal, Changnyeong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Woo; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daeug (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    There are mounting evidences from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to support the view that patients with substance dependence have abnormalities in prefrontal cortex. However, functional deficits in prefrontal cortex has not been adequately studied in methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether methamphetamine dependent patients have metabolic abnormalities and executive dysfunction. Twenty-one abstinent methamphetamine dependent patients who were hospitalized in Bugok National Hospital underwent resting FDG-PET, after which they completed computerized versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Brain PET images were obtained 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. Significant differences of glucose metabolism were estimated for every voxel using t-statistics on SPM2 implemented in Matlab between methamphetamine dependent patients and age-matched normal controls. FDG-PET revealed significant hypometabolism in the left inferior frontal white matter (Talairach coordinates (x, y, z): -34, 7, 31) in methamphetamine dependent patients compared to the normal controls (uncorrect p<0.001, t>3.39). The nearest gray matter region was the left inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9). Methamphetamine dependent patients completed significantly fewer categories (3.662.19) and made more perseveration errors (22.0411.94) and total errors (44.5719.70) on the WCST compared to the normal controls (p<0.01). These data suggest that patients with methamphetamine dependence have functional impairments in prefrontal cortex.

  5. The Extension of the German CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery with Tests Assessing Subcortical, Executive and Frontal Functions Improves Accuracy in Dementia Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Schmid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with AD primarily focuses on tests of cortical functioning. However, in clinical practice, the underlying pathologies of dementia are unknown, and a focus on cortical functioning may neglect other domains of cognition, including subcortical and executive functioning. The current study aimed to improve the diagnostic discrimination ability of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease - Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB by adding three tests of executive functioning and mental speed (Trail Making Tests A and B, S-Words. Methods: Logistic regression analyses of 594 normal controls (NC, 326 patients with mild AD and 224 patients with other types of dementia (OD were carried out, and the area under the curve values were compared to those of CERAD-NAB alone. Results: All comparisons except AD-OD (65.5% showed excellent classification rates (NC-AD: 92.7%; NC-OD: 89.0%; NC-all patients: 91.0% and a superior diagnostic accuracy of the extended version. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these three tests provide a sensible addition to the CERAD-NAB and can improve neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia.

  6. Cortical and subcortical functional neuroanatomy for low-grade glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, L; Lefranc, M; Velut, S; Foulon, P; Havet, E; Peltier, J

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the encephalon anatomy is crucial for neurosurgical practice, especially the main cortical functional structures and their connections. General organisation of the encephalon is presented with frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic and insular lobes and their Brodmann correspondence. Secondly, subcortical anatomy will be presented with main white matter fasciculi in three separated categories: association, commissural and projection fibers. Main association fibers are inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum. Commissural fibers include anterior commissure, corpus callosum and fornix. Projection fibers are internal capsule and optic radiations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontal and temporal lobe contributions to emotional enhancement of memory in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eKumfor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional events gain special priority in how they are remembered, with emotionally arousing events typically recalled more vividly and with greater confidence than non-emotional events. In dementia, memory and emotion processing are affected to varying degrees, however, whether emotional enhancement of memory for complex ecologically valid events is differentially affected across dementia syndromes remains unclear, with previous studies examining effects of emotion on simple visual recognition only. Here, we examined memory for an emotionally arousing short story and a closely matched, emotionally neutral story in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD (n = 13 and Alzheimer’s disease (AD (n = 14, and contrasted their performance with healthy controls (n = 12. Multiple-choice recognition memory for specific details of the story was assessed after a 1-hour delay. While AD and control groups showed enhanced memory for the emotional story, the bvFTD group recalled a similar number of details from the emotional and neutral stories. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed emotional enhancement of memory correlated with distinct brain regions in each patient group. In AD, emotional enhancement was associated with integrity of the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyri, temporal fusiform gyrus and frontal pole, regions implicated in memory processes. In contrast in bvFTD, integrity of emotion processing regions, including the orbitofrontal cortex, right amygdala and right insula, correlated with the extent emotion enhanced memory. Our results reveal that integrity of frontal and temporal regions determine the quality and nature of emotional memories. While emotional enhancement of memory is present in mild AD, in bvFTD emotion does not facilitate memory retrieval for complex realistic events. This attenuation of emotional enhancement is due to degradation of emotion processing regions, which may be important for modulating levels

  8. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

  9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Frontal Lobe Neurofeedback Integrated in Virtual Reality Modulates Brain and Behavior in Highly Impulsive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Justin; Blume, Friederike; Dresler, Thomas; Haeussinger, Florian B; Renner, Tobias J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Gawrilow, Caterina; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Based on neurofeedback (NF) training as a neurocognitive treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we designed a randomized, controlled functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) NF intervention embedded in an immersive virtual reality classroom in which participants learned to control overhead lighting with their dorsolateral prefrontal brain activation. We tested the efficacy of the intervention on healthy adults displaying high impulsivity as a sub-clinical population sharing common features with ADHD. Twenty participants, 10 in an experimental and 10 in a shoulder muscle-based electromyography control group, underwent eight training sessions across 2 weeks. Training was bookended by a pre- and post-test including go/no-go, n-back, and stop-signal tasks (SST). Results indicated a significant reduction in commission errors on the no-go task with a simultaneous increase in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Furthermore, the ability of the subjects to gain control over the feedback parameter correlated strongly with the reduction in commission errors for the experimental, but not for the control group, indicating the potential importance of learning feedback control in moderating behavioral outcomes. In addition, participants of the fNIRS group showed a reduction in reaction time variability on the SST. Results indicate a clear effect of our NF intervention in reducing impulsive behavior possibly via a strengthening of frontal lobe functioning. Virtual reality additions to conventional NF may be one way to improve the ecological validity and symptom-relevance of the training situation, hence positively affecting transfer of acquired skills to real life.

  10. Thin isotropic FLAIR MR images at 1.5T increase the yield of focal cortical dysplasia transmantle sign detection in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Vasileios; Kallifatidis, Alexandros; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Garganis, Kyriakos

    2017-05-01

    The transmantle sign is a distinctive imaging marker of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), which is revealed predominantly by fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Although the transmantle sign detection yield is high by routine imaging protocols for epilepsy at 3T, most centers around the world have access to 1.5T MR technology and FLE patients often receive negative imaging reports. This study investigates the optimization of transmantle detection yield at 1.5T by introducing a 3D thin-slice isotropic FLAIR sequence in the epilepsy imaging protocol. Twenty FLE patients underwent diagnostic imaging for epilepsy with typical 2D thick-slice (3.0mm) coronal FLAIR sequences and a 3D thin-slice (1.0mm) isotropic FLAIR sequences at 1.5T, and transmantle sign detection yields and thickness measurements were derived. The 2D thick-slice FLAIR detected a transmantle sign in seven (35.0%) patients. The 3D isotropic thin-slice FLAIR detected a transmantle sign in eleven (55.0%) patients, thereby increasing the transmantle sign detection yield by 57.4%. The mean transmantle sign thickness by thick images was 12.3mm, by thin images was 8.9mm, and in the patients undetected by thick FLAIR was 3.5mm. This study showed that the extratemporal transmantle sign in FLE patients can be thin enough to be missed by thick-slice FLAIR sequences at 1.5T. By introducing 3D thin-slice isotropic FLAIR, false-negative reports can be reduced without reference for higher MR field structural scanning or other modalities, and more FLE patients can benefit from epilepsy surgery candidacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Frontal Lobe Neurofeedback Integrated in Virtual Reality Modulates Brain and Behavior in Highly Impulsive Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Hudak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on neurofeedback (NF training as a neurocognitive treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we designed a randomized, controlled functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS NF intervention embedded in an immersive virtual reality classroom in which participants learned to control overhead lighting with their dorsolateral prefrontal brain activation. We tested the efficacy of the intervention on healthy adults displaying high impulsivity as a sub-clinical population sharing common features with ADHD. Twenty participants, 10 in an experimental and 10 in a shoulder muscle-based electromyography control group, underwent eight training sessions across 2 weeks. Training was bookended by a pre- and post-test including go/no-go, n-back, and stop-signal tasks (SST. Results indicated a significant reduction in commission errors on the no-go task with a simultaneous increase in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Furthermore, the ability of the subjects to gain control over the feedback parameter correlated strongly with the reduction in commission errors for the experimental, but not for the control group, indicating the potential importance of learning feedback control in moderating behavioral outcomes. In addition, participants of the fNIRS group showed a reduction in reaction time variability on the SST. Results indicate a clear effect of our NF intervention in reducing impulsive behavior possibly via a strengthening of frontal lobe functioning. Virtual reality additions to conventional NF may be one way to improve the ecological validity and symptom-relevance of the training situation, hence positively affecting transfer of acquired skills to real life.

  12. Patterns of altered functional connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittau, Francesca; Grova, Christophe; Moeller, Friederike; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:  In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) the epileptogenic area is confined to the mesial temporal lobe, but other cortical and subcortical areas are also affected and cognitive and psychiatric impairments are usually documented...

  13. Changes of evoked cerebral blood oxygenation and optical pathlength in the frontal lobe during language tasks: a study by multi-channel, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Sakatani, Kaoru; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Norio; Katayama, Yoichi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    To determine the alterations in optical characteristics and cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) in the frontal lobe during language tasks, we evaluated the changes in mean optical pathlength (MOP) and CBO induced by a verbal fluency task (VFT) in the right and left frontal lobes in normal adults (n = 9, mean age = 29.6 +/- 4.8 years). We employed a newly developed 8-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRS) instrument. The results demonstrated differences in MOP in the fronto-temporal areas with subject and wavelength; however, there was no significant difference between the right and left sides (p > 0.05). Also, the VFT did not affect the MOP significantly as compared to that before the tasks (p > 0.05). In all of the recording regions, the VFT caused increases in concentration of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin associated with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin concentration, indicating that these cortical areas were activated by the VFT. However, the mean concentration changes of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin on the left side were larger than those on the right side. In addition, functional MRI demonstrated that the inferior frontal gyrus on the left side was activated in the subjects who exhibited increases in oxyhemoglobin concentration in these areas. These results suggest that TRS may be useful to study language function and to assess hemispheric dominance for language.

  14. Neuropsychology of subcortical dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C R

    1997-12-01

    Subcortical dementias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share primary pathology in subcortical structure and a characteristic pattern of neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the neurobiological and cognitive features of three prototypical subcortical dementias, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy, concentrating of traits shared by disorders. Clinical features are also discussed, especially those which differentiate subcortical dementias from cortical dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease. The cortical-subcortical nomenclature has been criticized over the years, but it continues to provide an effective means of classifying dementia profiles in clinically and theoretically useful ways.

  15. Using co-registration of single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to place an intracranial grid for electrode monitoring, leading to resection of a frontal lobe astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.; Barnden, L.; Rowe, C.C. [the Queen Elizabeth Hospital , Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: A 24 year old female had previously been treated with radiotherapy for a low-grade astrocytoma of the left frontal lobe. Despite medication, she had since suffered increasingly frequent partial seizures which dramatically reduced her quality of life. She was assessed for resection of the epileptic focus. Inter-ictal and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were acquired following injections of {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO (CERETEC). Routine image interpretation did not allow confident localization of the seizure focus. However, when these images were superimposed and subtracted, an area of ictal hyperperfusion on the posterior margin of the tumour was identified. The resultant image was co-registered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A subdural electrode grid was implanted over this area and adjacent frontal cortex. Subsequent ictal electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings confirmed that this area was the seizure focus. Local cortical stimulation through the grid indicated that it could be safely resected. Following left frontal lobectomy using margins defined by the subdural grid, the patient has been seizure free and suffered no neurological deficits. This case study is an example of the benefits to be gained by the co-registration of functional and anatomical imaging

  16. Relações da sutura coronária com os sulcos da face súpero-lateral do lobo frontal: aplicações neurocirúrgicas Relationships between the coronal suture and the sulci of the lateral convexity of the frontal lobe: neurosurgical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gusmão

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos estudo anatômico das relações da sutura coronária com os sulcos da convexidade do lobo frontal em sete segmentos cefálicos. Os sulcos pré-central e central distam, respectivamente, 26,5 mm e 40,5 mm do bregma e 15,0 mm e 35,5 mm do ptério. A utilização da sutura coronária como ponto de referência, e especialmente, sua relação com os sulcos da face súpero-lateral do lobo frontal, permite determinar a projeção sobre o crânio de lesões cerebrais superficiais com a finalidade de delimitar o acesso cirúrgico e orientar a abordagem da convexidade cerebral.An anatomical study of the relationships between the coronal suture and the sulci of the convexity of the frontal lobe was accomplished in seven cephalic segments. The pre-central and central sulci are, respectively, 26,5 mm and 40,5 mm behind the bregma and 15,0 mm and 35,5 mm behind the pterion. The use of the coronal suture as point of reference, and especially, its relationship with the sulci of the lateral surface of the frontal lobe, allows to determine the projection on the cranium of the superficial cerebral lesions with the purpose to delimit the surgical access and to guide the approach to the cerebral convexity.

  17. Cerebral blood flow alterations as assessed by 3D ASL in cognitive impairment in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A marker for disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI. However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with 3D Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL perfusion MRI helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score. A total of 53 subjects with SVCI and 23 matched SIVD subjects without cognitive impairment (controls underwent a whole-brain 3D ASL MRI in the resting state. Regional CBF (rCBF was compared voxel wise by using an analysis of variance design in a statistical parametric mapping program, with patient age and sex as covariates. Correlations were calculated between the rCBF value in the whole brain and the z-score in the 53 subjects with SVCI. Compared with the control subjects, SVCI group demonstrated diffuse decreased CBF in the brain. Significant positive correlations were determined in the rCBF values in the left hippocampus, left superior temporal pole gyrus, right superior frontal orbital lobe, right medial frontal orbital lobe, right middle temporal lobe, left thalamus, and right insula with the z-scores in SVCI group. The noninvasively quantified resting CBF demonstrated altered CBF distributions in the SVCI brain. The deficit brain perfusions in the temporal and frontal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus, and insula was related to the degree of cognitive impairment. Its relationship to cognition indicates the clinical relevance of this functional marker. Thus, our results provide further evidence for the mechanism underlying the cognitive deficit in patients with SVCI.

  18. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  19. The Role of the Frontal Lobe in Complex Walking Among Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Older Adults: An fNIRS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maidan, I.; Nieuwhof, F.; Bernad-Elazari, H.; Reelick, M.F; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Deutsch, J.E.; Hausdorff, J.M.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Mirelman, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gait is influenced by higher order cognitive and cortical control mechanisms. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been used to examine frontal activation during walking in healthy older adults, reporting increased oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during dual task walking

  20. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Altered functional connectivity and small-world in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations that can be observed in a resting state condition. Little is known, so far, about the changes in functional connectivity and in the topological properties of functional networks, associated with different brain diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated alterations related to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging on 18 mTLE patients and 27 healthy controls. Functional connectivity among 90 cortical and subcortical regions was measured by temporal correlation. The related values were analyzed to construct a set of undirected graphs. Compared to controls, mTLE patients showed significantly increased connectivity within the medial temporal lobes, but also significantly decreased connectivity within the frontal and parietal lobes, and between frontal and parietal lobes. Our findings demonstrated that a large number of areas in the default-mode network of mTLE patients showed a significantly decreased number of connections to other regions. Furthermore, we observed altered small-world properties in patients, along with smaller degree of connectivity, increased n-to-1 connectivity, smaller absolute clustering coefficients and shorter absolute path length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that the mTLE alterations observed in functional connectivity and topological properties may be used to define tentative disease markers.

  2. Study of diffusion tensor imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-ying GUO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to explore the microstructure changes of white matter in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI and its correlation with cognitive function.  Methods Forty-nine patients with subcortical ischemic cerebrovascular diseases were collected. By using Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR, they were classified into 10 cases of vascular dementia (VaD group, 20 cases of vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND group and 19 cases of normal cognitive function (control group. Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in all cases. Based on the DTI data, voxel-based analysis was used to assess the whole brain region. Correlation analysis was applied to illustrate the relationship between DTI parameters and cognitive scale in VaD patients.  Results Compared with the control group, fractional anisotropy (FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes, right temporal lobe and bilateral orbitofrontal lobes (P = 0.000, for all, and FA values of patients in VCIND group decreased in right inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus and bilateral precuneus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes and right temporal lobe (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with the control group, mean diffusivity (MD values in VaD group increased in medial prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and anterior cingulate (P = 0.000, for all, while in VCIND group increased in bilateral precuneus and right hippocampus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, MD values in VaD group increased in right medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes and bilateral temporal lobes (P = 0

  3. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory.

  4. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  5. Effects of movement music therapy with a percussion instrument on physical and frontal lobe function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuko; Umemura, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Hirai, Takayoshi

    2017-09-22

    We tested the hypothesis that performing a rhythmic physical task accompanied by a cognitive task, such as multitask movement music therapy (MMT) involving repetitive rhythmic movement with a musical instrument (the Naruko clapper), may improve pre-frontal cortex (PFC) function and cognitive performance. Forty-five older adult participants with MCI (74.62 ± 5.05 years) participated in this randomized, controlled, single-blind intervention trial. 35 were assigned to the MMT group and 10 to the control STT group. Before and after the 12-week exercise program, we administered six physical function tests, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and measured relative oxyhemoglobin concentrations using 45-multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy as a reflection of hemodynamic responses in the PFC. We observed significant improvements in FAB scores only in the MMT group. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the PFC during the exercise was significantly increased in the MMT group compared with the STT group. The CBF increase was significantly correlated among various channels in the MMT group. The MMT program appeared to stimulate the PFC and improve cognitive performance in our older adult participants with MCI, suggesting that the repetitive, rhythmic movements of MMT can activate the prefrontal area in older adults. Clinical Trial Registry Numbers: R000026130, UMIN000022671 (2016/06/08) [(University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Center] retrospectively registered.

  6. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  7. Comparative neuropsychology of cortical and subcortical dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M; Oscar-Berman, M

    1986-11-01

    The terms "cortical" and "subcortical" dementia are controversial; however, the clinical distinction between them is real. For example, although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (prototypical of cortical and subcortical dementia, respectively) share clinical features, they differ in the presence of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in Alzheimer's disease but not in Parkinson's dementia. We review our studies aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the differences between these neurological disorders. Experimental paradigms adopted from animal models were used to study the functional anatomy and neuropsychological characteristics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The tasks administered include delayed alternation (DA) and delayed response (DR), which are sensitive to frontal system damage, and tactile discrimination learning (TOL) and reversal (TRL) paradigms sensitive to parietal system damage. Alzheimer's patients were significantly impaired on all tasks whereas Parkinsonians with dementia were impaired only on DR and TRL. Consideration of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in DA, DR, TOL, and TRL appears to have sharpened the distinction between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. Dementia in Alzheimer's disease may involve dorsolateral frontal, orbitofrontal and parietal systems. In contrast, dementia in Parkinson's disease may involve prominent dorsolateral frontal system damage.

  8. Utilization Behavior and Frontal Lobe Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1990-01-01

    Utilization behavior was investigated in an adult with an acute behavioral disturbance, memory deficits, and a localized inferior medial bifrontal lesion at the Psychology Department, National Hospital, Queen Square, London; the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge; and Department of Neurology, Atkinson Morley's Hospital, Wimbledon; and St. Andrews Hospital, Northampton, UK.

  9. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy diminishes functional connectivity during emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Muller, Angela M; Spirig, Esther; Toller, Gianina; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-08-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions. Regions of interest were identified in an activation analysis by presenting a block-design with dynamic fearful faces and dynamic landscapes to 15 healthy individuals. This led to 10 predominately right-hemispheric regions. Functional connectivity between these regions during the perception of fearful faces was examined in drug-refractory patients with left- (n=16) or right-sided (n=17) MTLE, epilepsy patients with extratemporal seizure onset (n=15) and a second group of 15 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a widespread functional network modulated by the perception of fearful faces that encompassed bilateral amygdalae, limbic, cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. In patients with left MTLE, a downsized network of frontal and temporal regions centered on the right amygdala was present. Patients with right MTLE showed almost no significant functional connectivity. A maintained network in the epilepsy control group indicates that findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy could not be explained by clinical factors such as seizures and antiepileptic medication. Functional networks underlying facial emotion perception are considerably changed in left and right MTLE. Alterations are present for both hemispheres in either MTLE group, but are more pronounced in right MTLE. Disruption of the functional network architecture possibly contributes to deficits in facial emotion recognition frequently

  10. OSTEOMYELITIS OF THE FRONTAL BONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOfori-Adjei

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... commonest complication of skull osteomyelitis. This is usually associated with subperiosteal ab- scess. Frontal lobe abscess present as subtle perso- nality changes. Radiological features vary with the duration of the infection. Early features are seen as islands of normal bone with increased or diminished ...

  11. Microsurgical Anatomy of the Temporal Lobe and Its Implications on Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyuruk, Baris; Richardson, R. Mark; Wen, Hung Tzu; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan Carlos; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We review the neuroanatomical aspects of the temporal lobe related to the temporal lobe epilepsy. The neuronal, the ventricular, and the vascular structures are demonstrated. Methods. The previous articles published from the laboratory of the senior author are reviewed. Results. The temporal lobe has four surfaces. The medial surface has a complicated microanatomy showing close relation to the intraventricular structures, such as the amygdala or the hippocampus. There are many white matter bundles in the temporal lobe showing relation to the extra- and intraventricular structures. The surgical approaches commonly performed to treat temporal lobe epilepsy are discussed under the light of these data. Conclusion. A thorough knowledge of the microanatomy is necessary in cortical, subcortical, and intraventricular structures of the temporal lobe to achieve better results. PMID:22957242

  12. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  13. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  14. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus and allowing the frontal lobe to rest against the anterior wall of the sinus).[1] The objective of surgery is to stop or avoid a potential CSF leak and to avoid the risk of future meningitis. The frontal sinus is usually obliterated during the osteoplastic flap procedure, separating it from the rest ...

  15. [Memory deficit in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment versus Alzheimer-type dementia: the sensitivity of the 'word list' subtest on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suades-González, E; Jódar-Vicente, M; Pérdrix-Solàs, D

    Memory deficits are frequent in mild subcortical vascular pathology and in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. To study the memory deficits in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) vs. mild stage Alzheimer's disease patients (AD), using the Weschler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) word lists test, to examine the adequacy of this test to show the different memory patterns in this population, that could contribute to early differential diagnosis. Three groups of patients were compared: AD (n = 25), SVCI-leukoaraiosis (n = 17) and SVCI-multi infarct (n = 16). The three groups did not differ in age, education or severity of illness. Patients with SVCI showed a memory impairment in free recall with an improvement in their performance on the recognition task. The AD group, however, showed low scores in free recall as in recognition tasks, with a major number of false positive errors. Significant differences were also found between the SVCI-leukoaraiosis and SVCI-multi infarct groups, with the latter showing the best performance in long term retention and a minor trend to respond with false positive errors. The WMS-III word lists test is a good instrument to differentiate the memory profile between SVCI and AD, with the recognition task being the most discriminative one. The worst impairment in leukoaraiosis patients in comparison to the multi infarct group, suggests that white matter diffuse lesion could affect more directly the recall processes mediatised by the frontal lobe.

  16. [The CADASIL syndrome: a model of subcortical-cortical disconnection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Menéndez, R; Aguado Balsas, A M; Blanco, E; Lobo Rodríguez, B; Vera De La Puente, E

    CADASIL syndrome (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarts and Leukoencephalopathy) includes some neurological signs and symptoms (gait disturbances, epileptic seizures, pseudobulbar palsy, migraines, etc.), as well as neuropsychological dysfunctions (cognitive and executive impairment, emotional disorders and, frequently, dementia). This syndrome is a good model of white matter damage and potential disconnection syndromes. In this article, the neuropsychological profile of a 47 year-old woman diagnosed of CADASIL is investigated and thoroughly discussed. Results show the presence of a moderate cognitive and executive impairment, specially of memory, psychomotor abilities, executive functions and verbal fluency, but not dementia, overall suggesting the presence of a temporal-frontal-subcortical disfunction. This clinical pattern is an illuminating example of the neuropsychological consequences of the partial disconnection of prefrontal cortex from the thalamus and basal ganglia.

  17. More Consistently Altered Connectivity Patterns for Cerebellum and Medial Temporal Lobes than for Amygdala and Striatum in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Henning ePeters; Junming eShao; Martin eScherr; Dirk eSchwerthoeffer; Claus eZimmer; Johann eFoerstl; Josef eBaeuml; Afra eWohlschlaeger; Valentin eRiedl; Kathrin eKoch; Christian eSorg

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory “subcortical-cerebellar” systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs), amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC) between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar ...

  18. Associative learning beyond the medial temporal lobe: many actors on the memory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio ePergola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research have established a model that includes the medial temporal lobe, and particularly the hippocampus, as a critical node for episodic memory. Neuroimaging and clinical studies have shown the involvement of additional cortical and subcortical regions. Among these areas, the thalamus, the retrosplenial cortex and the prefrontal cortices have been consistently related to episodic memory performance.This article provides evidences that these areas are in different forms and degrees critical for human memory function rather than playing only an ancillary role. First we briefly summarize findings on the involvement of the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe in recognition memory and recall. We then focus on the clinical and neuroimaging evidence available on thalamo-frontal and thalamo-retrosplenial networks. The role of these networks in episodic memory has been considered secondary, partly because disruption of these areas does not always lead to severe impairments; to account for this evidence, we discuss methodological issues related to the investigation of these regions. We propose that these networks contribute differently to recognition memory and recall, and also that the memory stage of their contribution shows specificity to encoding or retrieval in recall tasks. We note that the same mechanisms may be in force when humans perform non-episodic tasks, e.g., semantic retrieval and mental time travel. Functional disturbance of these networks is related to cognitive impairments not only in neurological disorders, but also in psychiatric medical conditions, such as schizophrenia. Finally we discuss possible mechanisms for the contribution of these areas to memory, including regulation of oscillatory rhythms and long-term potentiation. We conclude that integrity of the thalamo-frontal and the thalamo-retrosplenial networks is necessary for the manifold features of episodic memory.

  19. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  20. Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia: attentional cortex study in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zheng, J; Wang, J; Gui, L

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Stroop test were used to assess attentional cortex activation in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subcortical vascular dementia, and normal control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia demonstrated similar locations of cortical activation, including the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyri, anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule in response to Stroop colour word stimuli. This activation was distinctly decreased in patients with dementia compared with normal control subjects. Different regions of the brain were activated in patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia compared with normal controls. fMRI is a useful tool for the study of dementia in humans and has some potential diagnostic value. Further studies with larger numbers of participants are required.

  1. Semiology of temporal lobe epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Khalil, Bassel W

    2003-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) represent the majority of the partial symptomatic/cryptogenic epilepsies. Excellent results of epilepsy surgery in well-selected patients have encouraged a search for localizing and lateralizing signs that could assist in the identification of the best surgical candidates. Seizure types in TLE include simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures. Temporal lobe seizures most often arise in the amygdalo-hippocampal region. More than 90% of patients with mesial TLE report an aura, most commonly an epigastric sensation that often has a rising character. Other autonomic symptoms, psychic symptoms, and certain sensory phenomena (such as olfactory) also occur. The complex partial seizures of mesial TLE often involve motor arrest, oroalimentary automatisms or non-specific extremity automatisms at onset. Ictal manifestations that have lateralizing value include dystonic posturing (contralateral), early head turning (usually ipsilateral), and adversive head turning in transition to generalization (contralateral). Well-formed ictal language favors right temporal localization. Ictal vomiting, spitting, and drinking tend to be right sided. The duration of TLE complex partial seizures is generally greater than one minute and postictal confusion usually occurs. When postictal aphasia is noted a left-sided lateralization is favored. A lateral temporal onset is less common in TLE, and is most often suggested by an auditory aura. Somatosensory and visual auras are highly unlikely with TLE, and suggest neocortical extratemporal localization. A cephalic aura is non-specific, but is more common in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  2. Magnetisation transfer measurements of the subcortical grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia and in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, H.; Asano, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takasaki, M. [Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo Medical University (Japan); Shindo, H.; Abe, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We measured the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in the subcortical grey and white matter of 11 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia, six with PD with dementia (PDD), six with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 12 elderly control subjects to assess regional differences in structural brain damage. There were no significant differences in MTR in any region between PD and controls. However, patients with PDD had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical white matter, including the frontal white matter and the genu of the corpus callosum than the controls, whereas PSP had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical grey matter, including the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus, in addition to the subcortical white matter. This suggests that regional patterns of structural brain damage can be detected using the magnetisation transfer technique. Measurement of MTR in the subcortical grey and white matter may be useful in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity.

  4. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  5. Anatomical distance affects cortical-subcortical connectivity in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Li, Lehua; Zhang, Zhikun; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2017-08-01

    Brain structural and functional alterations in the cortical-subcortical circuits have been observed in somatization disorder (SD). However, whether and how anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical connectivity in SD remain unclear. This study aims to examine whether anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical in first-episode, drug-naive SD. Twenty-five first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and twenty-eight healthy controls were recruited for a resting-state scan. Regional functional connectivity strength (FCS) was calculated for each voxel in the brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range FCSs. Correlation analyses were conducted between abnormal FCS and clinical/cognitive variables in the patients. Compared with the controls, the patients showed increased short-range positive FCS (spFCS) in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and decreased spFCS in the left pallidum, and increased long-range positive FCS (lpFCS) in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Positive correlations were observed between the spFCS values in the right SFG and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire psychoticism scores (r=0.441, p=0.027, uncorrected) and between the lpFCS values in the right ITG and scores of digit symbol-coding of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (r=0.416, p=0.039, uncorrected) in the patients CONCLUSIONS: The patients exhibited increased spFCS/lpFCS in the cortical regions and decreased spFCS in the subcortical regions. The left pallidum is first reported here to show decreased spFCS in SD. The present results suggest that abnormal cortical-subcortical circuits may play an important role in SD neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruptions in cortico-subcortical covariance networks associated with anxiety in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Garcia-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24 and without (n = 62 anxiety disorders. Graph theory (GT analyses based on the covariance between the volumes of 85 cortical/subcortical regions were investigated. Both groups with epilepsy demonstrated less inter-modular relationships in the synchronization of cortical/subcortical volumes compared to controls, with the epilepsy and anxiety group presenting the strongest modular organization. Frontal and occipital regions in non-anxious epilepsy, and areas throughout the brain in children with epilepsy and anxiety, showed the highest centrality compared to controls. Furthermore, most of the nodes correlating to amygdala volumes were subcortical structures, with the exception of the left insula and the right frontal pole, which presented high betweenness centrality (BC; therefore, their influence in the network is not necessarily local but potentially influencing other more distant regions. In conclusion, children with recent onset epilepsy and anxiety demonstrate large scale disruptions in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Network science may not only provide insight into the possible neurobiological correlates of important comorbidities of epilepsy, but also the ways that cortical and subcortical disruption occurs.

  7. Deep frontal and periventricular age related white matter changes but not basal ganglia and infratentorial hyperintensities are associated with falls: cross sectional results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blahak, C; Baezner, H; Pantoni, L

    2009-01-01

    scale, in multivariate analysis, periventricular (p = 0.006) and frontal deep (p = 0.033) ARWMC were independently associated with falls. Furthermore, logistic regression identified frontal deep (p = 0.003) ARWMC, but not basal ganglia and infratentorial hyperintensities, as significantly associated...... with balance disturbances. CONCLUSION: The association of frontal and periventricular ARWMC with falls supports the hypothesis that interruption of frontal subcortical motor circuits lead to balance disturbances and hence to an increased risk for falls in ARWMC....

  8. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  9. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  10. Quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Small, Gary W. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Center on Aging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer' s Disease Research, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [{sup 18}F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k{sup '}{sub 2}) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region. Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  11. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic...... in the medial and lateral aspects of the parietal lobe were identified in both species. A tract connecting the medial parietal cortex to the lateral inferior parietal cortex was observed in the monkey brain only. Our findings suggest a consistent pattern of intralobar parietal connections between humans...

  12. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email: liwenbin@sh163.net

    2012-04-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  13. The brain subcortical white matter and aging: A quantitative fractional anisotropy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the integrity of hemispheric subcortical white matter by comparing normal young and elderly subjects using quantitative fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA. Methods: Subjects of two different age groups (young=12, elderly=12 were included. MR - GE Signa Horizon - 1.5T scans were performed. Cases with Fazekas scores £3 were assessed on FLAIR sequence. Standard parameters for DTI-FA were used. ROIs were placed at various sites of the subcortical white matter, and the genu and splenium of the midline corpus callosum. Analysis was performed using Functool. Statistics for anterior and posterior white matter, as well as the genu and splenium were compared between the groups. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of IPUB-UFRJ and informed consent obtained. Results: DTI-FA showed lower anisotropy values in the anterior region (subcortical white matter and genu, but not in the posterior region (subcortical white matter and splenium, in elderly normal subjects compared to young subjects. Conclusion: The results may represent loss of integrity of anterior (frontal white matter fibers in the elderly subjects. These fibers constitute important intra- and inter-hemispheric tracts, components of neural networks that provide cognitive, behavioral, motor and sensory integration. The loss of integrity of the anterior segments of the studied fiber systems with ageing, represents a disconnection process that may underlie clinical manifestations found in elderly subjects such as executive dysfunction.

  14. Safety of eptifibatide for subcortical stroke progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Shaltoni, Hashem; Abraham, Anitha T; Barreto, Andrew D; Hallevi, Hen; Gonzales, Nicole R; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2009-01-01

    There is no proven treatment for stroke progression in patients with subcortical infarcts. Eptifibatide, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, might halt stroke progression by improving flow in the microcirculation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with subcortical stroke who experienced deterioration and were treated with eptifibatide (loading dose 180 microg/kg; infusion 2 m microg/kg/min) for 24-48 h. Oral antiplatelet agents were started 6 h before discontinuation of eptifibatide. Twenty-four patients with subcortical strokes were treated. The median admission NIHSS score was 5.0, which worsened to 8.5 (motor 5.0) before starting eptifibatide. The median NIHSS score 24 h after starting eptifibatide was 5.5. At 24 h, 42% had motor NIHSS scores less than or equal to pre-deterioration scores (50% for total NIHSS), and 50% had improved at least 1 motor point compared to pre-eptifibatide scores, which was sustained until hospital discharge. At discharge, the median total NIHSS score was 4.5. Ninety-two percent of patients were discharged home or to inpatient rehabilitation. Treatment was stopped early in 1 case due to a platelet drop Eptifibatide infusion may be safe in patients with subcortical ischemic strokes. Future studies are needed to test the safety and potential efficacy of this agent in subcortical stroke progression. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  17. Biophysical changes in subcortical nuclei: the impact of diabetes and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Cohen, J; Lamar, M; Bhaumik, D

    2016-04-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is a neuroimaging technique that is frequently used to characterize the biophysical abnormalities in both gray and white matter regions of the brain. In our study, we used MT to examine the integrity of key nodes in frontal-subcortical circuits in four subject groups: patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without major depression (MDD), a healthy control group, and a group diagnosed with MDD without diabetes. In the MDD group, MT studies demonstrated lower magnetization transfer ratios (MTR), a marker of abnormalities in the macromolecular protein pool, in the thalami when compared with the control groups. The group with diabetes and MDD showed lower MTR in the globus pallidus when compared with the group with MDD. Biophysical measures, in subcortical nuclei, correlated inversely with measures of glycemic control, cerebrovascular burden and depression scores. These findings have broad implications for the underlying neuronal circuitry and neurobiology of mood disorders.

  18. Regional concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in the frontal cortex of the rat: dopaminergic innervation of the prefrontal subareas and lateralization of prefrontal dopamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slopsema, J.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Bruin, J.P.C. de

    1982-01-01

    Catecholamine levels in the two subareas of the prefrontal cortex and in one non-prefrontal region of the rat frontal lobe were measured radioenzymatically. In contrast with noradrenaline (NA), the distribution of dopamine (DA) in the frontal lobe is markedly heterogeneous. DA levels of the

  19. Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease--the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), as defined according to imaging criteria, is associated with a specific clinical and cognitive profile. Much less is known about the long-term cognitive consequences of SIVD. The aim of the study......, education and medial temporal lobe atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: SIVD, as a manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, is related to progressive cognitive impairment and a considerable risk of developing dementia. SIVD seems to specifically contribute to the deterioration of psychomotor speed, executive...

  20. Transcranial sonography of subcortical structures in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puz, P; Lasek-Bal, A; Radecka, P

    2017-07-01

    Transcranial sonography may be applied to assess the basal ganglia nuclei and brain atrophy by the measurement of the width of the third ventricle. The aim of this study was to assess usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the echogenicity of subcortical structures and the width of the third ventricle. Transcranial sonography evaluation of substantia nigra, brain stem raphe nuclei, diameter of the third ventricle, width of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, thalamus, lenticular nucleus, and head of the caudate nucleus in 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 23 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 20 healthy controls was compared. A potential link between the patients' age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, relapse index, and ultrasound parameters was assessed. The following were found in patients with MS, as compared to the control group: a greater area of the substantia nigra, a longer diameter of the third ventricle and wider frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, hypo-echogenicity of the brain stem raphe, and hyperechogenicity of the lenticular nucleus. The study group was found to have a significant correlation between the area of the substantia nigra, and the age of patients, the duration of the illness, EDSS score, and the number of relapses. There was a significant correlation between the diameter of the third ventricle and the age of patients and EDSS score. Patients with MS reveal ultrasound features of subcortical structure atrophy. Selected TCS findings show a correlation with disease progression and activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Depression and frontal dysfunction: risks for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Hazif Thomas, C; Billon, R; Peix, R; Faugeron, P; Clément, J-P

    2009-09-01

    Frontal lobe syndromes include reduced activity, particularly a diminution of spontaneous activity, lack of drive, inability to plan ahead, and induce a lack of concern. These last points constitute the executive dysfunction syndrome. That executive dysfunction could be the core defect in patients with geriatric or vascular depression, and might be related to frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction. Sometimes frontal lobe syndromes are associated with restless, aimless, uncoordinated behavior or even disinhibition, increasing the risks of falls and of malnutrition. Some authors have distinguished between lesions of the lateral frontal cortex, most closely linked to the motor structures of the brain, which lead to disturbances of movement and action with perseveration and inertia, and lesions of the orbital and medial areas, interlinked with limbic and reticular systems, damage to which leads to disinhibition and changes of affect. The medial frontal syndrome is marked by akinesia, associated with gait disturbances, and loss of autonomy. For these reasons, it has been proposed that a subtype of depression, "depression-executive dysfunction syndrome" could occur in late life. This assertion was based on clinical, neuropathological, and neuroimaging findings suggesting that frontostriatal dysfunctions contribute to the development of both depression and executive dysfunction and influence the course of depression. Depressive symptomatology, and especially psychomotor retardation and loss of interest in activities, contributed to disability in depression-executive dysfunction syndrome patients. This study is not restricted to major depression. It examined the relationship of executive impairment to the course of depressive symptoms among a psychogeriatric population with dementia or depression in order to assess the consequences of these pathologies on disabilities of aged persons. The study was carried out in Limoges (France) during 2006 and 2007. Three hundred and

  2. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-06-25

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  3. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  4. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  6. Subcortical Facilitation of Behavioral Responses to Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-10-12

    Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images. In Experiment 3, we presented pairs of snakes or neutral images into the temporal or nasal hemifield. For snakes only, we observed a temporal hemifield advantage, which indicates facilitation by the retino-tectal subcortical pathway. These results advance the current understanding of processing of threat by adult humans by revealing the characteristics of behaviors driven by a lower-order neural mechanism that is specialized for the processing of ancestral threats. The results also contribute to ongoing debates concerning the biological generality of neural mechanisms for processing of complex, emotionally-relevant stimuli by providing evidence for conservation of lower-order neural mechanisms for processing of ancestral threats across both ontogeny and phylogeny.

  7. Structural connectivity differences in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Pierre; Dinkelacker, Vera; Valabregue, Romain; Thivard, Lionel; Leclerc, Xavier; Baulac, Michel; Sammler, Daniela; Colliot, Olivier; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2014-10-15

    Our knowledge on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has evolved towards the view that this syndrome affects widespread brain networks. Diffusion weighted imaging studies have shown alterations of large white matter tracts, most notably in left temporal lobe epilepsy, but the degree of altered connections between cortical and subcortical structures remains to be clarified. We performed a whole brain connectome analysis in 39 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (20 right and 19 left) and 28 healthy subjects. We performed whole-brain probabilistic fiber tracking using MRtrix and segmented 164 cortical and subcortical structures with Freesurfer. Individual structural connectivity graphs based on these 164 nodes were computed by mapping the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) onto each tract. Connectomes were then compared using two complementary methods: permutation tests for pair-wise connections and Network Based Statistics to probe for differences in large network components. Comparison of pair-wise connections revealed a marked reduction of connectivity between left TLE patients and controls, which was strongly lateralized to the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Specifically, infero-lateral cortex and temporal pole were strongly affected, and so was the perisylvian cortex. In contrast, for right TLE, focal connectivity loss was much less pronounced and restricted to bilateral limbic structures and right temporal cortex. Analysis of large network components revealed furthermore that both left and right hippocampal sclerosis affected diffuse global and interhemispheric connectivity. Thus, left temporal lobe epilepsy was associated with a much more pronounced pattern of reduced FA, that included major landmarks of perisylvian language circuitry. These distinct patterns of connectivity associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis show how a focal pathology influences global network architecture, and how

  8. Dysexecutive behaviour following deep brain lesions--a different type of disconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Martin; Mahant, Neil; Kotschet, Katya; Fung, Victor S; Vagg, Daniel; Wong, Chong H; Morris, John G L

    2012-01-01

    The suppression of automatic prepotent behaviour in favour of more successful, more 'appropriate' behaviour is the primary function of the frontal lobe. Five frontal-subcortical circuits connect the frontal lobe to the basal ganglia and the thalamus. We report 17 patients with small lesions in the downstream structures of the frontal-subcortical circuits displaying severe dysexecutive behaviour. Positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated hypometabolism of the frontal lobe in some of these patients. The literature on frontal lobe dysfunction after lesions in the basal ganglia and thalamus is discussed and the semiology of frontal lobe dysfunction in relation to the frontal-subcortical circuits is highlighted. Derived from our findings we suggest a disconnection syndrome of the frontal lobe caused by lesions in the downstream structures of the frontal-subcortical circuits. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  10. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  12. Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  13. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  14. Binge drinking differentially affects cortical and subcortical microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Laurel S; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-20

    Young adult binge drinkers represent a model for endophenotypic risk factors for alcohol misuse and early exposure to repeated binge cycles. Chronic or harmful alcohol use leads to neurochemical, structural and morphological neuroplastic changes, particularly in regions associated with reward processing and motivation. We investigated neural microstructure in 28 binge drinkers compared with 38 matched healthy controls. We used a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis, which uses three-compartment modelling (of intracellular, extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid) to determine brain tissue microstructure features including neurite density and orientation dispersion index (ODI). Binge drinkers had reduced ODI, a proxy of neurite complexity, in frontal cortical grey matter and increased ODI in parietal grey matter. Neurite density was higher in cortical white matter in adjacent regions of lower ODI in binge drinkers. Furthermore, binge drinkers had higher ventral striatal grey matter ODI that was positively correlated with binge score. Healthy volunteers showed no such relationships. We demonstrate disturbed dendritic complexity of higher-order prefrontal and parietal regions, along with higher dendritic complexity of a subcortical region known to mediate reward-related motivation. The findings illustrate novel microstructural abnormalities that may reflect an infnce of alcohol bingeing on critical neurodevelopmental processes in an at-risk young adult group. © 2017 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Determinants of brain metabolism changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassoux, Francine; Artiges, Eric; Semah, Franck; Desarnaud, Serge; Laurent, Agathe; Landre, Elisabeth; Gervais, Philippe; Devaux, Bertrand; Helal, Ourkia Badia

    2016-06-01

    To determine the main factors influencing metabolic changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We prospectively studied 114 patients with MTLE (62 female; 60 left HS; 15- to 56-year-olds) with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and correlated the results with the side of HS, structural atrophy, electroclinical features, gender, age at onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency. Imaging processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping. Ipsilateral hypometabolism involved temporal (mesial structures, pole, and lateral cortex) and extratemporal areas including the insula, frontal lobe, perisylvian regions, and thalamus, more extensively in right HS (RHS). A relative increase of metabolism (hypermetabolism) was found in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in posterior areas bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry detected unilateral hippocampus atrophy and gray matter concentration decrease in both frontal lobes, more extensively in left HS (LHS). Regardless of the structural alterations, the topography of hypometabolism correlated strongly with the extent of epileptic networks (mesial, anterior-mesiolateral, widespread mesiolateral, and bitemporal according to the ictal spread), which were larger in RHS. Notably, widespread perisylvian and bitemporal hypometabolism was found only in RHS. Mirror hypermetabolism was grossly proportional to the hypometabolic areas, coinciding partly with the default mode network. Gender-related effect was significant mainly in the contralateral frontal lobe, in which metabolism was higher in female patients. Epilepsy duration correlated with the contralateral temporal metabolism, positively in LHS and negatively in RHS. Opposite results were found with age at onset. High seizure frequency correlated negatively with the contralateral metabolism in LHS. Epileptic networks, as assessed by electroclinical correlations, appear to be the main determinant of

  16. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.

  17. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  18. Subcortical cerebral infarctions in sickle cell trait.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, M G

    1989-01-01

    At necropsy, two patients with sickle cell trait and progressive motor and visual deficits, lethargy and coma showed infarctions of the deep cerebral white matter and brain stem. The findings in these patients and another reported in the literature suggest that subcortical infarctions may be more common in sickle cell trait than has been recognised and should be suspected in any patient with sickle cell trait who presents with an unusual neurological illness.

  19. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  20. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  1. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  2. PRESENTATION OF FRONTAL MUCOCELE.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caused expansile erosion of the frontal bone with significant pressure effect on the adjacent structures. At operation a large ... encroachment on the underlying brain tissue. ... Anterior protrusion of the mass into subcutaneous space adjacent to ...

  3. Slowly progressive anarthria with late anterior opercular syndrome: a variant form of frontal cortical atrophy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Bakchine, S; Tommasi, M; Laurent, B; Bazin, B; Cinotti, L; Cohen, L; Chazot, G

    1996-12-01

    We describe eight patients with slowly progressive speech production deficit combining speech apraxia, dysarthria, dysprosody and orofacial apraxia, and initially no other deficit in other language and non-language neuropsychological domains. Long-term follow-up (6-10 years) in 4 cases showed an evolution to muteness, bilateral suprabulbar paresis with automatic-voluntary dissociation and frontal lobe cognitive slowing without generalised intellectual deterioration. Most disabled patients presented with an anterior opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome), and pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs. CT and MRI findings disclosed asymmetric (left > right) progressive cortical atrophy of the frontal lobes predominating in the posterior inferior frontal region, notably the operculum. SPECT and PET revealed a decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolism, prominent in the left posterior-inferior frontal gyrus and premotor cortex, extending bilaterally in the most advanced cases. Pathological study of two cases showed non-specific neuronal loss, gliosis, and spongiosis of superficial cortical layers, mainly confined to the frontal lobes, with no significant abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem (except severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra in one case), and spinal cord. We propose to call this peculiar syndrome Slowly Progressive Anarthria (SPA), based on its specific clinical presentation, and its metabolic and pathological correlates. SPA represents another clinical expression of focal cortical degeneration syndromes, that may overlap with other similar syndromes, specially primary progressive aphasia and the various frontal lobe dementias.

  4. Frontal Electroencephalographic Correlates of Individual Differences in Emotion Expression in Infants: A Brain Systems Perspective on Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    1994-01-01

    This essay reviews empirical evidence that suggests that emotion type and emotion intensity are associated with distinct and independent patterns of frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in infants. The role of the frontal lobe and related brain systems in emotion expression and regulation is also discussed from a developmental…

  5. Preserved episodic memory in subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura; Sherman, Elisabeth; Langfitt, John; Berg, Michel; Connolly, Mary

    2004-05-01

    Neuropsychological profiles of four patients with subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are presented to delineate further the phenotype of this disorder. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of cognitive functioning, including intelligence, processing speed, attention, language, visuomotor skills, memory, and fine motor ability were administered to four patients with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of SBH. Despite intellectual impairment and other severe cognitive deficits, all four patients displayed relatively intact episodic memory. This selective sparing of memory functions has not been previously reported in individuals with SBH and suggests that doublecortin does not play a role in the development of memory systems in the mesial temporal region, which tend to be spared in SBH.

  6. Memory and Executive Function Impairments after Frontal or Posterior Cortex Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Daum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Free recall and recognition, memory for temporal order, spatial memory and prospective memory were assessed in patients with frontal lobe lesions, patients with posterior cortex lesions and control subjects. Both patient groups showed equivalent memory deficits relative to control subjects on a range of free recall and recognition tasks, on memory for temporal order and on a prospective memory task. The patient groups also performed equivalently on the spatial memory task although only patients with frontal lobe lesions were significantly impaired. However, the patients with frontal lobe lesions showed an increased false alarm rate and made more intrusion errors relative not only to the control subjects, but also to the patients with poster or cortex lesions. These memory problems are discussed in relation to deficits in executive function and basic memory processes.

  7. Biomechanic study of the human liver during a frontal deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynel, Nicolas; Serre, Thierry; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Berdah, Stephane-Victor; Brunet, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Mechanisms of hepatic injury remain poorly understood. Surgical literature reports some speculative theories that have never been proved. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of the liver during brutal frontal deceleration. Six trunks, removed from human cadavers, underwent free falls at 4, 6, and 8 meters per second (mps). Accelerometers were positioned in the two lobes of the liver, in front of the vertebra L2, and in the retro hepatic inferior vena cava. Relative motions of the lobes of the liver and of the two other anatomic marks were observed. In parallel, numerical simulations of this experiment have been performed using a finite element model. In the direction of impact, the vertebra L2 had no considerable displacement with the inferior vena cava. There was a noteworthy displacement between the two hepatic lobes. The left hepatic lobe had a large relative displacement with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. The right hepatic lobe was more stable with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. Numerical simulation of the same protocol underlined a rotation effect of the liver to the left around the axis of the inferior vena cava. These results support the surgical data. They highlight a crucial zone and explain how dramatic lacerations between the two lobes of the liver can occur.

  8. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: An evidence-based formula of Frontal integration (NeM)1 may be used to assess options of optimization calculating the first derivative with respect to autonomic activation (x): dC/dx = Rc2/L where R indicates semantic knowledge (STS), c is the attention (vmPFC) and L is a constant...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  9. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  10. The differing roles of the frontal cortex in fluency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Fluency tasks have been widely used to tap the voluntary generation of responses. The anatomical correlates of fluency tasks and their sensitivity and specificity have been hotly debated. However, investigation of the cognitive processes involved in voluntary generation of responses and whether generation is supported by a common, general process (e.g. fluid intelligence) or specific cognitive processes underpinned by particular frontal regions has rarely been addressed. This study investigates a range of verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks in patients with unselected focal frontal (n = 47) and posterior (n = 20) lesions. Patients and controls (n = 35) matched for education, age and sex were administered fluency tasks including word (phonemic/semantic), design, gesture and ideational fluency as well as background cognitive tests. Lesions were analysed by standard anterior/posterior and left/right frontal subdivisions as well as a finer-grained frontal localization method. Thus, patients with right and left lateral lesions were compared to patients with superior medial lesions. The results show that all eight fluency tasks are sensitive to frontal lobe damage although only the phonemic word and design fluency tasks were specific to the frontal region. Superior medial patients were the only group to be impaired on all eight fluency tasks, relative to controls, consistent with an energization deficit. The most marked fluency deficits for lateral patients were along material specific lines (i.e. left—phonemic and right—design). Phonemic word fluency that requires greater selection was most severely impaired following left inferior frontal damage. Overall, our results support the notion that frontal functions comprise a set of specialized cognitive processes, supported by distinct frontal regions. PMID:22669082

  11. Mesial frontal epilepsy and ictal body turning along the horizontal body axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Howan; Schindler, Kaspar; Clusmann, Hans; Bien, Christian G; Pöpel, Annkathrin; Schramm, Johannes; Kwan, Patrick; Wong, Lawrence K S; Elger, Christian E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of mesial frontal semiology. Retrospective case series. Tertiary epilepsy referral center. Part 1 of the study involved 152 patients who underwent frontal lobe surgery. Part 2 involved 253 patients who underwent non-frontal lobe surgery. Inclusion criteria for both parts of the study were seizure localization by analysis of resection margins (mesial frontal, lateral frontal, orbitofrontal, nonfrontal) or intracranial exploration and an Engel class I outcome. In part 1, 84 patients had their habitual seizures analyzed by video encephalography using a semiology checklist of 47 items during the early phase (electrographic onset to 10 seconds) and late phase (rest of episode). Localization semiology was analyzed by chi(2) test with Bonferroni correction and cluster analysis when occurrence exceeded 10% in at least 1 region. In part 2, 144 patients had their habitual seizures screened with mesial frontal semiology from the first part of study during the early phase only. In part 1 of the study, the statistically significant localizing semiology for the mesial frontal region in the early phase was ictal body turning along the horizontal axis (57% of patients), crawling (57% of patients), restlessness (64.3% of patients), facial expressions of anxiety (42.9% of patients) and fear (35.7% of patients), grimacing produced by bilateral facial contraction (42.9% of patients), barking (32.1% of patients), head shaking (25% of patients), and pelvic raising (25% of patients) (all Psemiology with physiological movement are not only prevalent semiology items of mesial frontal lobe epilepsy but they distinguish mesial frontal from lateral frontal and orbitofrontal seizures.

  12. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  13. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism.

  14. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p working memory function. PMID:28101053

  15. Frontal Function, Disability and Caregiver Burden in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with late-life major depressive disorder experience a significant level of general caregiver burden. Disability in patients is possibly one of the origins of caregiver burden. Frontal lobe dysfunction might be the source of disability. This study investigated if frontal lobe dysfunction (body level of patients with late-life major depressive disorder was associated with their disability (individual level, and if it led to a high level of caregiver burden (societal level. Thirty-four unselected pairs of caregivers and their family members with late-life major depressive disorder were recruited. Frontal Assessment Battery and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL were used to assess patients' frontal function and disability, and Caregiver Burden Inventory was used to measure caregiver burden. Frontal Assessment Battery correlated with TIADL (r= −0.47; p<0.006. TIADL score was also associated with two subscales of the Caregiver Burden Inventory: social (r = 0.38, p=0.026 and time-dependent (r= 0.37, p= 0.033. This study supported the hypothesis that frontal lobe dysfunction in elderly patients with depression is associated with their disability in instrumental activities of daily living. Disability is related to social and time-dependent aspects of caregiver burden. Further studies to examine proposed cognitive interventions are suggested to reduce patient disability and caregiver burden.

  16. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  17. Altered structural connectome in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Douw, Linda; Tanaka, Naoaki; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2014-03-01

    To study differences in the whole-brain structural connectomes of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy control subjects. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all individuals gave signed informed consent. Sixty-direction diffusion-tensor imaging and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) magnetic resonance imaging volumes were analyzed in 24 patients with left TLE and in 24 healthy control subjects. MP-RAGE volumes were segmented into 1015 regions of interest (ROIs) spanning the entire brain. Deterministic white matter tractography was performed after voxelwise tensor calculation. Weighted structural connectivity matrices were generated by using the pairwise density of connecting fibers between ROIs. Graph theoretical measures of connectivity networks were compared between groups by using linear models with permutation testing. Patients with TLE had 22%-45% reduced (P < .01) distant connectivity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, compared with that in healthy subjects. However, local connectivity, as measured by means of network efficiency, was increased by 85%-270% (P < .01) in the medial and lateral frontal cortices, insular cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and occipital cortex in patients with TLE as compared with healthy subjects. This study suggests that TLE involves altered structural connectivity in a network that reaches beyond the temporal lobe, especially in the default mode network.

  18. Clinical presentation and outcome of geriatric depression in subcortical ischemic vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, R; Pennisi, G; Cantone, M; Palermo, F; Pennisi, M; Lanza, G; Zappia, M; Paolucci, S

    2010-01-01

    Vascular damage of frontal-subcortical circuits involved in mood regulation and cognition might be the main contributor to the pathogenesis of late-life depression, and it is linked to poor response to treatment. To investigate the relationship between executive dysfunction and outcome of depressive symptoms among elderly patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Ninety-two elderly patients with white matter lesions (WMLs) or lacunar infarcts (LAs) on brain MRI and depressive symptomatology were consecutively recruited. Depression was rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Evaluation of executive functions by means of the Stroop color-word test was performed at entry of the study, and WMLs were categorized into mild, moderate or severe. Mood was reevaluated by means of HDRS after the 12th week of pharmacological treatment. Psychomotor retardation, difficulties at work, apathy, and lack of insight were the predominant symptoms. Fifty-six patients (62.8%) had a neuroradiological picture of WMLs, while the remaining 33 (37.1%) had LAs. Executive dysfunctions significantly and independently predict poor outcome of depressive symptoms. Patients with the severest WMLs showed not only a greater executive dysfunction, but also a minor response to antidepressant treatment. This study supports the vascular depression hypothesis. WMLs are of crucial clinical relevance as they are linked with cognitive symptoms and poor antidepressant outcome. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Frontal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinheiro, Bruno Henrique; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and complications of frontal bone fractures associated, or not, with other facial fractures. This evaluation also sought to minimize the influence of the surgeon's skills and the preference for any rigid internal fixation system. The files from 3758 patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, from March 2004 to November 2011 and presented with facial trauma were scanned, and 52 files were chosen for the review. Eleven (21.15%) of these patients had pure fractures of the frontal bone, and trauma incidence was more prevalent in men (92.3%), whites (61.53%), and adults (50%). Despite the use of helmets at the moment of the trauma, motorcycle crashes were the most common etiological factor (32.69%). Fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with displacement was the main injury observed (54.9%), and the most common treatment was internal fixation with a plate and screws (45.09%). Postoperative complications were observed in 35.29% of the cases. The therapy applied was effective in handling this type of fracture, and the success rate was comparable to that reported in other published studies.

  20. Cortical thickness and hippocampal shape in pure vascular mild cognitive impairment and dementia of subcortical type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ye, B S; Yoon, C W; Noh, Y; Kim, G H; Cho, H; Jeon, S; Lee, J M; Kim, J-H; Seong, J-K; Kim, C-H; Choe, Y S; Lee, K H; Kim, S T; Kim, J S; Park, S E; Kim, J-H; Chin, J; Cho, J; Kim, C; Lee, J H; Weiner, M W; Na, D L; Seo, S W

    2014-05-01

    The progression pattern of brain structural changes in patients with isolated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To investigate the role of isolated CVD in cognitive impairment patients, patterns of cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in pure subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients were characterized. Forty-five patients with svMCI and 46 patients with SVaD who were negative on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and 75 individuals with normal cognition (NC) were recruited. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited frontal, language and retrieval type memory dysfunctions, which in patients with PiB(-) SVaD were further impaired and accompanied by visuospatial and recognition memory dysfunctions. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited cortical thinning in the frontal, perisylvian, basal temporal and posterior cingulate regions. This atrophy was more prominent and extended further toward the lateral parietal and medial temporal regions in patients with PiB(-) SVaD. Compared with NC subjects, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited hippocampal shape deformities in the lateral body, whilst patients with PiB(-) SVaD exhibited additional deformities within the lateral head and inferior body. Our findings suggest that patients with CVD in the absence of Alzheimer's disease pathology can be demented, showing cognitive impairment in multiple domains, which is consistent with the topography of cortical thinning and hippocampal shape deformity. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  1. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  2. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D’Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, MRC AIMS; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an ‘atypical connectivity’ involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a ‘whole brain’ non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate—predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms

  3. Syntactic Structure Building in the Anterior Temporal Lobe during Natural Story Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jonathan; Nir, Yuval; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Heeger, David J.; Pylkkanen, Liina

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of syntax is a matter of substantial debate. In particular, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), or Broca's area, has been prominently linked to syntactic processing, but the anterior temporal lobe has been reported to be activated instead of IFG when manipulating the presence of syntactic structure. These findings are difficult to…

  4. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  5. Temporal lobe regions engaged during normal speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jennifer T; Lambon-Ralph, Matthew A; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Howard, David; Wise, Richard J S

    2003-05-01

    Processing of speech is obligatory. Thus, during normal speech comprehension, the listener is aware of the overall meaning of the speaker's utterance without the need to direct attention to individual linguistic and paralinguistic (intonational, prosodic, etc.) features contained within the speech signal. However, most functional neuroimaging studies of speech perception have used metalinguistic tasks that required the subjects to attend to specific features of the stimuli. Such tasks have demanded a forced-choice decision and a motor response from the subjects, which will engage frontal systems and may include unpredictable top-down modulation of the signals observed in one or more of the temporal lobe neural systems engaged during speech perception. This study contrasted the implicit comprehension of simple narrative speech with listening to reversed versions of the narratives: the latter are as acoustically complex as speech but are unintelligible in terms of both linguistic and paralinguistic information. The result demonstrated that normal comprehension, free of task demands that do not form part of everyday discourse, engages regions distributed between the two temporal lobes, more widely on the left. In particular, comprehension is dependent on anterolateral and ventral left temporal regions, as suggested by observations on patients with semantic dementia, as well as posterior regions described in studies on aphasic stroke patients. The only frontal contribution was confined to the ventrolateral left prefrontal cortex, compatible with observations that comprehension of simple speech is preserved in patients with left posterior frontal infarction.

  6. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rossa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-11-17

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  7. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    .... Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance...

  8. Frontal white matter microstructure, aggression, and impulsivity in men with schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Volavka, Jan; Johnson, Glyn; Weiss, Elisabeth; Bilder, Robert M; Lim, Kelvin O

    2002-07-01

    Aggression and impulsivity may involve altered frontal white matter. Axial diffusion tensor images were acquired in 14 men with schizophrenia using a pulsed gradient, double spin echo, echo planar imaging method. White matter microstructural measures (fractional anisotropy and trace) were calculated from these data. Regions of interest were placed in frontal white matter on four slices. Impulsivity was measured using the Motor Impulsiveness factor of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Aggressiveness was measured using the Assaultiveness scale of the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Aggression scale of the Life History of Aggression. Lower fractional anisotropy in right inferior frontal white matter was associated with higher motor impulsiveness. Higher trace in these regions was associated with aggressiveness. Inferior frontal white matter microstructure was associated with impulsivity and aggression in men with schizophrenia. These results implicate frontal lobe dysfunction in aggression and certain aspects of impulsivity.

  9. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magn...

  11. Ictal hyperperfusion of cerebellum and basal ganglia in temporal lobe epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Won Chul; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Seo, Dae Won; Kim, Sang Eun [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The ictal perfusion patterns of cerebellum and basal ganglia have not been systematically investigated in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Their ictal perfusion patterns were analyzed in relation with temporal lobe and frontal lobe hyperperfusion during TLE seizures using SPECT subtraction. Thirty-three TLE patients had interictal and ictal SPECT, video-EEG monitoring. SPGR MRI, and SPECT subtraction with MRI co-registration. The vermian cerebellar hyperperfusion (CH) was observed in 26 patients (78.8%) and hemispheric CH in 25 (75.8%). Compared to the side of epileptogenic temporal lobe, there were seven ipsilateral hemispheric CH (28.0%), fifteen contralateral hemispheric CH( 60.0%) and three bilateral hemispheric CH( 12.0%). CH was more frequently observed in patients with additional frontal hyperperfusion (15/15, 93.3%) than in patients without frontal hyperperfusion (11/18, 61.1 %). The basal ganglia hyperperfusion (14/15, 93.3%) than in patients without frontal hyperperfusion (BGH) was seen in 11 of the 15 patients with frontotemporal hyperperfusion (73.3%) and 11 of the 18 with temporal hyperperfusion only (61.1%). In 17 patients with unilateral BGH, contralateral CH to the BGH was observed in 14 (82.5%) and ipsilateral CH to BGH in 2 (11.8%) and bilateral CH in 1 (5.9%). The cerebellar hyperperfusion and basal ganglia hyperperfusion during seizures of TLE can be contralateral, ipsilateral or bilateral to the seizure focus. The presence of additional frontal or basal ganglia hyperperfusion was more frequently associated with contralateral hemispheric CH to their sides. However, temporal lobe hyperperfusion appears to be related with both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheric CH.

  12. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  13. Instrumentation in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D

    2016-08-01

    Frontal recess dissection proposes many challenges to the surgeon. These challenges stem from its highly variable nature, small caliber, difficult visualization, and proximity to vital structures such as the skull base and orbit. As such, delicate mucosal-sparing dissection of the frontal recess with proper instrumentation is paramount to minimize scar formation and ensure patency. Here, the article explores key instrumentation in frontal recess surgery with an emphasis on hand instruments and adjunctive technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New Findings in the Relationship Between Pre-Frontal Cortex and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, some recent studies are discussed, that show the close relationship between pre-frontal cortex and the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. The most frequent findings in imagiologic studies are hyperintensities in subcortical and periventricular white matter. In the pre-frontal cortex, at the subregional level, there is a loss of grey matter volume, and loss or atrophy of glial cells. One of the areas that is more affected is the subgenual area. Functional studies find less pre-frontal activation in specific tasks. Other studies relate some of the changes to medication. There is a great variability in results, which can be explained by factors such as variability in patients or in methods of research.

  15. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J H M Gerrits

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh and surface area (SA, which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i CTh, SA, and (subcortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  17. The frontal eyes of crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf

    2006-12-01

    Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes.

  18. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  19. Modulating the assessment of semantic speech-gesture relatedness via transcranial direct current stimulation of the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Rasmus; Straube, Benjamin

    Co-verbal gestures are crucial for communication. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the left frontal lobe may be especially important for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures. However, so far, the specific functional relevance of the left frontal lobe in metaphoric (abstract sentence content) co-verbal gesture processing compared to iconic (concrete sentence content) co-verbal gesture processing has not been demonstrated. We investigated the functional relevance of the left frontal lobe for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We hypothesised a polarisation dependent effect of left frontal tDCS on reaction times and ratings in a speech-gesture semantic relatedness assessment task. We applied anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation to the frontal (F3/F4), parietal (CP3/CP4) and frontoparietal (F3/CP4) areas. During stimulation, seventeen subjects were presented with videos of an actor saying concrete or abstract sentences accompanied by related or unrelated iconic or metaphoric gestures and rated to what extent gestures were related to the sentence content. We found electrode localisation- and polarisation-dependent changes in reaction times and ratings for metaphoric co-verbal gestures compared to iconic gestures. Post-hoc tests revealed a specific polarisation effect for frontoparietal stimulation sites: compared to cathodal stimulation, anodal stimulation of the left frontal lobe decreased reaction times and relatedness assessments for metaphoric conditions only. Using tDCS, we demonstrated the functional relevance of the left frontal lobe for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures. Thus, tDCS may possibly constitute an approach to facilitate metaphoric co-verbal gesture-processing in patients with specific deficits. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proactive and reactive control by the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuphorn, Veit; Emeric, Erik E

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. Recent work in humans has identified a network of cortical and subcortical brain region that might have an important role in proactive and reactive control. However, due to technical limitations, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of the BOLD signal, human imaging experiments are not able to disambiguate the specific function(s) of these brain regions. These limitations can be overcome through single-unit recordings in non-human primates. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex of monkeys performing the stop signal or countermanding task.

  1. Postembryonic maturation of the vertical lobe complex and early development of predatory behavior in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, L; Chichery, M P; Chichery, R

    1997-03-01

    In two groups of newly hatched cuttlefish, from eggs incubated at different temperatures, the emergence of predatory pursuit was correlated with the development of some characteristics of the vertical lobe complex (namely, the development of the vertical and superior frontal lobes and the appearance of the vertical-subvertical lobe tracts) and with the state of resorption of the inner yolk sac. The temperature of egg incubation influences the appearance of postnatal pursuit behavior. Expression of this predatory behavioral characteristic is concomitant with the appearance of the vertical-subvertical lobe tracts. In contrast, the growth of the vertical and the superior frontal lobes relative to the growth of the supraesophageal mass and final yolk absorption are not correlated with the appearance of pursuit. To maintain a prey in the frontal visual field during predatory pursuit, short-term memory processes must be involved. Thus, the development of the vertical-subvertical lobe tracts, which is concomitant with the emergence of pursuit, appears essential in the maturation of these short-term memory processes.

  2. Increased Pittsburgh Compound-B Accumulation in the Subcortical White Matter of Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Ishii, Kazunari; Hosokawa, Chisa; Hyodo, Tomoko; Kaida, Hayato; Yamada, Minoru; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Kozuka, Takenori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Murakami, Takamichi

    2017-03-13

    Using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET and MRI volume data, we investigated whether white matter (WM) PiB uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is larger than that of cortical PiB uptake-negative (PiB-negative) brain. Forty-five subjects who underwent both PiB-PET and MRI were included in the study (32 AD patients with cortical PiB-positive and 13 cortical amyloid -negative patients). Individual areas of gray matter (GM) and WM were segmented, then regional GM and WM standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) normalized to cerebellar GM with partial volume effects correction was calculated. Three regional SUVRs except WM in the centrum semiovale in the AD group were significantly larger than those in the PiB-negative groups. Frontal WM SUVR in the AD group vs frontal WM SUVR in the PiB-negative group was 2.57 ± 0.55 vs 1.64 ± 0.22; parietal, 2.50 ± 0.52 vs 1.74 ± 0.22; posterior cingulate, 2.84 ± 0.59 vs 1.73 ± 0.22; and WM in the centrum semiovale, 2.21 ± 0.53 vs 2.42 ± 0.36, respectively. We found that PiB uptake in AD brain is significantly larger than that in PiB-negative brain in the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate subcortical WM, except in the centrum semiovale.

  3. Distinctive Resting State Network Disruptions Among Alzheimer's Disease, Subcortical Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Shin, Ji Soo; Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in resting-state functional MRI have revealed altered functional networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially those of the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN). However, few studies have evaluated whether small vessel disease (SVD) or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SVD or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity within DMN and CEN in 37 Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB)(+) AD, 37 PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), 13 mixed dementia patients, and 65 normal controls. When the resting-state DMN of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(+) AD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the inferior parietal lobule while the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the medial frontal and superior frontal gyri. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the DMN in the posterior cingulate gyrus. When the resting-state CEN connectivity of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the anterior insular region. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the CEN in the inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that in PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD, there is divergent disruptions in resting-state DMN and CEN. Furthermore, patients with combined amyloid and SVD burdens exhibited more disrupted resting-state DMN and CEN than patients with only amyloid or SVD burden.

  4. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi

    2017-02-01

    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  5. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-06-01

    Cortical-subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical-subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical-subcortical circuits-the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions-was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical-subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan.

  6. Physical fitness and shapes of subcortical brain structures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Campos, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Altmäe, Signe; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Catena, Andrés; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-27

    A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and speed agility were assessed using valid and reliable tests (ALPHA-fitness test battery). Shape of the subcortical brain structures was assessed by MRI, and its relationship with fitness was examined after controlling for a set of potential confounders using a partial correlation permutation approach. Our results showed that all physical fitness components studied were significantly related to the shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. These associations were both positive and negative, indicating that a higher level of fitness in childhood is related to both expansions and contractions in certain regions of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. Cardiorespiratory fitness was mainly associated with expansions, whereas handgrip was mostly associated with contractions in the structures studied. Future randomised-controlled trials will confirm or contrast our findings, demonstrating whether changes in fitness modify the shapes of brain structures and the extent to which those changes influence cognitive function.

  7. Uncinate fasciculus fiber tracking in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, S.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Universite Paris-Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Departement d' Imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Universite Paris-Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, Service de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Golestani, N.; Cointepas, Y.; Poupon, C.; Semah, F.; Mangin, J.F.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, Orsay (France)

    2007-07-15

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS), ictal discharge spread to the frontal and insulo-perisylvian cortex is commonly observed. The implication of white matter pathways in this propagation has not been investigated. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements along the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a major tract connecting the frontal and temporal lobes, in patients and controls. Ten right-handed patients referred for intractable TLE due to a right HS were investigated on a 1.5-T MR scanner including a DTI sequence. All patients had interictal fluorodeoxyglucose PET showing an ipsilateral temporal hypometabolism associated with insular and frontal or perisylvian hypometabolism. The controls consisted of ten right-handed healthy subjects. UF fiber tracking was performed, and its fractional anisotropy (FA) values were compared between patients and controls, separately for the right and left UF. The left-minus-right FA UF asymmetry index was computed to test for intergroup differences. Asymmetries were found in the control group with right-greater-than-left FA. This asymmetrical pattern was lost in the patient group. Right FA values were lower in patients with right HS versus controls. Although preliminary, these findings may be related to the preferential pathway of seizure spread from the mesial temporal lobe to frontal and insulo-perisylvian areas. (orig.)

  8. Cortical and subcortical networks in human secondarily generalized tonic–clonic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, G. I.; Purcaro, M.J.; Motelow, J.E.; Enev, M.; McNally, K. A.; Levin, A.R.; Hirsch, L. J.; Tikofsky, R.; Zubal, I. G.; Paige, A. L.; Spencer, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Generalized tonic–clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily generalized seizures from 53 patients. Images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping to detect cortical and subcortical regions most commonly affected in three different time periods: (i) during the partial seizure phase prior to generalization; (ii) during the generalization period; and (iii) post-ictally. We found that in the pre-generalization period, there were focal CBF increases in the temporal lobe on group analysis, reflecting the most common region of partial seizure onset. During generalization, individual patients had focal CBF increases in variable regions of the cerebral cortex. Group analysis during generalization revealed that the most consistent increase occurred in the superior medial cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Post-ictally, there was a marked progressive CBF increase in the cerebellum which spread to involve the bilateral lateral cerebellar hemispheres, as well as CBF increases in the midbrain and basal ganglia. CBF decreases were seen in the fronto-parietal association cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus during and following seizures, similar to the ‘default mode’ regions reported previously to show decreased activity in seizures and in normal behavioural tasks. Analysis of patient behaviour during and following seizures showed impaired consciousness at the time of SPECT tracer injections. Correlation analysis across patients demonstrated that cerebellar CBF increases were related to increases in the upper brainstem and thalamus, and to decreases in the fronto-parietal association cortex. These results reveal a network of cortical and subcortical structures that

  9. Cortical and subcortical networks in human secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, H; Varghese, G I; Purcaro, M J; Motelow, J E; Enev, M; McNally, K A; Levin, A R; Hirsch, L J; Tikofsky, R; Zubal, I G; Paige, A L; Spencer, S S

    2009-04-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily generalized seizures from 53 patients. Images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping to detect cortical and subcortical regions most commonly affected in three different time periods: (i) during the partial seizure phase prior to generalization; (ii) during the generalization period; and (iii) post-ictally. We found that in the pre-generalization period, there were focal CBF increases in the temporal lobe on group analysis, reflecting the most common region of partial seizure onset. During generalization, individual patients had focal CBF increases in variable regions of the cerebral cortex. Group analysis during generalization revealed that the most consistent increase occurred in the superior medial cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Post-ictally, there was a marked progressive CBF increase in the cerebellum which spread to involve the bilateral lateral cerebellar hemispheres, as well as CBF increases in the midbrain and basal ganglia. CBF decreases were seen in the fronto-parietal association cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus during and following seizures, similar to the 'default mode' regions reported previously to show decreased activity in seizures and in normal behavioural tasks. Analysis of patient behaviour during and following seizures showed impaired consciousness at the time of SPECT tracer injections. Correlation analysis across patients demonstrated that cerebellar CBF increases were related to increases in the upper brainstem and thalamus, and to decreases in the fronto-parietal association cortex. These results reveal a network of cortical and subcortical structures that are most

  10. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanique, C; Reygagne, P

    2014-04-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was first described in 1994. It is characterized by scarring alopecia in bands involving the anterior area of the scalp. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as are pubic, facial and body hair alopecia. The clinical and histologic features are evocative of lichen planopilaris (LPP), and AFF is in fact regarded as a special pattern of LPP. Histology reveals a lymphocytic infiltrate located around the isthmus and follicular infundibulum associated with a decrease in the number of follicles, which are supplanted by fibrous tract. AFF most commonly affects post-menopausal women, but instances have been described in men and in young women. This orphan disease has increased in recent years, with more than 37 articles dedicated to this condition since it was first described in 1994. The pathophysiology remains unknown. The condition develops slowly with spontaneous stabilization over several years but it is impossible to predict the degree of expression prior to stabilization. In this article we review the various treatments proposed, for none of which formal proof of efficacy has been provided to date. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Origami by frontal photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-01-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing–induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures. PMID:28508038

  12. Neuropsychiatric characteristics of PiB-negative subcortical vascular dementia versus behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Seonwoo; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) are mainly associated with damage to frontal-subcortical circuits and may be similar to symptoms of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the neuropsychiatric manifestations of the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative SVaD and bvFTD groups differ. We compared the Caregiver-Administered Neuropsychiatry Inventory (CGA-NPI) between 48 patients with PiB(-) SVaD and 31 patients with bvFTD. A stepwise logistic regression was applied to determine the best model to predict SVaD. The SVaD group showed a higher frequency of depression, whereas the bvFTD group had a higher frequency of elation, aberrant motor behavior and appetite/eating disorders. Regarding NPI subscores, the bvFTD group had greater severity of elation, apathy, disinhibition, aberrant motor behavior and appetite/eating disorders, whereas SVaD did not have significantly higher subscores in any domains. The most predictive models that tend to find suggestions of SVaD, as opposed to bvFTD, are as follows: (1) the presence of depression and the absence of appetite/eating disorders, (2) higher NPI subscores of depression and lower NPI subscores of irritability and aberrant motor behavior. Apart from apathy, SVaD differed from bvFTD in that negative symptoms were more common in SVaD than bvFTD, whereas positive symptoms were predominant in bvFTD compared to SVaD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. More Consistently Altered Connectivity Patterns for Cerebellum and Medial Temporal Lobes than for Amygdala and Striatum in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Henning; Shao, Junming; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Zimmer, Claus; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Koch, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory “subcortical-cerebellar” systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs), amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC) between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics) and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs) with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs; i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum). Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices [i.e., connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW), only NWs (NWs-NWs), and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs)] as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based (SVM) leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56 and 74%, respectively). Considering separate

  14. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from

  15. Self Organization via Frontal Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojman, John

    2007-03-01

    There are three modes of frontal polymerization: Isothermal, Photo and Thermal Isothermal frontal polymerization (IFP) is a directional polymerization that utilizes the Norish-Trommsdorff effect, to produce optical gradient materials. When a solution of methyl methacrylate and thermal initiator contacts a polymer seed (a small piece of poly(methyl methacrylate), a viscous region is formed in which the polymerization rate is faster than in the bulk solution. PhotoFP is driven by a continuous input of light. Thermal frontal polymerization is the propagation of a localized reaction zone through the coupling of thermal transport with the Arrhenius dependence of the kinetics of an exothermic polymerization. We will examine IFP and its use in making Gradient Optical Materials (GRIN) and our work on elucidating the mechanism. We will consider how thermal frontal polymerization can be used rapid rapid repair, making gradient materials and to study interesting nonlinear modes of thermal front propagation.

  16. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2015-02-22

    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  19. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  20. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  1. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  2. Automated localization of periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vrooman, Henri A.; Rueckert, Daniel; Hammers, Alexander; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2007-03-01

    It is still unclear whether periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions (WMLs) differ in etiology or clinical consequences. Studies addressing this issue would benefit from automated segmentation and localization of WMLs. Several papers have been published on WML segmentation in MR images. Automated localization however, has not been investigated as much. This work presents and evaluates a novel method to label segmented WMLs as periventricular and subcortical. The proposed technique combines tissue classification and registration-based segmentation to outline the ventricles in MRI brain data. The segmented lesions can then be labeled into periventricular WMLs and subcortical WMLs by applying region growing and morphological operations. The technique was tested on scans of 20 elderly subjects in which neuro-anatomy experts manually segmented WMLs. Localization accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of the automated method with a manual localization. Similarity indices and volumetric intraclass correlations between the automated and the manual localization were 0.89 and 0.95 for periventricular WMLs and 0.64 and 0.89 for subcortical WMLs, respectively. We conclude that this automated method for WML localization performs well to excellent in comparison to the gold standard.

  3. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  4. Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frodl, Thomas; Janowitz, Deborah; Schmaal, Lianne; Tozzi, Leonardo; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Stein, Dan J.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Wittfeld, Katharina; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Jahanshad, Neda; Block, Andrea; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Voelzke, Henry; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hatton, Sean N.; Hickie, Ian B.; Frey, Eva Maria; Carballedo, Angela; Brooks, Samantha J; Vuletic, Daniella; Uhlmann, Anne; Veer, Ilya M.; Walter, Henrik; Schnell, Knut; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Schramm, Elisabeth; Konrad, Carsten; Zurowski, Bartosz; Baune, Bernhard T; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Thompson, Paul M.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grabe, Hans J.

    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of

  5. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert H W; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Samson, Rebecca S; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2010-01-01

    .... In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  7. Morphologic characteristics of subcortical heterotopia: MR imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, A J

    2000-02-01

    Gray matter heterotopia have been divided into three groups based on clinical and imaging characteristics: subependymal, subcortical, and band heterotopia. Nonetheless, subcortical heterotopia can have variable morphologic findings. The purpose of this study was to perform a morphologic analysis of a series of cases of subcortical heterotopia based on MR images, to correlate the morphologic appearance with clinical characteristics, and to speculate about the embryologic implications of our results. The MR imaging studies and clinical records of 24 patients with subcortical heterotopia were retrospectively reviewed. The morphologic findings of the heterotopia were recorded along with presence and type of associated malformations. These results were correlated with available data on development and neurologic status. Analysis revealed that, in six cases, the heterotopia were composed exclusively of multiple nodules, in 13, they appeared primarily as curvilinear ribbons of cortex extending into the white matter, and in five, they had deep nodular regions with curvilinear areas more peripherally. All of the curvilinear regions were contiguous with the cerebral cortex in at least two locations. In eight cases, curvilinear heterotopia contained curvilinear areas of flow void that were thought to be blood vessels; in 10, they contained fluid resembling CSF. No difference in developmental or neurologic manifestations was noted among patients with heterotopia of different morphologic appearances. Subcortical heterotopia can have nodular or curvilinear morphologic appearances. Although no difference was found in the clinical conditions of the patients with differing morphologic appearances, additional analysis of these patients or studies of animal models of these malformations may further our understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

  8. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential gray matter unpruned in adolescents and young adults dependent on dextromethorphan-containing cough syrups: evidence from cortical and subcortical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults. Thirty-eight DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and 18 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and cortical thickness across the continuous cortical surface was compared between the groups. Subcortical volumes were compared on a structure-by-structure basis. DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults exhibited significantly increased cortical thickness in the bilateral precuneus (PreC), left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. L), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL. L), right precentral gyrus (PreCG. R), right lateral occipital cortex (LOC. R), right inferior temporal cortex (ITC. R), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. R) and right transverse temporal gyrus (TTG. R) (all p adolescents dependent on DXM. These structural changes might explain the neurobiological mechanism of impulsive behavior in adolescent DXM users.

  10. Technical, Anatomical, and Functional Study after Removal of a Symptomatic Cavernous Angioma Located in Deep Wernicke’s Territories with Cortico-Subcortical Awake Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Sarubbo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The subcortical region underneath Wernicke’s area (WA is a critical crossing of the eloquent language pathways involved in all semantic, phonological, syntactic, and working memory elaboration. We report the resection of a CA located underneath the dominant WA discussing the functional and anatomical evidence provided by fMRI, dissections with Klingler’s technique, and intraoperative mapping during awake surgery. Case Report. A 64-year-old right-handed female affected by daily complex focal seizures underwent f-MRI, showing language activations in the middle and inferior temporal gyri and an unusual free entry zone in the “classical” WA. The cortical intraoperative mapping partially confirmed the f-MRI results, and we approached the lesion directly through WA. Subcortical DES allowed the identification of the eloquent language pathways and the radical resection of the perilesional gliotic rim. The patient did not report deficits and she is seizures and drug free after 1-year surgery. Discussion. Cortical DES demonstrated the variability of the eloquent areas within the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe. The subcortical DES confirmed the crucial role in language elaboration and the anatomical course of the bundles underneath WA. Conclusions. Awake surgery with DES represents a reliable and dynamic technique also for safer and functional-customized resection of CAs.

  11. Non-invasive continuous EEG-fNIRS recording of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Tremblay, Julie; Pouliot, Philippe; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Florea, Olivia; Carmant, Lionel; Lepore, Franco; Sawan, Mohamad; Lesage, Frédéric; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a technique that allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics in the brain. By using combined EEG-fNIRS recordings, we sought to better understand the pathophysiology of temporal lobe seizures. Nine patients (5 males; mean age 35 years; range 11-56 years) with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy underwent combined EEG-fNIRS recordings. Eight complex partial seizures from 3 patients were successfully recorded. All seizures were associated with significant local and remote haemodynamic changes which outlasted the duration of seizures. Over the epileptogenic temporal lobe, increased oxygenation [increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and oxyhaemoglobin (HbO), decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin (HbR)] was followed by a deoxygenated state [increase in HbR]. A similar haemodynamic profile was seen over the contralateral temporal lobe (even without evidence of epileptic propagation) though variations generally had lower amplitudes. Heterogeneous haemodynamic changes in remote frontal and/or parietal areas were also noted early on when epileptic activity was limited to the temporal lobe. EEG-fNIRS reveals complex local and remote oxygenation changes during temporal lobe seizures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive structure of executive deficits in frontally lesioned head trauma patients performing activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sandra; Godbout, Lucie; Braun, Claude M J

    2003-04-01

    Executive functions in activities of daily living (ADL) were investigated in 10 patients with frontal lobe lesions after a mild to severe closed head injury (CHI). The CHI patients were compared to 12 normal controls with a neuropsychological test battery, a script recitation task and a realistic simulation of complex multitask ADL (planning and preparing a meal). Though the CHI patients were significantly slow on one test and subject to interference on an attention test with parametric testing, the groups did not differ on any neuropsychological test with non parametric testing. However, the CHI patients manifested marked anomalies in the meal preparation task. While small sequences of actions were easily produced, large action sets could not be correctly executed. An outstanding deficit in strategic planning and prospective memory appears to be an important underpinning of the impairment of ADL observed in CHI patients with frontal lobe lesions.

  13. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in males: clinical, imaging and genetic findings in comparison with females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; Bernasconi, Andrea; Das, Soma; Bastos, Alexandre; Valerio, Rosa M; Palmini, André; Costa da Costa, Jaderson; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel; Guerrini, Renzo; Dravet, Charlotte; Ono, Jiro; Gigli, GianLuigi; Federico, Antonio; Booth, Fran; Bernardi, Bruno; Volpi, Lilia; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Guggenheim, Mary Anne; Ledbetter, David H; Gleeson, Joseph G; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Vossler, David G; Malaspina, Elisabetta; Franzoni, Emilio; Sartori, Roberto J; Mitchell, Michael H; Mercho, Suha; Dubeau, François; Andermann, Frederick; Dobyns, William B; Andermann, Eva

    2002-11-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or double cortex syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder, which occurs very rarely in males: to date, at least 110 females but only 11 in males have been reported. The syndrome is usually associated with mutations in the doublecortin (DCX) (Xq22.3-q23) gene, and much less frequently in the LIS1 (17p13.3) gene. To determine whether the phenotypic spectrum, the genetic basis and genotype-phenotype correlations of SBH in males are similar to those in females, we compared the clinical, imaging and molecular features in 30 personally evaluated males and 60 previously reported females with SBH. Based on the MRI findings, we defined the following band subtypes: partial, involving one or two cerebral lobes; intermediate, involving two lobes and a portion of a third; diffuse, with substantial involvement of three or more lobes; and pachygyria-SBH, in which posterior SBH merges with anterior pachygyria. Karyo typing and mutation analysis of DCX and/or LIS1 were performed in 23 and 24 patients, respectively. The range of clinical phenotypes in males with SBH greatly overlapped that in females. MRI studies revealed that some anatomical subtypes of SBH, such as partial and intermediate posterior, pachygyria-SBH and diffuse bands with posterior predominance, were more frequently or exclusively present in males. Conversely, classical diffuse SBH and diffuse bands with anterior predominance were more frequent in females. Males had either mild or the most severe band subtypes, and these correlated with the over-representation of normal/borderline intelligence and severe mental retardation, respectively. Conversely, females who had predominantly diffuse bands exhibited mostly mild or moderate mental retardation. Seven patients (29%) had missense mutations in DCX; in four, these were germline mutations, whereas in three there was evidence for somatic mosaicism. A germline missense mutation of LIS1 and a partial trisomy of chromosome 9p were

  14. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine); Cohen, D. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Radiology); Konstantini, S. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Meiner, Z. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Neurology)

    1991-06-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.).

  15. Distally lobed integuments in some Angiosperm ovules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1970-01-01

    In this treatise ‘De l’Ovule’ Warming (1878) remarked that although the borders of the integuments grow uniformly, very rarely a division into lobes can be observed. He mentioned Symplocarpus foetida (inner integument four-lobed), Lagarosiphon schweinfurthii (outer integument four- or five-lobed)

  16. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional MRI study of verbal fluency in a patient with subcortical laminar heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Daniel L; Olds, Janet; Logan, William J

    2004-05-01

    Double cortex syndrome is a malformation in which there is a band of subcortical heterotopic grey matter separated from the cortex by white matter. The functional activity of the heterotopic neurons is unclear. A 13-year-old female was evaluated for seizures. The EEG showed bifrontal spike wave disturbance. Band heterotopia, in association with mild reduction of sulcation of the cerebral hemispheres, was found on MRI. Psychological assessment indicated the presence of variable cognitive abilities, with verbal IQ [82] generally better than nonverbal IQ [59], and specific difficulties in language comprehension and mathematics. Functional MRI was used to localize the areas of language and motor activation. The language activation paradigm was a visual verb generation task with a visual fixation baseline. The motor paradigm consisted of alternating blocks of sequential finger tapping and rest. Coronal functional and anatomical images were obtained. The motor paradigm produced activation of the primary motor cortex, the band heterotopia and the supplementary motor cortex. The language paradigm produced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus and left supplementary motor area, but not of the band heterotopia. The activation of heterotopic grey matter during a motor task demonstrates a hemodynamic association with motor activity and suggests that this tissue may be functional. Such association was not seen with the language task. We speculate that later maturing functions such as language are restricted in their development to the normal situated superficial cortex in our patient.

  18. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraovitch, S; Calando, Y; Goadsby, P J; Seylaz, J

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBFLDF), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. CBFLDF was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]iodoantipyrine and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical (frontal, parietal and occipital) lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate, for the first time, that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome.

  19. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  20. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... migration lines as hyperintense bands. These lines traverse the white matter from the ventricular ependymal surface to the subcortical white matter. One such band in the right frontal lobe is associated with a cortical–subcortical tuber as are two further bands in the postero–inferior parietal lobes on both ...

  1. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D.; Siegel, Joshua S.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E.; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1–2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition. PMID:25741721

  2. The Impact of Frontal and Cerebellar Lesions on Decision Making: evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oliveira Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frontal lobes have traditionally been considered the neural substrates of executive functioning, recent studies have suggested that other structures, such as the cerebellum, may be associated with these abilities. The role of the cerebellum has only been sparsely investigated in connection with decision making (DM, an important component of executive functioning, and the few results obtained on this front have been inconclusive. The current study sought to investigate the role of the cerebellum in DM by comparing the performance of patients withcerebellar strokes, frontal-damaged patients and a healthy control group on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. A total of nine cerebellar-damaged adults participated in the study, as well as nine individuals with frontal strokes and 18 control individuals. Patients were administered a version of the IGT adapted to the population of Southern Brazil. There was a marginal difference inmean IGT net scorebetween the two clinical groups, although both displayed impaired performance as compared to the control group. Overall, the DM ability of patients with cerebellar damage proved to be more preserved than that of individuals with frontal lobe strokes, but less preserved than that of the control group. These data suggested that, while the frontal lobes may be the most important brain structures for DM, the cerebellum might also play an active role in this cognitive function. Future studies assessing participants with lesions in different cerebellar regions and hemispheres will prove invaluable for the understanding of the neural structures involved in DM, and make significant contributions to the globalist-localizationist debate in DM neuroscience.

  3. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  5. The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities

    OpenAIRE

    Queralt Blasco, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present dissertation was to analyse the subcortical implications in the preparation and execution of complex voluntary movements. Three different tasks were selected on purpose. They all are everyday activities which although functionally related have differential characteristics. The first task was the sit-to-stand manoeuvre. Simple ballistic movements are executed faster in reaction time task paradigms when the imperative signal is accompanied by a startling audito...

  6. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz cit...

  7. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  8. Subcortical auditory structures in the Mongolian gerbil: I. Golgi architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Judith; Brosch, Michael; Scheich, Henning; Budinger, Eike

    2013-04-15

    By means of the Golgi-Cox and Nissl methods we investigated the cyto- and fiberarchitecture as well as the morphology of neurons in the subcortical auditory structures of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), a frequently used animal model in auditory neuroscience. We describe the divisions and subdivisions of the auditory thalamus including the medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, and reticular thalamic nucleus, as well as of the inferior colliculi, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, superior olivary complex, and cochlear nuclear complex. In this study, we 1) confirm previous results about the organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory pathway using other anatomical staining methods (e.g., Budinger et al. [2000] Eur J Neurosci 12:2452-2474); 2) add substantially to the knowledge about the laminar and cellular organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory structures, in particular about the orientation of their fibrodendritic laminae and about the morphology of their most distinctive neuron types; and 3) demonstrate that the cellular organization of these structures, as seen by the Golgi technique, corresponds generally to that of other mammalian species, in particular to that of rodents. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pigmentary mosaicism, subcortical band heterotopia, and brain cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Martino; Roggini, Mario; Spalice, Alberto; Addis, Maria; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-05-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a severe and diffuse mosaic skin hypopigmentation running (in narrow bands) along the lines of Blaschko associated with mosaic areas of alopecia, facial dysmorphism with midface hypoplasia, bilateral punctate cataract, microretrognathia, short neck, pectus excavatum, joint hypermobility, mild muscular hypotonia, generalized seizures, and mild mental retardation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypoplastic corpus callosum (primarily posterior), subcortical band heterotopia, and diffuse subcortical, periventricular cystic-like lesions. Similar dysmorphic features were observed in the child's mother, but with no imaging abnormalities. The facial phenotype coupled with the cysts in the brain was strongly reminiscent of the oculocerebrorenal Lowe syndrome. Full chromosome studies in the parents and the proband and mutation analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes (and on skin cultured fibroblasts from affected and unaffected skin areas in the child) in the genes for subcortical band heterotopia (DCX (Xq22.3-q23)], lissencephaly (PAFAH1B1, alias LIS1, at 17p13.3), and oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL at Xq23-q24)] were unrevealing. This constellation of multiple congenital anomalies including skin hypopigmentation and eye, musculoskeletal, and nervous system abnormalities was sufficiently characterized to be regarded as a novel example of pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type (i.e., hypomelanosis of Ito).

  10. Joint assessment of white matter integrity, cortical and subcortical atrophy to distinguish AD from behavioral variant FTD: A two-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM atrophy in combination with white matter (WM integrity to distinguish behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD and from controls using voxel-based morphometry, subcortical structure segmentation, and tract-based spatial statistics. To determine which combination of MR markers differentiated the three groups with the highest accuracy, we conducted discriminant function analyses. Adjusted for age, sex and center, both types of dementia had more GM atrophy, lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher mean (MD, axial (L1 and radial diffusivity (L23 values than controls. BvFTD patients had more GM atrophy in orbitofrontal and inferior frontal areas than AD patients. In addition, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in bvFTD than in AD. FA values were lower; MD, L1 and L23 values were higher, especially in frontal areas of the brain for bvFTD compared to AD patients. The combination of cortical GM, hippocampal volume and WM integrity measurements, classified 97–100% of controls, 81–100% of AD and 67–75% of bvFTD patients correctly. Our results suggest that WM integrity measures add complementary information to measures of GM atrophy, thereby improving the classification between AD and bvFTD.

  11. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  12. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  13. Reduced Frontal P3a Amplitude in Migraine Patients during the Pain-Free Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yong Seo; Ko, Deokwon; Lee, Gwan-Taek; Oh, Kyungmi; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Ki-Young

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies both suggest that frontal lobe dysfunction is present in migraineurs. Since P3a abnormalities manifest in other diseases associated with attention problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, we hypothesized that migraine patients have P3a abnormalities, particularly in the frontal region. Event-related potentials were measured using a passive auditory oddball paradigm in 16 female migraineurs (aged 22.9±2.0 years, mean±SD) during the interictal period and in 16 age-matched healthy females (22.6±2.0 years). The amplitudes and latencies were analyzed independently using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Nonparametric statistical testing using a cluster-level randomization method was performed to localize the abnormalities. The mean P3a amplitude at frontal areas during the third trials was significantly lower in migraineurs (1.06 µV) than in controls (1.69 µV, p=0.026). P3a amplitudes were negatively correlated with the duration of the migraine history (r=-0.618, p=0.014). Cluster-based nonparametric statistical analysis showed that the amplitudes over left frontal areas were significantly lower in migraine patients than in controls. A reduced P3a amplitude of migraineurs reflects attentional deficits and frontal dysfunction. The negative correlation between P3a amplitude and the duration of the migraine history suggests that attentional deficits and frontal dysfunction are either the cause or the result of headache.

  14. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  15. New insights in the homotopic and heterotopic connectivity of the frontal portion of the human corpus callosum revealed by microdissection and diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Descoteaux, Maxime; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Corsini, Francesco; Dallabona, Monica; Chioffi, Franco; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive studies revealed that the human corpus callosum (CC) plays a crucial role in providing large-scale bi-hemispheric integration of sensory, motor and cognitive processing, especially within the frontal lobe. However, the literature lacks of conclusive data regarding the structural macroscopic connectivity of the frontal CC. In this study, a novel microdissection approach was adopted, to expose the frontal fibers of CC from the dorsum to the lateral cortex in eight hemispheres and in one entire brain. Post-mortem results were then combined with data from advanced constrained spherical deconvolution in 130 healthy subjects. We demonstrated as the frontal CC provides dense inter-hemispheric connections. In particular, we found three types of fronto-callosal fibers, having a dorso-ventral organization. First, the dorso-medial CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between the homologous medial cortices of the superior frontal gyrus. Second, the ventro-lateral CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between lateral frontal cortices, including both the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as heterotopic connections between the medial and lateral frontal cortices. Third, the ventro-striatal CC fibers connect the medial and lateral frontal cortices with the contralateral putamen and caudate nucleus. We also highlighted an intricate crossing of CC fibers with the main association pathways terminating in the lateral regions of the frontal lobes. This combined approach of ex vivo microdissection and in vivo diffusion tractography allowed demonstrating a previously unappreciated three-dimensional architecture of the anterior frontal CC, thus clarifying the functional role of the CC in mediating the inter-hemispheric connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4718-4735, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Functional disconnectivity of the medial temporal lobe in Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchew, David E; Ashwin, Chris; Berkouk, Karim; Salvador, Raymond; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bullmore, Ed

    2005-05-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions that may be caused by abnormal connectivity between brain regions constituting neurocognitive networks for specific aspects of social cognition. We used three-way multidimensional scaling of regionally parcellated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to explore the hypothesis of abnormal functional connectivity in people with ASD. Thirteen high-functioning individuals with Asperger's syndrome and 13 healthy volunteers were scanned during incidental processing of fearful facial expressions. Using permutation tests for inference, we found evidence for significant abnormality of functional integration of amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus (p Asperger's syndrome. There were less salient abnormalities in functional connectivity of anterior cingulate, inferior occipital, and inferior frontal cortex, but there was no significant difference between groups in whole brain functional connectivity. We conclude there is evidence that functional connectivity of medial temporal lobe structures specifically is abnormal in people with Asperger's syndrome during fearful face processing.

  17. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  18. Treating autism by targeting the temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Richard P; Snyder, Allan W

    2014-11-01

    Compelling new findings suggest that an early core signature of autism is a deficient left anterior temporal lobe response to language and an atypical over-activation of the right anterior temporal lobe. Intriguingly, our recent results from an entirely different line of reasoning and experiments also show that applying cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the right anterior temporal lobe, by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can induce some autistic-like cognitive abilities in otherwise normal adults. If we could briefly induce autistic like cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, it follows that we might be able to mitigate some autistic traits by reversing the above stimulation protocol, in an attempt to restore the typical dominance of the left anterior temporal lobe. Accordingly, we hypothesize that at least some autistic traits can be mitigated, by applying anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the right anterior temporal lobe. Our hypothesis is supported by strong convergent evidence that autistic symptoms can emerge and later reverse due to the onset and subsequent recovery of various temporal lobe (predominantly the left) pathologies. It is also consistent with evidence that the temporal lobes (especially the left) are a conceptual hub, critical for extracting meaning from lower level sensory information to form a coherent representation, and that a deficit in the temporal lobes underlies autistic traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histopathologic variation between liver lobes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S

    2015-01-01

    Biopsy of the liver evaluates a small portion of tissue, with inferences made to the entire organ. The method and number of biopsies obtained are tempered by consideration of the risks and benefits. Recommendations often include biopsy of more than one liver lobe, although the consistency of histopathology among lobes in dogs is unknown. To describe the distribution of histopathologic abnormalities between liver lobes. We hypothesized that discordant results would be evenly distributed among all liver lobes. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver samples were obtained from all lobes. A primary diagnosis was assigned to each liver sample based on the predominant histopathologic abnormality. In this population of dogs, biopsy of at least 2 liver lobes identified the predominant histologic abnormality in 98.6% of the cases. Ten (14%) of the dogs had ≤ 3 lobes in agreement and could not be assigned a predominant diagnosis. The same diagnosis was present in 6/6 lobes in 39 (56.5%) dogs, 5/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 4/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 3/6 lobes in 7 (10.1%) dogs, and 2/6 in 3 (4.3%) dogs. The number of discordant results did not differ between the liver lobes. The likelihood of obtaining a sample that is reflective of the predominant histologic abnormality in the liver is increased when multiple liver lobes are biopsied. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Lobe-cleft instability in the buoyant gravity current generated by estuarine outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Chickadel, C. Chris

    2017-05-01

    Gravity currents represent a broad class of geophysical flows including turbidity currents, powder avalanches, pyroclastic flows, sea breeze fronts, haboobs, and river plumes. A defining feature in many gravity currents is the formation of three-dimensional lobes and clefts along the front and researchers have sought to understand these ubiquitous geophysical structures for decades. The prevailing explanation is based largely on early laboratory and numerical model experiments at much smaller scales, which concluded that lobes and clefts are generated due to hydrostatic instability exclusively in currents propagating over a nonslip boundary. Recent studies suggest that frontal dynamics change as the flow scale increases, but no measurements have been made that sufficiently resolve the flow structure in full-scale geophysical flows. Here we use thermal infrared and acoustic imaging of a river plume to reveal the three-dimensional structure of lobes and clefts formed in a geophysical gravity current front. The observed lobes and clefts are generated at the front in the absence of a nonslip boundary, contradicting the prevailing explanation. The observed flow structure is consistent with an alternative formation mechanism, which predicts that the lobe scale is inherited from subsurface vortex structures.

  1. Temporal lobe origin is common in patients who have undergone epilepsy surgery for hypermotor seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Amir M; Azar, Nabil J; Lagrange, Andre H; McLean, Michael; Singh, Pradumna; Sonmezturk, Hasan; Konrad, Peter; Neimat, Joseph; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

    2016-11-01

    Hypermotor seizures are most often reported from the frontal lobe but may also have temporal, parietal, or insular origin. We noted a higher proportion of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in our surgical cohort who had hypermotor seizures. We evaluated the anatomic localization and surgical outcome in patient with refractory hypermotor seizures who had epilepsy surgery in our center. We identified twenty three patients with refractory hypermotor seizures from our epilepsy surgery database. We analyzed demographics, presurgical evaluation including semiology, MRI, PET scan, interictal/ictal scalp video-EEG, intracranial recording, and surgical outcomes. We evaluated preoperative variables as predictors of outcome. Most patients (65%) had normal brain MRI. Intracranial EEG was required in 20 patients (86.9%). Based on the presurgical evaluation, the resection was anterior temporal in fourteen patients, orbitofrontal in four patients, cingulate in four patients, and temporoparietal in one patient. The median duration of follow-up after surgery was 76.4months. Fourteen patients (60%) had been seizure free at the last follow up while 3 patients had rare disabling seizures. Hypermotor seizures often originated from the temporal lobe in this series of patients who had epilepsy surgery. This large proportion of temporal lobe epilepsy may be the result of a selection bias, due to easier localization and expected better outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy. With extensive presurgical evaluation, including intracranial EEG when needed, seizure freedom can be expected in the majority of patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Fitness, insulin sensitivity, and frontal lobe integrity in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mary Grace; Venutolo, Christopher; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    To formally test whether insulin sensitivity mediates the relationship between fitness and brain integrity. Eighty-four middle-aged participants without diabetes received a 6-min walk test from which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was derived, a structural magnetic resonance scan, and a medical evaluation including fasting glucose and insulin levels. This study showed significant associations between fitness, abdominal obesity, and insulin sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume as well as between ACC thickness and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The relationship between ACC volume and VO2 max was completely mediated through QUICKI. Further, this strong association was confirmed by a single and very significant cluster on the ACC linking gray matter volume and QUICKI in a voxel-based morphometry analysis. As expected, increased abdominal obesity was associated with reductions in fitness, ACC volumes, and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, this study demonstrated a significant mediation of the relationship between VO2 max and ACC volume by QUICKI. This suggests that the links between impaired insulin sensitivity and brain abnormalities in adults carrying excess weight could be alleviated through increased physical activity and fitness. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Frontal Lobe Integrity in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mary Grace; Venutolo, Christopher; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To formally test whether insulin sensitivity mediates the relationship between fitness and brain integrity. Methods Eighty-four non-diabetic, middle-aged participants received a 6-minute walk test from which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was derived, a structural MR scan, and a medical evaluation including fasting glucose and insulin levels. Results We showed significant associations between fitness, abdominal obesity, and insulin sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume as well as between ACC thickness and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We showed that the relationship between ACC volume and VO2 max was completely mediated through QUICKI, see Figure 3. Further, this strong association was confirmed by a single and very significant cluster on the ACC linking gray matter volume and QUICKI in a voxel-based morphometry analysis. Conclusions As expected, increased abdominal obesity was associated with reductions in fitness, ACC volumes, and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, we demonstrate a significant mediation of the relationship between VO2 max and ACC volume by QUICKI. This suggests that the links between impaired insulin sensitivity and brain abnormalities in adults carrying excess weight could be alleviated through increased physical activity and fitness. PMID:27123868

  4. Theory of mind and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yamada, Makiko; Namiki, Chihiro; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    Impaired ability to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind; ToM) is considered to be a key contributor to the poor social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. Although neuroimaging and lesion studies have provided empirical evidence for the neural basis of ToM ability, including the involvement of several prefrontal and temporal structures, the association between pathology of these structures and ToM impairment in schizophrenia patients is less well understood. To address this issue, we investigated structural brain abnormalities and ToM impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and examined the relationship between them. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were examined for ToM ability based on the revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (or Eyes) test [Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., Plumb, I., 2001. The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 241-251]. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula. The patients performed poorly on the Eyes test. Importantly, poor performance on the Eyes test was found to be associated with gray matter reduction in the left VLPFC in the patient group. These results suggest that prefrontal cortical reduction, especially in the left VLPFC, is a key pathology underlying the difficulties faced by schizophrenia patients in inferring the mental states of others.

  5. Frontal lobe dysfunctions in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholism: Continuity or discontinuity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brokate, B.; Hildebrandt, H.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Fichtner, H.; Runge, K.; Timm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of long-term heavy alcohol consumption on brain functions is still under debate. The authors investigated a sample of 17 Korsakoff amnesics, 23 alcoholics without Korsakoff's syndrome, and 21 controls with peripheral nerve diseases, matched for intelligence and education. Executive

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy for frontal lobe oxygenation during non-vascular abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Secher, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral deoxygenation, as determined by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seems to predict postoperative complications following cardiac surgery. We identify the type of non-vascular abdominal surgery associated with cerebral deoxygenation and/or hyperoxygenation, how such deviations a...

  7. Preserved frontal lobe oxygenation following calcium chloride for treatment of anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitchen, Carl-Christian; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressor agents may affect cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy on the forehead. This case series evaluated the effect of calcium chloride vs. α and β-adrenergic receptor agonists on rScO2 in patients (n = 47) undergoing surgery during i.v. anesthesia. Mean ...

  8. Disorders in Planning and Strategy Application in Frontal Lobe Lesion Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Paula Adriana Rodrigues; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Malheiros, Suzana Maria Fleury; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate deficits in planning ability using an adapted version of the Modified Six Elements Test, from the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome--BADS [Wilson, B. A., Alderman, N., Burgess, P. W., Emslie, H., & Evans, J. J. (1996). "Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome…

  9. The Frontal Lobes and Theory of Mind: Developmental Concepts from Adult Focal Lesion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuss, Donald T.; Anderson, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective in this paper is to present a framework to understand the structure of consciousness. We argue that consciousness has been difficult to define because there are different kinds of consciousness, hierarchically organized, which need to be differentiated. Our framework is based on evidence from adult focal lesion research. The…

  10. Distracted by Relatives: Effects of Frontal Lobe Damage on Semantic Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Anna L.; Meyer, Antje S.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    When young adults carry out visual search, distractors that are semantically related, rather than unrelated, to targets can disrupt target selection (see [Belke et al., 2008] and [Moores et al., 2003]). This effect is apparent on the first eye movements in search, suggesting that attention is sometimes captured by related distractors. Here we…

  11. Visual Perception and Frontal Lobe in Intellectual Disabilities: A Study with Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Ruata, J.; Caro-Martinez, E.; Perez, L. Martinez; Borja, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Perception disorders are frequently observed in persons with intellectual disability (ID) and their influence on cognition has been discussed. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanisms behind these alterations by analysing the visual event related potentials early component, the N1 wave, which is related to perception…

  12. Simulation-based executive cognitive assessment and rehabilitation after traumatic frontal lobe injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Usha; Streufert, Siegfried; Eslinger, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether identifying specific deficits after brain injury can lead to a more focused and potentially effective cognitive rehabilitation technology. Cognitive simulation assessment was undertaken in a 47-year-old man with trauma-related prefrontal damage and persisting occupational and cognitive-behavioral difficulties at 15 months post brain injury. Results revealed significant difficulties in measured levels of activity, initiative, information utilization, response flexibility, and effective decision-making strategies which accorded well with his real-life complaints despite normal neuropsychological test scores. This profile of findings was then used to design a two-stage intervention program. The first stage focused on participant education and awareness about his simulation-based problem solving difficulties. In the second stage specific goals were formulated to improve problem solving impairments that were then the target of weekly training sessions using pertinent decision-making and problem-solving vignettes. A parallel version of the cognitive simulation assessment was undertaken post-cognitive training (3 months after initial assessment) and revealed significant improvements in targeted executive cognitive-behavioral areas. Results of this cognitive rehabilitation probe supported the feasibility and validity of undertaking a cognitive simulation approach to identify residual executive function deficits after traumatic brain injury, even with a normal neuropsychological test profile. Further studies are needed to establish the reliability, generalizability and maintenance of such gains.

  13. Atypical frontal lobe activity during verbal working memory in youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2012-06-01

    Abnormal brain functioning during verbal working memory (VWM) tasks has been shown in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Since adolescents with a familial history of alcoholism (FHP) are at high risk for developing an AUD, it is important to consider whether atypical brain activity during VWM may help to explain FHP vulnerability toward developing alcoholism. To that end, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain response during a VWM 2-back task in 19 FHP adolescents and 16 age and gender-matched family history negative (FHN) controls. Despite no group differences in task accuracy, FHP youth had significantly slower average reaction time when making correct responses during the 2-back condition than FHN youth. In contrast to a vigilance control condition, while covarying for reaction time, FHP adolescents showed less activation during VWM than FHN youth in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)--a brain region crucial to intact working memory skills. These results suggest that even prior to heavy alcohol use, FHP adolescents show atypical executive brain functioning during VWM, and that these differences are independent of slower working memory reaction time in FHP youth. Given the importance of working memory in numerous areas of day-to-day functioning, such as adaptive decision-making, these abnormalities may contribute to FHP youth vulnerability toward developing AUDs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  15. Encephalomalacia in the frontal lobe: complication of the endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Enver, Ozgun; Albayram, Sait

    2011-11-01

    Encephalomalacia is the softening or loss of brain tissue after cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia, infection, craniocerebral trauma, or other injury. The term is usually used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue after infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants after injury, most notably perinatal hypoxic-ischemic events. Chronic sinusitis has become one of the most common diseases in otolaryngology practice. Many of these patients can be managed successfully with medical therapy. Those who fail intensive medical therapy may be candidates for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). This procedure has variable complication rates and can have some serious consequences. Serious complications of functional ESS are very rare, but cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, hemorrhage, infection, or vision loss has been reported in a few cases. In this study, we present a 57-year-old man with encephalomalacia after a penetrating brain injury incurred during ESS.

  16. Sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: A consecutive series of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Bin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: These cases confirm that sporadic NFLE closely resembles familial NFLE, and comprises a set of distinct clinical manifestations, with variable intensity, and variable scalp EEG epileptiform abnormalities across sleep and wakefulness, which have previously been identified in Caucasian patients from Europe and North America.

  17. Behaviour and moral judgement after frontal lobe injury : a phenomenological investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. With the advances achieved in medical technology in recent years, society is increasingly faced with the issue of determining how fit individuals are for reintegration in society following the event of traumatic brain injury. Together with Neurology and it's diagnostic capabilities, many other disciplines such as Neuropsychology, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, to name but a few, have placed strong emphasis on the rehabilitation of individuals with brain damage, with a view to...

  18. Stress, emotion regulation and cognitive performance: the predictive contributions of trait and state relative frontal EEG alpha asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Lo, Li-Chuan; Costanzo, Michelle E; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between trait and state measures of frontal lobe EEG alpha-band asymmetry in regard to indexing the approach-withdrawal dimension of emotion is unclear. The comparative predictive power of these constructs to explain emotion regulation and cognitive performance was examined under varying degrees of emotional challenge. The Capability Model posits the neural underpinnings of the relative difference in electrical activity between the left and right frontal lobes as a situational mechanism possibly indexing prefrontal-amygdalar interactions and psychological state. EEG, skin conductance, heart rate and acoustic startle amplitude were collected during a working memory task under three increasing levels of stress (final level was threat of shock). During threat of shock participants with higher state asymmetry exhibited greater emotion regulation compared to those with lower scores as indexed by significant attenuation of eyeblink startle magnitudes. The trait measure of frontal EEG asymmetry failed to account for significant variability in emotion regulation. Results implicate state-specific relative left frontal lobe activity as having an adaptive role in the regulation of emotion during cognitive challenge, but only under conditions of sufficient stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspects of Subcortical Ischaemic Vascular Disease : Early clinical manifestations and associations with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harten, van, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD) is an important cause of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Screening and diagnostic tests are needed to identify these patients. The HIV dementia scale (HDS) is a reliable and quantitative scale for identifying HIV dementia1. The cognitive profile of HIV dementia has subcortical features that resemble subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD). The clinical syndrome is characterized by early impairment of attention and executive...

  20. Frontal photopolymerization for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João T; Hudson, Steven D; Harrison, Christopher; Douglas, Jack F

    2004-11-09

    Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) offers numerous advantages for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. Quantitative utilization of this method, however, requires a control of the vertical dimensions of the patterned resist material. To address this fundamental problem, we study the ultraviolet (UV) photopolymerization of a series of multifunctional thiolene resists through a combination of experiments and analytical modeling of the polymerization fronts. We describe this nonlinear spatio-temporal growth process in terms of a "minimal" model involving an order parameter phi(x, t) characterizing the extent of monomer-to-polymer conversion, the optical attenuation T(x, t), and the solid front position h(t). The latter exhibits an induction time (or equivalent critical UV dose) characterizing the onset of frontal propagation. We also observe a novel transition between two logarithmic rates of growth, determined by the Beer-Lambert attenuation constants mu(0) and mu(infinity) of the monomer and fully polymerized material, respectively. The measured frontal kinetics and optical transmission of the thiolene resist materials are consistent with our photopolymerization model, exhibiting both "photodarkening" and "photoinvariant" polymerization. This is apparently the first observation of photodarkening reported in FPP. On the basis of these results, multilevel fluidic devices with controlled height are readily fabricated with modulated illumination. A representative two-level microfluidic device, incorporating a chaotic mixer, a T junction, and a series of controlled flow constrictions, illustrates the practical versatility of this fabrication method.

  1. Mosaic DCX deletion causes subcortical band heterotopia in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quélin, Chloé; Saillour, Yoann; Souville, Isabelle; Poirier, Karine; N'guyen-Morel, Marie Ange; Vercueil, Laurent; Millisher-Bellaiche, Anne Elodie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Dubois, Fanny; Chelly, Jamel; Beldjord, Cherif; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia

    2012-11-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a neuronal migration disorder usually described in females carrying heterozygous mutations in the X-linked doublecortin (DCX) gene. Hemizygous DCX mutations in males result in lissencephaly. Recently, exonic deletions of DCX resulting in a severer form of agyria have been reported. Nevertheless, rare male patients with SBH have been described with somatic mosaicism of point mutations. Here, we identified a somatic mosaicism for a deletion of exon 4 in the DCX gene in a male patient with SBH detected prenatally. This finding points to the possible implication of mosaic deletions in the DCX gene in unexplained forms of SBH and may allow for detection of SBH prenatally.

  2. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  3. Spontaneous lung lobe torsion in two pugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, M B; Lanz, O; Monnet, E

    2001-01-01

    Two, young adult, male pugs presented for spontaneous left-cranial lung lobe torsions. Clinical signs associated with these two cases included increased weakness, increased respiratory effort, tachypnea, acute collapse, lethargy, anorexia, and cyanosis. The torsed lung lobes were excised using a thoracoabdominal stapling device without detorsing the lobes. Both dogs recovered uneventfully, and at least one year postoperatively, no clinical abnormalities were noted by their owners. Results of this report suggest that spontaneous lung lobe torsion in pugs occurs and should be a differential diagnosis for pugs with increased respiratory effort, tachypnea, nonproductive cough, acute collapse, cyanosis, and lethargy. Surgical excision may be curative.

  4. Resting state networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cataldi, Mauro; Avoli, Massimo; Villers‐Sidani, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy ( TLE ) is typically described as a neurologic disorder affecting a cerebral network comprising the hippocampus proper and several anatomically related extrahippocampal regions...

  5. Differential frontal theta activity during cognitive and motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Choi, Youngjin; Kim, Jingu; Kim, Yujin; Chio, Sungmook

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated psychophysiological differences between cognitive and motor tasks. Participants were 16 university students (male[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]10, female[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]6) aged between 24 to 31 years (mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]27.6 years, SD[Formula: see text][Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] years). They were instructed to perform cognitive and motor tasks while their brain activity was simultaneously recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). A 3(task)[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]8(area)[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]4(bands) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. The results showed that the cognitive task resulted in a significantly higher spectral power in the theta band at frontal electrodes than did the motor task. This suggests that the frontal lobe might be engaged in problem solving, resulting in increased theta activity. However, there were no differences in alpha and beta activity between the two tasks. The present study provides psychophysiological evidence for classifying cognitive and motor tasks, which has been a controversial issue for task classifications in motor learning research.

  6. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrewijn, A; Van der Molen, M J W; Westenberg, P M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation during resting state and during a social performance task in high (HSA) versus low (LSA) socially anxious females. Participants performed a social performance task in