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Sample records for subcortical brain structures

  1. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magn...

  2. Physical fitness and shapes of subcortical brain structures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Campos, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Altmäe, Signe; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Catena, Andrés; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-27

    A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and speed agility were assessed using valid and reliable tests (ALPHA-fitness test battery). Shape of the subcortical brain structures was assessed by MRI, and its relationship with fitness was examined after controlling for a set of potential confounders using a partial correlation permutation approach. Our results showed that all physical fitness components studied were significantly related to the shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. These associations were both positive and negative, indicating that a higher level of fitness in childhood is related to both expansions and contractions in certain regions of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. Cardiorespiratory fitness was mainly associated with expansions, whereas handgrip was mostly associated with contractions in the structures studied. Future randomised-controlled trials will confirm or contrast our findings, demonstrating whether changes in fitness modify the shapes of brain structures and the extent to which those changes influence cognitive function.

  3. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  4. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  5. Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frodl, Thomas; Janowitz, Deborah; Schmaal, Lianne; Tozzi, Leonardo; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Stein, Dan J.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Wittfeld, Katharina; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Jahanshad, Neda; Block, Andrea; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Voelzke, Henry; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hatton, Sean N.; Hickie, Ian B.; Frey, Eva Maria; Carballedo, Angela; Brooks, Samantha J; Vuletic, Daniella; Uhlmann, Anne; Veer, Ilya M.; Walter, Henrik; Schnell, Knut; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Schramm, Elisabeth; Konrad, Carsten; Zurowski, Bartosz; Baune, Bernhard T; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Thompson, Paul M.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grabe, Hans J.

    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of

  6. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  7. Dynamic brain structural changes after left hemisphere subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengmei; Zhu, Chaozhe; Chen, Hai; Qin, Wen; Ji, Xunming; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yujin; Zhu, Litao; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify dynamic structural changes in the brain after subcortical stroke and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery of affected limbs. High-resolution structural MRI and neurological examinations were conducted at five consecutive time points during the year following stroke in 10 patients with left hemisphere subcortical infarctions involving motor pathways. Gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry technique, and dynamic changes in GMV were evaluated using a mixed-effects model. After stroke, GMV was decreased bilaterally in brain areas that directly or indirectly connected with lesions, which suggests the presence of regional damage in these "healthy" brain tissues in stroke patients. Moreover, the GMVs of these brain areas were not correlated with the Motricity Index (MI) scores when controlling for time intervals after stroke, which indicates that these structural changes may reflect an independent process (such as axonal degeneration) but cannot affect the improvement of motor function. In contrast, the GMV was increased in several brain areas associated with motor and cognitive functions after stroke. When controlling for time intervals after stroke, only the GMVs in the cognitive-related brain areas (hippocampus and precuneus) were positively correlated with MI scores, which suggests that the structural reorganization in cognitive-related brain areas may facilitate the recovery of motor function. However, considering the small sample size of this study, further studies are needed to clarify the exact relationships between structural changes and recovery of motor function in stroke patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Improved labeling of subcortical brain structures in atlas-based segmentation of magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siamak; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Gholipour, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Precise labeling of subcortical structures plays a key role in functional neurosurgical applications. Labels from an atlas image are propagated to a patient image using atlas-based segmentation. Atlas-based segmentation is highly dependent on the registration framework used to guide the atlas label propagation. This paper focuses on atlas-based segmentation of subcortical brain structures and the effect of different registration methods on the generated subcortical labels. A single-step and three two-step registration methods appearing in the literature based on affine and deformable registration algorithms in the ANTS and FSL algorithms are considered. Experiments are carried out with two atlas databases of IBSR and LPBA40. Six segmentation metrics consisting of Dice overlap, relative volume error, false positive, false negative, surface distance, and spatial extent are used for evaluation. Segmentation results are reported individually and as averages for nine subcortical brain structures. Based on two statistical tests, the results are ranked. In general, among four different registration strategies investigated in this paper, a two-step registration consisting of an initial affine registration followed by a deformable registration applied to subcortical structures provides superior segmentation outcomes. This method can be used to provide an improved labeling of the subcortical brain structures in MRIs for different applications.

  9. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-atlas segmentation of subcortical brain structures via the AutoSeg software pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Vachet, Clement; Rumple, Ashley; Gouttard, Sylvain; Ouziel, Clémentine; Perrot, Emilie; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Automated segmenting and labeling of individual brain anatomical regions, in MRI are challenging, due to the issue of individual structural variability. Although atlas-based segmentation has shown its potential for both tissue and structure segmentation, due to the inherent natural variability as well as disease-related changes in MR appearance, a single atlas image is often inappropriate to represent the full population of datasets processed in a given neuroimaging study. As an alternative for the case of single atlas segmentation, the use of multiple atlases alongside label fusion techniques has been introduced using a set of individual “atlases” that encompasses the expected variability in the studied population. In our study, we proposed a multi-atlas segmentation scheme with a novel graph-based atlas selection technique. We first paired and co-registered all atlases and the subject MR scans. A directed graph with edge weights based on intensity and shape similarity between all MR scans is then computed. The set of neighboring templates is selected via clustering of the graph. Finally, weighted majority voting is employed to create the final segmentation over the selected atlases. This multi-atlas segmentation scheme is used to extend a single-atlas-based segmentation toolkit entitled AutoSeg, which is an open-source, extensible C++ based software pipeline employing BatchMake for its pipeline scripting, developed at the Neuro Image Research and Analysis Laboratories of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. AutoSeg performs N4 intensity inhomogeneity correction, rigid registration to a common template space, automated brain tissue classification based skull-stripping, and the multi-atlas segmentation. The multi-atlas-based AutoSeg has been evaluated on subcortical structure segmentation with a testing dataset of 20 adult brain MRI scans and 15 atlas MRI scans. The AutoSeg achieved mean Dice coefficients of 81.73% for the subcortical structures

  11. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. E.; Leitch, D. B.; Wong, P.; Kaas, J. H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Cortical expansion, both in absolute terms and in relation to subcortical structures, is considered a major trend in mammalian brain evolution with important functional implications, given that cortical computations should add complexity and flexibility to information processing. Here, we investigate the numbers of neurons that compose 4 structures in the visual pathway across 11 non-human primate species to determine the scaling relationships that apply to these structures and among them. We...

  12. Development of the subcortical brain structures in the second trimester: assessment with 7.0-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Haiwei; Geng, Hequn; Lin, Xiangtao; Feng, Lei; Liu, Shuwei [Shandong University, Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy, School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Zhonghe [Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan, Shandong (China); Teng, Gaojun; Fang, Fang; Zang, Fengchao [Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Zhong Da Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-10-15

    This study aims to obtain the signal intensity changes and quantitative measurements of the subcortical brain structures of 12-22 weeks gestational age (GA). Sixty-nine fetal specimens were selected and scanned by 7.0-T MR. The signal intensity changes of the subcortical brain structures were analyzed. The three-dimensional visualization models of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus were rebuilt with Amira 4.1, and the developmental trends between the measurements and GA were analyzed. The germinal matrix was delineated on 7.0-T MR images at 12 weeks GA, with high signals on T1-weighted images (WI). While at 16 weeks GA, the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and internal and external capsules could be distinguished. The caudate nucleus was high signal intensity on T1WI. The signal intensity of the putamen was high on T1WI during 15-17 weeks GA and was delineated as an area with uneven signal intensities. The signal intensity of the peripheral area of the putamen became higher after 18 weeks GA. The signal intensity of the globus pallidus was high on T1WI and low on T2WI after 20 weeks GA. At 18 weeks GA, the claustrum was delineated with low signals on T2WI. Measurements of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus linearly increased with the GA. Development of the subcortical brain structures during 12-22 weeks GA could be displayed with 7.0-T MRI. The measurement provides significant reference beneficial to the clinical evaluation of fetal brain development. (orig.)

  13. Toward defining deep brain stimulation targets in MNI space: A subcortical atlas based on multimodal MRI, histology and structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Siobhan; Plettig, Philip; Li, Ningfei; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Collins, D Louis; Herrington, Todd M; Kühn, Andrea A; Horn, Andreas

    2017-05-20

    Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity. In a first step, four key structures were defined on the template itself using a combination of multispectral image analysis and manual segmentation. Second, these structures were used as anchor points to coregister a detailed histological atlas into standard space. Results show that this approach significantly improved coregistration accuracy over previously published methods. Finally, a sub-segmentation of STN and GPi into functional zones was achieved based on structural connectivity. The result is a composite atlas that defines key nuclei on the template itself, fills the gaps between them using histology and further subdivides them using structural connectivity. We show that the atlas can be used to segment DBS targets in single subjects, yielding more accurate results compared to priorly published atlases. The atlas will be made publicly available and constitutes a resource to study DBS electrode localizations in combination with modern neuroimaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Multiatlas Approach for Segmenting Subcortical Brain Structures using Local Patch Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela RAMAMOORTHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, often segmenting the brain structures from MRI data is the key step. Since there are larger variations in the anatomical structures of the brain, segmentation becomes a crucial process. Using only the intensity information is not enough to segment structures since two or more structures may share the same tissues. Recently, the use of multiple pre-labeled images called atlases or templates are used in the process of segmentation of image data. Both single atlas and multiple atlases can be used. However, using multiple atlases in the segmentation process proves a dominant method in segmenting brain structures with challenging and overlapping structures. In this paper, we propose two multi atlas segmentation methods: Local Patch Distance Segmentation (LPDS and Weighted Local Patch Distance Segmentation (WLPDS. These methods use local patch distance in the label fusion step. LPDS uses local patch distance to find the best patch match for label propagation. WLPDS uses local patch distance to calculate local weights. The brain MRI images from the MICCAI 2012 segmentation challenge are chosen for experimental purposes. These datasets are publicly available and can be downloaded from MIDAS. The proposed techniques are compared with existing fusion methods such as majority voting and weighted majority voting using the similarity measures such as Dice overlap (DC, Jaccard coefficient (JC and Kappa statistics. For 20 test data sets, LPDS gives DICE=0.95±0.05, JACCARD=0.91±0.04 and KAPPA=0.94±0.07. WLPDS gives DICE=0.98±0.02, JACCARD=0.92±0.03 and KAPPA=0.95±0.04.

  15. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-10-01

    Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the "gold standard" in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, [Formula: see text]). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and small Hausdorff distance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms.

  16. Automatic segmentation of subcortical brain structures in MR images using information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, V; Boire, J Y

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a new automated method for the segmentation of internal cerebral structures using an information fusion technique. The information is provided both by images and expert knowledge, and consists in morphological, topological, and tissue constitution data. All this ambiguous, complementary and redundant information is managed using a three-step fusion scheme based on fuzzy logic. The information is first modeled into a common theoretical frame managing its imprecision and incertitude. The models are then fused and a decision is taken in order to reduce the imprecision and to increase the certainty in the location of the structures. The whole process is illustrated on the segmentation of thalamus, putamen, and head of the caudate nucleus from expert knowledge and magnetic resonance images, in a protocol involving 14 healthy volunteers. The quantitative validation is achieved by comparing computed, manually segmented structures and published data by means of indexes assessing the accuracy of volume estimation and spatial location. Results suggest a consistent volume estimation with respect to the expert quantification and published data, and a high spatial similarity of the segmented and computed structures. This method is generic and applicable to any structure that can be defined by expert knowledge and morphological images.

  17. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  18. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory.

  19. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders.

  20. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; Vanerp, Theo G. M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L. . W.; Boedhoe, Premika S. . W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Buechel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; De Zwarte, Sonja M. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dorum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez, Guillen; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jonsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martinez-Zalacain, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchon, Jose M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillere; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomas; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Y. C.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernandez, Maria Valdes; Van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  1. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  2. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Mills, Kathryn L; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-03-01

    Puberty is characterized by hormonal, physical and psychological transformation. The human brain undergoes significant changes between childhood and adulthood, but little is known about how puberty influences its structural development. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 275 individuals aged 7-20years, we examined how subcortical brain regions change in relation to puberty. Our regions of interest included the amygdala, hippocampus and corpus striatum including the nucleus accumbens (NA), caudate, putamen and globus pallidus (GP). Pubertal development was significantly related to structural volume in all six regions in both sexes. Pubertal development and age had both independent and interactive influences on volume for the amygdala, hippocampus and putamen in both sexes, and the caudate in females. There was an interactive puberty-by-age effect on volume for the NA and GP in both sexes, and the caudate in males. These findings suggest a significant role for puberty in structural brain development. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion tractography of the subcortical auditory system in a postmortem human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The subcortical auditory system is challenging to identify with standard human brain imaging techniques: MRI signal decreases toward the center of the brain as well as at higher resolution, both of which are necessary for imaging small brainstem auditory structures.Using high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI, we asked:Can we identify auditory structures and connections in high-resolution ex vivo images?Which structures and connections can be mapped in vivo?

  4. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes:large-scale proof of concept

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; Mcintosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain...

  5. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  6. Transcranial sonography of subcortical structures in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puz, P; Lasek-Bal, A; Radecka, P

    2017-07-01

    Transcranial sonography may be applied to assess the basal ganglia nuclei and brain atrophy by the measurement of the width of the third ventricle. The aim of this study was to assess usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the echogenicity of subcortical structures and the width of the third ventricle. Transcranial sonography evaluation of substantia nigra, brain stem raphe nuclei, diameter of the third ventricle, width of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, thalamus, lenticular nucleus, and head of the caudate nucleus in 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 23 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 20 healthy controls was compared. A potential link between the patients' age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, relapse index, and ultrasound parameters was assessed. The following were found in patients with MS, as compared to the control group: a greater area of the substantia nigra, a longer diameter of the third ventricle and wider frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, hypo-echogenicity of the brain stem raphe, and hyperechogenicity of the lenticular nucleus. The study group was found to have a significant correlation between the area of the substantia nigra, and the age of patients, the duration of the illness, EDSS score, and the number of relapses. There was a significant correlation between the diameter of the third ventricle and the age of patients and EDSS score. Patients with MS reveal ultrasound features of subcortical structure atrophy. Selected TCS findings show a correlation with disease progression and activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  8. Pigmentary mosaicism, subcortical band heterotopia, and brain cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Martino; Roggini, Mario; Spalice, Alberto; Addis, Maria; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-05-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a severe and diffuse mosaic skin hypopigmentation running (in narrow bands) along the lines of Blaschko associated with mosaic areas of alopecia, facial dysmorphism with midface hypoplasia, bilateral punctate cataract, microretrognathia, short neck, pectus excavatum, joint hypermobility, mild muscular hypotonia, generalized seizures, and mild mental retardation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypoplastic corpus callosum (primarily posterior), subcortical band heterotopia, and diffuse subcortical, periventricular cystic-like lesions. Similar dysmorphic features were observed in the child's mother, but with no imaging abnormalities. The facial phenotype coupled with the cysts in the brain was strongly reminiscent of the oculocerebrorenal Lowe syndrome. Full chromosome studies in the parents and the proband and mutation analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes (and on skin cultured fibroblasts from affected and unaffected skin areas in the child) in the genes for subcortical band heterotopia (DCX (Xq22.3-q23)], lissencephaly (PAFAH1B1, alias LIS1, at 17p13.3), and oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL at Xq23-q24)] were unrevealing. This constellation of multiple congenital anomalies including skin hypopigmentation and eye, musculoskeletal, and nervous system abnormalities was sufficiently characterized to be regarded as a novel example of pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type (i.e., hypomelanosis of Ito).

  9. Cortical and subcortical mechanisms of brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Schurger, Aaron; Blefari, Maria Laura; Del Millán, José R; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level. Here, we provide a comprehensive and detailed report of the areas active during on-line BMI control. We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants controlled an EEG-based BMI inside the scanner. We identified the regions activated during BMI control and how they overlap with those involved in motor imagery (without any BMI control). In addition, we investigated which regions reflect the subjective sense of controlling a BMI, the sense of agency for BMI-actions. Our data revealed an extended cortical-subcortical network involved in operating a motor-imagery BMI. This includes not only sensorimotor regions but also the posterior parietal cortex, the insula and the lateral occipital cortex. Interestingly, the basal ganglia and the anterior cingulate cortex were involved in the subjective sense of controlling the BMI. These results inform basic neuroscience by showing that the mechanisms of BMI control extend beyond sensorimotor cortices. This knowledge may be useful for the development of BMIs that offer a more natural and embodied feeling of control for the user. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2971-2989, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Early Developmental Gene Enhancers Affect Subcortical Volumes in the Adult Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Stein, Jason L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype–phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. PMID:26890892

  11. The developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Dafna; Leung, Rachel C; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-04-01

    This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort. One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm. Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen decreased linearly, and the cerebellum did not change with age. The relative volumes of several subcortical subregions followed inverted U-shaped trends that peaked at ~12 years of age. Many subcortical structures were found to be larger in females than in males, independently of age, while others showed a sex-by-age interaction. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar growth patterns during normal development, and draws attention to the role of sex on neuroanatomical maturation throughout childhood and adolescence.

  12. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof-of-concept and roadmap for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ho, Yvonne YW; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between schizophrenia cases and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. The current study provides proof-of-concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures), and defines a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural/functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  13. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use ge...

  14. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  15. Subcortical auditory structures in the Mongolian gerbil: I. Golgi architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Judith; Brosch, Michael; Scheich, Henning; Budinger, Eike

    2013-04-15

    By means of the Golgi-Cox and Nissl methods we investigated the cyto- and fiberarchitecture as well as the morphology of neurons in the subcortical auditory structures of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), a frequently used animal model in auditory neuroscience. We describe the divisions and subdivisions of the auditory thalamus including the medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, and reticular thalamic nucleus, as well as of the inferior colliculi, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, superior olivary complex, and cochlear nuclear complex. In this study, we 1) confirm previous results about the organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory pathway using other anatomical staining methods (e.g., Budinger et al. [2000] Eur J Neurosci 12:2452-2474); 2) add substantially to the knowledge about the laminar and cellular organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory structures, in particular about the orientation of their fibrodendritic laminae and about the morphology of their most distinctive neuron types; and 3) demonstrate that the cellular organization of these structures, as seen by the Golgi technique, corresponds generally to that of other mammalian species, in particular to that of rodents. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Frequency and pathogenesis of silent subcortical brain infarction in acute first-ever ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tomohide; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We have often observed silent subcortical brain lesions on CT or MRI in first-ever ischemic stroke, but there is little published information on the relationship of these lesions to stroke subtypes. Here, we describe the incidence of MRI-detected silent subcortical brain lesions, including infarctions and white matter lesions, in a series of patients with first-ever ischemic stroke classified according to stroke subtypes. We also discuss the pathogenesis of these silent subcortical lesions. We evaluated 171 patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into three groups: lacunar, atherothrombotic and cardioembolic infarction groups. We evaluated silent subcortical brain infarction (SSBI), enlargement of perivascular space (EPS), and other white-matter lesions using MRI. Hypertension was observed in 67.6% of lacunar infarction, 57.1% of atherosclerotic infarction, and 54.1% of cardioembolic infarction. SSBI was more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 81.5% vs. 44.4% vs. 42.1%, p=0.006). High-grade EPS (grade 2 or higher) was also observed more frequently in lacunar infarction than in the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 63.3% vs. 24.2% vs. 0%, p<0.001). Scheltens' score of silent subcortical lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in the others. The frequency of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in atherosclerotic or cardioembolic infarction. We suggest that the pathogenesis of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions is common to that of lacunar infarction, that is, small-vessel vasculopathy. (author)

  17. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development. Modest TH insufficiency in pregnant rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) results in formation of a structural abnormality, a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), in brains of offspring. PTU reduces TH by inhibiting the s...

  18. Decreased activation of subcortical brain areas in the motor fatigue state: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e. thalamus and basal ganglia areas are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  19. Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in Rat Offspring Following Maternal Hypothyroxinemia: Structural and Functional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation, neuronal migration, and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported...

  20. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in

  1. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Potential Biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Ge, Xin; Han, Xu; Cao, Wenwei; Wang, Yao; Ding, Weina; Cao, Mengqiu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who f...

  3. Distribution and initiation of seizure activity in a rat brain with subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z F; Schottler, F; Bertram, E; Gall, C M; Anzivino, M J; Lee, K S

    2000-05-01

    Misplaced (heterotopic) cortical neurons are a common feature of developmental epilepsies. To better understand seizure disorders associated with cortical heterotopia, the sites of aberrant discharge activity were investigated in vivo and in vitro in a seizure-prone mutant rat (tish) exhibiting subcortical band heterotopia. Depth electrode recordings and postmortem assessment of regional c-fos mRNA levels were used to characterize the distribution of aberrant discharge activity during spontaneous seizures in vivo. Electrophysiologic recordings of spontaneous and evoked activity also were performed by using in vitro brain slices from the tish rat treated with proconvulsant drugs (penicillin and 4-aminopyridine). Depth electrode recordings demonstrate that seizure activity begins almost simultaneously in the normotopic and heterotopic areas of the tish neocortex. Spontaneous seizures induce c-fos mRNA in normotopic and heterotopic neocortical areas, and limbic regions. The threshold concentrations of proconvulsant drugs for inducing epileptiform spiking were similar in the normotopic and heterotopic areas of tish brain slices. Manipulations that blocked communication between the normotopic and heterotopic areas of the cortex inhibited spiking in the heterotopic, but not the normotopic, area of the cortex. These findings indicate that aberrant discharge activity occurs in normotopic and heterotopic areas of the neocortex, and in certain limbic regions during spontaneous seizures in the tish rat. Normotopic neurons are more prone to exhibit epileptiform activity than are heterotopic neurons in the tish cortex, and heterotopic neurons are recruited into spiking by activity initiated in normotopic neurons. The findings indicate that seizures in the tish brain primarily involve telencephalic structures, and suggest that normotopic neurons are responsible for initiating seizures in the dysplastic neocortex.

  4. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  5. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  6. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  7. Subcortical structure alterations impact language processing in individuals with schizophrenia and those at high genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Black, Margaret; Xia, Shugao; Zhan, Chenyang; Bertisch, Hilary C; Branch, Craig A; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2015-12-01

    Cortical structural and functional anomalies have been found to associate with language impairments in both schizophrenia patients and genetic high risk individuals for developing schizophrenia. However, subcortical structures that contribute to language processing haven't been well studied in this population, and thus became the main objective of this study. We examined structural MRI data from 20 patients with schizophrenia, 21 individuals at genetic high risk, and 48 controls. Surface shape and volume differences of 6 subcortical structures that are involved in language processing, including nuclei pallidum, putamen, caudate, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus from both hemispheres, were compared between groups. Performance scores of language-associated cognitive tests were obtained to identify relationships of subcortical structures to language-related behaviors. Significantly reduced volumes of both the left and right side caudate nuclei, thalami and right side amygdala were shown in patients when compared with controls. Very interestingly, the high risk group demonstrated significantly increased correlations between volumes of left side pallidum nucleus and bilateral thalami and language-related cognitive test scores when compared to controls. This study furthers our understanding of subcortical structural alterations in schizophrenia and high risk individuals, and suggests the contribution of subcortical structures to the language impairments that may serve as an early sign for impending development of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rossa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-11-17

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  11. Central cortico-subcortical involvement: a distinct pattern of brain damage caused by perinatal and postnatal asphyxia in term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, R. P.; van der Knaap, M. S.; Verbeeten, B.; Barth, P. G.; Valk, J.

    1995-01-01

    The MR findings in a characteristic pattern of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in term infants are described. The MR images of seven patients with cerebral palsy and a specific pattern of central cortico-subcortical cerebral damage were studied retrospectively and correlated with clinical findings.

  12. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  13. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A; Abramovic, Lucija; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; van Eijk, Kristel R; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  14. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Oosterwijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  15. Brainstem Evoked Potential Indices of Subcortical Auditory Processing After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Werff, Kathy R; Rieger, Brian

    The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components. We further hypothesized that the speech-evoked ABR would be more sensitive than the click-evoked ABR to group differences because of its complex nature, particularly when recorded in a background noise condition. Click- and speech-ABRs were collected in 32 individuals diagnosed with mTBI in the past 3 to 18 months. All mTBI participants were experiencing ongoing injury symptoms for which they were seeking rehabilitation through a brain injury rehabilitation management program. The same data were collected in a group of 32 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of head injury. ABRs were recorded in both left and right ears for all participants in all conditions. Speech-ABRs were collected in both quiet and in a background of continuous 20-talker babble ipsilateral noise. Peak latencies and amplitudes were compared between groups and across subgroups of mTBI participants categorized by their behavioral auditory test performance. Click-ABR results were not significantly different between the mTBI and control groups. However, when comparing the control group to only those mTBI subjects with measurably decreased performance on auditory behavioral tests, small differences emerged, including delayed latencies for waves I, III, and V. Similarly, few significant group differences were observed for peak amplitudes and latencies of the speech-ABR when comparing at the whole group level

  16. Neuropsychology of subcortical dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C R

    1997-12-01

    Subcortical dementias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share primary pathology in subcortical structure and a characteristic pattern of neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the neurobiological and cognitive features of three prototypical subcortical dementias, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy, concentrating of traits shared by disorders. Clinical features are also discussed, especially those which differentiate subcortical dementias from cortical dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease. The cortical-subcortical nomenclature has been criticized over the years, but it continues to provide an effective means of classifying dementia profiles in clinically and theoretically useful ways.

  17. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  18. Increased Pittsburgh Compound-B Accumulation in the Subcortical White Matter of Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Ishii, Kazunari; Hosokawa, Chisa; Hyodo, Tomoko; Kaida, Hayato; Yamada, Minoru; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Kozuka, Takenori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Murakami, Takamichi

    2017-03-13

    Using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET and MRI volume data, we investigated whether white matter (WM) PiB uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is larger than that of cortical PiB uptake-negative (PiB-negative) brain. Forty-five subjects who underwent both PiB-PET and MRI were included in the study (32 AD patients with cortical PiB-positive and 13 cortical amyloid -negative patients). Individual areas of gray matter (GM) and WM were segmented, then regional GM and WM standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) normalized to cerebellar GM with partial volume effects correction was calculated. Three regional SUVRs except WM in the centrum semiovale in the AD group were significantly larger than those in the PiB-negative groups. Frontal WM SUVR in the AD group vs frontal WM SUVR in the PiB-negative group was 2.57 ± 0.55 vs 1.64 ± 0.22; parietal, 2.50 ± 0.52 vs 1.74 ± 0.22; posterior cingulate, 2.84 ± 0.59 vs 1.73 ± 0.22; and WM in the centrum semiovale, 2.21 ± 0.53 vs 2.42 ± 0.36, respectively. We found that PiB uptake in AD brain is significantly larger than that in PiB-negative brain in the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate subcortical WM, except in the centrum semiovale.

  19. Glucose metabolism in small subcortical structures in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Hansen, Søren B; Eggers, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests a characteristic pattern of metabolic perturbation in discrete, very small basal ganglia structures. These structures are generally too small to allow valid investigation by conventional positron emission tomography (PET...

  20. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  1. Subcortical brain segmentation of two dimensional T1-weighted data sets with FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D MRI data. However, in clinical trials, often no such high-resolution data are acquired and hence no conclusions regarding the impact of new treatments on DGM atrophy were possible so far. In this work, we used FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST to evaluate the possibility of segmenting DGM structures using standard two-dimensional (2D T1-weighted MRI. In a cohort of 70 MS patients, both 2D and 3D T1-weighted data were acquired. The thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, and caudate nucleus were bilaterally segmented using FIRST. Volumes were calculated for each structure and for the sum of basal ganglia (BG as well as for the total DGM. The accuracy and reliability of the 2D data segmentation were compared with the respective results of 3D segmentations using volume difference, volume overlap and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean differences for the individual substructures were between 1.3% (putamen and −25.2% (nucleus accumbens. The respective values for the BG were −2.7% and for DGM 1.3%. Mean volume overlap was between 89.1% (thalamus and 61.5% (nucleus accumbens; BG: 84.1%; DGM: 86.3%. Regarding ICC, all structures showed good agreement with the exception of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the segmentation were additionally validated through expert manual delineation of the caudate nucleus and putamen in a subset of the 3D data. In conclusion, we demonstrate that subcortical segmentation of 2D data are feasible using FIRST. The larger subcortical GM structures can be segmented with high consistency. This forms the basis for the application of

  2. Effects of cannabis and familial loading on subcortical brain volumes in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Jatzko, Alexander; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with familial loading as heritable risk factor and cannabis abuse as the most relevant environmental risk factor up to date. Cannabis abuse has been related to an earlier onset of the disease and persisting cannabis consumption is associated with reduced symptom improvement. However, the underlying morphological and biochemical brain alterations due to these risk factors as well as the effects of gene-environmental interaction are still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 47 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects, we investigated effects of previous cannabis abuse and increased familial risk on subcortical brain regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and subsegments of the corpus callosum (CC). In a subsequent single-volume (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, we investigated spectra in the left hippocampus and putamen to detect metabolic alterations. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients displayed decreased volumes of the left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and caudate nucleus as well as an increased area of the midsagittal CC1 segment of the corpus callosum. Patients fulfilling the criteria for cannabis abuse at admission showed an increased area of the CC2 segment compared to those who did not fulfill the criteria. Patients with a family history of schizophrenia combined with previous cannabis abuse showed lower volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus compared to all other patients, implicating an interaction between the genetic background and cannabis abuse as environmental factor. Patients with cannabis abuse also had higher ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left putamen, suggesting a possible neuroprotective effect in this area. However, antipsychotic medication prior to MRI acquisition and gender effects may have influenced our results. Future longitudinal studies in first

  3. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  4. Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics to acetazolamide using brain perfusion SPECT in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-Ah; Yang, Chung-Yong; Choi, See-Sung; Kim, Woo Hyoung

    2011-02-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene located on chromosome 19, leading to 4 cardinal features with aura, cerebrovascular ischemic events, mood disturbances, and dementia. Acetazolamide (ACZ) has been promoted as a drug to determine cerebral hemodynamics, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in patients with cerebrovascular disease. In CADASIL patients with small-vessel disease, ACZ may be possible to increase CBF. We present that reduced CBF was dramatically improved after administration of ACZ on Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in a CADASIL patient.

  5. The brain subcortical white matter and aging: A quantitative fractional anisotropy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the integrity of hemispheric subcortical white matter by comparing normal young and elderly subjects using quantitative fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA. Methods: Subjects of two different age groups (young=12, elderly=12 were included. MR - GE Signa Horizon - 1.5T scans were performed. Cases with Fazekas scores £3 were assessed on FLAIR sequence. Standard parameters for DTI-FA were used. ROIs were placed at various sites of the subcortical white matter, and the genu and splenium of the midline corpus callosum. Analysis was performed using Functool. Statistics for anterior and posterior white matter, as well as the genu and splenium were compared between the groups. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of IPUB-UFRJ and informed consent obtained. Results: DTI-FA showed lower anisotropy values in the anterior region (subcortical white matter and genu, but not in the posterior region (subcortical white matter and splenium, in elderly normal subjects compared to young subjects. Conclusion: The results may represent loss of integrity of anterior (frontal white matter fibers in the elderly subjects. These fibers constitute important intra- and inter-hemispheric tracts, components of neural networks that provide cognitive, behavioral, motor and sensory integration. The loss of integrity of the anterior segments of the studied fiber systems with ageing, represents a disconnection process that may underlie clinical manifestations found in elderly subjects such as executive dysfunction.

  6. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    the international ENIGMA Working Group collaboration, which in the present analysis was frozen at Feb 8, 2015. Individual sites analysed structural T1-weighted MRI brain scans with harmonised protocols of individuals with ADHD compared with those who do not have this diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to assess......BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we used the data from...

  7. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  8. Extensive white matter hyperintensities may increase brain volume in cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Jouvent, Eric; During, Marco; Godin, Ophélia; Hervé, Dominique; Guichard, Jean Pierre; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    The extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with cerebral atrophy in elderly people. WMH is a radiological hallmark of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), but their relationship with brain volume remains poorly understood. The association between WMH and brain volume was analyzed in a large population of patients with CADASIL. Demographic and MRI data of 278 patients recruited from a prospective cohort study were analyzed. Volumes of WMH and lacunar infarcts, number of cerebral microbleeds, and brain parenchymal fraction were measured. Multivariate analysis was used to study the impact of WMH on brain volume at baseline. In univariate analyses, brain parenchymal fraction was negatively associated with age, male sex, and all MRI markers. Multiple regression modeling showed that brain parenchymal fraction was inversely related to age, number of cerebral microbleeds, and normalized volume of lacunar infarcts but positively related to normalized volume of WMH (Pbrain parenchymal fraction ≥86.37% (median values, both P≤0.001). The results of the present study suggest that extensive WMH may be associated with increase of brain volume in CADASIL. In this disorder, WMH may be related not only to loss of white matter components, but also to a global increase of water content in the cerebral tissue.

  9. A case of Baraitser-Winter syndrome with unusual brain MRI findings: pachygyria, subcortical-band heterotopia, and periventricular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiihara, Takashi; Maruyama, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Akira; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru

    2010-06-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BaWS) is characterized by iris coloboma, ptosis, hypertelorism, and mental retardation; it is a rare multiple congenital anomaly or a mental-retardation syndrome of unknown etiology. Patients suffering from this syndrome have been also found to show brain anomalies such as pachygyria, subcortical-band heterotopia (SBH), and hippocampal malformations; therefore, these anomalies have been included in the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome. We report the case of a Japanese boy suffering from BaWS; the patient's brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pachygyria, SBH, and periventricular heterotopia. However, the results of the genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced structural multimodal imaging of a patient with subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Lohith G; Nasrallah, Ilya M; Coto, Carlos; Ferraro, Lindsay C; Davis, Kathryn A

    2016-12-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a disorder of neuronal migration most commonly due to mutations of the Doublecortin (DCX) gene. A range of phenotypes is seen, with most patients having some degree of epilepsy and intellectual disability. Advanced diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences may be useful in identifying heterotopias and dysplasias of different sizes in drug-resistant epilepsy. We describe a patient with SBH and drug-resistant epilepsy and investigate neurite density, neurite dispersion, and diffusion parameters as compared to a healthy control through the use of multiple advanced MRI modalities. Neurite density and dispersion in heterotopia was found to be more similar to white matter than gray matter. Neurite density and dispersion maps obtained using diffusion imaging may be able to better characterize different subtypes of heterotopia.

  11. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders.

  12. Subcortical band heterotopia in rat offspring following maternal hypothyroxinaemia: structural and functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M E; Ramos, R L; McCloskey, D P; Goodman, J H

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation and are important for neuronal migration and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported the presence of SBH in a rodent model of low level hypothyroidism induced by maternal exposure to the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (PTU). In the present study, we report the dose-response characteristics of this developmental malformation and the connectivity of heterotopic neurones with other brain regions, as well as their functionality. Pregnant rats were exposed to varying concentrations of PTU through the drinking water (0-10 p.p.m.) beginning on gestational day 6 to produce graded levels of TH insufficiency. Dose-dependent increases in the volume of the SBH present in the corpus callosum were documented in the adult offspring, with a clear presence at concentrations of PTU that resulted in minor (< 15%) reductions in maternal serum thyroxine as measured when pups were weaned. SBH contain neurones, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Monoaminergic and cholinergic processes were prevalent and many of the axons were myelinated. Anatomical connectivity of SBH neurones to cortical neurones and the synaptic functionality of these anatomical connections was verified by ex vivo field potential recordings. SBH persisted in adult offspring despite a return to euthyroid status on termination of exposure and these offspring displayed an increased sensitivity to seizures. Features of this model are attractive with respect to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of cortical development, the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention in hypothyroxinaemia during pregnancy and the impact of the very modest TH imbalance that accompanies exposure to environmental contaminants. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the

  13. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  14. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T. G. M.; Hibar, D. P.; Rasmussen, J. M.; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G. D.; Andreassen, O. A.; Agartz, I.; Westlye, L. T.; Haukvik, U. K.; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C. B.; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B.; Zilles, D.; Donohoe, G.; Kelly, S.; McDonald, C.; Morris, D. W.; Cannon, D. M.; Corvin, A.; Machielsen, M. W. J.; Koenders, L.; de Haan, L.; Veltman, D. J.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Wolf, D. H.; Gur, R. C.; Gur, R. E.; Potkin, S. G.; Mathalon, D. H.; Mueller, B. A.; Preda, A.; Macciardi, F.; Ehrlich, S.; Walton, E.; Hass, J.; Calhoun, V. D.; Bockholt, H. J.; Sponheim, S. R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; van Haren, N. E. M.; Pol, H. E. H.; Ophoff, R. A.; Kahn, R. S.; Roiz-Santianez, R.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Wang, L.; Alpert, K. I.; Jonsson, E. G.; Dimitrova, R.; Bois, C.; Whalley, H. C.; McIntosh, A. M.; Lawrie, S. M.; Hashimoto, R.; Thompson, P. M.; Turner, J. A.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and

  15. [The effect of several psychotropic substances on brain structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E N; Krivitskaia, G N

    1975-01-01

    The authors have shown similarities of structural changes in the neuron and interneuronal relations found in the brains of rats under indopan and LSD stimulation of the CNS with certain differences in the localization of the changes in the functionally different brain systems. A high sensitivity of the sensory-motor cortex and the subcortical formations of the brain, rich in dopamine and serotonin, to indopan has been marked. LSD central effects were conditioned by the influence of the drug not only on the synapsis, but on the cell body components of the different brain systems, especially in the visual. The observed changes were allocated to categories of functional disturbances.

  16. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P; Schweren, Lizanne S J; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Medland, Sarah E; Shumskaya, Elena; Jahanshad, Neda; Zeeuw, Patrick de; Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo; Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, Alberdingk M H; Dammers, Janneke T; Mostert, Jeanette C; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Kohls, Gregor; Oberwelland, Eileen; Seitz, Jochen; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Ambrosino, Sara; Doyle, Alysa E; Høvik, Marie F; Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Tamm, Leanne; van Erp, Theo G M; Dale, Anders; Schork, Andrew; Conzelmann, Annette; Zierhut, Kathrin; Baur, Ramona; McCarthy, Hazel; Yoncheva, Yuliya N; Cubillo, Ana; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Mehta, Mitul A; Paloyelis, Yannis; Hohmann, Sarah; Baumeister, Sarah; Bramati, Ivanei; Mattos, Paulo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Douglas, Pamela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Rubia, Katya; Kelly, Clare; Martino, Adriana Di; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, Francisco X; Frodl, Thomas; Zentis, Mariam; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Jernigan, Terry L; Haavik, Jan; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Polier, Georg von; Konrad, Kerstin; Vilarroya, Oscar; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Soliva, Joan Carles; Durston, Sarah; Buitelaar, Jan K; Faraone, Stephen V; Shaw, Philip; Thompson, Paul M; Franke, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we used the data from the international ENIGMA Working Group collaboration, which in the present analysis was frozen at Feb 8, 2015. Individual sites analysed structural T1-weighted MRI brain scans with harmonised protocols of individuals with ADHD compared with those who do not have this diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to assess case-control differences in subcortical structures and intracranial volume through pooling of all individual data from all cohorts in this collaboration. For this analysis, p values were significant at the false discovery rate corrected threshold of p=0·0156. Our sample comprised 1713 participants with ADHD and 1529 controls from 23 sites with a median age of 14 years (range 4-63 years). The volumes of the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·15), amygdala (d=-0·19), caudate (d=-0·11), hippocampus (d=-0·11), putamen (d=-0·14), and intracranial volume (d=-0·10) were smaller in individuals with ADHD compared with controls in the mega-analysis. There was no difference in volume size in the pallidum (p=0·95) and thalamus (p=0·39) between people with ADHD and controls. Exploratory lifespan modelling suggested a delay of maturation and a delay of degeneration, as effect sizes were highest in most subgroups of children (21 years): in the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·19 vs -0·10), amygdala (d=-0·18 vs -0·14), caudate (d=-0·13 vs -0·07), hippocampus (d=-0·12 vs -0·06), putamen (d=-0·18 vs -0·08), and

  17. The contribution of brain sub-cortical loops in the expression and acquisition of action understanding abilities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Miall, R. Chris; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Research on action understanding in cognitive neuroscience has led to the identification of a wide “action understanding network” mainly encompassing parietal and premotor cortical areas. Within this cortical network mirror neurons are critically involved implementing a neural mechanism according to which, during action understanding, observed actions are reflected in the motor patterns for the same actions of the observer. We suggest that focusing only on cortical areas and processes could be too restrictive to explain important facets of action understanding regarding, for example, the influence of the observer's motor experience, the multiple levels at which an observed action can be understood, and the acquisition of action understanding ability. In this respect, we propose that aside from the cortical action understanding network, sub-cortical processes pivoting on cerebellar and basal ganglia cortical loops could crucially support both the expression and the acquisition of action understanding abilities. Within the paper we will discuss how this extended view can overcome some limitations of the “pure” cortical perspective, supporting new theoretical predictions on the brain mechanisms underlying action understanding that could be tested by future empirical investigations. PMID:23911926

  18. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Helena; Peña Melián, Ángel; Rios Lagos, Marcos; Pajares Martinsanz, Gonzalo; Hernández Tamames, J.A.; Álvarez Linera, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional com...

  19. Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Výtvarová

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Focal epilepsies affect large-scale brain networks beyond the epileptogenic zones. Cortico-subcortical functional connectivity disturbance was displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. Significant changes in the resting-state functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures suggest an important role of the BG and thalamus in focal epilepsies.

  20. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the VS. With [11 C]-raclopride, BPND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BPND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Contribution of subcortical structures to cognition assessed with invasive electrophysiology in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS electrodes via stereotactic neurosurgery has become a standard procedure for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. More recently, the range of neuropsychiatric conditions and the possible target structures suitable for DBS have greatly increased. The former include obsessive compulsive disease, depression, obesity, tremor, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome and cluster-headache. In this article we argue that several of the target structures for DBS (nucleus accumbens, posterior inferior hypothalamus, nucleus subthalamicus, nuclei in the thalamus, globus pallidus internus, nucleus pedunculopontinus are located at strategic positions with brain circuits related to motivational behaviors, learning, and motor regulation. Recording from DBS electrodes either during the operation or post-operatively from externalized leads while the patient is performing cognitive tasks tapping the functions of the respective circuits provides a new window on the brain mechanisms underlying these functions. This is exemplified by a study of a patient suffering from obsessive-compulsive disease from whom we recorded in a flanker task designed to tap action monitoring processes while he received a DBS electrode in the right nucleus accumbens. Clear error-related modulations were obtained from the target structure, demonstrating a role of the nucleus accumbens in action monitoring. Based on recent conceptualizations of several different functional loops and on neuroimaging results we suggest further lines of research using this new window on brain functions.

  2. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  3. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Helena; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Pajares, Gonzalo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Álvarez-Linera, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional component as a relevant aspect of the synesthetic experience. Additionally, this study replicates previous findings in the left intraparietal sulcus and, for the first time, reports the existence of anatomical differences in subcortical gray nuclei of developmental grapheme-color synesthetes, providing a link between acquired and developmental synesthesia. This empirical evidence, which goes beyond modality-specific areas, could lead to a better understanding of grapheme-color synesthesia as well as of other modalities of the phenomenon.

  4. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  6. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  7. Physics-Based Models of Brain Structure Connectivity Informed by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    can cause a complex pattern of acceleration and deceleration of cortical and subcortical structures in the brain. Basic physics defines acceleration ...and Shull, W.H., 2003: Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma, J Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 307-316. Sporns, O., Tononi, J., and Kotter , R

  8. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  9. Sparsity enables estimation of both subcortical and cortical activity from MEG and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Obregon-Henao, Gabriel; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Khan, Sheraz; Babadi, Behtash; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-11-14

    Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources. We then demonstrate that if the cortical activity is spatially sparse, both cortical and subcortical sources can be resolved with M/EEG. Building on this insight, we develop a hierarchical sparse inverse solution for M/EEG. We assess the performance of this algorithm on realistic simulations and auditory evoked response data, and show that thalamic and brainstem sources can be correctly estimated in the presence of cortical activity. Our work provides alternative perspectives and tools for characterizing electrophysiological activity in subcortical structures in the human brain. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Effect of the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor val(66)met polymorphism on the recovery in patients with acute subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Lim, Jong Youb; Shin, Joon Ho; Park, Hye Kyung; Tan, Samuel Arnado; Park, Kyoung Un; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism on the recovery after subcortical stroke, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Subcortical stroke patients with copies of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism (n=7) were compared to their controls (n=7) without a copy of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism after matching for initial severity, location and type of stroke. The mRS scores at 1 and 3 months after discharge from the neurorehabilitation unit were compared between the groups. A repeated measures ANOVA for mRS revealed significant interaction between time and group (F(2, 24) =37.2, pfactor for recovery and responses to rehabilitation therapies after stroke in Korean patients. There is a need for developing different rehabilitation strategies for the population with BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism. Further studies assessing different outcomes for various functional domains of stroke recovery are needed to clarify the role of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism.

  11. Magnetisation transfer measurements of the subcortical grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia and in progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Hanyu, H.; Asano, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takasaki, M. [Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo Medical University (Japan); Shindo, H.; Abe, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We measured the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in the subcortical grey and white matter of 11 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia, six with PD with dementia (PDD), six with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 12 elderly control subjects to assess regional differences in structural brain damage. There were no significant differences in MTR in any region between PD and controls. However, patients with PDD had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical white matter, including the frontal white matter and the genu of the corpus callosum than the controls, whereas PSP had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical grey matter, including the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus, in addition to the subcortical white matter. This suggests that regional patterns of structural brain damage can be detected using the magnetisation transfer technique. Measurement of MTR in the subcortical grey and white matter may be useful in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia: EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V A; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J T M; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J A M; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG parameters in subcortical vCIND in comparison with amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment to determine the additional diagnostic value of quantitative EEG in this setting. Fifty-seven community-residing patients with an uneventful central neurologic history and first presentation of cognitive decline without dementia were included. Neuropsychological test results were correlated with EEG parameters. Predictive values for vCIND and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression modeling. Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment differed with regard to the EEG (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (DTABR) and pairwise derived brain symmetry index. We found statistically significant correlations between pairwise derived brain symmetry index and immediate verbal memory, immediate global memory, verbal recognition, working memory, and mean memory score in vCIND. Verbal fluency (odds ratio: 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.28, P = 0.033) and (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (odds ratio: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.94, P = 0.036) emerged as independent diagnostic predictors for vCIND with an overall correct classification rate of 95.0%. Our data indicate that EEG is of additional value in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of patients presenting with cognitive decline. These findings may have an impact on memory care.

  13. THE TIME COURSE OF ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN SUBCORTICAL VISUAL CENTRE FOLLOWING EARLY IMPAIRMENT OF BINOCULAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia related to congenital strabismus belongs to neurological disorders since it is caused by structural and functional remodeling of the visual parts of the brain without any baseline retinal pathology. Although a large number of animal studies on experimentally induced strabismus, as well as clinical cases have been published, the mechanisms and time course of the processes within the brain structures are not fully understood. Aim: To study the time course of abnormalities in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd in animals with surgically induced convergent strabismus. LGNd is the structure through which the information from the retina goes to the visual cortex separately for each eye. Materials and methods: 14 strabismic and 17 intact kittens of four age groups were studied. Histochemical method was used to identify cytochrome oxidase which is a  mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme whose activity correlates with neuronal functional activity. Optical density in eye-specific layers  A  and A1 was measured on the images of stained LGNd sections, with calculation of the contrast difference between them. Results: In strabismic kittens, there were changes in activity of A and A1 layers in the projection of the central part of visual field in LGNd of both hemispheres. At early stages of their formation, a relative decrease in activity was found in both hemispheres in the LGNd layers innervated through non-crossed pathways from both retinae. Thereafter, the time course of abnormalities in LGNd of both hemispheres was different. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the squinting eye, the difference in layer activity was highest at the age from 3 to 5 months. However, in the opposite hemisphere the same difference indicating a decreased activity in the layer of the squinting eye were observed only at the age of 5 months. Conclusion: The process of amblyopia development during congenital convergent strabismus is

  14. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the brain is constantly changing from birth throughout the lifetime, meaning that normal aging, free from dementia, is associated with structural brain changes. This paper reviews recent evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies about age-related changes in the brain. The main conclusions are that (1) the brain shrinks in volume and the ventricular system expands in healthy aging. However, the pattern of changes is highly heterogeneous, with the largest changes seen in the frontal and temporal cortex, and in the putamen, thalamus, and accumbens. With modern approaches to analysis of MRI data, changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume can be tracked over periods as short as one year, with annual reductions of between 0.5% and 1.0% in most brain areas. (2) The volumetric brain reductions in healthy aging are likely only to a minor extent related to neuronal loss. Rather, shrinkage of neurons, reductions of synaptic spines, and lower numbers of synapses probably account for the reductions in grey matter. In addition, the length of myelinated axons is greatly reduced, up to almost 50%. (3) Reductions in specific cognitive abilities--for instance processing speed, executive functions, and episodic memory--are seen in healthy aging. Such reductions are to a substantial degree mediated by neuroanatomical changes, meaning that between 25% and 100% of the differences between young and old participants in selected cognitive functions can be explained by group differences in structural brain characteristics.

  15. Baseline shape diffeomorphometry patterns of subcortical and ventricular structures in predicting conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel predictor for the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This predictor is based on the shape diffeomorphometry patterns of subcortical and ventricular structures (left and right amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricle) of 607 baseline scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, including a total of 210 healthy control subjects, 222 MCI subjects, and 175 AD subjects. The optimal predictor is obtained via a feature selection procedure applied to all of the 14 sets of shape features via linear discriminant analysis, resulting in a combination of the shape diffeomorphometry patterns of the left hippocampus, the left lateral ventricle, the right thalamus, the right caudate, and the bilateral putamen. Via 10-fold cross-validation, we substantiate our method by successfully differentiating 77.04% (104/135) of the MCI subjects who converted to AD within 36 months and 71.26% (62/87) of the non-converters. To be specific, for the MCI-converters, we are capable of correctly predicting 82.35% (14/17) of subjects converting in 6 months, 77.5% (31/40) of subjects converting in 12 months, 74.07% (20/27) of subjects converting in 18 months, 78.13% (25/32) of subjects converting in 24 months, and 73.68% (14/19) of subject converting in 36 months. Statistically significant correlation maps were observed between the shape diffeomorphometry features of each of the 14 structures, especially the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, lateral ventricle, and two neuropsychological test scores--the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior Section and the Mini-Mental State Examination.

  16. Brain structural and functional dissociated patterns in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Qu, Hongru; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Liu, Mei; Qin, Wen

    2017-01-31

    Although previous studies found that aberrations in gray matter volume (GMV) and global functional connectivity density (gFCD) are important characteristics of schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge no study to date has investigated the associations between the spatial distribution patterns of GMV and gFCD alterations. We investigated pattern changes in gFCD and GMV among patients with schizophrenia and their associated spatial distributions. Ninety-five patients with schizophrenia and 93 matched healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scanning to assess gFCD and GMV. We found that gFCD increased in the subcortical regions (caudate, pallidum, putamen, and thalami) and limbic system (left hippocampus and parahippocampus), and decreased in the posterior parieto-occipito-temporal cortices (postcentral gyri, occipital cortex, temporo-occipital conjunction, and inferior parietal lobule), in patients with schizophrenia. By contrast, we found decreased GMV in brain regions including the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate cortices, and the insular, striatum, thalamus in these patients. Increased gFCD primarily occurred in subcortical regions including the basal ganglia and some regions of the limbic system. Decreased gFCD appeared primarily in the cortical regions. There were no statistically significant correlations between changes in gFCD and GMV, and their spatial distribution patterns, in different regions. Our findings indicate that gFCD and GMV are both perturbed in multiple brain regions in schizophrenia. gFCD and GMV consistently decreased in the cortical regions, with the exception of the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA). However, in the sub-cortical regions, the alterations of gFCD and GMV showed the opposite pattern, with increased gFCD and decreased GMV simultaneously observed in these regions. Overall, our findings suggest that structural and functional alterations appear to contribute independently to the

  17. Simultaneous direct cortical motor evoked potential monitoring and subcortical mapping for motor pathway preservation during brain tumor surgery: is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Patrick; Eccher, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    The warning-sign hierarchy between quantitative subcortical motor mapping and continuous motor evoked potential monitoring during resection of supratentorial brain tumors: clinical article.Seidel K, Beck J, Steiglitz L, Schucht P, Raabe A.J Neurosurg 2013; 118:287-296. Mapping and monitoring are believed to provide an early warning sign to determine when to stop tumor removal to avoid mechanical damage to the corticospinal tract (CST). The objective of this study was to systematically compare subcortical monopolar stimulation thresholds (1-20 mA) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS)-motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring signal abnormalities and to correlate both with new postoperative motor deficits. The authors sought to define a mapping threshold and DCS-MEP monitoring signal changes indicating a minimal safe distance from the CST. A consecutive cohort of 100 patients underwent tumor surgery adjacent to the CST while simultaneous subcortical motor mapping and DCS-MEP monitoring were used. Evaluation was performed regarding the lowest subcortical mapping threshold (monopolar stimulation, train of 5 stimuli, interstimulus interval 4.0 milliseconds, pulse duration 500 microseconds) and signal changes in DCS-MEPs (same parameters, 4 contact strip electrode). Motor function was assessed 1 day after the surgery, at discharge, and at 3 months postoperatively. The lowest individual motor thresholds (MTs) were as follows (MT in mA, number of patients): >20 mA, n = 12; 11 to 20 mA, n = 13; 6 to 10 mA, n = 20; 4 to 5 mA, n = 30; and 1 to 3 mA, n = 25. Direct cortical stimulation showed stable signals in 70 patients, unspecific changes in 18, irreversible alterations in 8, and irreversible loss in 4 patients. At 3 months, 5 patients had a postoperative new or worsened motor deficit (lowest mapping MT 20 mA, 13 mA, 6 mA, 3 mA, and 1 mA). In all 5 patients, DCS-MEP monitoring alterations were documented (2 sudden irreversible threshold increases and 3 sudden irreversible

  18. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  19. Context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence is associated with activation of cortical and subcortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, Yann; Hoots, Jennifer K; Cifani, Carlo; Adhikary, Sweta; Martin, Jennifer; Minier-Toribio, Angelica; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-06-29

    We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A. Next, we transferred them to context B where for the paired group, but not unpaired group, 50 percent of cocaine-reinforced lever presses caused aversive footshock. We then tested the rats for cocaine seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. We also retested them for relapse after retraining in context A and repunishment in context B. In exp. 2, we used Fos immunoreactivity to determine relapse-associated neuronal activation in brain regions of rats exposed to context A, context B or neither context. Results showed the selective shock-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration and context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence in rats exposed to paired, but not unpaired, footshock. Additionally, context-induced relapse was associated with selective activation of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, lateral habenula, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and dorsal raphe, but not nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and other brain regions. Together, context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence generalizes to rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and is associated with selective activation of cortical and subcortical regions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  1. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, part II: Prefrontal-subcortical pathways and relationship with anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wager, T.D.; Ast, V.A. van; Hughes, B.L.; Davidson, M.L.; Lindquist, M.A.; Ochsner, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    Social evaluative threat (SET) is a potent stressor in humans that causes autonomic changes, endocrine responses, and multiple health problems. Neuroimaging has recently begun to elucidate the brain correlates of SET, but as yet little is known about the mediating cortical-brainstem pathways in

  2. Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after sub-cortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908

  3. Brain structure in sagittal craniosynostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Kim, Sunghyung; Moustapha, Mahmoud; Styner, Martin; Cody-Hazlett, Heather; Gimple-Smith, Rachel; Rumple, Ashley; Piven, Joseph; Gilmore, John; Skolnick, Gary; Patel, Kamlesh

    2017-03-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, leads to grossly abnormal head shapes and pressure elevations within the brain caused by these deformities. To date, accepted treatments for craniosynostosis involve improving surgical skull shape aesthetics. However, the relationship between improved head shape and brain structure after surgery has not been yet established. Typically, clinical standard care involves the collection of diagnostic medical computed tomography (CT) imaging to evaluate the fused sutures and plan the surgical treatment. CT is known to provide very good reconstructions of the hard tissues in the skull but it fails to acquire good soft brain tissue contrast. This study intends to use magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate brain structure in a small dataset of sagittal craniosynostosis patients and thus quantify the effects of surgical intervention in overall brain structure. Very importantly, these effects are to be contrasted with normative shape, volume and brain structure databases. The work presented here wants to address gaps in clinical knowledge in craniosynostosis focusing on understanding the changes in brain volume and shape secondary to surgery, and compare those with normally developing children. This initial pilot study has the potential to add significant quality to the surgical care of a vulnerable patient population in whom we currently have limited understanding of brain developmental outcomes.

  4. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes : Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not

  5. Brain structure correlates of component reading processes: implications for reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Erin; Pennington, Bruce F; Olson, Richard; Filley, Christopher M; Filipek, Pauline A

    2007-08-01

    Brain structures implicated in developmental dyslexia (reading disability - RD) vary greatly across structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies due to methodological differences regarding the definition of RD and the exact measurements of a specific brain structure. The current study attempts to resolve some of those methodological concerns by examining brain volume as it relates to components of proposed RD subtypes. We performed individual regression analyses on total cerebral volume, neocortical volume, subcortical volume, 9 neo-cortical structures and 2 sub-cortical structures. These analyses used three dimensions of reading, phonemic ability (PA), orthographic ability, and rapid naming (RN) ability, while accounting for total cerebral volume, age, and performance IQ (PIQ). Primary analyses included membership to a group (poor reader vs. good reader) in the analysis. The result was a significant interaction between PA and reading ability as it predicts total cerebral volume. Analyses revealed that poor readers lacked a relationship between PA and brain size, but that good readers had a significant positive relationship. This pattern of interaction was not present for the other two reading component factors. These findings bring into question the general belief that individuals with RD are at the low end of a reading ability distribution and do not have a unique disorder. Additional analyses revealed only a few significant relationships between brain size and task performance, most notably a positive correlation between orthographic ability and the angular gyrus (AG), as well as a negative correlation between RN ability and the parietal operculum (PO).

  6. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poggesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI. Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD.

  7. Subcortical brain segmentation of two dimensional T1-weighted data sets with FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amann, Michael; Andělová, Michaela; Pfister, Armanda; Mueller-Lenke, Nicole; Traud, Stefan; Reinhardt, Julia; Magon, Stefano; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Kappos, Ludwig; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Stippich, Christoph; Sprenger, Till

    2015-01-01

    .... In this work, we used FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) to evaluate the possibility of segmenting DGM structures using standard two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted MRI...

  8. Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain Development

    OpenAIRE

    Krista L. Hyde; Lerch, Jason; Norton, Andrea; Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Evans, Alan C.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    The human brain has the remarkable capacity to alter in response to environmental demands. Training-induced structural brain changes have been demonstrated in the healthy adult human brain. However, no study has yet directly related structural brain changes to behavioral changes in the developing brain, addressing the question of whether structural brain differences seen in adults (comparing experts with matched controls) are a product of “nature” (via biological brain predispositions) or “nu...

  9. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Cédric M P Koolschijn

    Full Text Available Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8-25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (subcortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls.

  10. The Influence of Sex Steroids on Structural Brain Maturation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Peper, Jiska S.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8–25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls. PMID:24416184

  11. Disruptions in cortico-subcortical covariance networks associated with anxiety in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Garcia-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24 and without (n = 62 anxiety disorders. Graph theory (GT analyses based on the covariance between the volumes of 85 cortical/subcortical regions were investigated. Both groups with epilepsy demonstrated less inter-modular relationships in the synchronization of cortical/subcortical volumes compared to controls, with the epilepsy and anxiety group presenting the strongest modular organization. Frontal and occipital regions in non-anxious epilepsy, and areas throughout the brain in children with epilepsy and anxiety, showed the highest centrality compared to controls. Furthermore, most of the nodes correlating to amygdala volumes were subcortical structures, with the exception of the left insula and the right frontal pole, which presented high betweenness centrality (BC; therefore, their influence in the network is not necessarily local but potentially influencing other more distant regions. In conclusion, children with recent onset epilepsy and anxiety demonstrate large scale disruptions in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Network science may not only provide insight into the possible neurobiological correlates of important comorbidities of epilepsy, but also the ways that cortical and subcortical disruption occurs.

  12. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  13. Gap junctions mediate large-scale Turing structures in a mean-field cortex driven by subcortical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Wilson, M. T.; Sleigh, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    One of the grand puzzles in neuroscience is establishing the link between cognition and the disparate patterns of spontaneous and task-induced brain activity that can be measured clinically using a wide range of detection modalities such as scalp electrodes and imaging tomography. High-level brain function is not a single-neuron property, yet emerges as a cooperative phenomenon of multiply-interacting populations of neurons. Therefore a fruitful modeling approach is to picture the cerebral cortex as a continuum characterized by parameters that have been averaged over a small volume of cortical tissue. Such mean-field cortical models have been used to investigate gross patterns of brain behavior such as anesthesia, the cycles of natural sleep, memory and erasure in slow-wave sleep, and epilepsy. There is persuasive and accumulating evidence that direct gap-junction connections between inhibitory neurons promote synchronous oscillatory behavior both locally and across distances of some centimeters, but, to date, continuum models have ignored gap-junction connectivity. In this paper we employ simple mean-field arguments to derive an expression for D2 , the diffusive coupling strength arising from gap-junction connections between inhibitory neurons. Using recent neurophysiological measurements reported by Fukuda [J. Neurosci. 26, 3434 (2006)], we estimate an upper limit of D2≈0.6cm2 . We apply a linear stability analysis to a standard mean-field cortical model, augmented with gap-junction diffusion, and find this value for the diffusive coupling strength to be close to the critical value required to destabilize the homogeneous steady state. Computer simulations demonstrate that larger values of D2 cause the noise-driven model cortex to spontaneously crystalize into random mazelike Turing structures: centimeter-scale spatial patterns in which regions of high-firing activity are intermixed with regions of low-firing activity. These structures are consistent with the

  14. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    .... Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance...

  15. Decoding post-stroke motor function from structural brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Rondina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research based on neuroimaging data has benefited from machine learning methods, which have the ability to provide individualized predictions and to account for the interaction among units of information in the brain. Application of machine learning in structural imaging to investigate diseases that involve brain injury presents an additional challenge, especially in conditions like stroke, due to the high variability across patients regarding characteristics of the lesions. Extracting data from anatomical images in a way that translates brain damage information into features to be used as input to learning algorithms is still an open question. One of the most common approaches to capture regional information from brain injury is to obtain the lesion load per region (i.e. the proportion of voxels in anatomical structures that are considered to be damaged. However, no systematic evaluation has yet been performed to compare this approach with using patterns of voxels (i.e. considering each voxel as a single feature. In this paper we compared both approaches applying Gaussian Process Regression to decode motor scores in 50 chronic stroke patients based solely on data derived from structural MRI. For both approaches we compared different ways to delimit anatomical areas: regions of interest from an anatomical atlas, the corticospinal tract, a mask obtained from fMRI analysis with a motor task in healthy controls and regions selected using lesion-symptom mapping. Our analysis showed that extracting features through patterns of voxels that represent lesion probability produced better results than quantifying the lesion load per region. In particular, from the different ways to delimit anatomical areas compared, the best performance was obtained with a combination of a range of cortical and subcortical motor areas as well as the corticospinal tract. These results will inform the appropriate methodology for predicting long term motor outcomes

  16. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  17. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  18. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  19. Subcortical regional morphology correlates with fluid and spatial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; MacDonald, Penny A; Martínez, Kenia; Román, Francisco J; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Ramos González, Ana; Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations between intelligence and brain morphology. However, researchers have focused primarily on the anatomical features of the cerebral cortex, whereas subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia (BG), have often been neglected despite extensive functional evidence on their relation with higher-order cognition. Here we performed shape analyses to understand how individual differences in BG local morphology account for variability in cognitive performance. Structural MRI was acquired in 104 young adults (45 men, 59 women, mean age = 19.83, SD = 1.64), and the outer surface of striatal structures (caudate, nucleus accumbens, and putamen), globus pallidus, and thalamus was estimated for each subject and hemisphere. Further, nine cognitive tests were used to measure fluid (Gf), crystallized (Gc), and spatial intelligence (Gv). Latent scores for these factors were computed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and regressed vertex-wise against subcortical shape (local displacements of vertex position), controlling for age, sex, and adjusted for brain size. Significant results (FDR intelligence-related prefrontal areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Postnatal brain development: Structural imaging of dynamic neurodevelopmental processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Baaré, William F. C.; Stiles, Joan; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2013-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain’s fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain–behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions, and hormonal variation associated with puberty. At present longitudinal studies are few, and we do not yet know how variability in individual trajectories of biological development in specific neural systems map onto similar variability in behavioral trajectories. PMID:21489384

  1. Impaired topological architecture of brain structural networks in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Huang, Biao; Zhang, Ruibin; Ma, Qing; Yang, Wanqun; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Limin; Xu, Qin; Feng, Jieying; Liu, Liqing; Zhang, Yuhu; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a neurodegenerative disorder of the brain central nervous system. But, to date, few studies adopted the network model to reveal topological changes in brain structural networks in PD patients. Additionally, although the concept of rich club organization has been widely used to study brain networks in various brain disorders, there is no study to report the changed rich club organization of brain networks in PD patients. Thus, we collected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls and adopted deterministic tractography to construct brain structural networks. During the network analysis, we calculated their topological properties, and built the rich club organization of brain structural networks for both subject groups. By comparing the between-group differences in topological properties and rich club organizations, we found that the connectivity strength of the feeder and local connections are lower in PD patients compared to those of the healthy controls. Furthermore, using a network-based statistic (NBS) approach, we identified uniformly significantly decreased connections in two modules, the limbic/paralimbic/subcortical module and the cognitive control/attention module, in patients compared to controls. In addition, for the topological properties of brain network topology in the PD patients, we found statistically increased shortest path length and decreased global efficiency. Statistical comparisons of nodal properties were also widespread in the frontal and parietal regions for the PD patients. These findings may provide useful information to better understand the abnormalities of brain structural networks in PD patients.

  2. Assessing brain structural associations with working memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lycke Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC. Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA, a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure–function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96 and HC (n = 142. We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal and task-negative (default-mode brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure–function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation.

  3. Structural brain correlates associated with professional handball playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic adaptations rather than a genetic predisposition for a ball playing

  4. Structural brain correlates associated with professional handball playing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hänggi

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands.We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand.Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women.Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic adaptations rather than a genetic predisposition for a

  5. Structural Brain Correlates Associated with Professional Handball Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. Methodology/Hypotheses We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Results Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Discussion/Conclusion Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic

  6. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo eSärkämö; Pablo eRipollés; Henna eVepsäläinen; Taina eAutti; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Eero eSalli; Sari eLaitinen; Anita eForsblom; Seppo eSoinila; Antoni eRodríguez-Fornells

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve...

  7. Subcortical cerebral infarctions in sickle cell trait.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, M G

    1989-01-01

    At necropsy, two patients with sickle cell trait and progressive motor and visual deficits, lethargy and coma showed infarctions of the deep cerebral white matter and brain stem. The findings in these patients and another reported in the literature suggest that subcortical infarctions may be more common in sickle cell trait than has been recognised and should be suspected in any patient with sickle cell trait who presents with an unusual neurological illness.

  8. Subcortical Facilitation of Behavioral Responses to Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-10-12

    Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images. In Experiment 3, we presented pairs of snakes or neutral images into the temporal or nasal hemifield. For snakes only, we observed a temporal hemifield advantage, which indicates facilitation by the retino-tectal subcortical pathway. These results advance the current understanding of processing of threat by adult humans by revealing the characteristics of behaviors driven by a lower-order neural mechanism that is specialized for the processing of ancestral threats. The results also contribute to ongoing debates concerning the biological generality of neural mechanisms for processing of complex, emotionally-relevant stimuli by providing evidence for conservation of lower-order neural mechanisms for processing of ancestral threats across both ontogeny and phylogeny.

  9. Body mass index, but not FTO genotype or major depressive disorder, influences brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J H; Boyle, C P; Simmons, A; Cohen-Woods, S; Rivera, M; McGuffin, P; Thompson, P M; Fu, C H Y

    2013-11-12

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly prevalent and often comorbid health conditions. Both are associated with differences in brain structure and are genetically influenced. Yet, little is known about how obesity, MDD, and known risk genotypes might interact in the brain. Subjects were 81 patients with MDD (mean age 48.6 years) and 69 matched healthy controls (mean age 51.2 years). Subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging, genotyping for the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs3751812 polymorphism, and measurements for body mass index (BMI). We conducted a whole brain voxelwise analysis using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to examine the main and interaction effects of diagnosis, BMI and FTO genotype. Significant effects of BMI were observed across widespread brain regions, indicating reductions in predominantly subcortical and white matter areas associated with increased BMI, but there was no influence of MDD or FTO rs3751812 genotype. There were no significant interaction effects. Within MDD patients, there was no effect of current depressive symptoms; however the use of antidepressant medication was associated with reductions in brain volume in the frontal lobe and cerebellum. Obesity affects brain structure in both healthy participants and MDD patients; this influence may account for some of the brain changes previously associated with MDD. BMI and the use of medication should ideally be measured and controlled for when conducting structural brain imaging research in MDD. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Graph theory analysis of cortical-subcortical networks in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Olusola; Lamar, Melissa; Leow, Alex; Zhang, Aifeng; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand

    2014-02-01

    Late-life major depression (LLD) is characterized by distinct epidemiologic and psychosocial factors, as well as medical comorbidities that are associated with specific neuroanatomical differences. The purpose of this study was to use interregional correlations of cortical and subcortical volumes to examine cortical-subcortical structural network properties in subjects with LLD compared with healthy comparison subjects. This was a cross-sectional neuroimaging study conducted in the general community. We recruited 73 healthy elderly comparison subjects and 53 subjects with LLD who volunteered in response to advertisements. Brain network connectivity measures were generated by correlating regional volumes after controlling for age, gender, and intracranial volume by using the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Results for overall network strength revealed that LLD networks showed a greater magnitude of associations for both positive and negative correlation weights compared with healthy elderly networks. LLD networks also demonstrated alterations in brain network structure compared with healthy comparison subjects. LLD networks were also more vulnerable to targeted attacks compared with healthy elderly comparison subjects, and this vulnerability was attenuated when controlling for white matter alterations. Overall, this study demonstrates that cortical-subcortical network properties are altered in LLD and may reflect the underlying neuroanatomical vulnerabilities of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomical distance affects cortical-subcortical connectivity in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Li, Lehua; Zhang, Zhikun; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2017-08-01

    Brain structural and functional alterations in the cortical-subcortical circuits have been observed in somatization disorder (SD). However, whether and how anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical connectivity in SD remain unclear. This study aims to examine whether anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical in first-episode, drug-naive SD. Twenty-five first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and twenty-eight healthy controls were recruited for a resting-state scan. Regional functional connectivity strength (FCS) was calculated for each voxel in the brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range FCSs. Correlation analyses were conducted between abnormal FCS and clinical/cognitive variables in the patients. Compared with the controls, the patients showed increased short-range positive FCS (spFCS) in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and decreased spFCS in the left pallidum, and increased long-range positive FCS (lpFCS) in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Positive correlations were observed between the spFCS values in the right SFG and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire psychoticism scores (r=0.441, p=0.027, uncorrected) and between the lpFCS values in the right ITG and scores of digit symbol-coding of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (r=0.416, p=0.039, uncorrected) in the patients CONCLUSIONS: The patients exhibited increased spFCS/lpFCS in the cortical regions and decreased spFCS in the subcortical regions. The left pallidum is first reported here to show decreased spFCS in SD. The present results suggest that abnormal cortical-subcortical circuits may play an important role in SD neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan

    2011-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact ...

  13. BRAIN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes geared to ensure reproduction and achieve independence are very likely mediated by growth of neural processes, remodeling of synaptic connections, increased myelination in prefrontal areas, and maturation of connecting subcortical regions. These processes, greatly accelerated in adolescence, follow an asynchronous pattern in different brain areas. Neuroimaging research using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging has produced most of the insights regarding brain structural and functional neuropathology in adolescent psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, first episodes during adolescence are linked to greater-than-normal losses in gray matter density and white matter integrity, and show a divergence of maturational trajectories from normative neural development, in a progression similar to that of adult-onset schizophrenia. Anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence have been linked to abnormally increased activity in the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortical areas, although some data suggest that neural abnormalities in the amygdala and anxiety maybe particularly more frequent in adolescents than in adults. Alcohol misuse in adolescence results in reduced integrity in the white matter and reduced gray matter density that, given the high intensity of adolescent synaptic and myelin remodeling, may result in persistent and profound changes in circuits supporting memory, emotional and appetitive control. Interaction of persistent changes due to prenatal exposure with contemporaneous expression of genetic factors and disturbing environmental exposure may be an important factor in the appearance of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. Further progress in understanding adolescent psychopathology will require postmortem research of molecular and cellular determinants in the adolescent brain. PMID:23828425

  14. Neurological changes in brain structure and functions among individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Camarillo, Giselle; Trinidad, Dennis R; Schramm, Emily; Ames, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    Review literature focused on neurological associations in brain structure among individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A review of literature examining physiological irregularities in brain structures of individuals with a history of CSA was conducted. Results revealed that a history of CSA was associated with irregularities in the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. These irregularities have been recognized to contribute to various cognitive, behavioral, and psychological health outcomes later in life. Age of CSA onset was associated with differential neurological brain structures. Mental and behavioral health problems such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, dissociative disorders, and sexual dysfunction are associated with CSA and may persist into adulthood. Research depicting the associations of CSA on neurological outcomes emphasizes the need to examine the biological and subsequent psychological outcomes associated with CSA. Early intervention is imperative for CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotics on subcortical volumes in schizophrenia: Analysis of 778 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Ito, Yoichi M; Okada, Naohiro; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Kudo, Noriko; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Son, Shuraku; Narita, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Maeri; Tha, Khin Khin; Katsuki, Asuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamashita, Fumio; Koike, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Fukunaga, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Suzuki, Michio; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kusumi, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2018-01-01

    The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotic medication on the volumes of subcortical structures in schizophrenia is inconsistent among previous reports. We implemented a large sample analysis utilizing clinical data from 11 institutions in a previous meta-analysis. Imaging and clinical data of 778 schizophrenia subjects were taken from a prospective meta-analysis conducted by the COCORO consortium in Japan. The effect of duration of illness and daily dose and type of antipsychotics were assessed using the linear mixed effect model where the volumes of subcortical structures computed by FreeSurfer were used as a dependent variable and age, sex, duration of illness, daily dose of antipsychotics and intracranial volume were used as independent variables, and the type of protocol was incorporated as a random effect for intercept. The statistical significance of fixed-effect of dependent variable was assessed. Daily dose of antipsychotics was positively associated with left globus pallidus volume and negatively associated with right hippocampus. It was also positively associated with laterality index of globus pallidus. Duration of illness was positively associated with bilateral globus pallidus volumes. Type of antipsychotics did not have any effect on the subcortical volumes. A large sample size, uniform data collection methodology and robust statistical analysis are strengths of the current study. This result suggests that we need special attention to discuss about relationship between subcortical regional brain volumes and pathophysiology of schizophrenia because regional brain volumes may be affected by antipsychotic medication.

  16. Discriminative analysis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease and normal aging with automatic segmentation technique in subcortical gray matter structures: a multicenter in vivo MRI volumetric and DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-di; He, Hui-jin; Dong, Hai-bo; Feng, Xiao-yuan; Xie, Guo-ming; Zhang, Ling-jun

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that amyloid depositions exist in not only the hippocampus but in other subcortical gray matter structures as well. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) parameters might be more sensitive measures of early degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. To evaluate the significance of the volumes and the mean diffusivity (MD) values of subcortical gray matter structures in discrimination between early-stage AD and normal subjects using the Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool in FMRIB's Software Library. Fifty-three cases of early-stage AD and 30 normal aging volunteers from two hospitals were scanned with 3D-FSPGRIR and SSSE-EPI sequences using two similar 1.5T MR systems. The mean relative volumes and mean MD values of subcortical gray matter structures were compared between early-stage AD and control groups. Binary logistic regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to assess the diagnostic significance of every structure's relative volume, MD value, and combination of both. The relative volumes of the left hippocampus, right amygdala, bilateral thalamus, right caudate, left putamen, and bilateral pallidum were significantly lower in the early-stage AD group than in the control group (P early-stage AD group (P early-stage AD. Diffusive imaging has great diagnostic significance in early-stage AD. The combination of both imaging modalities can lead to better discrimination between early-stage AD and normal aging.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN STRUCTURE AND CONNECTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, LM

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes profound structural changes with development. It does not mature by simply growing, rather the transition to adulthood is a dynamic process with regionally specific patterns. However, there is no consensus on the timing and shape of growth trajectories of brain structures.

  18. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Roger

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradigraphy) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as d...

  20. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron (FeD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established - severe deficiency producing significant neurological dysfunction - there is a paucity of data on neurological impairments that accompany modest degrees of TH disruption. Quantitative m...

  1. The dysexecutive syndrome associated with ischaemic vascular disease and related subcortical neuropathology: a Boston process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Price, Cate C; Giovannetti, Tania; Swenson, Rod; Libon, David J

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia has helped to re-define the impact of various subcortical neuropathologies on aging; however, state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques and autopsy studies suggest that not all structural brain alterations associated with vascular dementia are exclusive to this neurodegenerative process alone. Thus, a detailed analysis of the cognitive phenotype associated with ischaemic vascular disease is key to our understanding of subcortical neuropathology and its associated behaviors. Over the past twenty years, we have operationally defined this cognitive phenotype using the Boston Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment. This has led to both an empirical, as well as a theoretical understanding of three core constructs related to the dysexecutive syndrome associated with ischaemic vascular disease affecting periventricular and deep white matter as well as subcortical structures connecting these regions with the prefrontal cortex. Thus, difficulties with mental set, cognitive control and mental manipulation negatively impact executive functioning. This review will outline the subtle markers underlying this prefrontal dysfunction, i.e., the dysexecutive phenotype, associated with ischaemic vascular disease and relate it to fundamental impairments of gating subserved by basal ganglia-thalamic pathways within and across various dementia syndromes.

  2. The Dysexecutive Syndrome Associated with Ischaemic Vascular Disease and Related Subcortical Neuropathology: A Boston Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Lamar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia has helped to re-define the impact of various subcortical neuropathologies on aging; however, state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques and autopsy studies suggest that not all structural brain alterations associated with vascular dementia are exclusive to this neurodegenerative process alone. Thus, a detailed analysis of the cognitive phenotype associated with ischaemic vascular disease is key to our understanding of subcortical neuropathology and its associated behaviors. Over the past twenty years, we have operationally defined this cognitive phenotype using the Boston Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment. This has led to both an empirical, as well as a theoretical understanding of three core constructs related to the dysexecutive syndrome associated with ischaemic vascular disease affecting periventricular and deep white matter as well as subcortical structures connecting these regions with the prefrontal cortex. Thus, difficulties with mental set, cognitive control and mental manipulation negatively impact executive functioning. This review will outline the subtle markers underlying this prefrontal dysfunction, i.e., the dysexecutive phenotype, associated with ischaemic vascular disease and relate it to fundamental impairments of gating subserved by basal ganglia-thalamic pathways within and across various dementia syndromes.

  3. Distinct subcortical volume alterations in pediatric and adult OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H.; Arnold, Paul D.; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C.; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, Damiaan; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M.; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y.C. Janardhan; Sato, Joao R.; Simpson, H. Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Tolin, David F.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Structural brain imaging studies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in disease profile and developmental stage. Methods To address these limitations, we conducted a meta- and mega-analysis of data from OCD sites worldwide. T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 controls were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ in OCD patients and healthy controls. We additionally examined potential modulating effects of clinical characteristics on morphological differences in OCD patients. Results The meta-analysis indicated that adult patients had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.13; p=5.1x10−3, % difference −2.80) and larger pallidum volumes (d=0.16; p=1.6x10−3, % difference 3.16) compared to adult controls. Both effects were stronger in medicated patients compared to controls (d=−0.29; p=2.4x10−5, % difference −4.18 and d=0.29; p=1.2x10−5, % difference 4.38, respectively). Unmedicated pediatric patients had larger thalamic volumes (d=0.38, p=2.1x10−3) compared to pediatric controls. None of these findings were mediated by sample characteristics such as mean age or field strength. Overall the mega-analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Our study indicates a different pattern of subcortical abnormalities in pediatric versus adult OCD patients. The pallidum and hippocampus seem to be of importance in adult OCD, whereas the thalamus seems to be key in pediatric OCD. This highlights the potential importance of neurodevelopmental alterations in OCD, and suggests that further research on neuroplasticity in OCD may be useful. PMID:27609241

  4. Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; O'Brien, Liam M; Horton, Nicholas J; Kennedy, David N; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the impact of early insults predisposing to schizophrenia may have differential consequences by sex. We hypothesized that brain regions found to be structurally different in normal men and women (sexual dimorphisms) and abnormal in schizophrenia would show significant sex differences in brain abnormalities, particularly in the cortex, in schizophrenia. Forty outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia by DSM-III-R were systematically sampled to be comparable within sex with 48 normal comparison subjects on the basis of age, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. A comprehensive assessment of the entire brain was based on T1-weighted 3-dimensional images acquired from a 1.5-T magnet. Multivariate general linear models for correlated data were used to test for sex-specific effects regarding 22 hypothesized cortical, subcortical, and cerebrospinal fluid brain volumes, adjusted for age and total cerebrum size. Sex x group interactions were also tested on asymmetries of the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, additionally controlled for handedness. Normal patterns of sexual dimorphisms were disrupted in schizophrenia. Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale. Normal asymmetry of the planum was also disrupted differentially in men and women with schizophrenia. There were no significant differential sex effects in subcortical gray matter regions or cerebrospinal fluid. Factors that produce normal sexual dimorphisms may be associated with modulating insults producing schizophrenia, particularly in the cortex.

  5. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  6. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz cit...

  7. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...... is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack...

  8. Early changes in brain structure correlate with language outcomes in children with neonatal encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Shapiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE. However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months. All subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging at 3 T using a 3D IR-SPGR sequence. Images were normalized in intensity and nonlinearly registered to a template constructed specifically for this population, creating a deformation field map. We then used deformation based morphometry (DBM to correlate variation in the local volume of gray and white matter with composite scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III at 30 months. Our general linear model included gestational age, sex, birth weight, and treatment with hypothermia as covariates. Regional brain volume was significantly associated with language scores, particularly in perisylvian cortical regions including the left supramarginal gyrus, posterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and right insula, as well as inferior frontoparietal subcortical white matter. We did not find significant correlations between regional brain volume and motor or cognitive scale scores. We conclude that, in children with a history of NE, local changes in the volume of perisylvian gray and white matter at 6 months are correlated with language outcome at 30 months. Quantitative measures of brain volume on early MRI may help identify infants at risk for poor language outcomes.

  9. Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Carlos; Elben, Saskia; Petri, David; Hirschmann, Jan; Groiss, Stefan J; Vesper, Jan; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2016-05-19

    In spite of the success in applying non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), magneto-encephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for extracting crucial information about the mechanism of the human brain, such methods remain insufficient to provide information about physiological processes reflecting cognitive and emotional functions at the subcortical level. In this respect, modern invasive clinical approaches in humans, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), offer a tremendous possibility to record subcortical brain activity, namely local field potentials (LFPs) representing coherent activity of neural assemblies from localized basal ganglia or thalamic regions. Notwithstanding the fact that invasive approaches in humans are applied only after medical indication and thus recorded data correspond to altered brain circuits, valuable insight can be gained regarding the presence of intact brain functions in relation to brain oscillatory activity and the pathophysiology of disorders in response to experimental cognitive paradigms. In this direction, a growing number of DBS studies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) target not only motor functions but also higher level processes such as emotions, decision-making, attention, memory and sensory perception. Recent clinical trials also emphasize the role of DBS as an alternative treatment in neuropsychiatric disorders ranging from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) to chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Consequently, we focus on the use of combined invasive (LFP) and non-invasive (EEG) human brain recordings in assessing the role of cortical-subcortical structures in cognitive and emotional processing trough experimental paradigms (e.g. speech stimuli with emotional connotation or paradigms of cognitive control such as the Flanker task), for patients undergoing DBS treatment.

  10. Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea; Crinion, Jenny T; Noppeney, Uta; O'Doherty, John; Ashburner, John; Frackowiak, Richard S; Price, Cathy J

    2004-10-14

    Humans have a unique ability to learn more than one language--a skill that is thought to be mediated by functional (rather than structural) plastic changes in the brain. Here we show that learning a second language increases the density of grey matter in the left inferior parietal cortex and that the degree of structural reorganization in this region is modulated by the proficiency attained and the age at acquisition. This relation between grey-matter density and performance may represent a general principle of brain organization.

  11. Genetic basis in epilepsies caused by malformations of cortical development and in those with structurally normal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Danielle M

    2009-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting young people. The etiologies are multiple and most cases are sporadic. However, some rare families with Mendelian inheritance have provided evidence of genes' important role in epilepsy. Two important but apparently different groups of disorders have been extensively studied: epilepsies associated with malformations of cortical development (MCDs) and epilepsies associated with a structurally normal brain (or with minimal abnormalities only). This review is focused on clinical and molecular aspects of focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia, subcortical band heterotopia, lissencephaly and schizencephaly as examples of MCDs. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, some familial forms of focal epilepsy and epilepsies associated with febrile seizures are discussed as examples of epileptic conditions in (apparently) structurally normal brains.

  12. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.

  13. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  15. Striatal dopaminergic innervation regulates subthalamic beta-oscillations and cortical-subcortical coupling during movements: evidence in three subjects with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Canessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the basal ganglia has been shown during the preparation and execution of movement. However, the functional interaction of cortical and subcortical brain areas during movement and the relative contribution of dopaminergic striatal innervation remain unclear. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nucleus and high-density electroencephalography signals in four patients with Parkinson’s disease off dopaminergic medication during a multi-joint motor task performed with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Recordings were performed by means of a fully-implantable deep brain stimulation device at four months after surgery. Three patients also performed a single-photon computed tomography with 123IN-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenylnortropane to assess striatal dopaminergic innervation. Unilateral movement execution led to event-related desynchronization followed by a rebound after movement termination (event-related synchronization of oscillatory beta activity in the subthalamic nucleus and primary sensorimotor cortex of both hemispheres. Dopamine deficiency directly influenced movement-related beta-modulation, with greater beta-suppression in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere for both ipsi- and contralateral hand movements. Cortical-subcortical, but not interhemispheric subcortical coherencies were modulated by movement and influenced by striatal dopaminergic innervation, being stronger in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere. The data are consistent with a role of dopamine in shielding subcortical structures from an excessive cortical entrapment and cross-hemispheric coupling, thus allowing fine-tuning of movement.

  16. Structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the first 3 months of infant brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M; Dale, Anders M

    2014-10-01

    The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10-13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus grew at the slowest rate, increasing by 47% in 90 days. There was left

  17. Migraine and structural changes in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Lipton, Richard B; Ashina, Sait

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association between migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) and 3 types of structural brain abnormalities detected by MRI: white matter abnormalities (WMAs), infarct-like lesions (ILLs), and volumetric changes in gray and white matter (GM, WM) regions....

  18. Reading skill and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-03-26

    Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.

  19. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  20. Brain structure in bipolar disorder : A longitudinal neuroimaging study in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsman, F

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal twin study, the goal was to ascertain the extent to which BD shows abnormalities in subcortical and cortical brain regions at baseline and over time. Baseline assessments in this study revealed that BD was associated with smaller volumes of the thalamus, putamen and nucleus

  1. Dynamical signatures of structural connectivity damage to a model of the brain posed at criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haimovici, Ariel; Balenzuela, Pablo; Tagliazucchi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human

  2. Laboratory of Caribbean Brain Research Organization in the decade of the brain midpoint. Results in reaching behavior--interferences of subcortical motor centers, neurotransmitter blocking and brain function modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mesa, N; Antón, M; Arza-Marqués, M; Aneiros-Riba, R; Groning-Roque, E

    1996-01-01

    CARIBRO was founded in response to the United Nations declaration that the 1990s be designated the Decade of the Brain. The Program of Action is: 1. Annual meetings; 2. Training courses of the Caribbean School of Neurosciences; 3. Network scientific programs; 4. Fellowship programs; and 5. Dissemination of information on neuroscience. In the same program, a CARIBRO Laboratory was created in one of the Medical Faculties of Havana with the aim to teach students from the Caribbean in neuroscience research. As part of this program, we have been working in lateralized motor functions. Preliminary results in rats show that reaching acquisition allows classification of the animals as right-handed (40%), left-handed (40%), and ambidextrous (20%). Electrolytic lesion of caudate nucleus or amygdala impairs lateralized response. Contralateral lesions increase reaching attempts. Ipsilateral lesions to the preferred forepaw do not affect the reaction. The results remain the same 10, 20, and 90 d after the interference. Pharmacological experiments showed that trihexiphenidil (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) induced handedness reversion in 50% if the animals, whereas haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) produced immobility, tremor, and autonomic symptoms. This effect remained the same in young as well as in old animals. We are also working on mathematical modelation. In this sense, preliminary reports about a model for synaptic modification in the framework of the Fukushima hypothesis is discussed.

  3. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-06-01

    Cortical-subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical-subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical-subcortical circuits-the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions-was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical-subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan.

  4. [Subcortical laminal heterotopia and lissencephaly: cerebral malformations of X-linked inheritance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, J M; Desguerre, I; Motte, J; Dulac, O; Ponsot, G

    1995-03-01

    Subcortical laminar heterotopia (band heterotopia) is a brain malformation now recognized by MRI. We report 3 families (2 previously described) in which several members had subcortical laminar heterotopia or a more severe malformation (agyria/pachygyria). In these families, subcortical laminar heterotopia were observed in women and were associated with epilepsy or slight mental retardation depending on the extend of heterotopia. Males had lissencephaly with refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. The pedigrees of these families demonstrate that these 2 malformations originate from a single genetic origin. A single X-linked dominant gene is postulated. Diagnosis of subcortical laminar heterotopia in a female or lissencephaly in a male (except in the case of Miller-Dieker syndrome) requires appropriate genetic counselling in the family: brain imaging should be performed in relatives.

  5. Structure and function of complex brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of theoretical and empirical studies approach the function of the human brain from a network perspective. The analysis of brain networks is made feasible by the development of new imaging acquisition methods as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems. This review surveys some of these methodological advances and summarizes recent findings on the architecture of structural and functional brain networks. Studies of the structural connectome reveal several modules or network communities that are interlinked by hub regions mediating communication processes between modules. Recent network analyses have shown that network hubs form a densely linked collective called a “rich club,” centrally positioned for attracting and dispersing signal traffic. In parallel, recordings of resting and task-evoked neural activity have revealed distinct resting-state networks that contribute to functions in distinct cognitive domains. Network methods are increasingly applied in a clinical context, and their promise for elucidating neural substrates of brain and mental disorders is discussed. PMID:24174898

  6. Brain structure abnormalities in first-episode psychosis patients with persistent apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Faerden, Ann; Haukvik, Unn K; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Lange, Elisabeth H; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    Apathy is an enduring and debilitating feature related to poor outcome in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). The biological underpinnings of apathy are unknown. We tested if FEP patients with persistent apathy (PA) differed from FEP patients without persistent apathy (NPA) in specific brain structure measures in the early phase of illness. A total of 70 Norwegian FEP patients were recruited within 1 year of first adequate treatment. They were defined as having PA (N=18) or NPA (N=52) based on Apathy Evaluation Scale score at baseline and 1 year later. MRI measures of cortical thickness and subcortical structure volumes were compared between the PA and NPA groups. The PA group had significantly thinner left orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior cingulate cortex. The results remained significant after controlling for depressive symptoms and antipsychotic medication. FEP patients with persistent apathy in the early phase of their illness show brain structural changes compared to FEP patients without persistent apathy. The changes are confined to regions associated with motivation, occur early in the disease course and appear selectively in PA patients when both groups are compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Automated localization of periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vrooman, Henri A.; Rueckert, Daniel; Hammers, Alexander; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2007-03-01

    It is still unclear whether periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions (WMLs) differ in etiology or clinical consequences. Studies addressing this issue would benefit from automated segmentation and localization of WMLs. Several papers have been published on WML segmentation in MR images. Automated localization however, has not been investigated as much. This work presents and evaluates a novel method to label segmented WMLs as periventricular and subcortical. The proposed technique combines tissue classification and registration-based segmentation to outline the ventricles in MRI brain data. The segmented lesions can then be labeled into periventricular WMLs and subcortical WMLs by applying region growing and morphological operations. The technique was tested on scans of 20 elderly subjects in which neuro-anatomy experts manually segmented WMLs. Localization accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of the automated method with a manual localization. Similarity indices and volumetric intraclass correlations between the automated and the manual localization were 0.89 and 0.95 for periventricular WMLs and 0.64 and 0.89 for subcortical WMLs, respectively. We conclude that this automated method for WML localization performs well to excellent in comparison to the gold standard.

  8. Structural brain changes after 4 wk of unilateral strength training of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, H S; Håberg, A K; Fimland, M S; Solstad, G M; Moe Iversen, V; Hoff, J; Helgerud, J; Eikenes, L

    2013-07-15

    Strength training enhances muscular strength and neural drive, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. This study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify possible changes in corticospinal tract (CST) microstructure, cortical activation, and subcortical structure volumes following unilateral strength training of the plantar flexors. Mechanisms underlying cross-education of strength in the untrained leg were also investigated. Young, healthy adult volunteers were assigned to training (n = 12) or control (n = 9) groups. The 4 wk of training consisted of 16 sessions of 36 unilateral isometric plantar flexions. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction torque was tested pre- and posttraining. MRI investigation included a T1-weighted scan, diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the CST was performed on the diffusion tensor imaging images using a two-regions-of-interest approach. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated for the left and right CST in each individual before and after training. Standard functional MRI analyses and volumetric analyses of subcortical structures were also performed. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction significantly increased in both the trained and untrained legs of the training group, but not the control group. A significant decrease in mean diffusivity was found in the left CST following strength training of the right leg. No significant changes were detected in the right CST. No significant changes in cortical activation were observed following training. A significant reduction in left putamen volume was found after training. This study provides the first evidence for strength training-related changes in white matter and putamen in the healthy adult brain.

  9. Structural brain correlates of adolescent resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Keith B; Whelan, Robert; Conrod, Patricia J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Galinowski, André; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Despite calls for integration of neurobiological methods into research on youth resilience (high competence despite high adversity), we know little about structural brain correlates of resilient functioning. The aim of the current study was to test for brain regions uniquely associated with positive functioning in the context of adversity, using detailed phenotypic classification. 1,870 European adolescents (Mage  = 14.56 years, SDage  = 0.44 years, 51.5% female) underwent MRI scanning and completed behavioral and psychological measures of stressful life events, academic competence, social competence, rule-abiding conduct, personality, and alcohol use. The interaction of competence and adversity identified two regions centered on the right middle and superior frontal gyri; grey matter volumes in these regions were larger in adolescents experiencing adversity who showed positive adaptation. Differences in these regions among competence/adversity subgroups were maintained after controlling for several covariates and were robust to alternative operationalization decisions for key constructs. We demonstrate structural brain correlates of adolescent resilience, and suggest that right prefrontal structures are implicated in adaptive functioning for youth who have experienced adversity. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  11. Structural brain correlates of heart rate variability in a healthy young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Tobias; Thayer, Julian F; Pohlack, Sebastian; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Flor, Herta

    2017-03-01

    The high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV) has reliably been shown to serve as an index of autonomic inhibitory control and is increasingly considered as a biomarker of adaptability and health. While several functional neuroimaging studies identified associations between regional cerebral blood flow and HRV, studies on structural brain correlates of HRV are scarce. We investigated whether interindividual differences in HRV are related to brain morphology in healthy humans. Thirty participants underwent HRV recording at rest subsequent to structural magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical reconstruction and subcortical volumetry were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis suite. The amount of resting HRV was positively correlated with the cortical thickness of an area within the right anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Consistent with existing studies implicating forebrain regions in cardiac regulation, our findings show that the thickness of the right aMCC is associated with the degree of parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Evidence for the neural correlates of interindividual differences in HRV may complement our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between HRV and self-regulatory capacity.

  12. Structural brain correlates of human sleep oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletin, Jared M; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Gray matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, gray matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, gray matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphologic characteristics of subcortical heterotopia: MR imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, A J

    2000-02-01

    Gray matter heterotopia have been divided into three groups based on clinical and imaging characteristics: subependymal, subcortical, and band heterotopia. Nonetheless, subcortical heterotopia can have variable morphologic findings. The purpose of this study was to perform a morphologic analysis of a series of cases of subcortical heterotopia based on MR images, to correlate the morphologic appearance with clinical characteristics, and to speculate about the embryologic implications of our results. The MR imaging studies and clinical records of 24 patients with subcortical heterotopia were retrospectively reviewed. The morphologic findings of the heterotopia were recorded along with presence and type of associated malformations. These results were correlated with available data on development and neurologic status. Analysis revealed that, in six cases, the heterotopia were composed exclusively of multiple nodules, in 13, they appeared primarily as curvilinear ribbons of cortex extending into the white matter, and in five, they had deep nodular regions with curvilinear areas more peripherally. All of the curvilinear regions were contiguous with the cerebral cortex in at least two locations. In eight cases, curvilinear heterotopia contained curvilinear areas of flow void that were thought to be blood vessels; in 10, they contained fluid resembling CSF. No difference in developmental or neurologic manifestations was noted among patients with heterotopia of different morphologic appearances. Subcortical heterotopia can have nodular or curvilinear morphologic appearances. Although no difference was found in the clinical conditions of the patients with differing morphologic appearances, additional analysis of these patients or studies of animal models of these malformations may further our understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

  14. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Brain structure in pediatric Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D J; Williams Iii, A C; Koller, J M; Schlaggar, B L; Black, K J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multicenter study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM+WM volume. The TS group demonstrated lower WM volume bilaterally in orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater GM volume in posterior thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. These results demonstrate evidence for abnormal brain structure in children and youth with TS, consistent with and extending previous findings, and they point to new target regions and avenues of study in TS. For example, as orbital cortex is reciprocally connected with hypothalamus, structural abnormalities in these regions may relate to abnormal decision making, reinforcement learning or somatic processing in TS.

  16. Binge drinking differentially affects cortical and subcortical microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Laurel S; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-20

    Young adult binge drinkers represent a model for endophenotypic risk factors for alcohol misuse and early exposure to repeated binge cycles. Chronic or harmful alcohol use leads to neurochemical, structural and morphological neuroplastic changes, particularly in regions associated with reward processing and motivation. We investigated neural microstructure in 28 binge drinkers compared with 38 matched healthy controls. We used a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis, which uses three-compartment modelling (of intracellular, extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid) to determine brain tissue microstructure features including neurite density and orientation dispersion index (ODI). Binge drinkers had reduced ODI, a proxy of neurite complexity, in frontal cortical grey matter and increased ODI in parietal grey matter. Neurite density was higher in cortical white matter in adjacent regions of lower ODI in binge drinkers. Furthermore, binge drinkers had higher ventral striatal grey matter ODI that was positively correlated with binge score. Healthy volunteers showed no such relationships. We demonstrate disturbed dendritic complexity of higher-order prefrontal and parietal regions, along with higher dendritic complexity of a subcortical region known to mediate reward-related motivation. The findings illustrate novel microstructural abnormalities that may reflect an infnce of alcohol bingeing on critical neurodevelopmental processes in an at-risk young adult group. © 2017 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Structural brain alterations in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Luchtmann

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common health complaints in industrial nations. For example, chronic low back pain (cLBP disables millions of people across the world and generates a tremendous economic burden. While previous studies provided evidence of widespread functional as well as structural brain alterations in chronic pain, little is known about cortical changes in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation. We investigated morphometric alterations of the gray and white matter of the brain in patients suffering from LDH. The volumes of the gray and white matter of 12 LDH patients were determined in a prospective study and compared to the volumes of healthy controls to distinguish local differences. High-resolution MRI brain images of all participants were performed using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate local differences in gray and white matter volume between patients suffering from LDH and healthy controls. LDH patients showed significantly reduced gray matter volume in the right anterolateral prefrontal cortex, the right temporal lobe, the left premotor cortex, the right caudate nucleus, and the right cerebellum as compared to healthy controls. Increased gray matter volume, however, was found in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left precuneal cortex, the left fusiform gyrus, and the right brainstem. Additionally, small subcortical decreases of the white matter were found adjacent to the left prefrontal cortex, the right premotor cortex and in the anterior limb of the left internal capsule. We conclude that the lumbar disk herniation can lead to specific local alterations of the gray and white matter in the human brain. The investigation of LDH-induced brain alterations could provide further insight into the underlying nature of the chronification processes and could possibly identify prognostic factors that may improve the conservative as well as the operative treatment of the

  18. Structure related phylogenetic variations in brain gangliosides of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R

    1984-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides from five brain structures of vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated. The complexity of brain ganglioside composition is strikingly reduced over phyletic lines. In lower vertebrates there is only little variation in the ganglioside pattern between the different brain structures, whereas in higher vertebrates differences distinctly occurred. A similarity over phyletic lines of ganglioside pattern was only noted in phylogenetically old brain structures as for instance in the medulla oblongata and the brain stem.

  19. Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism profoundly affects the brain, yielding functional and structural changes in cortical regions dedicated to language processing and executive function [Crinion J, et al. (2006) Science 312:1537–1540; Kim KHS, et al. (1997) Nature 388:171–174]. Comparatively, musical training, another type of sensory enrichment, translates to expertise in cognitive processing and refined biological processing of sound in both cortical and subcortical structures. Therefore, we asked whether bilingualism can also promote experience-dependent plasticity in subcortical auditory processing. We found that adolescent bilinguals, listening to the speech syllable [da], encoded the stimulus more robustly than age-matched monolinguals. Specifically, bilinguals showed enhanced encoding of the fundamental frequency, a feature known to underlie pitch perception and grouping of auditory objects. This enhancement was associated with executive function advantages. Thus, through experience-related tuning of attention, the bilingual auditory system becomes highly efficient in automatically processing sound. This study provides biological evidence for system-wide neural plasticity in auditory experts that facilitates a tight coupling of sensory and cognitive functions. PMID:22547804

  20. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia).

  1. An in vivo study on brain microstructure in biological and chronological ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; de Craen, Anton J M; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) parameters of cortical gray and white matter and subcortical gray matter structures differ between subjects enriched for human familial longevity and control subjects to provide a thorough description of the brain phenot...... years - not characterized by preserved macromolecular brain tissue integrity....

  2. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42?56 years, within 5?36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 ?g/d transdermal 17?-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active ...

  3. Statistical analysis of minimum cost path based structural brain connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.; Schaap, M.; Van der Lijn, F.; Vrooman, H.A.; De Groot, M.; Van der Lugt, A.; Ikram, M.A.; Vernooij, M.W.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Niessen, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion MRI can be used to study the structural connectivity within the brain. Brain connectivity is often represented by a binary network whose topology can be studied using graph theory. We present a framework for the construction of weighted structural brain networks, containing information

  4. Gender Differences in Postresuscitative Brain Structural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ostrova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal gender differences in brain structural changes after clinical death and to assess the neuroprotective properties of the hormonal agent Gynodian Depot. Materials and methods. The brain neuronal populations were morphometrical-ly studied in adult albino rats of both sexes which had sustained 10-minute cardiac arrest. At minute 30 after resuscitation, oil solution of estradiol with dehydroepiandrosterone was intramuscularly injected into the study group animals in doses of 0.1 and 5 mg/100 g. The comparison group of animals received the equivalent volumes of saline. Gender- and age-matched intact rats served as a control. An image analysis system of cresyl violet-stained paraffin brain sections was used to determine the density and composition of highly ischemia-perfusion-sensitive populations of pyramidal neurons of Layer V of the sensomo-tor cortex, the CA1 and CA4 hippocampal sectors, and Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellum. Results. It has been established that there are gender differences in brain morphology in health, which are detectable in the postresuscitative period. The site of lesions has been found to be different in resuscitated rats of different gender. At the same time, male brain lesions are more extensive, i.e. these involve to this or that extent all the examined regions: the cerebellum and CA4 hippocamplal sector exhibit neuronal death; the cortex and CA1 hippocampal sector show dystrophic changes in the nerve cells. In the females, neuronal shedding processes were observed in the CA1 hippocampal sector only. Estradiol + dehydroepiandrosterone treatment has been ascertained to prevent nerve cell death only in the males and to fail to affect the density and composition of the neuronal populations under study in the females. Conclusion. The findings suggest that it is important to identify the structural bases of sexual dimorphism in the body’s reaction to ischemic exposure and that it is necessary to

  5. Functions of gamma-band synchronization in cognition: from single circuits to functional diversity across cortical and subcortical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Conrado A; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2014-06-01

    Gamma-band activity (30-90 Hz) and the synchronization of neural activity in the gamma-frequency range have been observed in different cortical and subcortical structures and have been associated with different cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown whether gamma-band synchronization subserves a single universal function or a diversity of functions across the full spectrum of cognitive processes. Here, we address this question reviewing the mechanisms of gamma-band oscillation generation and the functions associated with gamma-band activity across several cortical and subcortical structures. Additionally, we raise a plausible explanation of why gamma rhythms are found so ubiquitously across brain structures. Gamma band activity originates from the interplay between inhibition and excitation. We stress that gamma oscillations, associated with this interplay, originate from basic functional motifs that conferred advantages for low-level system processing and multiple cognitive functions throughout evolution. We illustrate the multifunctionality of gamma-band activity by considering its role in neural systems for perception, selective attention, memory, motivation and behavioral control. We conclude that gamma-band oscillations support multiple cognitive processes, rather than a single one, which, however, can be traced back to a limited set of circuit motifs which are found universally across species and brain structures. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42–56 years, within 5–36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Results: Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = −0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Conclusions: Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. PMID:27473135

  7. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-04

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A discrete structure of the brain waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghian, Yuri; Perotti, Luca; oscillons in biological rhythms Collaboration; physics of biological rhythms Team

    A physiological interpretation of the biological rhythms, e.g., of the local field potentials (LFP) depends on the mathematical approaches used for the analysis. Most existing mathematical methods are based on decomposing the signal into a set of ``primitives,'' e.g., sinusoidal harmonics, and correlating them with different cognitive and behavioral phenomena. A common feature of all these methods is that the decomposition semantics is presumed from the onset, and the goal of the subsequent analysis reduces merely to identifying the combination that best reproduces the original signal. We propose a fundamentally new method in which the decomposition components are discovered empirically, and demonstrate that it is more flexible and more sensitive to the signal's structure than the standard Fourier method. Applying this method to the rodent LFP signals reveals a fundamentally new structure of these ``brain waves.'' In particular, our results suggest that the LFP oscillations consist of a superposition of a small, discrete set of frequency modulated oscillatory processes, which we call ``oscillons''. Since these structures are discovered empirically, we hypothesize that they may capture the signal's actual physical structure, i.e., the pattern of synchronous activity in neuronal ensembles. Proving this hypothesis will help to advance our principal understanding of the neuronal synchronization mechanisms and reveal new structure within the LFPs and other biological oscillations. NSF 1422438 Grant, Houston Bioinformatics Endowment Fund.

  9. Modulation of Cortical-subcortical Networks in Parkinson’s Disease by Applied Field Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson's disease (PD is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation, techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS are being investigated as possible therapies. tDCS and tACS have the potential to influence the abnormal cortical-subcortical network activity that occurs in PD through sub-threshold changes in cortical excitability or through entrainment or disruption of ongoing rhythmic cortical activity. This may allow for the targeting of specific features of the disease involving abnormal oscillatory activity, as well as the enhancement of potential cortical compensation for basal ganglia dysfunction and modulation of cortical plasticity in neurorehabilitation. However, little is currently known about how cortical stimulation will affect subcortical structures, the size of any effect, and the factors of stimulation that will influence these effects.

  10. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  11. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Wang, Yishi; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  12. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    of formulaic language is at least partially modulated by the intact subcortical region, supporting the dual process model. Subcortical disease: Parkinson’s disease and recited speech Evidence of the involvement of subcortical structures in the production of formulaic language also comes from studies of subcortical injury. An examination of the spontaneous speech of people with basal ganglia stroke found fewer formulaic expressions than healthy adults or people with left hemisphere lesions (Sidtis et al., 2009; Illes et al., 1988. Similarly, a case study of a man post-subcortical stroke described deficits in the ability to recite prayers, a longer form of formulaic language (Speedie et al., 1993. A study of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, a progressive disease causing dysfunction of the basal ganglia circuitry, sought to extend Speedie et al.’s (1993 findings with group data (Bridges et al., 2013b. Two groups of people with PD (M age = 60.9, 6 with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS, and 7 without STN-DBS, and another 7 healthy participants (HC were asked to recite familiar poems, prayers and rhymes (Humpty Dumpty, Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Mary Had a Little Lamb, Jack and Jill, Roses are Red, Sticks and Stones, The Lord’s Prayer, and The Pledge of Allegiance. Groups were compared for the percent of error words produced (out of all non-target words produced during the task. The STN-DBS group in the OFF condition (a more severe state of subcortical dysfunction produced significantly more error words (37.13% than HCs (17.44%. The STN-DBS group in the ON condition (33.34% and the PD group without STN-DBS (21.53% fell between the STN-DBS OFF condition and HCs. These results provide further support for the dual process model of language production, as individuals with the most severe state of subcortical dysfunction perform poorly on recited speech tasks when compared to healthy adults, indicating the importance of intact

  13. The impact of large structural brain changes in chronic stroke patients on the electric field caused by transcranial brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Minjoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS are two types of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (TBS. They are useful tools for stroke research and may be potential adjunct therapies for functional recovery. However, stroke often causes large cerebral lesions, which are commonly accompanied by a secondary enlargement of the ventricles and atrophy. These structural alterations substantially change the conductivity distribution inside the head, which may have potentially important consequences for both brain stimulation methods. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of these changes on the spatial distribution of the electric field generated by both TBS methods. In addition to confirming the safety of TBS in the presence of large stroke-related structural changes, our aim was to clarify whether targeted stimulation is still possible. Realistic head models containing large cortical and subcortical stroke lesions in the right parietal cortex were created using MR images of two patients. For TMS, the electric field of a double coil was simulated using the finite-element method. Systematic variations of the coil position relative to the lesion were tested. For TDCS, the finite-element method was used to simulate a standard approach with two electrode pads, and the position of one electrode was systematically varied. For both TMS and TDCS, the lesion caused electric field “hot spots” in the cortex. However, these maxima were not substantially stronger than those seen in a healthy control. The electric field pattern induced by TMS was not substantially changed by the lesions. However, the average field strength generated by TDCS was substantially decreased. This effect occurred for both head models and even when both electrodes were distant to the lesion, caused by increased current shunting through the lesion and enlarged ventricles. Judging from the similar peak field strengths compared

  14. The impact of large structural brain changes in chronic stroke patients on the electric field caused by transcranial brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minjoli, Sena; Saturnino, Guilherme B; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Stagg, Charlotte J; Siebner, Hartwig R; Antunes, André; Thielscher, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) are two types of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (TBS). They are useful tools for stroke research and may be potential adjunct therapies for functional recovery. However, stroke often causes large cerebral lesions, which are commonly accompanied by a secondary enlargement of the ventricles and atrophy. These structural alterations substantially change the conductivity distribution inside the head, which may have potentially important consequences for both brain stimulation methods. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of these changes on the spatial distribution of the electric field generated by both TBS methods. In addition to confirming the safety of TBS in the presence of large stroke-related structural changes, our aim was to clarify whether targeted stimulation is still possible. Realistic head models containing large cortical and subcortical stroke lesions in the right parietal cortex were created using MR images of two patients. For TMS, the electric field of a double coil was simulated using the finite-element method. Systematic variations of the coil position relative to the lesion were tested. For TDCS, the finite-element method was used to simulate a standard approach with two electrode pads, and the position of one electrode was systematically varied. For both TMS and TDCS, the lesion caused electric field "hot spots" in the cortex. However, these maxima were not substantially stronger than those seen in a healthy control. The electric field pattern induced by TMS was not substantially changed by the lesions. However, the average field strength generated by TDCS was substantially decreased. This effect occurred for both head models and even when both electrodes were distant to the lesion, caused by increased current shunting through the lesion and enlarged ventricles. Judging from the similar peak field strengths compared to the healthy

  15. Effect of brain structure, brain function, and brain connectivity on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Genauck, Alexander; Wrase, Jana; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Mann, Karl; Heinz, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    In alcohol-dependent patients, brain atrophy and functional brain activation elicited by alcohol-associated stimuli may predict relapse. However, to date, the interaction between both factors has not been studied. To determine whether results from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging are associated with relapse in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. A cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance experiment with alcohol-associated and neutral stimuli. After a follow-up period of 3 months, the group of 46 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients was subdivided into 16 abstainers and 30 relapsers. Faculty for Clinical Medicine Mannheim at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. A total of 46 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects Local gray matter volume, local stimulus-related functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, joint analyses of structural and functional data with Biological Parametric Mapping, and connectivity analyses adopting the psychophysiological interaction approach. Subsequent relapsers showed pronounced atrophy in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the right medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, compared with healthy controls and patients who remained abstinent. The local gray matter volume-corrected brain response elicited by alcohol-associated vs neutral stimuli in the left medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced for subsequent relapsers, whereas abstainers displayed an increased neural response in the midbrain (the ventral tegmental area extending into the subthalamic nucleus) and ventral striatum. For alcohol-associated vs neutral stimuli in abstainers compared with relapsers, the analyses of the psychophysiological interaction showed a stronger functional connectivity between the midbrain and the left amygdala and between the midbrain and the left orbitofrontal cortex. Subsequent relapsers displayed increased brain atrophy in brain areas associated with

  16. Contrast enhancement by combining T1- and T2-weighted structural brain MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Masaya; Savitz, Jonathan; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Yuan, Han; Young, Kymberly D; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    In order to more precisely differentiate cerebral structures in neuroimaging studies, a novel technique for enhancing the tissue contrast based on a combination of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI images was developed. The combined image (CI) was calculated as CI = (T1w - sT2w)/(T1w + sT2w), where sT2w is the scaled T2-weighted image. The scaling factor was calculated to adjust the gray- matter (GM) voxel intensities in the T2w image so that their median value equaled that of the GM voxel intensities in the T1w image. The image intensity homogeneity within a tissue and the discriminability between tissues in the CI versus the separate T1w and T2w images were evaluated using the segmentation by the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) and FreeSurfer (Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA) software. The combined image significantly improved homogeneity in the white matter (WM) and GM compared to the T1w images alone. The discriminability between WM and GM also improved significantly by applying the CI approach. Significant enhancements to the homogeneity and discriminability also were achieved in most subcortical nuclei tested, with the exception of the amygdala and the thalamus. The tissue discriminability enhancement offered by the CI potentially enables more accurate neuromorphometric analyses of brain structures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in a single gene disorder associated with epilepsy, language impairment and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bathelt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability. We used multiple structural neuroimaging methods to characterise neuroanatomy in this group, and observed bilateral reductions in cortical thickness in areas surrounding the temporo-parietal junction, parietal lobule, and inferior frontal lobe, and decreased microstructural integrity of cortical, subcortical-cortical, and interhemispheric white matter projections. These findings are compared to reports for other genetic groups and genetically heterogeneous disorders with a similar presentation. Overlap in the neuroanatomical phenotype suggests a common pathway that particularly affects the development of temporo-parietal and inferior frontal areas, and their connections.

  18. Assessing cortical and subcortical changes in a western diet mouse model using spectral/Fourier domain OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernucci, Marcel T.; Norman, Jennifer E.; Merkle, Conrad W.; Aung, Hnin H.; Rutkowsky, Jennifer; Rutledge, John C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-02-01

    The Western diet, causative in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, has recently been associated with the development of diffuse white matter disease (WMD) and other subcortical changes. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms by which a high-fat diet can cause WMD. Mechanistic studies of deep brain regions in mice have been challenging due to a lack of non-invasive, high-resolution, and deep imaging technologies. Here we used Optical Coherence Tomography to study mouse cortical/subcortical structures noninvasively and in vivo. To better understand the role of Western Diet in the development of WMD, intensity and Doppler flow OCT images, obtained using a 1300 nm spectral / Fourier domain OCT system, were used to observe the structural and functional alterations in the cortex and corpus callosum of Western Diet and control diet mouse models. Specifically, we applied segmentation to the OCT images to identify the boundaries of the cortex/corpus callosum, and further quantify the layer thicknesses across animals between the two diet groups. Furthermore, microvasculature alterations such as changes in spatiotemporal flow profiles within diving arterioles, arteriole diameter, and collateral tortuosity were analyzed. In the current study, while the arteriole vessel diameters between the two diet groups was comparable, we show that collateral tortuosity was significantly higher in the Western diet group, compared to control diet group, possibly indicating remodeling of brain vasculature due to dietary changes. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the corpus callosum is thinner in Western diet mice, indicative of tissue atrophy.

  19. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D.; Siegel, Joshua S.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E.; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1–2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition. PMID:25741721

  20. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  1. Two-stage multishape segmentation of brain structures using image intensity, tissue type, and location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a fast, robust, nonparametric, entropy-based, coupled, multishape approach to segment subcortical brain structures from magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The proposed method uses three types of information: Image intensity, tissue types, and locations of structures. The image intensity information is captured by estimating the probability density function (pdf) of the image intensities in each structure. The tissue type information is captured by applying an unsupervised tissue segmentation method to the image and estimating a probability mass function (pmf) for the tissue type of each structure. The location information is captured by estimating pdf of the location of each structure from the training datasets. The resulting pmf's and pdf's are used to define an entropy function whose minimum corresponds to a desirable segmentation of the structures. The authors propose a three-step optimization strategy for the segmentation method. In the first step, a powerful automatic initialization method is developed based on tissue type and location information of the structures. In the second step, a quasi-Newton method is used to optimize the parameters of the energy function. To speed up the iterations, derivatives of the energy function with respect to its parameters are analytically derived and used in the optimization process. In the last step, the limitations related to the prior shape model are removed and a level-set method is applied for the fine tuning of the segmentation results. The proposed method is applied to two different datasets and the results are compared to those of previous methods in literature. Experimental results are presented for lateral ventricles, caudate, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, and amygdala. The results illustrate superior performance of the proposed segmentation method compared to other methods in literature. The execution time of the algorithm is a few minutes, suitable for a variety of applications.

  2. Cortical and subcortical predictive dynamics and learning during perception, cognition, emotion and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    An intimate link exists between the predictive and learning processes in the brain. Perceptual/cognitive and spatial/motor processes use complementary predictive mechanisms to learn, recognize, attend and plan about objects in the world, determine their current value, and act upon them. Recent neural models clarify these mechanisms and how they interact in cortical and subcortical brain regions. The present paper reviews and synthesizes data and models of these processes, and outlines a unified theory of predictive brain processing. PMID:19528003

  3. Statistical machine learning to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI) from structural disconnections of white matter networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Shen, Kai-Kai; Ghose, Soumya; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Pannek, Kerstin; Taylor, D Jamie; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting with normal appearing radiological MRI presents a significant challenge. Neuroimaging methods such as diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography, which probe the connectivity of neural networks, show significant promise. We present a machine learning approach to classify TBI participants primarily with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on altered structural connectivity patterns derived through the network based statistical analysis of structural connectomes generated from TBI and age-matched control groups. In this approach, higher order diffusion models were used to map white matter connections between 116 cortical and subcortical regions. Tracts between these regions were generated using probabilistic tracking and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) measures along these connections were encoded in the connectivity matrices. Network-based statistical analysis of the connectivity matrices was performed to identify the network differences between a representative subset of the two groups. The affected network connections provided the feature vectors for principal component analysis and subsequent classification by random forest. The validity of the approach was tested using data acquired from a total of 179 TBI patients and 146 controls participants. The analysis revealed altered connectivity within a number of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways associated with DAI, in consensus with existing literature. A mean classification accuracy of 68.16%±1.81% and mean sensitivity of 80.0%±2.36% were achieved in correctly classifying the TBI patients evaluated on the subset of the participants that was not used for the statistical analysis, in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. These results highlight the potential for statistical machine learning approaches applied to structural connectomes to identify patients with diffusive axonal injury. Copyright

  4. Brain structural substrates of semantic memory decline in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Pellegrini, Francesca Ferrari; Marchi, Massimo; Venneri, Annalena; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Semantic memory decline has been found in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study performance on a range of semantic tasks and structural brain patterns were examined in a group of MCI patients. Fourteen MCI and sixteen healthy elderly controls underwent semantic memory assessment and MRI brain scanning. The cognitive battery included visual naming and naming from definition tasks for objects, actions and famous people, semantic fluency for animals, fruits, tools, furniture, singers, politicians, actions, word-association task for early and late acquired words and a reading task. MCI patients performed worse on semantic fluency in all categories except for tools, produced a smaller number of words associated with early acquired nouns and a smaller total number of word-associations. Patients scored more poorly in all tasks of naming, naming of famous people, overall reading and reading of famous people's names. MCIs had fewer correct immediate recalls and more correct responses with cue in famous people naming, made more errors in naming and in the naming from definition task for famous people. Grey matter reduction in parahippocampus, frontal and cingulate cortices and amygdala was found in the MCI sample when compared with controls. Patients presented a different pattern of brain areas correlated with semantic tasks from that seen in controls, with more extensive involvement of subcortical regions in semantic fluency and word-association and more contribution of frontal than temporo-parietal areas in visual naming. This evidence suggests a reorganization of cortical associations of semantic processes in MCI that, following damage in the semantic circuit, explains its progressive breakdown.

  5. Structural brain plasticity in adult learning and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Wenger, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Johan; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Recent research using magnetic resonance imaging has documented changes in the adult human brain's grey matter structure induced by alterations in experiential demands. We review this research and relate it to models of brain plasticity from related strands of research, such as work on animal models. This allows us to generate recommendations and predictions for future research that may advance the understanding of the function, sequential progression, and microstructural nature of experience-dependent changes in regional brain volumes. Informed by recent evidence on adult age differences in structural brain plasticity, we show how understanding learning-related changes in human brain structure can expand our knowledge about adult development and aging. We hope that this review will promote research on the mechanisms regulating experience-dependent structural plasticity of the adult human brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring patterns of alteration in Alzheimer’s disease brain networks: a combined structural and functional connectomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Palesi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the disconnection syndrome hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC. In the default mode network (DMN, that was the most affected, axonal loss and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN, disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN, neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, towards the support of an emerging concept of AD as a

  7. Robust estimation of fractal measures for characterizing the structural complexity of the human brain: optimization and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Sporns, Olaf; Cheng, Hu; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Wang, Yang; Josa, Santiago; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Mathews, Vincent P; Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Saykin, Andrew J; Pastor, María A

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution isotropic three-dimensional reconstructions of human brain gray and white matter structures can be characterized to quantify aspects of their shape, volume and topological complexity. In particular, methods based on fractal analysis have been applied in neuroimaging studies to quantify the structural complexity of the brain in both healthy and impaired conditions. The usefulness of such measures for characterizing individual differences in brain structure critically depends on their within-subject reproducibility in order to allow the robust detection of between-subject differences. This study analyzes key analytic parameters of three fractal-based methods that rely on the box-counting algorithm with the aim to maximize within-subject reproducibility of the fractal characterizations of different brain objects, including the pial surface, the cortical ribbon volume, the white matter volume and the gray matter/white matter boundary. Two separate datasets originating from different imaging centers were analyzed, comprising 50 subjects with three and 24 subjects with four successive scanning sessions per subject, respectively. The reproducibility of fractal measures was statistically assessed by computing their intra-class correlations. Results reveal differences between different fractal estimators and allow the identification of several parameters that are critical for high reproducibility. Highest reproducibility with intra-class correlations in the range of 0.9-0.95 is achieved with the correlation dimension. Further analyses of the fractal dimensions of parcellated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions suggest robustly estimated and region-specific patterns of individual variability. These results are valuable for defining appropriate parameter configurations when studying changes in fractal descriptors of human brain structure, for instance in studies of neurological diseases that do not allow repeated measurements or for disease

  8. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  9. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan

    2011-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact...... constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes...... in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions...

  11. Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    technologies provide potentially useful, yet different, indices of brain activity. fNIR provides a measure of changes in blood oxygen concentrations and blood ...characteristics of complex brain-generated network activity (which we leave for future efforts). Third, the windowing to compute the WPLI smears the signal...periods of significance and on a trial-by-trial basis, the WPLI values of the channel data do not precisely coincide with the brain-related alpha

  12. Striatal Dopaminergic Innervation Regulates Subthalamic Beta-Oscillations and Cortical-Subcortical Coupling during Movements: Preliminary Evidence in Subjects with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Pozzi, Nicolò G.; Arnulfo, Gabriele; Brumberg, Joachim; Reich, Martin M.; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ghilardi, Maria F.; Matthies, Cordula; Steigerwald, Frank; Volkmann, Jens; Isaias, Ioannis U.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the basal ganglia has been shown during the preparation and execution of movement. However, the functional interaction of cortical and subcortical brain areas during movement and the relative contribution of dopaminergic striatal innervation remains unclear. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) signals in four patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) off dopaminergic medication during a multi-joint motor task performed with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Recordings were performed by means of a fully-implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) device at 4 months after surgery. Three patients also performed a single-photon computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (FP-CIT) to assess striatal dopaminergic innervation. Unilateral movement execution led to event-related desynchronization (ERD) followed by a rebound after movement termination event-related synchronization (ERS) of oscillatory beta activity in the STN and primary sensorimotor cortex of both hemispheres. Dopamine deficiency directly influenced movement-related beta-modulation, with greater beta-suppression in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere for both ipsi- and contralateral hand movements. Cortical-subcortical, but not interhemispheric subcortical coherencies were modulated by movement and influenced by striatal dopaminergic innervation, being stronger in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere. The data are consistent with a role of dopamine in shielding subcortical structures from an excessive cortical entrapment and cross-hemispheric coupling, thus allowing fine-tuning of movement. PMID:27999534

  13. Striatal Dopaminergic Innervation Regulates Subthalamic Beta-Oscillations and Cortical-Subcortical Coupling during Movements: Preliminary Evidence in Subjects with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Pozzi, Nicolò G; Arnulfo, Gabriele; Brumberg, Joachim; Reich, Martin M; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ghilardi, Maria F; Matthies, Cordula; Steigerwald, Frank; Volkmann, Jens; Isaias, Ioannis U

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the basal ganglia has been shown during the preparation and execution of movement. However, the functional interaction of cortical and subcortical brain areas during movement and the relative contribution of dopaminergic striatal innervation remains unclear. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) signals in four patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) off dopaminergic medication during a multi-joint motor task performed with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Recordings were performed by means of a fully-implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) device at 4 months after surgery. Three patients also performed a single-photon computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (FP-CIT) to assess striatal dopaminergic innervation. Unilateral movement execution led to event-related desynchronization (ERD) followed by a rebound after movement termination event-related synchronization (ERS) of oscillatory beta activity in the STN and primary sensorimotor cortex of both hemispheres. Dopamine deficiency directly influenced movement-related beta-modulation, with greater beta-suppression in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere for both ipsi- and contralateral hand movements. Cortical-subcortical, but not interhemispheric subcortical coherencies were modulated by movement and influenced by striatal dopaminergic innervation, being stronger in the most dopamine-depleted hemisphere. The data are consistent with a role of dopamine in shielding subcortical structures from an excessive cortical entrapment and cross-hemispheric coupling, thus allowing fine-tuning of movement.

  14. Artefactual subcortical hyperperfusion in PET studies normalized to global mean: lessons from Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Aanerud, Joel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) report subcortical increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), after conventional normalization to the global mean. However, if the global mean CBF or CMRglc is decreased in the PD group, this normalization...... necessarily generates artificial relative increases in regions unaffected by the disease. This potential bias may explain the reported subcortical increases in PD. To test this hypothesis, we performed simulations with manipulation and subsequently analysis of sets of quantitative CBF maps by voxel...... the global mean or to the white matter mean. RESULTS: In Simulation I, global normalization robustly created artefactual subcortical increases, irrespective of analysis methodology. Simulation II demonstrated that an increased signal from the small subcortical structures involved in PD can probably...

  15. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therefore, Dr. Jentsch says, to answer this question, future studies should track primate brains through longer abstinence. “Methamphetamine ... Tracks Reward's Value and Steps to Obtain It Study shows e-cigarettes affect brain similarly to other nicotine sources ... PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft PowerPoint ...

  17. Whole-brain functional connectivity predicted by indirect structural connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Albers, Kristoffer Jon

    2017-01-01

    Modern functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dMRI) provide data from which macro-scale networks of functional and structural whole brain connectivity can be estimated. Although networks derived from these two modalities describe different properties of the human brain......, they emerge from the same underlying brain organization, and functional communication is presumably mediated by structural connections. In this paper, we assess the structure-function relationship by evaluating how well functional connectivity can be predicted from structural graphs. Using high......-resolution whole brain networks generated with varying density, we contrast the performance of several non-parametric link predictors that measure structural communication flow. While functional connectivity is not well predicted directly by structural connections, we show that superior predictions can be achieved...

  18. [Structural Brain Development in Healthy Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Brain maturation progresses throughout childhood into adolescence. Investigating the mechanism of brain development during these periods in healthy people is necessary for some clinical purposes. For example, these mechanisms are needed to investigate the mechanism of impaired brain maturation in neurodevelopmental disorders-such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyper disorder-and improve early prevention of psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases like depression or Alzheimer's disease. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an effective way to analyze brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children and adolescents, as the brain structures of children and adolescents vary widely depending on their age, sex, and several other factors. In this article, information from studies using VBM about the relationship between structural brain development in healthy children and adolescents and age, life style, parenting, and genetic variations is discussed.

  19. Structural Graphical Lasso for Learning Mouse Brain Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into brain connectivity aim to recover networks of brain regions connected by anatomical tracts or by functional associations. The inference of brain networks has recently attracted much interest due to the increasing availability of high-resolution brain imaging data. Sparse inverse covariance estimation with lasso and group lasso penalty has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach to discover brain networks. Motivated by the hierarchical structure of the brain networks, we consider the problem of estimating a graphical model with tree-structural regularization in this paper. The regularization encourages the graphical model to exhibit a brain-like structure. Specifically, in this hierarchical structure, hundreds of thousands of voxels serve as the leaf nodes of the tree. A node in the intermediate layer represents a region formed by voxels in the subtree rooted at that node. The whole brain is considered as the root of the tree. We propose to apply the tree-structural regularized graphical model to estimate the mouse brain network. However, the dimensionality of whole-brain data, usually on the order of hundreds of thousands, poses significant computational challenges. Efficient algorithms that are capable of estimating networks from high-dimensional data are highly desired. To address the computational challenge, we develop a screening rule which can quickly identify many zero blocks in the estimated graphical model, thereby dramatically reducing the computational cost of solving the proposed model. It is based on a novel insight on the relationship between screening and the so-called proximal operator that we first establish in this paper. We perform experiments on both synthetic data and real data from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas; results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Structural similarities between brain and linguistic data provide evidence of semantic relations in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen E Crangle

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.

  1. Safety of eptifibatide for subcortical stroke progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Shaltoni, Hashem; Abraham, Anitha T; Barreto, Andrew D; Hallevi, Hen; Gonzales, Nicole R; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2009-01-01

    There is no proven treatment for stroke progression in patients with subcortical infarcts. Eptifibatide, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, might halt stroke progression by improving flow in the microcirculation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with subcortical stroke who experienced deterioration and were treated with eptifibatide (loading dose 180 microg/kg; infusion 2 m microg/kg/min) for 24-48 h. Oral antiplatelet agents were started 6 h before discontinuation of eptifibatide. Twenty-four patients with subcortical strokes were treated. The median admission NIHSS score was 5.0, which worsened to 8.5 (motor 5.0) before starting eptifibatide. The median NIHSS score 24 h after starting eptifibatide was 5.5. At 24 h, 42% had motor NIHSS scores less than or equal to pre-deterioration scores (50% for total NIHSS), and 50% had improved at least 1 motor point compared to pre-eptifibatide scores, which was sustained until hospital discharge. At discharge, the median total NIHSS score was 4.5. Ninety-two percent of patients were discharged home or to inpatient rehabilitation. Treatment was stopped early in 1 case due to a platelet drop Eptifibatide infusion may be safe in patients with subcortical ischemic strokes. Future studies are needed to test the safety and potential efficacy of this agent in subcortical stroke progression. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Impact of an Invasive Longhorned Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), on Community Structure of Subcortical and Wood-Associated Insects in Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heustis, Allyson; Moise, Eric R D; Johns, Rob; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Heard, Stephen B

    2017-12-29

    Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle introduced from Eurasia, attacks spruce in eastern Canada alongside its native congener Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby. We reared phloem- and wood-feeding insects (and their predators) from bolts of red and Norway spruce (Picea rubens and Picea abies) in Nova Scotia, comparing insect communities between bolts with added eggs of T. fuscum or T. cinnamopterum and bolts without added Tetropium (controls). We tested for impacts of each Tetropium on insect community structure (Simpson's diversity, richness, and evenness). We also asked whether, consistent with Darwin's Naturalization Hypothesis, Tetropium spp. would have greater impacts on emergence of its closer relatives (which might be most likely to compete and/or share natural enemies). Addition of Tetropium eggs (either species) to bolts lowered insect diversity in both host trees. Both richness and evenness components of diversity were always lower in +Tetropium treatments, although different components reached statistical significance in different Tetropium species × host combinations. Addition of Tetropium spp. significantly reduced emergence of some species: Evodinus monticola (Randall) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was reduced by T. fuscum on both hosts and by T. cinnamopterum on Norway spruce; Hylobius congener Dalla Torre, Schenkling, and Marshall was reduced by T. fuscum on red spruce; and Xylophagus sp. (Diptera: Xylophagidae) was reduced by T. cinnamopterum on Norway spruce. However, there was no relationship between Tetropium's impact on a community member and their phylogenetic relatedness, and the overall impacts of Tetropium presence were not very different between T. fuscum and T. cinnamopterum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...

  4. Intelligence and Giftedness: Changes in the Structure of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatella, Maria Lucia Prado

    1999-01-01

    Explores research on the concepts of intelligences and giftedness. Considers the importance of the brain, its organization and functions, different theories about intelligence and the possibility of boosting it, and changes that occur in brain structure as a consequence of the interactions between genetic traits and experiences. (Author/CR)

  5. Lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia: molecular basis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, R J; Pilz, D T; Matsumoto, N; Ledbetter, D H; Dobyns, W B

    2000-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is now used routinely in the evaluation of developmental and neurological disorders and provides exquisite images of the living human brain. Consequently, it is evident that cortical malformations are more common than previously thought. Among the most severe is classical lissencephaly, in which the cortex lacks the complex folding that characterizes the normal human brain. Lissencephaly includes agyria and pachygyria, and merges with subcortical band heterotopia. Current molecular genetic techniques combined with the identification of affected patients have enabled the detection of two of the genes responsible: LIS1 (PAFAH1B1) on chromosome 17 and DCX (doublecortin) on the X chromosome. This review highlights the discovery of these genes and discusses the advances made in understanding the molecular basis of cortical development and improvements in diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  6. Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia: attentional cortex study in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zheng, J; Wang, J; Gui, L

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Stroop test were used to assess attentional cortex activation in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subcortical vascular dementia, and normal control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia demonstrated similar locations of cortical activation, including the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyri, anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule in response to Stroop colour word stimuli. This activation was distinctly decreased in patients with dementia compared with normal control subjects. Different regions of the brain were activated in patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia compared with normal controls. fMRI is a useful tool for the study of dementia in humans and has some potential diagnostic value. Further studies with larger numbers of participants are required.

  7. 3D fully convolutional networks for subcortical segmentation in MRI: A large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Jose; Desrosiers, Christian; Ben Ayed, Ismail

    2017-04-24

    This study investigates a 3D and fully convolutional neural network (CNN) for subcortical brain structure segmentation in MRI. 3D CNN architectures have been generally avoided due to their computational and memory requirements during inference. We address the problem via small kernels, allowing deeper architectures. We further model both local and global context by embedding intermediate-layer outputs in the final prediction, which encourages consistency between features extracted at different scales and embeds fine-grained information directly in the segmentation process. Our model is efficiently trained end-to-end on a graphics processing unit (GPU), in a single stage, exploiting the dense inference capabilities of fully CNNs. We performed comprehensive experiments over two publicly available datasets. First, we demonstrate a state-of-the-art performance on the ISBR dataset. Then, we report a large-scale multi-site evaluation over 1112 unregistered subject datasets acquired from 17 different sites (ABIDE dataset), with ages ranging from 7 to 64 years, showing that our method is robust to various acquisition protocols, demographics and clinical factors. Our method yielded segmentations that are highly consistent with a standard atlas-based approach, while running in a fraction of the time needed by atlas-based methods and avoiding registration/normalization steps. This makes it convenient for massive multi-site neuroanatomical imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to study subcortical structure segmentation on such large-scale and heterogeneous data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity to musical structure in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H.; Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that regions in the temporal lobes, distinct from those engaged in lower-level auditory analysis, process the pitch and rhythmic structure in music. In contrast, neuroimaging studies targeting the representation of music structure have primarily implicated regions in the inferior frontal cortices. Combining individual-subject fMRI analyses with a scrambling method that manipulated musical structure, we provide evidence of brain regions sensitive to musical structure bilaterally in the temporal lobes, thus reconciling the neuroimaging and patient findings. We further show that these regions are sensitive to the scrambling of both pitch and rhythmic structure but are insensitive to high-level linguistic structure. Our results suggest the existence of brain regions with representations of musical structure that are distinct from high-level linguistic representations and lower-level acoustic representations. These regions provide targets for future research investigating possible neural specialization for music or its associated mental processes. PMID:23019005

  9. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  10. Cortical and subcortical networks in human secondarily generalized tonic–clonic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, G. I.; Purcaro, M.J.; Motelow, J.E.; Enev, M.; McNally, K. A.; Levin, A.R.; Hirsch, L. J.; Tikofsky, R.; Zubal, I. G.; Paige, A. L.; Spencer, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Generalized tonic–clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily generalized seizures from 53 patients. Images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping to detect cortical and subcortical regions most commonly affected in three different time periods: (i) during the partial seizure phase prior to generalization; (ii) during the generalization period; and (iii) post-ictally. We found that in the pre-generalization period, there were focal CBF increases in the temporal lobe on group analysis, reflecting the most common region of partial seizure onset. During generalization, individual patients had focal CBF increases in variable regions of the cerebral cortex. Group analysis during generalization revealed that the most consistent increase occurred in the superior medial cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Post-ictally, there was a marked progressive CBF increase in the cerebellum which spread to involve the bilateral lateral cerebellar hemispheres, as well as CBF increases in the midbrain and basal ganglia. CBF decreases were seen in the fronto-parietal association cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus during and following seizures, similar to the ‘default mode’ regions reported previously to show decreased activity in seizures and in normal behavioural tasks. Analysis of patient behaviour during and following seizures showed impaired consciousness at the time of SPECT tracer injections. Correlation analysis across patients demonstrated that cerebellar CBF increases were related to increases in the upper brainstem and thalamus, and to decreases in the fronto-parietal association cortex. These results reveal a network of cortical and subcortical structures that

  11. Cortical and subcortical networks in human secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, H; Varghese, G I; Purcaro, M J; Motelow, J E; Enev, M; McNally, K A; Levin, A R; Hirsch, L J; Tikofsky, R; Zubal, I G; Paige, A L; Spencer, S S

    2009-04-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are among the most dramatic physiological events in the nervous system. The brain regions involved during partial seizures with secondary generalization have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 59 secondarily generalized seizures from 53 patients. Images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping to detect cortical and subcortical regions most commonly affected in three different time periods: (i) during the partial seizure phase prior to generalization; (ii) during the generalization period; and (iii) post-ictally. We found that in the pre-generalization period, there were focal CBF increases in the temporal lobe on group analysis, reflecting the most common region of partial seizure onset. During generalization, individual patients had focal CBF increases in variable regions of the cerebral cortex. Group analysis during generalization revealed that the most consistent increase occurred in the superior medial cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Post-ictally, there was a marked progressive CBF increase in the cerebellum which spread to involve the bilateral lateral cerebellar hemispheres, as well as CBF increases in the midbrain and basal ganglia. CBF decreases were seen in the fronto-parietal association cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus during and following seizures, similar to the 'default mode' regions reported previously to show decreased activity in seizures and in normal behavioural tasks. Analysis of patient behaviour during and following seizures showed impaired consciousness at the time of SPECT tracer injections. Correlation analysis across patients demonstrated that cerebellar CBF increases were related to increases in the upper brainstem and thalamus, and to decreases in the fronto-parietal association cortex. These results reveal a network of cortical and subcortical structures that are most

  12. Diffusion Tensor Tractography Reveals Disrupted Structural Connectivity during Brain Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Tian, Miao; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shuicai

    2017-10-01

    Brain aging is one of the most crucial biological processes that entail many physical, biological, chemical, and psychological changes, and also a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases. To improve the quality of life for the elderly, it is important to understand how the brain is changed during the normal aging process. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 75 healthy old subjects by using graph theory metrics to describe the anatomical networks and connectivity patterns, and network-based statistic (NBS) analysis was used to identify pairs of regions with altered structural connectivity. The NBS analysis revealed a significant network comprising nine distinct fiber bundles linking 10 different brain regions showed altered white matter structures in young-old group compare with middle-aged group (p < .05, family-wise error-corrected). Our results might guide future studies and help to gain a better understanding of brain aging.

  13. Structural and Functional Plasticity in the Maternal Brain Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social…

  14. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  15. The Physical Brain: New Approaches to Brain Structure, Activity, and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.

    By viewing the brain as a multiscale physical system it is possible to circumvent the shortcomings of abstract signal-based and statistical approaches to analysis of brain structure, activity, and function. Eigenmode approaches enable the key elements of brain structure to be isolated systematically, along with their effects on brain activity and functional measures. Physiologically-based neural field theory permits tractable analysis from sub-mm scales to the whole brain, demonstrating the near-critical state of normal brain operation, relationships between structure and function, nonlinear dynamics, and phase transitions. Results in normal and abnormal states include experimentally verified predictions of electrical and hemodynamic signals, and the successful inversion of functional correlation measures to infer underlying brain structure, including connectivities that cannot be measured directly. These results illustrate the power of physically based modeling to predict, explain, and unify multiple observations across scales. Furthermore, they open up ways to expand the field of biological physics and apply it to a host of new phenomena. Australian Research Council, Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  16. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome : Results of a Large Brain Bank Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Bosman, Sjanne; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Verwey, Nicolaas A; Stek, Max L; Scheltens, Philip; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: A clinical frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is generally attributed to functional or structural disturbances within frontal-subcortical circuits. We studied the distribution of pathological brain changes in FLS. Additionally, the prevalence of FLS among various disorders was studied. METHODS: We

  17. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using 18F-FDG PET and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and structural brain changes in TR-PTSD. PMID:27082610

  18. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using ¹⁸F-FDG PET and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-04-01

    Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and structural brain changes in TR-PTSD.

  19. Adolescent brain development : A longitudinal twin study into structural brain development and its relation to hormone levels and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenis, M.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by major changes in hormone levels, physical appearance, cognition, brain structure and function. The teenage brain undergoes considerable reorganization on a structural and functional level. These changes may be associated with cognitive and social development.

  20. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  1. Selecting the most relevant brain regions to discriminate Alzheimer's disease patients from healthy controls using multiple kernel learning: A comparison across functional and structural imaging modalities and atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, Jane Maryam; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; de Souza Duran, Fabio Luis; Kubo, Rodrigo; Ono, Carla Rachel; Leite, Claudia Costa; Smid, Jerusa; Nitrini, Ricardo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning techniques such as support vector machine (SVM) have been applied recently in order to accurately classify individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on neuroimaging data. However, the multivariate nature of the SVM approach often precludes the identification of the brain regions that contribute most to classification accuracy. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a sparse machine learning method that allows the identification of the most relevant sources for the classification. By parcelating the brain into regions of interest (ROI) it is possible to use each ROI as a source to MKL (ROI-MKL). We applied MKL to multimodal neuroimaging data in order to: 1) compare the diagnostic performance of ROI-MKL and whole-brain SVM in discriminating patients with AD from demographically matched healthy controls and 2) identify the most relevant brain regions to the classification. We used two atlases (AAL and Brodmann's) to parcelate the brain into ROIs and applied ROI-MKL to structural (T1) MRI, 18 F-FDG-PET and regional cerebral blood flow SPECT (rCBF-SPECT) data acquired from the same subjects (20 patients with early AD and 18 controls). In ROI-MKL, each ROI received a weight (ROI-weight) that indicated the region's relevance to the classification. For each ROI, we also calculated whether there was a predominance of voxels indicating decreased or increased regional activity (for 18 F-FDG-PET and rCBF-SPECT) or volume (for T1-MRI) in AD patients. Compared to whole-brain SVM, the ROI-MKL approach resulted in better accuracies (with either atlas) for classification using 18 F-FDG-PET (92.5% accuracy for ROI-MKL versus 84% for whole-brain), but not when using rCBF-SPECT or T1-MRI. Although several cortical and subcortical regions contributed to discrimination, high ROI-weights and predominance of hypometabolism and atrophy were identified specially in medial parietal and temporo-limbic cortical regions. Also, the weight of

  2. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naive depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

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    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  3. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input

  4. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Hornickel, Jane; Kraus, Nina

    2011-10-17

    Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input. Definition of common biological underpinnings

  5. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strait Dana L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to

  6. Cortical thickness and hippocampal shape in pure vascular mild cognitive impairment and dementia of subcortical type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ye, B S; Yoon, C W; Noh, Y; Kim, G H; Cho, H; Jeon, S; Lee, J M; Kim, J-H; Seong, J-K; Kim, C-H; Choe, Y S; Lee, K H; Kim, S T; Kim, J S; Park, S E; Kim, J-H; Chin, J; Cho, J; Kim, C; Lee, J H; Weiner, M W; Na, D L; Seo, S W

    2014-05-01

    The progression pattern of brain structural changes in patients with isolated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To investigate the role of isolated CVD in cognitive impairment patients, patterns of cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in pure subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients were characterized. Forty-five patients with svMCI and 46 patients with SVaD who were negative on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and 75 individuals with normal cognition (NC) were recruited. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited frontal, language and retrieval type memory dysfunctions, which in patients with PiB(-) SVaD were further impaired and accompanied by visuospatial and recognition memory dysfunctions. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited cortical thinning in the frontal, perisylvian, basal temporal and posterior cingulate regions. This atrophy was more prominent and extended further toward the lateral parietal and medial temporal regions in patients with PiB(-) SVaD. Compared with NC subjects, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited hippocampal shape deformities in the lateral body, whilst patients with PiB(-) SVaD exhibited additional deformities within the lateral head and inferior body. Our findings suggest that patients with CVD in the absence of Alzheimer's disease pathology can be demented, showing cognitive impairment in multiple domains, which is consistent with the topography of cortical thinning and hippocampal shape deformity. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  7. Cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Anil, Sam Publius; Grover, Vibhu; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Sinha, Sachchidanand

    2017-02-01

    Most trained musicians are actively involved in rigorous practice from several years to achieve a high level of proficiency. Therefore, musicians are best group to research changes or modification in brain structures and functions across several information processing systems. This study aimed to investigate cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians and non-musicians. Two groups of participant (experimental and control groups) in the age range of 18-25 years were selected for the study. Experimental group includes 15 rock musicians who had minimum professional training of 5 years of rock music, and each member had to be a regular performer of rock music for at least 15 h a week. Further age-matched 15 participants who were not having any formal training of any music served as non-musicians, in the control group. The speech-evoked ABR (S-ABR) and speech-evoked ALLR (S-LLR) with short duration speech 'synthetic /da/' was elicited in both groups. Different measures were analyzed for S-ABR and S-LLR. For S-ABR, MANOVA revealed significant main effect of groups on latencies of wave V, wave A, and amplitude of wave V/A slope. Similarly, Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly higher F 0 amplitude in rock musicians compared with non-musicians. For S-LLR, MANOVA showed statistically significant differences observed for latencies of wave P2 and N2 and amplitude measures of P2-N2 amplitude. This study indicated better neural processing of short duration speech stimuli at subcortical as well as cortical level among rock musicians when compared with non-musicians.

  8. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  9. Joint Modelling of Structural and Functional Brain Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging have become the most important noninvasive windows to the human brain. A major challenge in the analysis of brain networks is to establish the similarities and dissimilarities between functional and structural connectivity. We formulate a non......-parametric Bayesian network model which allows for joint modelling and integration of multiple networks. We demonstrate the model’s ability to detect vertices that share structure across networks jointly in functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. Using two fMRI and dMRI scans per subject, we establish...... significant structures that are consistently shared across subjects and data splits. This provides an unsupervised approach for modeling of structure-function relations in the brain and provides a general framework for multimodal integration....

  10. Brain networks that track musical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2005-12-01

    As the functional neuroimaging literature grows, it becomes increasingly apparent that music and musical activities engage diverse regions of the brain. In this paper I discuss two studies to illustrate that exactly which brain areas are observed to be responsive to musical stimuli and tasks depends on the tasks and the methods used to describe the tasks and the stimuli. In one study, subjects listened to polyphonic music and were asked to either orient their attention selectively to individual instruments or in a divided or holistic manner across multiple instruments. The network of brain areas that was recruited changed subtly with changes in the task instructions. The focus of the second study was to identify brain regions that follow the pattern of movement of a continuous melody through the tonal space defined by the major and minor keys of Western tonal music. Such an area was identified in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex. This observation is discussed in the context of other neuroimaging studies that implicate this region in inwardly directed mental states involving decisions about the self, autobiographical memory, the cognitive regulation of emotion, affective responses to musical stimuli, and familiarity judgments about musical stimuli. Together with observations that these regions are among the last to atrophy in Alzheimer disease, and that these patients appear to remain responsive to autobiographically salient musical stimuli, very early evidence is emerging from the literature for the hypothesis that the rostral medial prefrontal cortex is a node that is important for binding music with memories within a broader music-responsive network.

  11. Sialylation regulates brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Motari, Mary G; Susuki, Keiichiro; Prendergast, Jillian; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2015-07-01

    Every cell expresses a molecularly diverse surface glycan coat (glycocalyx) comprising its interface with its cellular environment. In vertebrates, the terminal sugars of the glycocalyx are often sialic acids, 9-carbon backbone anionic sugars implicated in intermolecular and intercellular interactions. The vertebrate brain is particularly enriched in sialic acid-containing glycolipids termed gangliosides. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis result in paraplegia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. To better understand sialoglycan functions in the nervous system, we studied brain anatomy, histology, biochemistry, and behavior in mice with engineered mutations in St3gal2 and St3gal3, sialyltransferase genes responsible for terminal sialylation of gangliosides and some glycoproteins. St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed dysmyelination marked by a 40% reduction in major myelin proteins, 30% fewer myelinated axons, a 33% decrease in myelin thickness, and molecular disruptions at nodes of Ranvier. In part, these changes may be due to dysregulation of ganglioside-mediated oligodendroglial precursor cell proliferation. Neuronal markers were also reduced up to 40%, and hippocampal neurons had smaller dendritic arbors. Young adult St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed impaired motor coordination, disturbed gait, and profound cognitive disability. Comparisons among sialyltransferase mutant mice provide insights into the functional roles of brain gangliosides and sialoglycoproteins consistent with related human congenital disorders. © FASEB.

  12. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  14. Individual brain structure and modelling predict seizure propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proix, Timothée; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Guye, Maxime; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2017-03-01

    See Lytton (doi:10.1093/awx018) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neural network oscillations are a fundamental mechanism for cognition, perception and consciousness. Consequently, perturbations of network activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. When structural information from non-invasive brain imaging is merged with mathematical modelling, then generative brain network models constitute personalized in silico platforms for the exploration of causal mechanisms of brain function and clinical hypothesis testing. We here demonstrate with the example of drug-resistant epilepsy that patient-specific virtual brain models derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging have sufficient predictive power to improve diagnosis and surgery outcome. In partial epilepsy, seizures originate in a local network, the so-called epileptogenic zone, before recruiting other close or distant brain regions. We create personalized large-scale brain networks for 15 patients and simulate the individual seizure propagation patterns. Model validation is performed against the presurgical stereotactic electroencephalography data and the standard-of-care clinical evaluation. We demonstrate that the individual brain models account for the patient seizure propagation patterns, explain the variability in postsurgical success, but do not reliably augment with the use of patient-specific connectivity. Our results show that connectome-based brain network models have the capacity to explain changes in the organization of brain activity as observed in some brain disorders, thus opening up avenues towards discovery of novel clinical interventions. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  15. Evaluating the effect of multiple sclerosis lesions on automatic brain structure segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villà, Sandra; Valverde, Sergi; Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rovira, Àlex; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI'12). The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) differences and the volume differences between the healthy and the simulated images are calculated for the subcortical structures and the brainstem. We observe that the three strategies are affected when lesions are present. However, the effects of the lesions do not follow the same pattern; the lesions either make the segmentation method underperform or surprisingly augment the segmentation accuracy. The obtained results show that FreeSurfer is the method most affected by the presence of lesions, with DSC differences (generated - healthy) ranging from - 0.11 ± 0.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87, whereas FIRST tends to be the most robust method when lesions are present (- 2.40 ± 5.54 to 0.44 ± 0.94). Lesion location is not important for global strategies such as FreeSurfer or majority voting, where structure segmentation is affected wherever the lesions exist. On the other hand, FIRST is more affected when the lesions are overlaid or close to the structure of analysis. The most affected structure by the presence of lesions is the nucleus accumbens (from - 1.12 ± 2.53 to 1.32 ± 4.00 for the left hemisphere and from - 2.40 ± 5.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87 for the right hemisphere), whereas the structures that show

  16. Evaluating the effect of multiple sclerosis lesions on automatic brain structure segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra González-Villà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI’12. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC differences and the volume differences between the healthy and the simulated images are calculated for the subcortical structures and the brainstem. We observe that the three strategies are affected when lesions are present. However, the effects of the lesions do not follow the same pattern; the lesions either make the segmentation method underperform or surprisingly augment the segmentation accuracy. The obtained results show that FreeSurfer is the method most affected by the presence of lesions, with DSC differences (generated − healthy ranging from −0.11 ± 0.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87, whereas FIRST tends to be the most robust method when lesions are present (−2.40 ± 5.54 to 0.44 ± 0.94. Lesion location is not important for global strategies such as FreeSurfer or majority voting, where structure segmentation is affected wherever the lesions exist. On the other hand, FIRST is more affected when the lesions are overlaid or close to the structure of analysis. The most affected structure by the presence of lesions is the nucleus accumbens (from −1.12 ± 2.53 to 1.32 ± 4.00 for the left hemisphere and from −2.40 ± 5.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87 for the right hemisphere, whereas the

  17. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  18. Quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Small, Gary W. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Center on Aging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer' s Disease Research, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [{sup 18}F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k{sup '}{sub 2}) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region. Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  19. ADVANCED OPTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, L.; A. L. ALLEGRA MASCARO; Lotti, J.; Sacconi, L.; Pavone, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding brain structure and function, and the complex relationships between them, is one of the grand challenges of contemporary sciences. Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore this complex network. In this manuscript, we briefly review recent advancements in optical methods applied to three main issues: anatomy, plasticity and functionality. We describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole fixed brain...

  20. ECT: its brain enabling effects: a review of electroconvulsive therapy-induced structural brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckaert, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Obbels, Jasmien; Dols, Annemieke; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Stek, Max; Bolwig, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. By reviewing the available animal and human literature, we examined the theory that seizure-induced structural changes are crucial for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. Both animal and human studies suggest electroconvulsive stimulation/electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-related neuroplasticity (neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, or gliogenesis). It remains unclear whether structural changes might explain the therapeutic efficacy and/or be related to the (transient) learning and memory impairment after ECT. Methods to assess in vivo brain plasticity of patients treated with ECT will be of particular importance for future longitudinal studies to give support to the currently available correlational data.

  1. Cortical and Subcortical Coordination of Visual Spatial Attention Revealed by Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica J; Boehler, Carsten N; Roberts, Kenneth C; Chen, Ling-Chia; Krebs, Ruth M; Song, Allen W; Woldorff, Marty G

    2017-08-16

    Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional control function. The fMRI activity in visual cortical regions contralateral to the cued direction of attention covaried positively with occipital gamma-band EEG, consistent with activation of cortical regions representing attended locations in space. In contrast, fMRI activity in ipsilateral visual cortical regions covaried inversely with occipital alpha-band oscillations, consistent with attention-related suppression of the irrelevant hemispace. Moreover, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus covaried with both of these spatially specific, attention-related, oscillatory EEG modulations. Because the pulvinar's neuroanatomical geometry makes it unlikely to be a direct generator of the scalp-recorded EEG, these covariational patterns appear to reflect the pulvinar's role as a regulatory control structure, sending spatially specific signals to modulate visual cortex excitability proactively. Together, these combined EEG/fMRI results illuminate the dynamically interacting cortical and subcortical processes underlying spatial attention, providing important insight not realizable using either method alone.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noninvasive recordings of changes in the brain's blood flow using functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrical activity using electroencephalography in humans have individually shown that shifting attention to a location in space

  2. Gray matter volume changes in chronic subcortical stroke: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on gray matter volume (GMV difference relative to healthy controls in right-handed subcortical stroke. Structural MRI data were collected in 97 patients with chronic subcortical ischemic stroke and 79 healthy controls. Voxel-wise GMV analysis was used to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on GMV difference in right-handed chronic subcortical stroke patients. Compared with healthy controls, right-lesion patients demonstrated GMV increase (P < 0.05, voxel-wise false discovery rate correction in the bilateral paracentral lobule (PCL and supplementary motor area (SMA and the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG; while left-lesion patients did not exhibit GMV difference under the same threshold. Patients with complete and partial motor recovery showed similar degree of GMV increase in right-lesion patients. However, the motor recovery was correlated with the GMV increase in the bilateral SMA in right-lesion patients. These findings suggest that there exists a lesion-side effect on GMV difference relative to healthy controls in right-handed patients with chronic subcortical stroke. The GMV increase in the SMA may facilitate motor recovery in subcortical stroke patients.

  3. Delayed visual maturation: pupillary responses implicate subcortical and cortical visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, K D; Moseley, M J; Stirling, H F; Fielder, A R

    1998-03-01

    Vision in very early infancy is probably subserved by subcortical pathways, with many cortical processes only fully emerging by 3 months of age. The improvement of vision in delayed visual maturation (DVM) occurs around this time, and this has given rise to the suggestion that the condition may have a subcortical basis that resolves with the appearance of cortical function. To explore further the role of cortical and subcortical visual systems in DVM we studied the visual development in identical twins, one of whom had type 1b DVM. Two non-invasive methods of investigating visual pathway function were employed: the acuity card procedure (a behavioural response) and luminance and grating pupillometry. While the former reflects both subcortical and cortical function and can be detected at birth, pupil responses to gratings reflect cortical activity alone and normally become measurable at 1 month of age. Development of both behavioural and pupillary responses was delayed in DVM, indicating that although the underlying defect is primarily subcortical, secondarily it delays the emergence of cortically mediated responses. The observed rapidity of improvement--over a very few days and within a narrow age range--suggests a discrete rather than a widespread structural abnormality, the improvement of which is closely linked to postmenstrual age.

  4. BRAIN PLASTICITY: MUSICAL TRAINING INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónika Diaz Abrahan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main research about the effect of musical training in adult and childhood brain was revised in this work. The music realizes unique demands to our ner-vous system. This call the attention of several researchers causing, in the past years, an enhancement of the exploration about this topic; this increment was benefit for the emergence of new neuroimaging techniques, the music positioned as an investigation tool of human cognition and superior brain mechanisms. The musical perception and production are specific functions of the human brain that depend of a wide cortical-subcortical neural net distributed across both hemi-spheres and cerebellum. The main findings in this area indicated structural and functional differences in the adult and child brain due to musical training, and this is more relevant that innate properties of the subject. There is brain plasticity due to adaptive processes product of the environmental stimulation.

  5. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  6. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  7. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.

  8. Sleep habits, academic performance, and the adolescent brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrila, Anna S; Artiges, Eric; Massicotte, Jessica; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Hélène; Bézivin-Frere, Pauline; Lapidaire, Winok; Lemaître, Hervé; Penttilä, Jani; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-09

    Here we report the first and most robust evidence about how sleep habits are associated with regional brain grey matter volumes and school grade average in early adolescence. Shorter time in bed during weekdays, and later weekend sleeping hours correlate with smaller brain grey matter volumes in frontal, anterior cingulate, and precuneus cortex regions. Poor school grade average associates with later weekend bedtime and smaller grey matter volumes in medial brain regions. The medial prefrontal - anterior cingulate cortex appears most tightly related to the adolescents' variations in sleep habits, as its volume correlates inversely with both weekend bedtime and wake up time, and also with poor school performance. These findings suggest that sleep habits, notably during the weekends, have an alarming link with both the structure of the adolescent brain and school performance, and thus highlight the need for informed interventions.

  9. Multiple sclerosis, cannabis, and cognition: A structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Romero

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that cannabis use in MS results in more widespread cognitive deficits, which correlate with tissue volume in subcortical, medial temporal, and prefrontal regions. These are the first findings demonstrating an association between cannabis use, cognitive impairment and structural brain changes in MS patients.

  10. Structural brain abnormalities in 12 persons with aniridia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Madison K.; Bobilev, Anastasia M.; Pierce, Jordan E.; DeWitte, Jon; Lauderdale, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aniridia is a disorder predominately caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is a transcriptional regulator necessary for normal eye and brain development.  The ocular abnormalities of aniridia have been well characterized, but mounting evidence has implicated brain-related phenotypes as a prominent feature of this disorder as well.  Investigations using neuroimaging in aniridia patients have shown reductions in discrete brain structures and changes in global grey and white matter.  However, limited sample sizes and substantive heterogeneity of structural phenotypes in the brain remain a challenge.  Methods: Here, we examined brain structure in a new population sample in an effort to add to the collective understanding of anatomical abnormalities in aniridia.  The current study used 3T magnetic resonance imaging to acquire high-resolution structural data in 12 persons with aniridia and 12 healthy demographically matched comparison subjects.  Results: We examined five major structures: the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure, the pineal gland, the corpus callosum, and the optic chiasm.  The most consistent reductions were found in the anterior commissure and the pineal gland; however, abnormalities in all of the other structures examined were present in at least one individual.  Conclusions: Our results indicate that the anatomical abnormalities in aniridia are variable and largely individual-specific.  These findings suggest that future studies investigate this heterogeneity further, and that normal population variation should be considered when evaluating structural abnormalities. PMID:29034075

  11. Identification of DCX gene mutation in lissencephaly spectrum with subcortical band heterotopia using whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Woo, Hye In; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Jeehun; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Malformations of cortical development include a wide range of brain developmental anomalies that commonly lead to developmental delay and epilepsy. Lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia are major malformations of cortical development due to abnormal neuronal migration and several genes have been identified including ARX, DCX, LIS1, RELN, TUBA1A, and VLDLR. Traditionally, genetic testing for lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia has been done in the order of the probability of detection of mutation according to the radiologic features, but the success rate could be variable with this time-consuming approach. In this study we used whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in a 5-year-old girl with lissencephaly spectrum with subcortical band heterotopia. After excluding lissencephaly-related genes, one deleterious mutation (NM_178153.2:c.665C > T, p.Thr222Ile) in the DCX gene was identified. Further Sanger sequencing validated the variant in the patient but not in both parents indicating a de novo mutation. The present report demonstrates that whole-exome sequencing may be a useful tool for the identification of mutations in patients with lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopias as well as malformations of cortical development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  13. Coordinate-based versus structural approaches to brain image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, J-F; Rivière, D; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Cachia, A; Cointepas, Y; Poline, J-B; Le Bihan, D; Régis, J; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, D

    2004-02-01

    A basic issue in neurosciences is to look for possible relationships between brain architecture and cognitive models. The lack of architectural information in magnetic resonance images, however, has led the neuroimaging community to develop brain mapping strategies based on various coordinate systems without accurate architectural content. Therefore, the relationships between architectural and functional brain organizations are difficult to study when analyzing neuroimaging experiments. This paper advocates that the design of new brain image analysis methods inspired by the structural strategies often used in computer vision may provide better ways to address these relationships. The key point underlying this new framework is the conversion of the raw images into structural representations before analysis. These representations are made up of data-driven elementary features like activated clusters, cortical folds or fiber bundles. Two classes of methods are introduced. Inference of structural models via matching across a set of individuals is described first. This inference problem is illustrated by the group analysis of functional statistical parametric maps (SPMs). Then, the matching of new individual data with a priori known structural models is described, using the recognition of the cortical sulci as a prototypical example.

  14. Food Web Structure Shapes the Morphology of Teleost Fish Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Nicholas B; McCann, Kevin S; Laberge, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed that teleost fish brain size correlates with the flexible exploitation of habitats and predation abilities in an aquatic food web. Since it is unclear how regional brain changes contribute to these relationships, we quantitatively examined the effects of common food web attributes on the size of five brain regions in teleost fish at both within-species (plasticity or natural variation) and between-species (evolution) scales. Our results indicate that brain morphology is influenced by habitat use and trophic position, but not by the degree of littoral-pelagic habitat coupling, despite the fact that the total brain size was previously shown to increase with habitat coupling in Lake Huron. Intriguingly, the results revealed two potential evolutionary trade-offs: (i) relative olfactory bulb size increased, while relative optic tectum size decreased, across a trophic position gradient, and (ii) the telencephalon was relatively larger in fish using more littoral-based carbon, while the cerebellum was relatively larger in fish using more pelagic-based carbon. Additionally, evidence for a within-species effect on the telencephalon was found, where it increased in size with trophic position. Collectively, these results suggest that food web structure has fundamentally contributed to the shaping of teleost brain morphology. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sexual selection predicts brain structure in dragon lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, D; Ullmann, J F P; Janke, A L; Vidal-Garcia, M; Stait-Gardner, T; Dwihapsari, Y; Merkling, T; Price, W S; Endler, J A; Whiting, M J; Keogh, J S

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic traits such as ornaments and armaments are generally shaped by sexual selection, which often favours larger and more elaborate males compared to females. But can sexual selection also influence the brain? Previous studies in vertebrates report contradictory results with no consistent pattern between variation in brain structure and the strength of sexual selection. We hypothesize that sexual selection will act in a consistent way on two vertebrate brain regions that directly regulate sexual behaviour: the medial preoptic nucleus (MPON) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The MPON regulates male reproductive behaviour whereas the VMN regulates female reproductive behaviour and is also involved in male aggression. To test our hypothesis, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging combined with traditional histology of brains in 14 dragon lizard species of the genus Ctenophorus that vary in the strength of precopulatory sexual selection. Males belonging to species that experience greater sexual selection had a larger MPON and a smaller VMN. Conversely, females did not show any patterns of variation in these brain regions. As the volumes of both these regions also correlated with brain volume (BV) in our models, we tested whether they show the same pattern of evolution in response to changes in BV and found that the do. Therefore, we show that the primary brain nuclei underlying reproductive behaviour in vertebrates can evolve in a mosaic fashion, differently between males and females, likely in response to sexual selection, and that these same regions are simultaneously evolving in concert in relation to overall brain size. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Early neurone loss in Alzheimer's disease: cortical or subcortical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Brückner, Martina K; Morawski, Markus; Jäger, Carsten; Gertz, Hermann-Josef

    2015-02-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disorder where the distribution of pathology throughout the brain is not random but follows a predictive pattern used for pathological staging. While the involvement of defined functional systems is fairly well established for more advanced stages, the initial sites of degeneration are still ill defined. The prevailing concept suggests an origin within the transentorhinal and entorhinal cortex (EC) from where pathology spreads to other areas. Still, this concept has been challenged recently suggesting a potential origin of degeneration in nonthalamic subcortical nuclei giving rise to cortical innervation such as locus coeruleus (LC) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). To contribute to the identification of the early site of degeneration, here, we address the question whether cortical or subcortical degeneration occurs more early and develops more quickly during progression of AD. To this end, we stereologically assessed neurone counts in the NbM, LC and EC layer-II in the same AD patients ranging from preclinical stages to severe dementia. In all three areas, neurone loss becomes detectable already at preclinical stages and is clearly manifest at prodromal AD/MCI. At more advanced AD, cell loss is most pronounced in the NbM > LC > layer-II EC. During early AD, however, the extent of cell loss is fairly balanced between all three areas without clear indications for a preference of one area. We can thus not rule out that there is more than one way of spreading from its site of origin or that degeneration even occurs independently at several sites in parallel.

  17. Picture free recall performance linked to the brain's structural connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, David; Gschwind, Leo; Fastenrath, Matthias; Freytag, Virginie; Milnik, Annette; Spalek, Klara; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2017-07-01

    Memory functions are highly variable between healthy humans. The neural correlates of this variability remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated how differences in free recall performance are associated with DTI-based properties of the brain's structural connectome and with grey matter volumes in 664 healthy young individuals tested in the same MR scanner. Global structural connectivity, but not overall or regional grey matter volumes, positively correlated with recall performance. Moreover, a set of 22 inter-regional connections, including some with no previously reported relation to human memory, such as the connection between the temporal pole and the nucleus accumbens, explained 7.8% of phenotypic variance. In conclusion, this large-scale study indicates that individual memory performance is associated with the level of structural brain connectivity.

  18. Mapping Language Networks Using the Structural and Dynamic Brain Connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaizo, John; Fridriksson, Julius; Yourganov, Grigori; Hillis, Argye E; Hickok, Gregory; Misic, Bratislav; Rorden, Chris; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is often employed to define brain structures that are crucial for human behavior. Even though poststroke deficits result from gray matter damage as well as secondary white matter loss, the impact of structural disconnection is overlooked by conventional lesion-symptom mapping because it does not measure loss of connectivity beyond the stroke lesion. This study describes how traditional lesion mapping can be combined with structural connectome lesion symptom mapping (CLSM) and connectome dynamics lesion symptom mapping (CDLSM) to relate residual white matter networks to behavior. Using data from a large cohort of stroke survivors with aphasia, we observed improved prediction of aphasia severity when traditional lesion symptom mapping was combined with CLSM and CDLSM. Moreover, only CLSM and CDLSM disclosed the importance of temporal-parietal junction connections in aphasia severity. In summary, connectome measures can uniquely reveal brain networks that are necessary for function, improving the traditional lesion symptom mapping approach.

  19. Structures and Interactions of Proteins in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lau Dalby

    coding for Arc protein has been domesticated from the same branch of genes that has given rise to retroviruses. We show that even despite the large evolutional distance between Arc and retroviruses. Despite large evolutionary distance Arc still self-assemble into higher order structures that resembles......The protein low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) plays multiple roles in the biology of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and Alzheimer’s disease. LRP1 is very important for clearance of Aβ both in the brain and by facilitating Aβ export over the blood brain barrier. In spite...... the primary nucleation is increased. The data furthermore indicates that there is an interaction with Aβ oligomer state and possible also the fibrils. Another brain protein is the neuronal protein Activity-regulated cytoskeletonassociated protein (Arc) which is important for learning and memory. The gene...

  20. Glutamate Metabolism in Brain Structures in Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jakovlev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study glutamate metabolism characteristics in phylogenetically different parts of the mammalian brain in experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock (HS in cats.Material and methods. Experiments were performed on 76 cats. HS was induced by intermittent bloodletting from femoral artery at a rate of 10ml/kg•10 minutes, with the average volume of 24±0.8 ml/kg. The bloodletting was discontinued after arterial pressure (BP drop to 60.0±1.5 mmHg. We studied ammonia, glutamate (Gt, and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG levels and glutaminase (GS and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDG activity in specimens harvested from phylogenetically different parts of the brain (cortex, limbic system, diencephalon, and medulla oblongata.Results. In intact animals, the peak GDG activity was found in the medulla oblongata (phylogenetically the oldest part of the brain and the peak GS activity was registered in the sensorimotor cortex (phylogenetically the youngest part of the brain; the glutaminase activity did not depend on the phylogenetic age of brain structures.In the case of HS, Gt metabolism changes began in the sensorimotor cortex manifested by decreased GS activity, which progresses by the 70th minute of the post%hemorrhagic period (PHP accompanied by delayed increase in the GDG and glutaminase activity, as well as Gt accumulation. In the limbic system and diencephalon the Gt metabolism was changing (impaired glutamine synthesis, stimuled Gt synthesis with glutamine desamidization and α%KG amination when developed by the 70th minute of the PHP. Similarly to sensorimotor cortex, changes were associated with Gt accumulation. During the agony, α%KG deficiency developed in all parts of the brain as a result of its increased contribution to Gt synthesis. At the same period of time, in the sensorimotor cortex, limbic system and diencephalon the Gt synthesis from glutamine was stimulated, however, the Gt contribution tothe formation of glutamine was decreased. The

  1. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  3. Brain connectivity dynamics during social interaction reflect social network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Brook O'Donnell, Matthew; Garcia, Javier O; Cascio, Christopher N; Bayer, Joseph; Bassett, Danielle S; Vettel, Jean M; Falk, Emily B

    2017-05-16

    Social ties are crucial for humans. Disruption of ties through social exclusion has a marked effect on our thoughts and feelings; however, such effects can be tempered by broader social network resources. Here, we use fMRI data acquired from 80 male adolescents to investigate how social exclusion modulates functional connectivity within and across brain networks involved in social pain and understanding the mental states of others (i.e., mentalizing). Furthermore, using objectively logged friendship network data, we examine how individual variability in brain reactivity to social exclusion relates to the density of participants' friendship networks, an important aspect of social network structure. We find increased connectivity within a set of regions previously identified as a mentalizing system during exclusion relative to inclusion. These results are consistent across the regions of interest as well as a whole-brain analysis. Next, examining how social network characteristics are associated with task-based connectivity dynamics, we find that participants who showed greater changes in connectivity within the mentalizing system when socially excluded by peers had less dense friendship networks. This work provides insight to understand how distributed brain systems respond to social and emotional challenges and how such brain dynamics might vary based on broader social network characteristics.

  4. Preserved episodic memory in subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura; Sherman, Elisabeth; Langfitt, John; Berg, Michel; Connolly, Mary

    2004-05-01

    Neuropsychological profiles of four patients with subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are presented to delineate further the phenotype of this disorder. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of cognitive functioning, including intelligence, processing speed, attention, language, visuomotor skills, memory, and fine motor ability were administered to four patients with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of SBH. Despite intellectual impairment and other severe cognitive deficits, all four patients displayed relatively intact episodic memory. This selective sparing of memory functions has not been previously reported in individuals with SBH and suggests that doublecortin does not play a role in the development of memory systems in the mesial temporal region, which tend to be spared in SBH.

  5. The impact of large structural brain changes in chronic stroke patients on the electric field caused by transcranial brain stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minjoli, Sena; Saturnino, Guilherme B.; Blicher, Jakob Udby

    2017-01-01

    . Realistic head models containing large cortical and subcortical stroke lesions in the right parietal cortex were created using MR images of two patients. For TMS, the electric field of a double coil was simulated using the finite-element method. Systematic variations of the coil position relative...... to the lesion were tested. For TDCS, the finite-element method was used to simulate a standard approach with two electrode pads, and the position of one electrode was systematically varied. For both TMS and TDCS, the lesion caused electric field " hot spots" in the cortex. However, these maxima were...... aimed to characterize the impact of these changes on the spatial distribution of the electric field generated by both TBS methods. In addition to confirming the safety of TBS in the presence of large stroke-related structural changes, our aim was to clarify whether targeted stimulation is still possible...

  6. The impact of large structural brain changes in chronic stroke patients on the electric field caused by transcranial brain stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minjoli, Sena; Saturnino, Guilherme B.; Blicher, Jakob Udby

    2017-01-01

    aimed to characterize the impact of these changes on the spatial distribution of the electric field generated by both TBS methods. In addition to confirming the safety of TBS in the presence of large stroke-related structural changes, our aim was to clarify whether targeted stimulation is still possible....... Realistic head models containing large cortical and subcortical stroke lesions in the right parietal cortex were created using MR images of two patients. For TMS, the electric field of a double coil was simulated using the finite-element method. Systematic variations of the coil position relative...... to the lesion were tested. For TDCS, the finite-element method was used to simulate a standard approach with two electrode pads, and the position of one electrode was systematically varied. For both TMS and TDCS, the lesion caused electric field " hot spots" in the cortex. However, these maxima were...

  7. Brain structural and functional correlates of resilience to Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Sophia

    2011-12-06

    Resilient adaptation can be construed in different ways, but as used here it refers to adaptive brain responses associated with avoidance of psychopathology despite expressed genetic predisposition to Bipolar Disorder (BD). Although family history of BD is associated with elevated risk of affective morbidity a significant proportion of first-degree relatives remain free of psychopathology. Examination of brain structure and function in these individuals may inform on adaptive responses that pre-empt disease expression. Data presented here are derived from the Vulnerability to Bipolar Disorders Study (VIBES) which includes BD patients, asymptomatic relatives and controls. Participants underwent extensive investigations including brain structural (sMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present results from sMRI voxel-based-morphometry and from conventional and connectivity analyses of fMRI data obtained during the Stroop Colour Word Test (SCWT), a task of cognitive control during conflict resolution. All analyses were implemented using Statistical Parametric Mapping software version 5 (SPM5). Resilience in relatives was operationalized as the lifetime absence of clinical-range symptoms. Resilient relatives of BD patients expressed structural, functional, and connectivity changes reflecting the effect of genetic risk on the brain. These included increased insular volume, decreased activation within the posterior and inferior parietal regions involved in selective attention during the SCWT, and reduced fronto-insular and fronto-cingulate connectivity. Resilience was associated with increased cerebellar vermal volume and enhanced functional coupling between the dorsal and the ventral prefrontal cortex during the SCWT. Our findings suggests the presence of biological mechanisms associated with resilient adaptation of brain networks and pave the way for the identification of outcome-specific trajectories given a bipolar genotype.

  8. Brain structural and functional correlates of resilience to Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia eFrangou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilient adaptation can be construed in different ways, but as used here it refers to the adaptive brain changes associated with avoidance of psychopathology despite familiar risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD. Although family history of BD is associated with elevated risk of affective morbidity a significant proportion of first-degree relatives of BD patients remains free of psychopathology. Examination of brain structure and function in these individuals may inform on adaptive changes that may pre-empt disease expression. Methods: Data presented here are derived from the Vulnerability to Bipolar Disorders (VIBES study which includes patients with BD, asymptomatic relatives and healthy controls. Participants underwent extensive investigations including brain structural (sMRI and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The data presented here focus on sMRI voxel-based-morphometry and on conventional and connectivity analyses of fMRI data obtained during the Stroop Colour Word Test (SCWT, a task of cognitive control during conflict resolution. All analyses were implemented in SPM (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm. Resilience in relatives was operationalized as the absence of clinical-range symptoms.Results: Resilient relatives of BD patients expressed structural, functional and connectivity changes reflecting the effect of genetic risk on the brain. These included increased insular volume, decreased activation within the posterior and inferior parietal regions involved in selective attention during the SCWT, and reduced fronto-insular and fronto-cingulate connectivity.Resilience was associated with increased cerebellar vermal volume and enhanced functional coupling between the dorsal and the ventral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggests the presence of biological mechanisms associated with resilient adaptation of brain networks and pave the way for the identification of outcome-specific trajectories given a particular

  9. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  10. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics.

  11. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1 whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant versus second (nondominant language processing; (2 the effects of bilinguals’ executive functioning on the structure and function of the “universal” language neural network; (3 the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4 the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user’s second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics.

  12. Segmentation of Striatal Brain Structures from High Resolution PET Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. P. C. Farinha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and evaluate an automatic segmentation method for extracting striatal brain structures (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum from parametric C11-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET brain images. We focus on the images acquired using a novel brain dedicated high-resolution (HRRT PET scanner. The segmentation method first extracts the striatum using a deformable surface model and then divides the striatum into its substructures based on a graph partitioning algorithm. The weighted kernel k-means algorithm is used to partition the graph describing the voxel affinities within the striatum into the desired number of clusters. The method was experimentally validated with synthetic and real image data. The experiments showed that our method was able to automatically extract caudate, ventral striatum, and putamen from the images. Moreover, the putamen could be subdivided into anterior and posterior parts. An automatic method for the extraction of striatal structures from high-resolution PET images allows for inexpensive and reproducible extraction of the quantitative information from these images necessary in brain research and drug development.

  13. Hippocampal-cortical interaction during periods of subcortical silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, N K; Eschenko, O; Murayama, Y; Augath, M; Steudel, T; Evrard, H C; Besserve, M; Oeltermann, A

    2012-11-22

    Hippocampal ripples, episodic high-frequency field-potential oscillations primarily occurring during sleep and calmness, have been described in mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys and humans, and so far they have been associated with retention of previously acquired awake experience. Although hippocampal ripples have been studied in detail using neurophysiological methods, the global effects of ripples on the entire brain remain elusive, primarily owing to a lack of methodologies permitting concurrent hippocampal recordings and whole-brain activity mapping. By combining electrophysiological recordings in hippocampus with ripple-triggered functional magnetic resonance imaging, here we show that most of the cerebral cortex is selectively activated during the ripples, whereas most diencephalic, midbrain and brainstem regions are strongly and consistently inhibited. Analysis of regional temporal response patterns indicates that thalamic activity suppression precedes the hippocampal population burst, which itself is temporally bounded by massive activations of association and primary cortical areas. These findings suggest that during off-line memory consolidation, synergistic thalamocortical activity may be orchestrating a privileged interaction state between hippocampus and cortex by silencing the output of subcortical centres involved in sensory processing or potentially mediating procedural learning. Such a mechanism would cause minimal interference, enabling consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory.

  14. Comparative neuropsychology of cortical and subcortical dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M; Oscar-Berman, M

    1986-11-01

    The terms "cortical" and "subcortical" dementia are controversial; however, the clinical distinction between them is real. For example, although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (prototypical of cortical and subcortical dementia, respectively) share clinical features, they differ in the presence of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in Alzheimer's disease but not in Parkinson's dementia. We review our studies aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the differences between these neurological disorders. Experimental paradigms adopted from animal models were used to study the functional anatomy and neuropsychological characteristics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The tasks administered include delayed alternation (DA) and delayed response (DR), which are sensitive to frontal system damage, and tactile discrimination learning (TOL) and reversal (TRL) paradigms sensitive to parietal system damage. Alzheimer's patients were significantly impaired on all tasks whereas Parkinsonians with dementia were impaired only on DR and TRL. Consideration of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in DA, DR, TOL, and TRL appears to have sharpened the distinction between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. Dementia in Alzheimer's disease may involve dorsolateral frontal, orbitofrontal and parietal systems. In contrast, dementia in Parkinson's disease may involve prominent dorsolateral frontal system damage.

  15. Brain Structural Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with subtle neuroanatomical deficits including lateral ventricular enlargement, grey matter deficits incorporating limbic system structures, and distributed white matter pathophysiology. Substantial heterogeneity has been identified by structural neuroimaging studies to date and differential psychotropic medication use is potentially a substantial contributor to this. This selective review of structural neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies considers evidence that lithium, mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medications are associated with neuroanatomical variation. Most studies are negative and suffer from methodological weaknesses in terms of directly assessing medication effects on neuroanatomy, since they commonly comprise posthoc assessments of medication associations with neuroimaging metrics in small heterogenous patient groups. However the studies which report positive findings tend to form a relatively consistent picture whereby lithium and antiepileptic mood stabiliser use is associated with increased regional grey matter volume, especially in limbic structures. These findings are further supported by the more methodologically robust studies which include large numbers of patients or repeated intra-individual scanning in longitudinal designs. Some similar findings of an apparently ameliorative effect of lithium on white matter microstructure are also emerging. There is less support for an effect of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, but these studies are further limited by methodological difficulties. In general the literature to date supports a normalising effect of lithium and mood stabilisers on brain structure in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with the neuroprotective characteristics of these medications identified by preclinical studies. PMID:26412064

  16. Network-level structural covariance in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Zhou, Juan; Seeley, William W

    2010-10-19

    Intrinsic or resting state functional connectivity MRI and structural covariance MRI have begun to reveal the adult human brain's multiple network architectures. How and when these networks emerge during development remains unclear, but understanding ontogeny could shed light on network function and dysfunction. In this study, we applied structural covariance MRI techniques to 300 children in four age categories (early childhood, 5-8 y; late childhood, 8.5-11 y; early adolescence, 12-14 y; late adolescence, 16-18 y) to characterize gray matter structural relationships between cortical nodes that make up large-scale functional networks. Network nodes identified from eight widely replicated functional intrinsic connectivity networks served as seed regions to map whole-brain structural covariance patterns in each age group. In general, structural covariance in the youngest age group was limited to seed and contralateral homologous regions. Networks derived using primary sensory and motor cortex seeds were already well-developed in early childhood but expanded in early adolescence before pruning to a more restricted topology resembling adult intrinsic connectivity network patterns. In contrast, language, social-emotional, and other cognitive networks were relatively undeveloped in younger age groups and showed increasingly distributed topology in older children. The so-called default-mode network provided a notable exception, following a developmental trajectory more similar to the primary sensorimotor systems. Relationships between functional maturation and structural covariance networks topology warrant future exploration.

  17. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Abutalebi, Jubin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2005-12-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological language switching and mixing were found in both languages. Remission of these phenomena was reflected on brain perfusion SPECT revealing improved perfusion in the left frontal lobe and left caudate nucleus. The parallelism between the evolution of language symptoms and the SPECT findings may demonstrate that a subcortical left frontal lobe circuity is crucially involved in language switching and mixing.

  18. Biophysical changes in subcortical nuclei: the impact of diabetes and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Cohen, J; Lamar, M; Bhaumik, D

    2016-04-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is a neuroimaging technique that is frequently used to characterize the biophysical abnormalities in both gray and white matter regions of the brain. In our study, we used MT to examine the integrity of key nodes in frontal-subcortical circuits in four subject groups: patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without major depression (MDD), a healthy control group, and a group diagnosed with MDD without diabetes. In the MDD group, MT studies demonstrated lower magnetization transfer ratios (MTR), a marker of abnormalities in the macromolecular protein pool, in the thalami when compared with the control groups. The group with diabetes and MDD showed lower MTR in the globus pallidus when compared with the group with MDD. Biophysical measures, in subcortical nuclei, correlated inversely with measures of glycemic control, cerebrovascular burden and depression scores. These findings have broad implications for the underlying neuronal circuitry and neurobiology of mood disorders.

  19. Brain structural changes and neuropsychological impairments in male polydipsic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashima Tomohisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polydipsia frequently occurs in schizophrenia patients. The excessive water loading in polydipsia occasionally induces a hyponatremic state and leads to water intoxication. Whether polydipsia in schizophrenic patients correlates with neuropsychological impairments or structural brain changes is not clear and remains controversial. Methods Eight polydipsic schizophrenia patients, eight nonpolydipsic schizophrenia patients, and eight healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and neuropsychological testing. Structural abnormalities were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM approach, and patients’ neuropsychological function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J. Results No significant differences were found between the two patient groups with respect to the clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, polydipsic patients showed widespread brain volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment. Furthermore, the left insula was significantly reduced in polydipsic patients compared with nonpolydipsic patients. These nonpolydipsic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups in the neuropsychological function test. Conclusions It is possible that polydipsia or the secondary hyponatremia might induce left insula volume reduction. Furthermore, this structural brain change may indirectly induce more severe neuropsychological impairments in polydipsic patients. Thus, we suggest that insula abnormalities might contribute to the pathophysiology of polydipsic patients.

  20. Structural brain plasticity in Parkinson's disease induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Bernhard; Taubert, Marco; Conde, Virginia; Weise, David; Classen, Joseph; Dukart, Juergen; Draganski, Bogdan; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We investigated morphometric brain changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with balance training. A total of 20 patients and 16 healthy matched controls learned a balance task over a period of 6 weeks. Balance testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after 2, 4, and 6 training weeks. Balance performance was re-evaluated after ∼20 months. Balance training resulted in performance improvements in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry revealed learning-dependent gray matter changes in the left hippocampus in healthy controls. In PD patients, performance improvements were correlated with gray matter changes in the right anterior precuneus, left inferior parietal cortex, left ventral premotor cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, a TIME × GROUP interaction analysis revealed time-dependent gray matter changes in the right cerebellum. Our results highlight training-induced balance improvements in PD patients that may be associated with specific patterns of structural brain plasticity. In summary, we provide novel evidence for the capacity of the human brain to undergo learning-related structural plasticity even in a pathophysiological disease state such as in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults' complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fengler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension.

  3. The rehabilitation of attention in patients with mild cognitive impairment and brain subcortical vascular changes using the Attention Process Training-II. The RehAtt Study: rationale, design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Valenti, Raffaella; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect. The RehAtt study is designed as a 3-year prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: (1) MCI defined according to Winblad et al. criteria; (2) evidence of impairment across attention neuropsychological tests; (3) evidence on MRI of moderate/severe white matter hyperintensities. All enrolled patients are evaluated at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, according to an extensive clinical, functional, MRI and neuropsychological protocol. The baseline RehAtt cohort includes 44 patients (66 % males, mean ± SD age and years of education 75.3 ± 6.8 and 8.3 ± 4.3, respectively). After baseline assessment, patients have been randomly assigned to 'attention training' or 'standard care'. Treatments and follow-up visits at 6 months are completed, while follow-up visits at 12 months are ongoing. This study is the first attempt to reduce attention deficits in patients affected by MCI with SVD. The results of this pilot experience will represent an essential background for designing larger multicenter, prospective, double-blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. NCT02033850 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier).

  4. Subcortical volumes differ in Parkinson's disease motor subtypes: New insights into the pathophysiology of disparate symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Rosenberg-Katz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD can be classified, based on their motor symptoms, into the Postural Instability Gait Difficulty (PIGD subtype or the Tremor Dominant (TD subtype. Gray matter changes between the subtypes have been reported using whole brain Voxel-Based Morphometry, however, the evaluation of subcortical gray matter volumetric differences between these subtypes using automated volumetric analysis has only been studied in relatively small sample sizes and needs further study to confirm that the negative findings were not due to the sample size. Therefore, we aim to evaluate volumetric changes in subcortical regions and their association with PD motor subtypes. Methods: Automated volumetric MRI analysis quantified the subcortical gray matter volumes of patients with PD in the PIGD subtype (n=30, in the TD subtype (n=30, and in 28 healthy controls. Results: Significantly lower amygdala and globus pallidus gray matter volume was detected in the PIGD, as compared to the TD subtype, with a trend for an association between globus pallidus degeneration and higher (worse PIGD scores. Furthermore, among all the patients with PD, higher hippocampal volumes were correlated with a higher (better dual tasking gait speed (r=0.30, p<0.002 and with a higher global cognitive score (r=0.36, p<0.0001. Lower putamen volume was correlated (r=-0.28, p<0.004 with higher (worse freezing of gait score, an episodic symptom which is common among the PIGD subtype. As expected, differences detected between healthy controls and patients in the PD subgroups included regions within the amygdala and the dorsal striatum but not the ventral striatum, a brain region that is generally considered to be more preserved in PD.Conclusions: The disparate patterns of subcortical degeneration can explain some of the differences in symptoms between the PD subtypes such as gait disturbances and cognitive functions. These findings may, in the future, help to

  5. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

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    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  6. Structural plasticity of the brain to psychostimulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Fred

    2014-12-01

    Over the past years it has become evident that repeated exposure to a variety of psychoactive stimulants, like amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine), methylphenidate and nicotine may produce profound behavioral changes as well as structural and neurochemical alterations in the brain that may persist long after drug administration has ceased. These stimulants have been shown to produce long-lasting enhanced embranchments of dendrites and increasing spine density in brain regions linked to behavioral sensitization and compulsive patterns characteristic of drug seeking and drug addiction. In this regard, addiction to stimulant drugs represents a compulsory behavior that includes drug seeking, drug use and drug craving, but is also characterized as a cognitive disorder. In this article, recent findings regarding the impact of central stimulants on plasticity in brain regions of relevance for addictive behavior will be highlighted. A particular focus will be given to changes in neuroplasticity that occur in areas related to memory and cognition. Possible routes for the reversal of altered brain plasticity will also be discussed. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Thornton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  8. Locomotion without a brain: physical reservoir computing in tensegrity structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, K; D'Haene, M; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B

    2013-01-01

    Embodiment has led to a revolution in robotics by not thinking of the robot body and its controller as two separate units, but taking into account the interaction of the body with its environment. By investigating the effect of the body on the overall control computation, it has been suggested that the body is effectively performing computations, leading to the term morphological computation. Recent work has linked this to the field of reservoir computing, allowing one to endow morphologies with a theory of universal computation. In this work, we study a family of highly dynamic body structures, called tensegrity structures, controlled by one of the simplest kinds of "brains." These structures can be used to model biomechanical systems at different scales. By analyzing this extreme instantiation of compliant structures, we demonstrate the existence of a spectrum of choices of how to implement control in the body-brain composite. We show that tensegrity structures can maintain complex gaits with linear feedback control and that external feedback can intrinsically be integrated in the control loop. The various linear learning rules we consider differ in biological plausibility, and no specific assumptions are made on how to implement the feedback in a physical system.

  9. Mapping a2 Adrenoceptors of the Human Brain with 11C-Yohimbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    A previous study from this laboratory suggested that 11C-yohimbine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, is an appropriate ligand for PET of α2 adrenoceptors that passes readily from blood to brain tissue in pigs but not in rodents. To test usefulness in humans, we determined blood–brain...... adrenoceptors in human brain had the highest values in cortical areas and hippocampus, with moderate values in subcortical structures, as found also in vitro. The results confirm the usefulness of the tracer 11C-yohimbine for mapping α2 adrenoceptors in human brain in vivo....

  10. Brain Structure Linking Delay Discounting and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Kong, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-08-01

    As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI). Behaviorally, we confirmed the significant correlation between delay discounting and academic performance. Neurally, whole-brain regression analyses indicated that regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was associated with both delay discounting and academic performance. Furthermore, delay discounting partly accounted for the association between academic performance and brain structure. Differences in the rGMV of the left DLPFC related to academic performance explained over one-third of the impact of delay discounting on academic performance. Overall, these results provide the first evidence for the common neural basis linking delay discounting and academic performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3917-3926, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Subcortical volume and white matter integrity abnormalities in major depressive disorder: findings from UK Biobank imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xueyi; Reus, Lianne M; Cox, Simon R; Adams, Mark J; Liewald, David C; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Daniel J; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Heather C; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2017-07-17

    Previous reports of altered grey and white matter structure in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been inconsistent. Recent meta-analyses have, however, reported reduced hippocampal grey matter volume in MDD and reduced white matter integrity in several brain regions. The use of different diagnostic criteria, scanners and imaging sequences may, however, obscure further anatomical differences. In this study, we tested for differences in subcortical grey matter volume (n = 1157) and white matter integrity (n = 1089) between depressed individuals and controls in the subset of 8590 UK Biobank Imaging study participants who had undergone depression assessments. Whilst we found no significant differences in subcortical volumes, significant reductions were found in depressed individuals versus controls in global white matter integrity, as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) (β = -0.182, p = 0.005). We also found reductions in FA in association/commissural fibres (β = -0.184, pcorrected = 0.010) and thalamic radiations (β = -0.159, pcorrected = 0.020). Tract-specific FA reductions were also found in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (β = -0.194, pcorrected = 0.025), superior thalamic radiation (β = -0.224, pcorrected = 0.009) and forceps major (β = -0.193, pcorrected = 0.025) in depression (all betas standardised). Our findings provide further evidence for disrupted white matter integrity in MDD.

  12. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Approximately 5-10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz city, which was presented with status epilepticus associated with developmental delay and finally diagnosed as double cortex syndrome, because band heterotopia cases especially for continuous or generalized form is rare. A 4.5-year-old developmentally delayed girl was admitted for generalized tonic clonic seizure attack of 1 hr, upward gaze, locked mouth, and urinary incontinence (status epilepticus) in the child neurology ward. She had a history of recurrent seizures that started as febrile seizures since she was 12 months of age and had frequent admissions for having recurrent seizure attacks. She was the only child of consanguineous parents with negative family history of any neurologic problems. She was a product of uneventful term pregnancy, vaginal delivery with a low Apgar score at birth who was admitted for six days in the neonatal ward for hypotonia and cyanosis. At 4.5 years of age, she had HC: 45cm (band heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. She was discharged home with oral valproate and regular outpatient follow-ups. In the diagnostic evaluation of developmentally delayed and epileptic children, a brain MRI is strongly recommended for accurate diagnosis of anomalies such as neuronal migration disorders (band heterotopia) and others, because appropriate therapeutic management, prognosis, prevention, and genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis are dependent on definite diagnosis of the proband case.

  13. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure...... from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests....... Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory...

  14. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  15. A Technique for the Deidentification of Structural Brain MR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Ozyurt, I. Burak; Busa, Evelina; Quinn, Brian T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Clark, Camellia P.; Morris, Shaunna; Bondi, Mark W.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Brown, Gregory G.; Fischl, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing need for subject privacy, the ability to deidentify structural MR images so that they do not provide full facial detail is desirable. A program was developed that uses models of nonbrain structures for removing potentially identifying facial features. When a novel image is presented, the optimal linear transform is computed for the input volume (Fischl et al. [2002]: Neuron 33:341–355; Fischl et al. [2004]: Neuroimage 23 (Suppl 1):S69–S84). A brain mask is constructed by forming the union of all voxels with nonzero probability of being brain and then morphologically dilated. All voxels outside the mask with a nonzero probability of being a facial feature are set to 0. The algorithm was applied to 342 datasets that included two different T1-weighted pulse sequences and four different diagnoses (depressed, Alzheimer’s, and elderly and young control groups). Visual inspection showed none had brain tissue removed. In a detailed analysis of the impact of defacing on skull-stripping, 16 datasets were bias corrected with N3 (Sled et al. [1998]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 17:87–97), defaced, and then skull-stripped using either a hybrid watershed algorithm (Ségonne et al. [2004]: Neuroimage 22:1060–1075, in FreeSurfer) or Brain Surface Extractor (Sandor and Leahy [1997]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 16:41–54; Shattuck et al. [2001]: Neuroimage 13:856–876); defacing did not appreciably influence the outcome of skull-stripping. Results suggested that the automatic defacing algorithm is robust, efficiently removes nonbrain tissue, and does not unduly influence the outcome of the processing methods utilized; in some cases, skull-stripping was improved. Analyses support this algorithm as a viable method to allow data sharing with minimal data alteration within large-scale multisite projects. PMID:17295313

  16. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  17. Joint assessment of white matter integrity, cortical and subcortical atrophy to distinguish AD from behavioral variant FTD: A two-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM atrophy in combination with white matter (WM integrity to distinguish behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD and from controls using voxel-based morphometry, subcortical structure segmentation, and tract-based spatial statistics. To determine which combination of MR markers differentiated the three groups with the highest accuracy, we conducted discriminant function analyses. Adjusted for age, sex and center, both types of dementia had more GM atrophy, lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher mean (MD, axial (L1 and radial diffusivity (L23 values than controls. BvFTD patients had more GM atrophy in orbitofrontal and inferior frontal areas than AD patients. In addition, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in bvFTD than in AD. FA values were lower; MD, L1 and L23 values were higher, especially in frontal areas of the brain for bvFTD compared to AD patients. The combination of cortical GM, hippocampal volume and WM integrity measurements, classified 97–100% of controls, 81–100% of AD and 67–75% of bvFTD patients correctly. Our results suggest that WM integrity measures add complementary information to measures of GM atrophy, thereby improving the classification between AD and bvFTD.

  18. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients with cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari; Lange, Elisabeth H; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Haukvik, Unn K; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    Cannabis is associated with increased risk for severe mental illness and is commonly used among individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In this study we investigated associations between cannabis use and brain structures among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for 77 schizophrenia and 55 bipolar patients with a history of cannabis use (defined as lifetime use >10 times during one month or abuse/dependence), and 97 schizophrenia, 85 bipolar disorder patients and 277 healthy controls without any previous cannabis use. Cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes were compared between groups. Both hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analyses from 11 preselected brain regions in each hemisphere and exploratory point-by-point analyses were performed. We tested for diagnostic interactions and controlled for potential confounders. After controlling for confounders such as tobacco use and alcohol use disorders we found reduced cortical thickness in the caudal middle frontal gyrus compared to non-user patients and healthy controls. The findings were not significant when patients with co-morbid alcohol and illicit drug use were excluded from the analyses, but onset of cannabis use before illness onset was associated with cortical thinning in the caudal middle frontal gyrus. To conclude, we found no structural brain changes associated with cannabis use among patients with severe mental illness, but the findings indicate excess cortical thinning among those who use cannabis before illness onset. The present findings support the understanding that cannabis use is associated with limited brain effects in schizophrenia as well as bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery With Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backeljauw, Barynia; Holland, Scott K; Altaye, Mekibib; Loepke, Andreas W

    2015-07-01

    Anesthetics induce widespread cell death, permanent neuronal deletion, and neurocognitive impairment in immature animals, raising substantial concerns about similar effects occurring in young children. Epidemiologic studies have been unable to sufficiently address this concern, in part due to reliance on group-administered achievement tests, inability to assess brain structure, and limited control for confounders. We compared healthy participants of a language development study at age 5 to 18 years who had undergone surgery with anesthesia before 4 years of age (n = 53) with unexposed peers (n = 53) who were matched for age, gender, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Neurocognitive assessments included the Oral and Written Language Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WAIS) or WISC, as appropriate for age. Brain structural comparisons were conducted by using T1-weighted MRI scans. Average test scores were within population norms, regardless of surgical history. However, compared with control subjects, previously exposed children scored significantly lower in listening comprehension and performance IQ. Exposure did not lead to gross elimination of gray matter in regions previously identified as vulnerable in animals. Decreased performance IQ and language comprehension, however, were associated with lower gray matter density in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The present findings suggest that general anesthesia for a surgical procedure in early childhood may be associated with long-term diminution of language abilities and cognition, as well as regional volumetric alterations in brain structure. Although causation remains unresolved, these findings nonetheless warrant additional research into the phenomenon's mechanism and mitigating strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC, whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease

  3. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization Using Riemann Surface Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Lui, Lok Ming; Gu, Xianfeng; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2011-01-01

    In medical imaging, parameterized 3-D surface models are useful for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on Riemann surface structure, which uses a special curvilinear net structure (conformal net) to partition the surface into a set of patches that can each be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable (their solutions tend to be smooth functions and the boundary conditions of the Dirichlet problem can be enforced). Conformal parameterization also helps transform partial differential equations (PDEs) that may be defined on 3-D brain surface manifolds to modified PDEs on a two-dimensional parameter domain. Since the Jacobian matrix of a conformal parameterization is diagonal, the modified PDE on the parameter domain is readily solved. To illustrate our techniques, we computed parameterizations for several types of anatomical surfaces in 3-D magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. For surfaces that are topologically homeomorphic to each other and have similar geometrical structures, we show that the parameterization results are consistent and the subdivided surfaces can be matched to each other. Finally, we present an automatic sulcal landmark location algorithm by solving PDEs on cortical surfaces. The landmark detection results are used as constraints for building conformal maps between surfaces that also match explicitly defined landmarks. PMID:17679336

  4. Diffusion MRI at 25: exploring brain tissue structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Denis; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Diffusion MRI (or dMRI) came into existence in the mid-1980s. During the last 25 years, diffusion MRI has been extraordinarily successful (with more than 300,000 entries on Google Scholar for diffusion MRI). Its main clinical domain of application has been neurological disorders, especially for the management of patients with acute stroke. It is also rapidly becoming a standard for white matter disorders, as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal abnormalities in white matter fiber structure and provide outstanding maps of brain connectivity. The ability to visualize anatomical connections between different parts of the brain, non-invasively and on an individual basis, has emerged as a major breakthrough for neurosciences. The driving force of dMRI is to monitor microscopic, natural displacements of water molecules that occur in brain tissues as part of the physical diffusion process. Water molecules are thus used as a probe that can reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between structural brain network efficiency and intelligence increases during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenis, Marinka M G; Brouwer, Rachel M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence represents an important period during which considerable changes in the brain take place, including increases in integrity of white matter bundles, and increasing efficiency of the structural brain network. A more efficient structural brain network has been associated with higher

  6. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  7. Obesity and Aging: Consequences for Cognition, Brain Structure, and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Gérard N; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and aging and how these interact to affect cognitive function. The topics covered are guided by the Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC [Park and Reuter-Lorenz. Annu Rev Psychol 2009;60:173-96]-a conceptual model designed to relate brain structure and function to one's level of cognitive ability. The initial literature search was focused on normal aging and was guided by the key words, "aging, cognition, and obesity" in PubMed. In a second search, we added key words related to neuropathology including words "Alzheimer's disease," "vascular dementia," and "mild cognitive impairment." The data suggest that being overweight or obese in midlife may be more detrimental to subsequent age-related cognitive decline than being overweight or obese at later stages of the life span. These effects are likely mediated by the accelerated effects obesity has on the integrity of neural structures, including both gray and white matter. Further epidemiological studies have provided evidence that obesity in midlife is linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, most likely via an increased accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Although it is clear that obesity negatively affects cognition, more work is needed to better understand how aging plays a role and how brain structure and brain function might mediate the relationship of obesity and age on cognition. Guided by the STAC and the STAC-R models, we provide a roadmap for future investigations of the role of obesity on cognition across the life span.

  8. Perineuronal nets in subcortical auditory nuclei of four rodent species with differing hearing ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Nichole L; Schofield, Brett R

    2017-12-26

    Perineuronal nets (PNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix molecules that surround some neurons in the brain. While PNs occur widely across many cortical areas, subcortical PNs are especially associated with motor and auditory systems. The auditory system has recently been suggested as an ideal model system for studying PNs and their functions. However, descriptions of PNs in subcortical auditory areas vary, and it is unclear whether the variation reflects species differences or differences in staining techniques. Here, we used two staining techniques (one lectin stain and one antibody stain) to examine PN distribution in the subcortical auditory system of four different species: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), mice (Mus musculus, CBA/CaJ strain), Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus), and naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). We found that some auditory nuclei exhibit dramatic differences in PN distribution among species while other nuclei have consistent PN distributions. We also found that PNs exhibit molecular heterogeneity, and can stain with either marker individually or with both. PNs within a given nucleus can be heterogeneous or homogenous in their staining patterns. We compared PN staining across the frequency axes of tonotopically organized nuclei and among species with different hearing ranges. PNs were distributed non-uniformly across some nuclei, but only rarely did this appear related to the tonotopic axis. PNs were prominent in all four species; we found no systematic relationship between the hearing range and the number, staining patterns or distribution of PNs in the auditory nuclei. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Structural brain network: What is the effect of LiFE optimization of whole brain tractography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks constructed based on diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI have provided a systems perspective to explore the organization of the human brain. Some redundant and nonexistent fibers, however, are inevitably generated in whole brain tractography. We propose to add one critical step while constructing the networks to remove these fibers using the linear fascicle evaluation (LiFE method, and study the differences between the networks with and without LiFE optimization. For a cohort of 9 healthy adults and for 9 out of the 35 subjects from Human Connectome Project, the T1-weighted images and dMRI data are analyzed. Each brain is parcellated into 90 regions-of-interest, whilst a probabilistic tractography algorithm is applied to generate the original connectome. The elimination of redundant and nonexistent fibers from the original connectome by LiFE creates the optimized connectome, and the random selection of the same number of fibers as the optimized connectome creates the non-optimized connectome. The combination of parcellations and these connectomes leads to the optimized and non-optimized networks, respectively. The optimized networks are constructed with six weighting schemes, and the correlations of different weighting methods are analyzed. The fiber length distributions of the non-optimized and optimized connectomes are compared. The optimized and non-optimized networks are compared with regard to edges, nodes and networks, within a sparsity range of 0.75-0.95. It has been found that relatively more short fibers exist in the optimized connectome. About 24.0% edges of the optimized network are significantly different from those in the non-optimized network at a sparsity of 0.75. About 13.2% of edges are classified as false positives or the possible missing edges. The strength and betweenness centrality of some nodes are significantly different for the non-optimized and optimized networks, but not the node efficiency. The

  10. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Adolescent Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GIEDD, JAY N

    2004-01-01

    A bstract : Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides accurate anatomical brain images without the use of ionizing radiation, allowing longitudinal studies of brain morphometry during adolescent development...

  11. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  12. Brain structure links everyday creativity to creative achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Tang, Chaoying; Cao, Guikang; Hou, Yuling; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Although creativity is commonly considered to be a cornerstone of human progress and vital to all realms of our lives, its neural basis remains elusive, partly due to the different tasks and measurement methods applied in research. In particular, the neural correlates of everyday creativity that can be experienced by everyone, to some extent, are still unexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the brain structure underlying individual differences in everyday creativity, as measured by the Creative Behavioral Inventory (CBI) (N=163). The results revealed that more creative activities were significantly and positively associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the regional premotor cortex (PMC), which is a motor planning area involved in the creation and selection of novel actions and inhibition. In addition, the gray volume of the PMC had a significant positive relationship with creative achievement and Art scores, which supports the notion that training and practice may induce changes in brain structures. These results indicate that everyday creativity is linked to the PMC and that PMC volume can predict creative achievement, supporting the view that motor planning may play a crucial role in creative behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Frequency-based similarity detection of structures in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Dave I.; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-01

    Advancements in 3D scanning and volumetric imaging methods have motivated researchers to tackle new challenges related to storing, retrieving and comparing 3D models, especially in medical domain. Comparing natural rigid shapes and detecting subtle changes in 3D models of brain structures is of great importance. Precision in capturing surface details and insensitivity to shape orientation are highly desirable properties of good shape descriptors. In this paper, we propose a new method, Spherical Harmonics Distance (SHD), which leverages the power of spherical harmonics to provide more accurate representation of surface details. At the same time, the proposed method incorporates the features of a shape distribution method (D2) and inherits its insensitivity to shape orientation. Comparing SHD to a spherical harmonics based method (SPHARM) shows that the performance of the proposed method is less sensitive to rotation. Also, comparing SHD to D2 shows that the proposed method is more accurate in detecting subtle changes. The performance of the proposed method is verified by calculating the Fisher measure (FM) of extracted feature vectors. The FM of the vectors generated by SHD on average shows 27 times higher values than that of D2. Our preliminary results show that SHD successfully combines desired features from two different methods and paves the way towards better detection of subtle dissimilarities among natural rigid shapes (e.g. structures of interest in human brain). Detecting these subtle changes can be instrumental in more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning.

  14. Segmentation of Brain Structures in Presence of a Space-Occupying Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Pollo, C.; M. Bach Cuadra; Cuisenaire, O.; Villemure, J.; Thiran, J.

    2005-01-01

    Brain deformations induced by space-occupying lesions may result in unpredictable position and shape of functionally important brain structures. The aim of this study is to propose a method for segmentation of brain structures by deformation of a segmented brain atlas in presence of a space-occupying lesion. Our approach is based on an a priori model of lesion growth (MLG) that assumes radial expansion from a seeding point and involves three steps: first, an affine registration bringing the a...

  15. Congenital blindness affects diencephalic but not mesencephalic structures in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that the structure and function of visual cortical areas are affected by early visual deprivation, little is known of how early blindness modifies subcortical relay and association thalamic nuclei, as well as mesencephalic structures. Therefore, in the present...... multicenter study, we used MRI to measure volume of the superior and inferior colliculi, as well as of the thalamic nuclei relaying sensory and motor information to the neocortex, parcellated according to atlas-based thalamo-cortical connections, in 29 individuals with congenital blindness of peripheral......: p = 0.023), and right premotor (p = 0.024) cortical regions were also significantly reduced in the congenitally blind group. Conversely, volumes of the relay nuclei directly involved in auditory, motor, and somatosensory processing were not affected by visual deprivation. In contrast, no difference...

  16. The teenage brain: a neuroeconomic approach to adolescent decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Crone, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed a relative imbalance between the development of subcortical-affective and prefrontal-control brain networks that creates specific sensitivities during adolescence. Despite these advances in understanding adolescent brain development, there is a strong

  17. High thickness histological sections as alternative to study the three-dimensional microscopic human sub-cortical neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Neves, Ricardo Caires; Alegro, Maryana; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Heinsen, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing. We present an alternative method to parcellate human brain cytoarchitectural regions, minimizing deformations caused by post-mortem and tissue-processing artifacts and enhancing segmentation by means of modified high thickness histological techniques and registration with MRI of the same specimen and into MNI space (ICBM152). A three-dimensional (3D) histological atlas of the human thalamus, basal ganglia, and basal forebrain cholinergic system is displayed. Structure's segmentations were performed in high-resolution dark-field and light-field microscopy. Bidimensional non-linear registration of the histological slices was followed by 3D registration with in situ MRI of the same subject. Manual and automated registration procedures were adopted and compared. To evaluate the quality of the registration procedures, Dice similarity coefficient and normalized weighted spectral distance were calculated and the results indicate good overlap between registered volumes and a small shape difference between them in both manual and automated registration methods. High thickness high-resolution histological slices in combination with registration to in situ MRI of the same subject provide an effective alternative method to study nuclear boundaries in the human brain, enhancing segmentation and demanding less resources and time for tissue processing than traditional methods.

  18. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain correlates of constituent structure in sign language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2017-11-21

    During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Autobiographical memory and structural brain changes in chronic phase TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma. Moreover, little is known about the effects of TBI on canonical episodic and non-episodic (e.g., semantic) AM processes. In the present study, we assessed the effects of chronic-phase TBI on AM in patients with focal and DAI spanning the range of TBI severity. Patients and socioeconomic- and age-matched controls were administered the Autobiographical Interview (AI) (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002) a widely used method for dissociating episodic and semantic elements of AM, along with tests of neuropsychological and functional outcome. Measures of episodic and non-episodic AM were compared with regional brain volumes derived from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Severe TBI (but not mild or moderate TBI) was associated with reduced recall of episodic autobiographical details and increased recall of non-episodic details relative to healthy comparison participants. There were no significant associations between AM performance and neuropsychological or functional outcome measures. Within the full TBI sample, autobiographical episodic memory was associated with reduced volume distributed across temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions considered to be part of the brain's AM network. These results suggest that TBI-related distributed volume loss affects episodic autobiographical recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Changes Induced by Daily Music Listening in the Recovering Brain after Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain. PMID:24860466

  2. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  3. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  4. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L M; Ermer, E; Gaudet, L M; Steele, V R; Eckhardt, A L; Arbabshirani, M R; Caldwell, M F; Calhoun, V D; Kiehl, K A

    2014-01-01

    Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.

  5. A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bona, Sergio; Lutzemberger, Ludovico; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2003-12-01

    Recent developments of medical software applications—from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations—have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.

  6. A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Sergio Di [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy); Lutzemberger, Ludovico [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 67-56100 Pisa (Italy); Salvetti, Ovidio [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2003-12-21

    Recent developments of medical software applications from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.

  7. Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, R; Bahrami, B; Roylance, R; Rees, G

    2012-04-07

    The increasing ubiquity of web-based social networking services is a striking feature of modern human society. The degree to which individuals participate in these networks varies substantially for reasons that are unclear. Here, we show a biological basis for such variability by demonstrating that quantitative variation in the number of friends an individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex. Such regions have been previously implicated in social perception and associative memory, respectively. We further show that variability in the size of such online friendship networks was significantly correlated with the size of more intimate real-world social groups. However, the brain regions we identified were specifically associated with online social network size, whereas the grey matter density of the amygdala was correlated both with online and real-world social network sizes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the size of an individual's online social network is closely linked to focal brain structure implicated in social cognition.

  8. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura, psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  9. BRAIN MAGNETIC RESONANCE EVALUATION AND PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT VARIATIONS AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first work to address the relation of pubertal maturation timing and central nervous system development using brain magnetic resonance imaging. The observed tendency for an increased volume of the subcortical structures may be related to a possible delayed development of the nucleus accumbens in early-maturers, and may explain the increased vulnerability of this group to risk behaviours.

  10. HIV-1 nef protein structures associated with brain infection and dementia pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lamers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The difference between regional rates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD in patients infected with different subtypes of HIV suggests that genetic determinants exist within HIV that influence the ability of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system (in Uganda, Africa, subtype D HAD rate is 89%, while subtype A HAD rate is 24%. HIV-1 nef is a multifunctional protein with known toxic effects in the brain compartment. The goal of the current study was to identify if specific three-dimensional nef structures may be linked to patients who developed HAD. HIV-1 nef structures were computationally derived for consensus brain and non-brain sequences from a panel of patients infected with subtype B who died due to varied disease pathologies and consensus subtype A and subtype D sequences from Uganda. Site directed mutation analysis identified signatures in brain structures that appear to change binding potentials and could affect folding conformations of brain-associated structures. Despite the large sequence variation between HIV subtypes, structural alignments confirmed that viral structures derived from patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than to structures derived from patient sequences without HAD. Furthermore, structures derived from brain sequences of patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than they were to their own non-brain structures. The potential finding of a brain-specific nef structure indicates that HAD may result from genetic alterations that alter the folding or binding potential of the protein.

  11. HIV-1 nef protein structures associated with brain infection and dementia pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Poon, Art F Y; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-02-09

    The difference between regional rates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in patients infected with different subtypes of HIV suggests that genetic determinants exist within HIV that influence the ability of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system (in Uganda, Africa, subtype D HAD rate is 89%, while subtype A HAD rate is 24%). HIV-1 nef is a multifunctional protein with known toxic effects in the brain compartment. The goal of the current study was to identify if specific three-dimensional nef structures may be linked to patients who developed HAD. HIV-1 nef structures were computationally derived for consensus brain and non-brain sequences from a panel of patients infected with subtype B who died due to varied disease pathologies and consensus subtype A and subtype D sequences from Uganda. Site directed mutation analysis identified signatures in brain structures that appear to change binding potentials and could affect folding conformations of brain-associated structures. Despite the large sequence variation between HIV subtypes, structural alignments confirmed that viral structures derived from patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than to structures derived from patient sequences without HAD. Furthermore, structures derived from brain sequences of patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than they were to their own non-brain structures. The potential finding of a brain-specific nef structure indicates that HAD may result from genetic alterations that alter the folding or binding potential of the protein.

  12. The impact of ADHD persistence, recent cannabis use, and age of regular cannabis use onset on subcortical volume and cortical thickness in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Jernigan, Terry; Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Newman, Erik; Kelly, Clare; Bjork, James M

    2016-04-01

    Both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and chronic cannabis (CAN) use have been associated with brain structural abnormalities, although little is known about the effects of both in young adults. Participants included: those with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who were CAN users (ADHD_CAN; n=37) and non-users (NU) (ADHD_NU; n=44) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (LNCG_CAN; n=18) and did not (LNCG_NU; n=21) use CAN regularly. Multiple regressions and MANCOVAs were used to examine the independent and interactive effects of a childhood ADHD diagnosis and CAN group status and age of onset (CUO) on subcortical volumes and cortical thickness. After controlling for age, gender, total brain volume, nicotine use, and past-year binge drinking, childhood ADHD diagnosis did not predict brain structure; however, persistence of ADHD was associated with smaller left precentral/postcentral cortical thickness. Compared to all non-users, CAN users had decreased cortical thickness in right hemisphere superior frontal sulcus, anterior cingulate, and isthmus of cingulate gyrus regions and left hemisphere superior frontal sulcus and precentral gyrus regions. Early cannabis use age of onset (CUO) in those with ADHD predicted greater right hemisphere superior frontal and postcentral cortical thickness. Young adults with persistent ADHD demonstrated brain structure abnormalities in regions underlying motor control, working memory and inhibitory control. Further, CAN use was linked with abnormal brain structure in regions with high concentrations of cannabinoid receptors. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to clarify how substance use impacts neurodevelopment in youth with and without ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Macroscale Structural Connectivity in the Macaque and Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, A.; Bastiani, M.; Bezgin, G.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Roebroeck, A.; Stiers, P.

    2014-01-01

    The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity

  14. Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaser, Christian; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2003-10-08

    From an early age, musicians learn complex motor and auditory skills (e.g., the translation of visually perceived musical symbols into motor commands with simultaneous auditory monitoring of output), which they practice extensively from childhood throughout their entire careers. Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, we found gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians. Although some of these multiregional differences could be attributable to innate predisposition, we believe they may represent structural adaptations in response to long-term skill acquisition and the repetitive rehearsal of those skills. This hypothesis is supported by the strong association we found between structural differences, musician status, and practice intensity, as well as the wealth of supporting animal data showing structural changes in response to long-term motor training. However, only future experiments can determine the relative contribution of predisposition and practice.

  15. Brain Networks of Explicit and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Are explicit versus implicit learning mechanisms reflected in the brain as distinct neural structures, as previous research indicates, or are they distinguished by brain networks that involve overlapping systems with differential connectivity? In this functional MRI study we examined the neural correlates of explicit and implicit learning of artificial grammar sequences. Using effective connectivity analyses we found that brain networks of different connectivity underlie the two types of learning: while both processes involve activation in a set of cortical and subcortical structures, explicit learners engage a network that uses the insula as a key mediator whereas implicit learners evoke a direct frontal-striatal network. Individual differences in working memory also differentially impact the two types of sequence learning. PMID:22952624

  16. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  17. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Tyge Dahl Hermansen; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2008-01-01

    The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where inf...

  18. ECT: its brain enabling effects. A review of electroconvulsive therapy-induced structural brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, F.; Sienaert, P.; Obbels, J.; Dols, A.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Stek, M.L.; Bolwig, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human

  19. How structure sculpts function: Unveiling the contribution of anatomical connectivity to the brain's spontaneous correlation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinardi, R. G.; Deco, G.; Karlaftis, V. M.; Van Hartevelt, T. J.; Fernandes, H. M.; Kourtzi, Z.; Kringelbach, M. L.; Zamora-López, G.

    2017-04-01

    Intrinsic brain activity is characterized by highly organized co-activations between different regions, forming clustered spatial patterns referred to as resting-state networks. The observed co-activation patterns are sustained by the intricate fabric of millions of interconnected neurons constituting the brain's wiring diagram. However, as for other real networks, the relationship between the connectional structure and the emergent collective dynamics still evades complete understanding. Here, we show that it is possible to estimate the expected pair-wise correlations that a network tends to generate thanks to the underlying path structure. We start from the assumption that in order for two nodes to exhibit correlated activity, they must be exposed to similar input patterns from the entire network. We then acknowledge that information rarely spreads only along a unique route but rather travels along all possible paths. In real networks, the strength of local perturbations tends to decay as they propagate away from the sources, leading to a progressive attenuation of the original information content and, thus, of their influence. Accordingly, we define a novel graph measure, topological similarity, which quantifies the propensity of two nodes to dynamically correlate as a function of the resemblance of the overall influences they are expected to receive due to the underlying structure of the network. Applied to the human brain, we find that the similarity of whole-network inputs, estimated from the topology of the anatomical connectome, plays an important role in sculpting the backbone pattern of time-average correlations observed at rest.

  20. Structural brain correlates of delay of gratification in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobetz, Reinhard; Hänggi, Jürgen; Maercker, Andreas; Kaufmann, Karin; Jäncke, Lutz; Forstmeier, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Delay of gratification (DoG) refers to the ability to postpone immediate rewards in favor of later and better rewards. A successful DoG in children/adolescents is subject to the maturation of the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, which is more prone to normal age-related atrophy compared with other brain regions. Therefore, we investigated morphological brain correlates of DoG using structural MRI surface-based morphometry as well as determined whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) atrophy is related to DoG in the elderly. We used the behavioral Delay of Gratification Test for Adults to measure DoG in 40 healthy older adults aged between 63 and 93 years. When simultaneously controlling for age and intracranial volume, high DoG significantly positively correlated with cortical surface area of the left DLPFC. At a more liberal statistical threshold, we found positive correlations between DoG and cortical thickness of the left and right DLPFC, left and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left midanterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, cortical surface area in the left DLPFC correlated positively with DoG as well as with the volume of the left caudate nucleus. The results suggest that the DLPFC, medial prefrontal cortex, and the caudate nucleus play a crucial role in DoG in the elderly supporting studies in related constructs such as delay discounting and impulsivity. Further, the study shows that age-related prefrontal atrophy is associated with DoG performance. The findings are in line with concepts of "willpower" that postulate a central role of frontostriatal connectivity in self-regulation and self-control.

  1. BrainSegNet: a convolutional neural network architecture for automated segmentation of human brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Raghav; Majumdar, Aabhas; Sivaswamy, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Automated segmentation of cortical and noncortical human brain structures has been hitherto approached using nonrigid registration followed by label fusion. We propose an alternative approach for this using a convolutional neural network (CNN) which classifies a voxel into one of many structures. Four different kinds of two-dimensional and three-dimensional intensity patches are extracted for each voxel, providing local and global (context) information to the CNN. The proposed approach is evaluated on five different publicly available datasets which differ in the number of labels per volume. The obtained mean Dice coefficient varied according to the number of labels, for example, it is [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for datasets with the least (32) and the most (134) number of labels, respectively. These figures are marginally better or on par with those obtained with the current state-of-the-art methods on nearly all datasets, at a reduced computational time. The consistently good performance of the proposed method across datasets and no requirement for registration make it attractive for many applications where reduced computational time is necessary.

  2. Implementation and electrophysiological validation of combined fMRI and DTI imaging for visualization of cortico-subcortical connectivity; Implementierung und elektrophysiologische Validierung kombinierter fMRI- und DTI-Bildgebung zur Visualisierung kortiko-subkortikaler Konnektivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharabaghi, A.; Kunath, F.; Tatagiba, M. [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany); Saur, R.; Erb, M.; Grodd, W. [Sektion Experimentelle Kernspinresonanz des ZNS, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany); Heckl, S.; Naegele, T. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The combined application of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor based tractography is a reliable technique to localize cortico-subcortical functional systems of the brain. This technical feature will be particularly important for image-guided neurosurgery as well as for intraoperative imaging in future. Due to methodological limitations and external factors (intraoperative brain shift, interstitial brain edema) these MR imaging modalities need to be supplemented by intraoperative electrophysiological mapping techniques. For this purpose, navigated bipolar stimulation is especially appropriate to validate imaging findings and to preserve the functional integrity of cortico-subcortical systems. (orig.)

  3. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  4. Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. PMID:26833844

  5. The impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Guzman, Manuel A; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Catena, Andres

    2016-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a complex clinical syndrome that includes many symptoms beyond chronic pain. The studies that have addressed brain morphometry in FMS have had very heterogeneous results. Thus, the question of which specific FMS symptoms and clinical features-pain, but also psychological distress, sleep-related problems, health status, and medication intake-impact on brain morphometry remains open. Here, we wanted to determine if brain changes in FMS are "symptom-related" more than "diagnostic-related". We performed an observational study of 46 premenopausal women (23 FMS patients and 23 age-matched healthy participants). Magnetic resonance images were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and subcortical segmentation. We used multiple regression models to assess the associations between total and local brain volumes and FMS clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we calculated associations between subcortical structures' shapes and volumes and FMS clinical characteristics. Larger psychological distress, anxiety, and sleepiness, and higher analgesic consumption accounted for 38 % of FMS patients' smaller total gray matter volume (GMV). For both groups, local decrements of GMV in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were associated to larger psychological distress. Local increases of GMV were positively related to pain scores (superior frontal gyrus), psychological distress (cerebellum), anxiety (medial orbitofrontal cortex), and sleepiness (frontal superior medial cortex). FMS clinical characteristics were also associated to deformations in subcortical structures and volumes changes. This study reveals that total and local GMV changes in FMS go beyond the traditional "pain matrix" alterations. We demonstrated that brain morphology is altered by pain, but also by clinical characteristics that define the FMS experience.

  6. Sleep habits, academic performance, and the adolescent brain structure

    OpenAIRE

    Urrila, Anna S.; Eric Artiges; Jessica Massicotte; Ruben Miranda; Hélène Vulser; Pauline Bézivin-Frere; Winok Lapidaire; Hervé Lemaître; Jani Penttilä; Conrod, Patricia J.; Hugh Garavan; Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot; Jean-Luc Martinot

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first and most robust evidence about how sleep habits are associated with regional brain grey matter volumes and school grade average in early adolescence. Shorter time in bed during weekdays, and later weekend sleeping hours correlate with smaller brain grey matter volumes in frontal, anterior cingulate, and precuneus cortex regions. Poor school grade average associates with later weekend bedtime and smaller grey matter volumes in medial brain regions. The medial prefronta...

  7. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems.

  8. Assessment of the structural brain network reveals altered connectivity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Kerstin; Boyd, Roslyn N; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Rose, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term to describe the spectrum of disorders of impaired motor and sensory function caused by a brain lesion occurring early during development. Diffusion MRI and tractography have been shown to be useful in the study of white matter (WM) microstructure in tracts likely to be impacted by the static brain lesion. The purpose of this study was to identify WM pathways with altered connectivity in children with unilateral CP caused by periventricular white matter lesions using a whole-brain connectivity approach. Data of 50 children with unilateral CP caused by periventricular white matter lesions (5-17 years; manual ability classification system [MACS] I = 25/II = 25) and 17 children with typical development (CTD; 7-16 years) were analysed. Structural and High Angular Resolution Diffusion weighted Images (HARDI; 64 directions, b = 3000 s/mm(2)) were acquired at 3 T. Connectomes were calculated using whole-brain probabilistic tractography in combination with structural parcellation of the cortex and subcortical structures. Connections with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) in children with unilateral CP compared to CTD were identified using network-based statistics (NBS). The relationship between FA and performance of the impaired hand in bimanual tasks (Assisting Hand Assessment-AHA) was assessed in connections that showed significant differences in FA compared to CTD. FA was reduced in children with unilateral CP compared to CTD. Seven pathways, including the corticospinal, thalamocortical, and fronto-parietal association pathways were identified simultaneously in children with left and right unilateral CP. There was a positive relationship between performance of the impaired hand in bimanual tasks and FA within the cortico-spinal and thalamo-cortical pathways (r(2) = 0.16-0.44; p < 0.05). This study shows that network-based analysis of structural connectivity can identify alterations in FA in unilateral CP, and that these

  9. Comparative analysis of the macroscale structural connectivity in the macaque and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Goulas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research.

  10. Delineating Neural Structures of Developmental Human Brains with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain anatomy is characterized by dramatic structural changes during fetal development. It is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process, but also provides clues to detect abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. However, anatomical studies of human brain development during the fetal period are surprisingly scarce and histology-based atlases have become available only recently. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures water diffusion to delineate the underlying neural structures. The high contrasts derived from DTI can be used to establish the brain atlas. With DTI tractography, coherent neural structures, such as white matter tracts, can be three-dimensionally reconstructed. The primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor can be further explored to characterize microstructures in the cerebral wall of the developmental brains. In this mini-review, the application of DTI in order to reveal the structures of developmental fetal brains has been reviewed in the above-mentioned aspects. The fetal brain DTI provides a unique insight for delineating the neural structures in both macroscopic and microscopic levels. The resultant DTI database will provide structural guidance for the developmental study of human fetal brains in basic neuroscience, and reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns.

  11. Brain structure correlates of emotion-based rash impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlert, N; Lawrence, A D

    2015-07-15

    Negative urgency (the tendency to engage in rash, ill-considered action in response to intense negative emotions), is a personality trait that has been linked to problematic involvement in several risky and impulsive behaviours, and to various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology, but its neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether inter-individual variation in levels of trait negative urgency was associated with inter-individual variation in regional grey matter volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample (n=152) of healthy participants, we found that smaller volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, regions previously linked to emotion appraisal, emotion regulation and emotion-based decision-making, were associated with higher levels of trait negative urgency. When controlling for other impulsivity linked personality traits (sensation seeking, lack of planning/perseverance) and negative emotionality per se (neuroticism), these associations remained, and an additional relationship was found between higher levels of trait negative urgency and smaller volumes of the left ventral striatum. This latter finding mirrors recent VBM findings in an animal model of impulsivity. Our findings offer novel insight into the brain structure correlates of one key source of inter-individual differences in impulsivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  13. Asymmetry of Hemispheric Network Topology Reveals Dissociable Processes between Functional and Structural Brain Connectome in Community-Living Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Sun; Junhua Li; John Suckling; Lei Feng

    2017-01-01

    Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between struct...

  14. Association between subcortical volumes and verbal memory in unmedicated depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arlener D; Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Zarate, Carlos; Nugent, Allison C

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown poor performance on verbal memory tasks in patients with major depressive disorder relative to healthy controls, as well as structural abnormalities in the subcortical structures that form the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry. Few studies, however, have attempted to link the impairments in learning and memory in depression with these structural abnormalities, and of those which have done so, most have included patients medicated with psychotropic agents likely to influence cognitive performance. This study thus examines the relationship between subcortical structural abnormalities and verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in unmedicated depressed patients. A T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan and the CVLT were obtained on 45 subjects with major depressive disorder and 44 healthy controls. Using the FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) volumes of selected subcortical structures were segmented and correlated with CVLT performance. Depressed participants showed significantly smaller right thalamus and right hippocampus volumes than healthy controls. Depressed participants also showed impaired performance on global verbal learning ability, and appeared to depend upon an inferior memory strategy (serial clustering). Measures of serial clustering were correlated significantly with right hippocampal volumes in depressed participants. Our findings indicate that depressed participants and healthy controls differ in the memory strategies they employ, and that while depressed participants had a smaller hippocampal volume, there was a positive correlation between volume and use of an inferior memory strategy. This suggests that larger hippocampal volume is related to better memory recall in depression, but specifically with regard to utilizing an inferior memory strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...

  16. A technique for the deidentification of structural brain MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Ozyurt, I Burak; Busa, Evelina

    2007-01-01

    is presented, the optimal linear transform is computed for the input volume (Fischl et al. [2002]: Neuron 33:341-355; Fischl et al. [2004]: Neuroimage 23 (Suppl 1):S69-S84). A brain mask is constructed by forming the union of all voxels with nonzero probability of being brain and then morphologically dilated...

  17. Structural brain imaging in diabetes : A methodological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Cynthia; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Brain imaging provides information on brain anatomy and function and progression of cerebral abnormalities can be monitored. This may provide insight into the aetiology of diabetes related cerebral disorders. This paper focuses on the methods for the assessment of white matter hyperintensities and

  18. Mosaic mutations of the LIS1 gene cause subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, F; Kelemen, A; Genton, P; Das, S; Mei, D; Moro, F; Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R

    2003-10-28

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a neuronal migration disorder. DCX mutations are responsible for almost all familial cases, 80% of sporadic female cases, and 25% of sporadic male cases of SBH, and are associated with more severe gyral and migration abnormality over the anterior brain regions. Somatic mosaicism has previously been hypothesized in a patient with posteriorly predominant SBH and a mutation of the LIS1 gene, which is usually mutated in patients with severe lissencephaly. The authors identified mosaic mutations of LIS1 in two patients (Patients 1 and 2) with predominantly posterior SBH. After ruling out DCX mutations, the authors performed sequencing of the LIS1 gene in lymphocyte DNA. Because sequence peaks in both patients were suggestive of mosaic mutations, they followed up with denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis on blood and hair root DNA and compared the areas of heteroduplex and homoduplex peaks. A third patient showing the same mutation as Patient 2 but with no evidence of mosaicism was used for comparing the phenotype of mosaic vs full mutation. The two patients with posterior SBH harbored a missense (Arg241Pro) and a nonsense (R8X) mosaic mutation of LIS1. The rate of mosaicism in Patient 1 was 18% in the blood and 21% in the hair roots, whereas in Patient 2 it was 24% and 31% in the same tissues. The patient with a full R8X mutation of LIS1 had severe lissencephaly. Subcortical band heterotopia can occur with mosaic mutations of the LIS1 gene. Mutation analysis of LIS1, using highly sensitive techniques such as denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography, should be considered for patients with posteriorly predominant subcortical band heterotopia and pachygyria.

  19. Segmentation of brain structures in presence of a space-occupying lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Claudio; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-02-15

    Brain deformations induced by space-occupying lesions may result in unpredictable position and shape of functionally important brain structures. The aim of this study is to propose a method for segmentation of brain structures by deformation of a segmented brain atlas in presence of a space-occupying lesion. Our approach is based on an a priori model of lesion growth (MLG) that assumes radial expansion from a seeding point and involves three steps: first, an affine registration bringing the atlas and the patient into global correspondence; then, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas providing a template for the lesion; finally, the deformation of the seeded atlas, combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model of lesion growth. The method was applied on two meningiomas inducing a pure displacement of the underlying brain structures, and segmentation accuracy of ventricles and basal ganglia was assessed. Results show that the segmented structures were consistent with the patient's anatomy and that the deformation accuracy of surrounding brain structures was highly dependent on the accurate placement of the tumor seeding point. Further improvements of the method will optimize the segmentation accuracy. Visualization of brain structures provides useful information for therapeutic consideration of space-occupying lesions, including surgical, radiosurgical, and radiotherapeutic planning, in order to increase treatment efficiency and prevent neurological damage.

  20. Lesion Explorer: a comprehensive segmentation and parcellation package to obtain regional volumetrics for subcortical hyperintensities and intracranial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J; Gibson, E; Quddus, A; Lobaugh, N J; Feinstein, A; Levine, B; Scott, C J M; Levy-Cooperman, N; Gao, F Q; Black, S E

    2011-01-15

    Subcortical hyperintensities (SH) are a commonly observed phenomenon on MRI of the aging brain (Kertesz et al., 1988). Conflicting behavioral, cognitive and pathological associations reported in the literature underline the need to develop an intracranial volumetric analysis technique to elucidate pathophysiological origins of SH in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and normal aging (De Leeuw et al., 2001; Mayer and Kier, 1991; Pantoni and Garcia, 1997; Sachdev et al., 2008). The challenge is to develop processing tools that effectively and reliably quantify subcortical small vessel disease in the context of brain tissue compartments. Segmentation and brain region parcellation should account for SH subtypes which are often classified as: periventricular (pvSH) and deep white (dwSH), incidental white matter disease or lacunar infarcts and Virchow-Robin spaces. Lesion Explorer (LE) was developed as the final component of a comprehensive volumetric segmentation and parcellation image processing stream built upon previously published methods (Dade et al., 2004; Kovacevic et al., 2002). Inter-rater and inter-method reliability was accomplished both globally and regionally. Volumetric analysis showed high inter-rater reliability both globally (ICC=.99) and regionally (ICC=.98). Pixel-wise spatial congruence was also high (SI=.97). Whole brain pvSH volumes yielded high inter-rater reliability (ICC=.99). Volumetric analysis against an alternative kNN segmentation revealed high inter-method reliability (ICC=.97). Comparison with visual rating scales showed high significant correlations (ARWMC: r=.86; CHIPS: r=.87). The pipeline yields a comprehensive and reliable individualized volumetric profile for subcortical vasculopathy that includes regionalized (26 brain regions) measures for: GM, WM, sCSF, vCSF, lacunar and non-lacunar pvSH and dwSH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of structure-function network decoupling in the brain systems of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongha; Pae, Chongwon; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae; Um, Min-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Manifestation of the functionalities from the structural brain network is becoming increasingly important to understand a brain disease. With the aim of investigating the differential structure-function couplings according to network systems, we investigated the structural and functional brain networks of patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy with periventricular leukomalacia compared to healthy controls. The structural and functional networks of the whole brain and motor system, constructed using deterministic and probabilistic tractography of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and Pearson and partial correlation analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images, showed differential embedding of functional networks in the structural networks in patients. In the whole-brain network of patients, significantly reduced global network efficiency compared to healthy controls were found in the structural networks but not in the functional networks, resulting in reduced structural-functional coupling. On the contrary, the motor network of patients had a significantly lower functional network efficiency over the intact structural network and a lower structure-function coupling than the control group. This reduced coupling but reverse directionality in the whole-brain and motor networks of patients was prominent particularly between the probabilistic structural and partial correlation-based functional networks. Intact (or less deficient) functional network over impaired structural networks of the whole brain and highly impaired functional network topology over the intact structural motor network might subserve relatively preserved cognitions and impaired motor functions in cerebral palsy. This study suggests that the structure-function relationship, evaluated specifically using sparse functional connectivity, may reveal important clues to functional reorganization in cerebral palsy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5292-5306, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  2. Structural brain alterations associated with dyslexia predate reading onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Chang, Maria; Gaab, Nadine

    2011-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reduced activation in parietotemporal and occipitotemporal areas in adults and children with developmental dyslexia compared to controls during reading and reading related tasks. These patterns of regionally reduced activation have been linked to behavioral impairments of reading-related processes (e.g., phonological skills and rapid automatized naming). The observed functional and behavioral differences in individuals with developmental dyslexia have been complemented by reports of reduced gray matter in left parietotemporal, occipitotemporal areas, fusiform and lingual gyrus and the cerebellum. An important question for education is whether these neural differences are present before reading is taught. Developmental dyslexia can only be diagnosed after formal reading education starts. However, here we investigate whether the previously detected gray matter alterations in adults and children with developmental dyslexia can already be observed in a small group of pre-reading children with a family-history of developmental dyslexia compared to age and IQ-matched children without a family-history (N = 20/mean age: 5:9 years; age range 5:1-6:5 years). Voxel-based morphometry revealed significantly reduced gray matter volume indices for pre-reading children with, compared to children without, a family-history of developmental dyslexia in left occipitotemporal, bilateral parietotemporal regions, left fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus. Gray matter volume indices in left hemispheric occipitotemporal and parietotemporal regions of interest also correlated positively with rapid automatized naming. No differences between the two groups were observed in frontal and cerebellar regions. This discovery in a small group of children suggests that previously described functional and structural alterations in developmental dyslexia may not be due to experience-dependent brain changes but may be present at birth or

  3. On the relationship between head circumference, brain size, prenatal long-chain PUFA/5-methyltetrahydrofolate supplementation and cognitive abilities during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Andrés; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Brandi, Pilar; Pérez-García, Miguel; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-29

    Head circumference in infants has been reported to predict brain size, total grey matter volume (GMV) and neurocognitive development. However, it is unknown whether it has predictive value on regional and subcortical brain volumes. We aimed to explore the relationship between several head circumference measurements since birth and distributions of GMV and subcortical volumes at later childhood. We examined seventy-four, Caucasian, singleton, term-born infants born to mothers randomised to receive fish oil and/or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or placebo prenatal supplementation. We assessed head circumference at birth and at 4 and 10 years of age and cognitive abilities at 7 years of age. We obtained brain MRI at 10 years of age, on which we performed voxel-based morphometry, cortical surface extraction and subcortical segmentation. Analyses were controlled for sex, age, height, weight, family status, laterality and total intracranial volume. Prenatal supplementation did not affect head circumference at any age, cognitive abilities or total brain volumes. Head circumference at 4 years presented the highest correlation with total GMV, white matter volume and brain surface area, and was also strongly associated with GMV of frontal, temporal and occipital areas, as well as with caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus volumes. As relationships between brain volumes in childhood and several outcomes extend into adulthood, we have found that ages between 0 and 4 years as the optimal time for brain growth; postnatal factors might have the most relevant impact on structural maturation of certain cortical areas and subcortical nuclei, independent of prenatal supplementation.

  4. The α1, α2, α3, and γ2 subunits of GABAA receptors show characteristic spatial and temporal expression patterns in rhombencephalic structures during normal human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Tamara; Capo, Ivan; Aronica, Eleonora; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Kovacs, Gabor G; Milenkovic, Ivan

    2016-06-15

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, mediating its actions chiefly via a pentameric chloride ion channel, the GABAA receptor. Nineteen different subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, π, θ, ρ1-3) can give rise to multiple receptor subtypes that are the site of action of many clinically important drugs. In the developing brain, however, GABAA receptors mediate excitatory actions due to an increased chloride concentration within neurons and seem to control cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, synapse maturation, and cell death. Little is known about the distribution of single subunits in the human brain. Here we describe developmental changes in the immunohistochemical distribution of four subunits (α1, α2, α3, and γ2) in the human rhombencephalon. The γ2 was the most abundant subunit in all rhombencephalic structures during development and in adults, whereas α subunits showed a structure- and age-characteristic distribution. The α1 was expressed prenatally in the molecular and Purkinje cell layer, but only postnatally in the granule cell layer and the dentate nucleus. Expression was completely absent in the inferior olivary nucleus. The α2 gradually increased during development, showing some layer specificity in the cerebellar cortex. The α3-immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex was relatively weak, but it was abundantly observed in different cell populations in the subcortical cerebellar structures. Structure- and age-characteristic colocalization between subunits during development suggests differences in GABAA receptor composition. Interestingly, subunit expression in several instances differed between human and rodent brain, underlining the importance of immunohistochemical studies in humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [On the question of the organization of brain function: cortical associations, «disconnection» syndrome and higher brain functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damulin, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review considers the structural/functional brain organization, the disturbance of which is accompanied by the development of cognitive and behavioral disorders. The significance of the disruption of parallel circuits connecting frontal lobes with subcortical structures (the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum) is highlighted. This disruption is clinically described as "disconnection" syndrome. The associations between the basal ganglia and the cortex of the large cerebral hemispheres responsible for motor, cognitive and emotional/behavioral functions do not restricted to these spheres and is characteristic not only of frontal brain areas. There are circuits connecting other brain compartments and the basal ganglia that provide perception, and are involved in decision making on the basis of input information of different modalities.The improvement of understanding of the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of these structures opens new possibilities for selective action on some or other circuit to achieve the best therapeutic result.

  6. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  7. A Review of the Status of Brain Structure Research in Transsexualism

    OpenAIRE

    Guillamon, Antonio; Junque, Carme; G?mez-Gil, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The present review focuses on the brain structure of male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) homosexual transsexuals before and after cross-sex hormone treatment as shown by in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging studies suggest that the brain of MtFs presents complex mixtures of masculine, feminine, and demasculinized regions, while FtMs show feminine, masculine, and defeminized regions. Consequently, the specific brain phenotypes proposed for ...

  8. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu eKawagoe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e. for location and face working memory (WM in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that attentional brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies.The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction -compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  9. Brain structure and functional connectivity associated with pornography consumption: the brain on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users. To determine whether frequent pornography consumption is associated with the frontostriatal network. In a study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany, 64 healthy male adults covering a wide range of pornography consumption reported hours of pornography consumption per week. Pornography consumption was associated with neural structure, task-related activation, and functional resting-state connectivity. Gray matter volume of the brain was measured by voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity was measured on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scans. We found a significant negative association between reported pornography hours per week and gray matter volume in the right caudate (P < .001, corrected for multiple comparisons) as well as with functional activity during a sexual cue-reactivity paradigm in the left putamen (P < .001). Functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with hours of pornography consumption. The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding.

  10. Habit learning and brain-machine interfaces (BMI): a tribute to Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-10-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) allow manipulation of external devices and computers directly with brain activity without involvement of overt motor actions. The neurophysiological principles of such robotic brain devices and BMIs follow Hebbian learning rules as described and realized by Valentino Braitenberg in his book "Vehicles," in the concept of a "thought pump" residing in subcortical basal ganglia structures. We describe here the application of BMIs for brain communication in totally locked-in patients and argue that the thought pump may extinguish-at least partially-in those people because of extinction of instrumentally learned cognitive responses and brain responses. We show that Pavlovian semantic conditioning may allow brain communication even in the completely paralyzed who does not show response-effect contingencies. Principles of skill learning and habit acquisition as formulated by Braitenberg are the building blocks of BMIs and neuroprostheses.

  11. Clinical presentation and outcome of geriatric depression in subcortical ischemic vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, R; Pennisi, G; Cantone, M; Palermo, F; Pennisi, M; Lanza, G; Zappia, M; Paolucci, S

    2010-01-01

    Vascular damage of frontal-subcortical circuits involved in mood regulation and cognition might be the main contributor to the pathogenesis of late-life depression, and it is linked to poor response to treatment. To investigate the relationship between executive dysfunction and outcome of depressive symptoms among elderly patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Ninety-two elderly patients with white matter lesions (WMLs) or lacunar infarcts (LAs) on brain MRI and depressive symptomatology were consecutively recruited. Depression was rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Evaluation of executive functions by means of the Stroop color-word test was performed at entry of the study, and WMLs were categorized into mild, moderate or severe. Mood was reevaluated by means of HDRS after the 12th week of pharmacological treatment. Psychomotor retardation, difficulties at work, apathy, and lack of insight were the predominant symptoms. Fifty-six patients (62.8%) had a neuroradiological picture of WMLs, while the remaining 33 (37.1%) had LAs. Executive dysfunctions significantly and independently predict poor outcome of depressive symptoms. Patients with the severest WMLs showed not only a greater executive dysfunction, but also a minor response to antidepressant treatment. This study supports the vascular depression hypothesis. WMLs are of crucial clinical relevance as they are linked with cognitive symptoms and poor antidepressant outcome. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  13. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  14. Advancing multiscale structural mapping of the brain through fluorescence imaging and analysis across length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, L. J.; Guo, S. M.; Murugadoss, K.; Bathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain function emerges from hierarchical neuronal structure that spans orders of magnitude in length scale, from the nanometre-scale organization of synaptic proteins to the macroscopic wiring of neuronal circuits. Because the synaptic electrochemical signal transmission that drives brain function ultimately relies on the organization of neuronal circuits, understanding brain function requires an understanding of the principles that determine hierarchical neuronal structure in living or intact organisms. Recent advances in fluorescence imaging now enable quantitative characterization of neuronal structure across length scales, ranging from single-molecule localization using super-resolution imaging to whole-brain imaging using light-sheet microscopy on cleared samples. These tools, together with correlative electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the nanoscopic and macroscopic scales, respectively, now facilitate our ability to probe brain structure across its full range of length scales with cellular and molecular specificity. As these imaging datasets become increasingly accessible to researchers, novel statistical and computational frameworks will play an increasing role in efforts to relate hierarchical brain structure to its function. In this perspective, we discuss several prominent experimental advances that are ushering in a new era of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging in neuroscience along with novel computational and statistical strategies that are helping to distil our understanding of complex brain structure. PMID:26855758

  15. Cortical and subcortical functional neuroanatomy for low-grade glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, L; Lefranc, M; Velut, S; Foulon, P; Havet, E; Peltier, J

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the encephalon anatomy is crucial for neurosurgical practice, especially the main cortical functional structures and their connections. General organisation of the encephalon is presented with frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic and insular lobes and their Brodmann correspondence. Secondly, subcortical anatomy will be presented with main white matter fasciculi in three separated categories: association, commissural and projection fibers. Main association fibers are inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum. Commissural fibers include anterior commissure, corpus callosum and fornix. Projection fibers are internal capsule and optic radiations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  17. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Peper, J.S.; Crone, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used

  18. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  19. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  20. Large-scale structural alteration of brain in epileptic children with SCN1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jeong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Significance: This study showed large-scale developmental brain changes in patients with epilepsy and SCN1A gene mutation, which may be associated with the core symptoms of the patients. Further longitudinal MRI studies with larger cohorts are required to confirm the effect of SCN1A gene mutation on structural brain development.

  1. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  2. Correlations between personality and brain structure: A crucial role of gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nostro, A.; Müller, V.I.; Reid, A.T.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that males and females differ in personality and gender differences have also been reported in brain structure. However, effects of gender on this "personality-brain" relationship are yet unknown. We therefore investigated if the neural correlates of personality differ

  3. Dopaminergic control of 125I-labeled neurotensin binding site density in corticolimbic structures of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, D.; Tassin, J.P.; Studler, J.M.; Dana, C.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.; Glowinski, J.; Rostene, W.

    1986-08-01

    In the rat brain, destruction of dopaminergic cell groups by injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum results in large decreases in the number of neurotensin binding sites in the mesencephalon and the striatum. In contrast, these lesions produce an increase in the number of /sup 125/I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex despite a large decrease in cortical dopamine levels. Increases in the number of /sup 125/I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in this cortical area as well as in the entorhinal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the central part of the striatum were also obtained after chronic blockade of dopamine neurotransmission by a long-acting neuroleptic pipotiazine palmitic ester. We propose that dopamine inputs regulate the density of postsynaptic neurotensin binding sites through cortical and subcortical dopamine receptors. Therefore, some of the clinical effects of neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients could be partly related to changes in neurotensin neurotransmission.

  4. Human Fetal Brain Connectome: Structural Network Development from Middle Fetal Stage to Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Limei; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Slinger, Michelle; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Complicated molecular and cellular processes take place in a spatiotemporally heterogeneous and precisely regulated pattern in the human fetal brain, yielding not only dramatic morphological and microstructural changes, but also macroscale connectomic transitions. As the underlying substrate of the fetal brain structural network, both dynamic neuronal migration pathways and rapid developing fetal white matter (WM) fibers could fundamentally reshape early fetal brain connectome. Quantifying structural connectome development can not only shed light on the brain reconfiguration in this critical yet rarely studied developmental period, but also reveal alterations of the connectome under neuropathological conditions. However, transition of the structural connectome from the mid-fetal stage to birth is not yet known. The contribution of different types of neural fibers to the structural network in the mid-fetal brain is not known, either. In this study, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI or DTI) of 10 fetal brain specimens at the age of 20 postmenstrual weeks (PMW), 12 in vivo brains at 35 PMW, and 12 in vivo brains at term (40 PMW) were acquired. The structural connectome of each brain was established with evenly parcellated cortical regions as network nodes and traced fiber pathways based on DTI tractography as network edges. Two groups of fibers were categorized based on the fiber terminal locations in the cerebral wall in the 20 PMW fetal brains. We found that fetal brain networks become stronger and more efficient during 20-40 PMW. Furthermore, network strength and global efficiency increase more rapidly during 20-35 PMW than during 35-40 PMW. Visualization of the whole brain fiber distribution by the lengths suggested that the network reconfiguration in this developmental period could be associated with a significant increase of major long association WM fibers. In addition, non-WM neural fibers could be a major contributor to the structural

  5. Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A Pilot Study on Expertise in the Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Sarah J; Sreenivasan, Karthik R; Weintraub, David M; Baldock, Deanna; Noback, Michael; Pierce, Meghan E; Frasnelli, Johannes; James, Jay; Beall, Erik; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Cordes, Dietmar; Leger, Gabriel C

    2016-01-01

    .... Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers' brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks...

  6. Speech and language disorders secondary to diffuse subcortical vascular lesions: Neurolinguistic and acoustic analysis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Gordana; Stojanović, Milena; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Stanković, Predrag; Zidverc-Trajković, Jasna; Pavlović, Dragan; Marković-Jovanović, Zagorka; Covicković-Sternić, Nadezda

    2009-08-15

    Subcortical white matter (WM) plays an important role in speech production and language processing. Most frequently, cerebral WM lesions are secondary to small vessel disease in patients with vascular risk factors. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with history of hypertension and ischemic subcortical lesions, who presented with speech difficulties and mild cognitive impairment. Language and cognitive assessment included Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Scale for Evaluation of Perceptive Characteristics of Voice and Speech, and Multidimensional Evaluation of Speech and Voice. Brain MRI showed ischemic WM lesions and lacunar infarcts in the brainstem and right cerebellum. Cognitive testing revealed mild cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting attention and executive functions. Speech and language analysis demonstrated dysarthria, dysphonia with hypophonia, and imprecise articulation, as well as short rushes of speech, palilalia and mild subcortical dysphasia. Neurolinguistic and acoustic analysis in patients with ischemic WM lesions can provide additional information in the understanding of language and speech disturbances, and can assist in patient management.

  7. Focus on: Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, S. Christopher; Roussotte, Florence; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning as well as alterations in brain structure and function related to alcohol’s teratogenic effects. These impairments are present both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and in children with heavy in utero alcohol exposure who do not have facial dysmorphology required for the FAS diagnosis. Neuropsychological and behavioral studies have revealed deficits in most cognitive domains measured, including overall intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, executive skills, speed of processing, and academic skills in children and adolescents across the range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). As with neuropsychological studies, brain-imaging studies have detected differences in brain structure related to alcohol exposure in multiple brain systems and abnormalities in the white matter that connects these brain regions. Several studies have found relationships between these morphological differences and cognitive function, suggesting some clinical significance to the structural brain abnormalities. Concentrations of neurotransmitter metabolites within the brains of prenatally exposed children also appear to be altered, and functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to working memory, learning, and inhibitory control in children and adolescents with FASD. PMID:23580049

  8. The timing of language learning shapes brain structure associated with articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-09-01

    We compared the brain structure of highly proficient simultaneous (two languages from birth) and sequential (second language after age 5) bilinguals, who differed only in their degree of native-like accent, to determine how the brain develops when a skill is acquired from birth versus later in life. For the simultaneous bilinguals, gray matter density was increased in the left putamen, as well as in the left posterior insula, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left and right occipital cortex. For the sequential bilinguals, gray matter density was increased in the bilateral premotor cortex. Sequential bilinguals with better accents also showed greater gray matter density in the left putamen, and in several additional brain regions important for sensorimotor integration and speech-motor control. Our findings suggest that second language learning results in enhanced brain structure of specific brain areas, which depends on whether two languages are learned simultaneously or sequentially, and on the extent to which native-like proficiency is acquired.

  9. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis.......BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  10. Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, R.A.M.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. The positive relationship between intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-LCPUFAs) and decreased onset of disease- and aging-related deterioration of

  11. Automatic Analysis of Brain Tissue and Structural Connectivity in MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Boer (Renske)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStudies of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide insights in physiology and pathology that can eventually aid clinical diagnosis and therapy monitoring. MRI data acquired in these studies can be difficult, as well as laborious, to interpret and analyze by

  12. Subcortical connections of normotopic and heterotopic neurons in sensory and motor cortices of the tish mutant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, F; Couture, D; Rao, A; Kahn, H; Lee, K S

    1998-05-25

    Orthograde and retrograde tracers were used to examine subcortical connections of neurons in the neurological mutant tish rat. This animal exhibits bilateral heterotopia similar to those observed in epileptic humans with subcortical band heterotopia. Terminal varicosities were labeled in the striatum, thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord following injections of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the heterotopic cortex. The general topography of corticothalamic projections was evaluated by injecting the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into ventral thalamic nuclei. Retrograde labeling of small-to-medium sized neurons was observed in layer VI of topographically restricted portions of the normotopic cortex. Similar appearing cells were labeled in the neighboring portions of the underlying heterotopia; however, these neurons did not display characteristic lamination or radial orientation. Thalamocortical terminals labeled by injecting BDA into the ventroposterolateral nucleus (VPL) were observed primarily in layer IV of the medial aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex. In contrast, a radial column of terminals was present in the underlying heterotopia. Typical barrel labeling was found in the lateral aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex after injecting the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM), whereas more diffuse patches of labeling were observed in the underlying heterotopia. Heterotopic neurons in the tish cortex, thus, exhibit characteristic features of subcortical connectivity. Both normotopic and heterotopic neurons in the tish brain project to appropriate subcortical sites and establish bidirectional topographic connections with the thalamus. These results suggest that primary sensory-motor information is represented in a parallel manner in the normotopic and heterotopic cortices of the tish rat.

  13. Imaging structural and functional connectivity: towards a unified definition of human brain organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Diffusion tractography and functional/effective connectivity MRI provide a better understanding of the structural and functional human brain connectivity. This review will underline the major recent methodological developments and their exceptional respective contributions to physiological and pathophysiological studies in vivo. We will also emphasize the benefits provided by computational models of complex networks such as graph theory. Imaging structural and functional brain connectivity has revealed the complex brain organization into large-scale networks. Such an organization not only permits the complex information segregation and integration during high cognitive processes but also determines the clinical consequences of alterations encountered in development, ageing, or neurological diseases. Recently, it has also been demonstrated that human brain networks shared topological properties with the so-called 'small-world' mathematical model, allowing a maximal efficiency with a minimal energy and wiring cost. Separately, magnetic resonance tractography and functional MRI connectivity have both brought new insights into brain organization and the impact of injuries. The small-world topology of structural and functional human brain networks offers a common framework to merge structural and functional imaging as well as dynamical data from electrophysiology that might allow a comprehensive definition of the brain organization and plasticity.

  14. Highlighting the Structure-Function Relationship of the Brain with the Ising Model and Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions.

  15. Highlighting the Structure-Function Relationship of the Brain with the Ising Model and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T. K.; Abeyasinghe, P. M.; Crone, J. S.; Sosnowski, A.; Laureys, S.; Owen, A. M.; Soddu, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions. PMID:25276772

  16. Neuropsychological profile of a 9-year-old child with subcortical band heterotopia or 'double cortex'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Anderson, V; Harvey, A S

    2001-09-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or 'double cortex', is a congenital brain abnormality that results from aberrant migration of neurons during development of the cortex. MRI shows a continuous band of heterotopic grey matter located between the cortex and ventricular walls, separated from them by a thin layer of white matter. The condition is quite rare, found predominantly in females, and is occasionally familial with an X-linked dominant inheritance. Current research has focused on genetic and neurological correlates, with cognitive assessment restricted to a global measure of general intellectual functioning. This paper describes in detail the results of a neuropsychological assessment of a 9-year-old female recently diagnosed with SBH. Predominant features were a significantly reduced speed of processing for visuomotor and oral output and reduced immediate registration of information. This difficulty has functional implications affecting skill acquisition, learning in the classroom, and social interaction.

  17. [A male case of subcortical band heterotopia with somatic mosaicism of DCX mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Aiko; Kawatani, Masao; Ohta, Genrei; Kometani, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Yusei; Kato, Mitsuhiro

    2013-09-01

    This report describes a male case of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) with somatic mosaicism of doublecortin (DCX) mutation. His brain MRI revealed bilateral SBH with anterior dominant pachygyria. Although he had infantile spasms from 5-months old and showed mild developmental delay, he responded well to vitamin B6 and ACTH therapy. We conducted DCX mutation analysis using peripheral blood lymphocytes of the proband and his parents. Only the present case showed the mixture pattern of missense mutation (c. 167 G>C) and normal sequence of DCX gene indicating that the present case resulted from somatic mosaicism of de novo DCX mutation. Male patients with DCX mutations generally present with the classical type of lissencephaly, severe developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy. However, somatic mosaic mutation of DCX can lead to SBH in males.

  18. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  19. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  20. Brain networks, structural realism, and local approaches to the scientific realism debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Karen; Hricko, Jonathon

    2017-08-01

    We examine recent work in cognitive neuroscience that investigates brain networks. Brain networks are characterized by the ways in which brain regions are functionally and anatomically connected to one another. Cognitive neuroscientists use various noninvasive techniques (e.g., fMRI) to investigate these networks. They represent them formally as graphs. And they use various graph theoretic techniques to analyze them further. We distinguish between knowledge of the graph theoretic structure of such networks (structural knowledge) and knowledge of what instantiates that structure (nonstructural knowledge). And we argue that this work provides structural knowledge of brain networks. We explore the significance of this conclusion for the scientific realism debate. We argue that our conclusion should not be understood as an instance of a global structural realist claim regarding the structure of the unobservable part of the world, but instead, as a local structural realist attitude towards brain networks in particular. And we argue that various local approaches to the realism debate, i.e., approaches that restrict realist commitments to particular theories and/or entities, are problematic insofar as they don't allow for the possibility of such a local structural realist attitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistent post-traumatic headache vs. migraine: an MRI study demonstrating differences in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Chong, Catherine D; Peplinski, Jacob; Ross, Katherine; Berisha, Visar

    2017-08-22

    The majority of individuals with post-traumatic headache have symptoms that are indistinguishable from migraine. The overlap in symptoms amongst these individuals raises the question as to whether post-traumatic headache has a unique pathophysiology or if head trauma triggers migraine. The objective of this study was to compare brain structure in individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache (i.e. headache lasting at least 3 months following a traumatic brain injury) attributed to mild traumatic brain injury to that of individuals with migraine. Twenty-eight individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache attributed to mild traumatic brain injury and 28 individuals with migraine underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging on a 3 T scanner. Regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and curvature measurements were calculated from T1-weighted sequences and compared between subject groups using ANCOVA. MRI data from 28 healthy control subjects were used to interpret the differences in brain structure between migraine and persistent post-traumatic headache. Differences in regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and brain curvature were identified when comparing the group of individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache to the group with migraine. Structure was different between groups for regions within the right lateral orbitofrontal lobe, left caudal middle frontal lobe, left superior frontal lobe, left precuneus and right supramarginal gyrus (p comparing the migraine cohort to healthy controls. In conclusion, persistent post-traumatic headache and migraine are associated with differences in brain structure, perhaps suggesting differences in their underlying pathophysiology. Additional studies are needed to further delineate similarities and differences in brain structure and function that are associated with post-traumatic headache and migraine and to determine their specificity for each of the headache types.

  2. Subcortical encoding of speech cues in children with congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Malayeri, Saeed

    2016-09-21

    Congenital visual deprivation underlies neural plasticity in different brain areas, and provides an outstanding opportunity to study the neuroplastic capabilities of the brain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of congenital blindness on subcortical auditory processing using electrophysiological and behavioral assessments in children. A total of 47 children aged 8-12 years, including 22 congenitally blind (CB) children and 25 normal-sighted (NS) control, were studied. All children were tested using an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test with both click and speech stimuli. Speech recognition and musical abilities were tested using standard tools. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in speech ABR wave latencies A, F and O (p≤0.043), wave amplitude F (p = 0.039), V-A slope (p = 0.026), and three spectral magnitudes F0, F1 and HF (p≤0.002). CB children showed a superior performance compared to NS peers in all the subtests and the total score of musical abilities (p≤0.003). Moreover, they had significantly higher scores during the nonsense syllable test in noise than the NS children (p = 0.034). Significant negative correlations were found only in CB children between the total music score and both wave A (p = 0.039) and wave F (p = 0.029) latencies, as well as nonsense-syllable test in noise and the wave A latency (p = 0.041). Our results suggest that neuroplasticity resulting from congenital blindness can be measured subcortically and has a heightened effect on temporal, musical and speech processing abilities. The findings have been discussed based on models of plasticity and the influence of corticofugal modulation in synthesizing complex auditory stimuli.

  3. Quantifying structural alterations in Alzheimer's disease brains using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Lee, Eeksung; Jung, JaeHwang; Yu, Hyeonseung; Kim, Kyoohyun; Yoon, Jonghee; Lee, Shinhwa; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2017-02-01

    Imaging brain tissues is an essential part of neuroscience because understanding brain structure provides relevant information about brain functions and alterations associated with diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography exemplify conventional brain imaging tools, but these techniques suffer from low spatial resolution around 100 μm. As a complementary method, histopathology has been utilized with the development of optical microscopy. The traditional method provides the structural information about biological tissues to cellular scales, but relies on labor-intensive staining procedures. With the advances of illumination sources, label-free imaging techniques based on nonlinear interactions, such as multiphoton excitations and Raman scattering, have been applied to molecule-specific histopathology. Nevertheless, these techniques provide limited qualitative information and require a pulsed laser, which is difficult to use for pathologists with no laser training. Here, we present a label-free optical imaging of mouse brain tissues for addressing structural alteration in Alzheimer's disease. To achieve the mesoscopic, unlabeled tissue images with high contrast and sub-micrometer lateral resolution, we employed holographic microscopy and an automated scanning platform. From the acquired hologram of the brain tissues, we could retrieve scattering coefficients and anisotropies according to the modified scattering-phase theorem. This label-free imaging technique enabled direct access to structural information throughout the tissues with a sub-micrometer lateral resolution and presented a unique means to investigate the structural changes in the optical properties of biological tissues.

  4. Methods and considerations for longitudinal structural brain imaging analysis across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has allowed the unprecedented capability to measure the human brain in vivo. This technique has paved the way for longitudinal studies exploring brain changes across the entire life span. Results from these studies have given us a glimpse into the remarkably extended and multifaceted development of our brain, converging with evidence from anatomical and histological studies. Ever-evolving techniques and analytical methods provide new avenues to explore and questions to consider, requiring researchers to balance excitement with caution. This review addresses what MRI studies of structural brain development in children and adolescents typically measure and how. We focus on measurements of brain morphometry (e.g., volume, cortical thickness, surface area, folding patterns, as well as measurements derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. By integrating finding from multiple longitudinal investigations, we give an update on current knowledge of structural brain development and how it relates to other aspects of biological development and possible underlying physiological mechanisms. Further, we review and discuss current strategies in image processing, analysis techniques and modeling of brain development. We hope this review will aid current and future longitudinal investigations of brain development, as well as evoke a discussion amongst researchers regarding best practices.

  5. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s,...

  6. Automatic Analysis of Brain Tissue and Structural Connectivity in MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Renske

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStudies of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide insights in physiology and pathology that can eventually aid clinical diagnosis and therapy monitoring. MRI data acquired in these studies can be difficult, as well as laborious, to interpret and analyze by human observers. Moreover, analysis by human observers can hamper the reproducibility by both inter- and intra-observer variability. These studies do, therefore, require accurate and reproducible quantitati...

  7. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  8. [The CADASIL syndrome: a model of subcortical-cortical disconnection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Menéndez, R; Aguado Balsas, A M; Blanco, E; Lobo Rodríguez, B; Vera De La Puente, E

    CADASIL syndrome (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarts and Leukoencephalopathy) includes some neurological signs and symptoms (gait disturbances, epileptic seizures, pseudobulbar palsy, migraines, etc.), as well as neuropsychological dysfunctions (cognitive and executive impairment, emotional disorders and, frequently, dementia). This syndrome is a good model of white matter damage and potential disconnection syndromes. In this article, the neuropsychological profile of a 47 year-old woman diagnosed of CADASIL is investigated and thoroughly discussed. Results show the presence of a moderate cognitive and executive impairment, specially of memory, psychomotor abilities, executive functions and verbal fluency, but not dementia, overall suggesting the presence of a temporal-frontal-subcortical disfunction. This clinical pattern is an illuminating example of the neuropsychological consequences of the partial disconnection of prefrontal cortex from the thalamus and basal ganglia.

  9. Poorer physical fitness is associated with reduced structural brain integrity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-05-15

    Physical fitness is an important correlate of structural and functional integrity of the brain in healthy adults. In heart failure (HF) patients, poor physical fitness may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and we examined the unique contribution of physical fitness to brain structural integrity among patients with HF. Sixty-nine HF patients performed the Modified Mini Mental State examination (3MS) and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. All participants completed the 2-minute step test (2MST), a brief measure of physical fitness. We examined the associations between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and three indices of global brain integrity: total cortical gray matter volume, total white matter volume, and whole brain cortical thickness. Regression analyses adjusting for demographic characteristics, medical variables (e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction), and intracranial volume revealed reduced performance on the 2MST were associated with decreased gray matter volume and thinner cortex (passociated with poorer 3MS scores (pphysical fitness is common in HF and associated with reduced structural brain integrity. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for the influence of physical fitness on brain health in HF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Evans, Alan C; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-10-25

    To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

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    Bozzao, Alessandro; Romano, Andrea; Calabria, Luigi Fausto; Coppola, Valeria; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, Rome (Italy); Angelini, Albina; D' Andrea, Giancarlo; Mastronardi, Luciano; Ferrante, Luigi [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  13. The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities

    OpenAIRE

    Queralt Blasco, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present dissertation was to analyse the subcortical implications in the preparation and execution of complex voluntary movements. Three different tasks were selected on purpose. They all are everyday activities which although functionally related have differential characteristics. The first task was the sit-to-stand manoeuvre. Simple ballistic movements are executed faster in reaction time task paradigms when the imperative signal is accompanied by a startling audito...

  14. Training your brain to be more creative: brain functional and structural changes induced by divergent thinking training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Yadan; Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Creativity is commonly defined as the ability to produce something both novel and useful. Stimulating creativity has great significance for both individual success and social improvement. Although increasing creative capacity has been confirmed to be possible and effective at the behavioral level, few longitudinal studies have examined the extent to which the brain function and structure underlying creativity are plastic. A cognitive stimulation (20 sessions) method was used in the present study to train subjects and to explore the neuroplasticity induced by training. The behavioral results revealed that both the originality and the fluency of divergent thinking were significantly improved by training. Furthermore, functional changes induced by training were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior brain regions. Moreover, the gray matter volume (GMV) was significantly increased in the dACC after divergent thinking training. These results suggest that the enhancement of creativity may rely not only on the posterior brain regions that are related to the fundamental cognitive processes of creativity (e.g., semantic processing, generating novel associations), but also on areas that are involved in top-down cognitive control, such as the dACC and DLPFC. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3375-3387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  17. Predicting brain structure in population-based samples with biologically informed genetic scores for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Wittfeld, Katharina; Shumskaya, Elena; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P; Onnink, A Marten H; Usberti, Niccolo; Hertel, Johannes; Völzke, Henry; Völker, Uwe; Hosten, Norbert; Franke, Barbara; Grabe, Hans J

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with brain structural abnormalities including gray and white matter volume reductions. Whether these alterations are caused by genetic risk variants for schizophrenia is unclear. Previous attempts to detect associations between polygenic factors for schizophrenia and structural brain phenotypes in healthy subjects have been negative or remain non-replicated. In this study, we used genetic risk scores that were based on the accumulated effect of selected risk variants for schizophrenia belonging to specific biological systems like synaptic function, neurodevelopment, calcium signaling, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. We hypothesized that this "biologically informed" approach would provide the missing link between genetic risk for schizophrenia and brain structural phenotypes. We applied whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses in two population-based target samples and subsequent regions of interest (ROIs) analyses in an independent replication sample (total N = 2725). No consistent association between the genetic scores and brain volumes were observed in the investigated samples. These results suggest that in healthy subjects with a higher genetic risk for schizophrenia additional factors apart from common genetic variants (e.g., infection, trauma, rare genetic variants, or gene-gene interactions) are required to induce structural abnormalities of the brain. Further studies are recommended to test for possible gene-gene or gene-environment effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis: Brain structure and cognitive function in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, André G; Niessen, Wiro J; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Adams, Hieab Hh

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects brain structure and cognitive function and has a heritable component. Over a 100 common genetic risk variants have been identified, but most carriers do not develop MS. For other neurodegenerative diseases, risk variants have effects outside patient populations, but this remains uninvestigated for MS. To study the effect of MS-associated genetic variants on brain structure and cognitive function in the general population. We studied middle-aged and elderly individuals (mean age = 65.7 years) from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We determined 107 MS variants and additionally created a risk score combining all variants. Magnetic resonance imaging ( N = 4710) was performed to obtain measures of brain macrostructure, white matter microstructure, and gray matter voxel-based morphometry. A cognitive test battery ( N = 7556) was used to test a variety of cognitive domains. The MS risk score was associated with smaller gray matter volume over the whole brain (βstandardized = -0.016; p = 0.044), but region-specific analyses did not survive multiple testing correction. Similarly, no significant associations with brain structure were observed for individual variants. For cognition, rs2283792 was significantly associated with poorer memory (β = -0.064; p = 3.4 × 10-5). Increased genetic susceptibility to MS may affect brain structure and cognition in persons without disease, pointing to a "hidden burden" of MS.

  19. Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.