WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcortical brain emotion

  1. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Helena; Peña Melián, Ángel; Rios Lagos, Marcos; Pajares Martinsanz, Gonzalo; Hernández Tamames, J.A.; Álvarez Linera, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional com...

  2. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Helena; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Pajares, Gonzalo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Álvarez-Linera, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional component as a relevant aspect of the synesthetic experience. Additionally, this study replicates previous findings in the left intraparietal sulcus and, for the first time, reports the existence of anatomical differences in subcortical gray nuclei of developmental grapheme-color synesthetes, providing a link between acquired and developmental synesthesia. This empirical evidence, which goes beyond modality-specific areas, could lead to a better understanding of grapheme-color synesthesia as well as of other modalities of the phenomenon.

  3. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magn...

  4. Physical fitness and shapes of subcortical brain structures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Campos, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Altmäe, Signe; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Catena, Andrés; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-27

    A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and speed agility were assessed using valid and reliable tests (ALPHA-fitness test battery). Shape of the subcortical brain structures was assessed by MRI, and its relationship with fitness was examined after controlling for a set of potential confounders using a partial correlation permutation approach. Our results showed that all physical fitness components studied were significantly related to the shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. These associations were both positive and negative, indicating that a higher level of fitness in childhood is related to both expansions and contractions in certain regions of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. Cardiorespiratory fitness was mainly associated with expansions, whereas handgrip was mostly associated with contractions in the structures studied. Future randomised-controlled trials will confirm or contrast our findings, demonstrating whether changes in fitness modify the shapes of brain structures and the extent to which those changes influence cognitive function.

  5. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  6. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  7. Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frodl, Thomas; Janowitz, Deborah; Schmaal, Lianne; Tozzi, Leonardo; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Stein, Dan J.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Wittfeld, Katharina; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Jahanshad, Neda; Block, Andrea; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Voelzke, Henry; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hatton, Sean N.; Hickie, Ian B.; Frey, Eva Maria; Carballedo, Angela; Brooks, Samantha J; Vuletic, Daniella; Uhlmann, Anne; Veer, Ilya M.; Walter, Henrik; Schnell, Knut; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Schramm, Elisabeth; Konrad, Carsten; Zurowski, Bartosz; Baune, Bernhard T; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Thompson, Paul M.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grabe, Hans J.

    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of

  8. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  9. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  10. Pigmentary mosaicism, subcortical band heterotopia, and brain cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Martino; Roggini, Mario; Spalice, Alberto; Addis, Maria; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-05-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a severe and diffuse mosaic skin hypopigmentation running (in narrow bands) along the lines of Blaschko associated with mosaic areas of alopecia, facial dysmorphism with midface hypoplasia, bilateral punctate cataract, microretrognathia, short neck, pectus excavatum, joint hypermobility, mild muscular hypotonia, generalized seizures, and mild mental retardation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypoplastic corpus callosum (primarily posterior), subcortical band heterotopia, and diffuse subcortical, periventricular cystic-like lesions. Similar dysmorphic features were observed in the child's mother, but with no imaging abnormalities. The facial phenotype coupled with the cysts in the brain was strongly reminiscent of the oculocerebrorenal Lowe syndrome. Full chromosome studies in the parents and the proband and mutation analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes (and on skin cultured fibroblasts from affected and unaffected skin areas in the child) in the genes for subcortical band heterotopia (DCX (Xq22.3-q23)], lissencephaly (PAFAH1B1, alias LIS1, at 17p13.3), and oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL at Xq23-q24)] were unrevealing. This constellation of multiple congenital anomalies including skin hypopigmentation and eye, musculoskeletal, and nervous system abnormalities was sufficiently characterized to be regarded as a novel example of pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type (i.e., hypomelanosis of Ito).

  11. Dynamic brain structural changes after left hemisphere subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengmei; Zhu, Chaozhe; Chen, Hai; Qin, Wen; Ji, Xunming; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yujin; Zhu, Litao; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify dynamic structural changes in the brain after subcortical stroke and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery of affected limbs. High-resolution structural MRI and neurological examinations were conducted at five consecutive time points during the year following stroke in 10 patients with left hemisphere subcortical infarctions involving motor pathways. Gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry technique, and dynamic changes in GMV were evaluated using a mixed-effects model. After stroke, GMV was decreased bilaterally in brain areas that directly or indirectly connected with lesions, which suggests the presence of regional damage in these "healthy" brain tissues in stroke patients. Moreover, the GMVs of these brain areas were not correlated with the Motricity Index (MI) scores when controlling for time intervals after stroke, which indicates that these structural changes may reflect an independent process (such as axonal degeneration) but cannot affect the improvement of motor function. In contrast, the GMV was increased in several brain areas associated with motor and cognitive functions after stroke. When controlling for time intervals after stroke, only the GMVs in the cognitive-related brain areas (hippocampus and precuneus) were positively correlated with MI scores, which suggests that the structural reorganization in cognitive-related brain areas may facilitate the recovery of motor function. However, considering the small sample size of this study, further studies are needed to clarify the exact relationships between structural changes and recovery of motor function in stroke patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Carlos; Elben, Saskia; Petri, David; Hirschmann, Jan; Groiss, Stefan J; Vesper, Jan; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2016-05-19

    In spite of the success in applying non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), magneto-encephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for extracting crucial information about the mechanism of the human brain, such methods remain insufficient to provide information about physiological processes reflecting cognitive and emotional functions at the subcortical level. In this respect, modern invasive clinical approaches in humans, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), offer a tremendous possibility to record subcortical brain activity, namely local field potentials (LFPs) representing coherent activity of neural assemblies from localized basal ganglia or thalamic regions. Notwithstanding the fact that invasive approaches in humans are applied only after medical indication and thus recorded data correspond to altered brain circuits, valuable insight can be gained regarding the presence of intact brain functions in relation to brain oscillatory activity and the pathophysiology of disorders in response to experimental cognitive paradigms. In this direction, a growing number of DBS studies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) target not only motor functions but also higher level processes such as emotions, decision-making, attention, memory and sensory perception. Recent clinical trials also emphasize the role of DBS as an alternative treatment in neuropsychiatric disorders ranging from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) to chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Consequently, we focus on the use of combined invasive (LFP) and non-invasive (EEG) human brain recordings in assessing the role of cortical-subcortical structures in cognitive and emotional processing trough experimental paradigms (e.g. speech stimuli with emotional connotation or paradigms of cognitive control such as the Flanker task), for patients undergoing DBS treatment.

  13. Cortical and subcortical mechanisms of brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Schurger, Aaron; Blefari, Maria Laura; Del Millán, José R; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level. Here, we provide a comprehensive and detailed report of the areas active during on-line BMI control. We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants controlled an EEG-based BMI inside the scanner. We identified the regions activated during BMI control and how they overlap with those involved in motor imagery (without any BMI control). In addition, we investigated which regions reflect the subjective sense of controlling a BMI, the sense of agency for BMI-actions. Our data revealed an extended cortical-subcortical network involved in operating a motor-imagery BMI. This includes not only sensorimotor regions but also the posterior parietal cortex, the insula and the lateral occipital cortex. Interestingly, the basal ganglia and the anterior cingulate cortex were involved in the subjective sense of controlling the BMI. These results inform basic neuroscience by showing that the mechanisms of BMI control extend beyond sensorimotor cortices. This knowledge may be useful for the development of BMIs that offer a more natural and embodied feeling of control for the user. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2971-2989, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory.

  15. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Mills, Kathryn L; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-03-01

    Puberty is characterized by hormonal, physical and psychological transformation. The human brain undergoes significant changes between childhood and adulthood, but little is known about how puberty influences its structural development. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 275 individuals aged 7-20years, we examined how subcortical brain regions change in relation to puberty. Our regions of interest included the amygdala, hippocampus and corpus striatum including the nucleus accumbens (NA), caudate, putamen and globus pallidus (GP). Pubertal development was significantly related to structural volume in all six regions in both sexes. Pubertal development and age had both independent and interactive influences on volume for the amygdala, hippocampus and putamen in both sexes, and the caudate in females. There was an interactive puberty-by-age effect on volume for the NA and GP in both sexes, and the caudate in males. These findings suggest a significant role for puberty in structural brain development. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  17. Cortical and subcortical predictive dynamics and learning during perception, cognition, emotion and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    An intimate link exists between the predictive and learning processes in the brain. Perceptual/cognitive and spatial/motor processes use complementary predictive mechanisms to learn, recognize, attend and plan about objects in the world, determine their current value, and act upon them. Recent neural models clarify these mechanisms and how they interact in cortical and subcortical brain regions. The present paper reviews and synthesizes data and models of these processes, and outlines a unified theory of predictive brain processing. PMID:19528003

  18. Prefrontal-Subcortical Pathways Mediating Successful Emotion Regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wager, Tor D; Davidson, Matthew L; Hughes, Brent L; Lindquist, Martin A; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2008-01-01

    ... regulation of emotion ( Davidson, 2002; Ochsner and Gross, 2005 ). Numerous fMRI studies have observed increases in activity in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices (vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC, respectively) when participants are instructed to deploy cognitive strategies that reduce negative emotional experience ( Ochsner...

  19. A Rapid Subcortical Amygdala Route for Faces Irrespective of Spatial Frequency and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Jessica; Mermillod, Martial; Mattingley, Jason B; Halász, Veronika; Garrido, Marta I

    2017-04-05

    There is significant controversy over the existence and function of a direct subcortical visual pathway to the amygdala. It is thought that this pathway rapidly transmits low spatial frequency information to the amygdala independently of the cortex, and yet the directionality of this function has never been determined. We used magnetoencephalography to measure neural activity while human participants discriminated the gender of neutral and fearful faces filtered for low or high spatial frequencies. We applied dynamic causal modeling to demonstrate that the most likely underlying neural network consisted of a pulvinar-amygdala connection that was uninfluenced by spatial frequency or emotion, and a cortical-amygdala connection that conveyed high spatial frequencies. Crucially, data-driven neural simulations revealed a clear temporal advantage of the subcortical connection over the cortical connection in influencing amygdala activity. Thus, our findings support the existence of a rapid subcortical pathway that is nonselective in terms of the spatial frequency or emotional content of faces. We propose that that the "coarseness" of the subcortical route may be better reframed as "generalized." SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human amygdala coordinates how we respond to biologically relevant stimuli, such as threat or reward. It has been postulated that the amygdala first receives visual input via a rapid subcortical route that conveys "coarse" information, namely, low spatial frequencies. For the first time, the present paper provides direction-specific evidence from computational modeling that the subcortical route plays a generalized role in visual processing by rapidly transmitting raw, unfiltered information directly to the amygdala. This calls into question a widely held assumption across human and animal research that fear responses are produced faster by low spatial frequencies. Our proposed mechanism suggests organisms quickly generate fear responses to a wide range

  20. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders.

  1. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; Vanerp, Theo G. M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L. . W.; Boedhoe, Premika S. . W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Buechel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; De Zwarte, Sonja M. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dorum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez, Guillen; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jonsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martinez-Zalacain, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchon, Jose M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillere; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomas; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Y. C.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernandez, Maria Valdes; Van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  2. Improved labeling of subcortical brain structures in atlas-based segmentation of magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siamak; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Gholipour, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Precise labeling of subcortical structures plays a key role in functional neurosurgical applications. Labels from an atlas image are propagated to a patient image using atlas-based segmentation. Atlas-based segmentation is highly dependent on the registration framework used to guide the atlas label propagation. This paper focuses on atlas-based segmentation of subcortical brain structures and the effect of different registration methods on the generated subcortical labels. A single-step and three two-step registration methods appearing in the literature based on affine and deformable registration algorithms in the ANTS and FSL algorithms are considered. Experiments are carried out with two atlas databases of IBSR and LPBA40. Six segmentation metrics consisting of Dice overlap, relative volume error, false positive, false negative, surface distance, and spatial extent are used for evaluation. Segmentation results are reported individually and as averages for nine subcortical brain structures. Based on two statistical tests, the results are ranked. In general, among four different registration strategies investigated in this paper, a two-step registration consisting of an initial affine registration followed by a deformable registration applied to subcortical structures provides superior segmentation outcomes. This method can be used to provide an improved labeling of the subcortical brain structures in MRIs for different applications.

  3. Frequency and pathogenesis of silent subcortical brain infarction in acute first-ever ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tomohide; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We have often observed silent subcortical brain lesions on CT or MRI in first-ever ischemic stroke, but there is little published information on the relationship of these lesions to stroke subtypes. Here, we describe the incidence of MRI-detected silent subcortical brain lesions, including infarctions and white matter lesions, in a series of patients with first-ever ischemic stroke classified according to stroke subtypes. We also discuss the pathogenesis of these silent subcortical lesions. We evaluated 171 patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into three groups: lacunar, atherothrombotic and cardioembolic infarction groups. We evaluated silent subcortical brain infarction (SSBI), enlargement of perivascular space (EPS), and other white-matter lesions using MRI. Hypertension was observed in 67.6% of lacunar infarction, 57.1% of atherosclerotic infarction, and 54.1% of cardioembolic infarction. SSBI was more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 81.5% vs. 44.4% vs. 42.1%, p=0.006). High-grade EPS (grade 2 or higher) was also observed more frequently in lacunar infarction than in the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 63.3% vs. 24.2% vs. 0%, p<0.001). Scheltens' score of silent subcortical lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in the others. The frequency of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in atherosclerotic or cardioembolic infarction. We suggest that the pathogenesis of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions is common to that of lacunar infarction, that is, small-vessel vasculopathy. (author)

  4. Decreased activation of subcortical brain areas in the motor fatigue state: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e. thalamus and basal ganglia areas are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  5. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes:large-scale proof of concept

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; Mcintosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain...

  6. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in

  7. Diffusion tractography of the subcortical auditory system in a postmortem human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The subcortical auditory system is challenging to identify with standard human brain imaging techniques: MRI signal decreases toward the center of the brain as well as at higher resolution, both of which are necessary for imaging small brainstem auditory structures.Using high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI, we asked:Can we identify auditory structures and connections in high-resolution ex vivo images?Which structures and connections can be mapped in vivo?

  8. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use ge...

  9. Early Developmental Gene Enhancers Affect Subcortical Volumes in the Adult Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Stein, Jason L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype–phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. PMID:26890892

  10. The developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Dafna; Leung, Rachel C; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-04-01

    This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort. One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm. Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen decreased linearly, and the cerebellum did not change with age. The relative volumes of several subcortical subregions followed inverted U-shaped trends that peaked at ~12 years of age. Many subcortical structures were found to be larger in females than in males, independently of age, while others showed a sex-by-age interaction. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar growth patterns during normal development, and draws attention to the role of sex on neuroanatomical maturation throughout childhood and adolescence.

  11. Characterizing Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Potential Biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Ge, Xin; Han, Xu; Cao, Wenwei; Wang, Yao; Ding, Weina; Cao, Mengqiu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who f...

  12. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  13. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  14. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  16. Brain imaging, genetics and emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre; Swart, Marte; van Rijn, Sophie

    This paper reviews the published evidence on genetically driven variation in neurotransmitter function and brain circuits involved in emotion. Several studies point to a role of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in amygdala activation during emotion perception. We also discuss other

  17. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDoux, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

  19. Multi-atlas segmentation of subcortical brain structures via the AutoSeg software pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Vachet, Clement; Rumple, Ashley; Gouttard, Sylvain; Ouziel, Clémentine; Perrot, Emilie; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Automated segmenting and labeling of individual brain anatomical regions, in MRI are challenging, due to the issue of individual structural variability. Although atlas-based segmentation has shown its potential for both tissue and structure segmentation, due to the inherent natural variability as well as disease-related changes in MR appearance, a single atlas image is often inappropriate to represent the full population of datasets processed in a given neuroimaging study. As an alternative for the case of single atlas segmentation, the use of multiple atlases alongside label fusion techniques has been introduced using a set of individual “atlases” that encompasses the expected variability in the studied population. In our study, we proposed a multi-atlas segmentation scheme with a novel graph-based atlas selection technique. We first paired and co-registered all atlases and the subject MR scans. A directed graph with edge weights based on intensity and shape similarity between all MR scans is then computed. The set of neighboring templates is selected via clustering of the graph. Finally, weighted majority voting is employed to create the final segmentation over the selected atlases. This multi-atlas segmentation scheme is used to extend a single-atlas-based segmentation toolkit entitled AutoSeg, which is an open-source, extensible C++ based software pipeline employing BatchMake for its pipeline scripting, developed at the Neuro Image Research and Analysis Laboratories of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. AutoSeg performs N4 intensity inhomogeneity correction, rigid registration to a common template space, automated brain tissue classification based skull-stripping, and the multi-atlas segmentation. The multi-atlas-based AutoSeg has been evaluated on subcortical structure segmentation with a testing dataset of 20 adult brain MRI scans and 15 atlas MRI scans. The AutoSeg achieved mean Dice coefficients of 81.73% for the subcortical structures

  20. THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepkema, P. R.; Koolhaas, J. M.

    Individual vertebrates are able to detect spatial and temporal (causal) order in their environment and deal with this knowledge emotionally. It is argued that this latter aspect is connected with the flexible or reversible way vertebrates may interact with their environment. Because of this

  1. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof-of-concept and roadmap for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ho, Yvonne YW; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between schizophrenia cases and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. The current study provides proof-of-concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures), and defines a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural/functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  2. Central cortico-subcortical involvement: a distinct pattern of brain damage caused by perinatal and postnatal asphyxia in term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, R. P.; van der Knaap, M. S.; Verbeeten, B.; Barth, P. G.; Valk, J.

    1995-01-01

    The MR findings in a characteristic pattern of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in term infants are described. The MR images of seven patients with cerebral palsy and a specific pattern of central cortico-subcortical cerebral damage were studied retrospectively and correlated with clinical findings.

  3. Brainstem Evoked Potential Indices of Subcortical Auditory Processing After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Werff, Kathy R; Rieger, Brian

    The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components. We further hypothesized that the speech-evoked ABR would be more sensitive than the click-evoked ABR to group differences because of its complex nature, particularly when recorded in a background noise condition. Click- and speech-ABRs were collected in 32 individuals diagnosed with mTBI in the past 3 to 18 months. All mTBI participants were experiencing ongoing injury symptoms for which they were seeking rehabilitation through a brain injury rehabilitation management program. The same data were collected in a group of 32 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of head injury. ABRs were recorded in both left and right ears for all participants in all conditions. Speech-ABRs were collected in both quiet and in a background of continuous 20-talker babble ipsilateral noise. Peak latencies and amplitudes were compared between groups and across subgroups of mTBI participants categorized by their behavioral auditory test performance. Click-ABR results were not significantly different between the mTBI and control groups. However, when comparing the control group to only those mTBI subjects with measurably decreased performance on auditory behavioral tests, small differences emerged, including delayed latencies for waves I, III, and V. Similarly, few significant group differences were observed for peak amplitudes and latencies of the speech-ABR when comparing at the whole group level

  4. Increased Pittsburgh Compound-B Accumulation in the Subcortical White Matter of Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Ishii, Kazunari; Hosokawa, Chisa; Hyodo, Tomoko; Kaida, Hayato; Yamada, Minoru; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Kozuka, Takenori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Murakami, Takamichi

    2017-03-13

    Using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET and MRI volume data, we investigated whether white matter (WM) PiB uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is larger than that of cortical PiB uptake-negative (PiB-negative) brain. Forty-five subjects who underwent both PiB-PET and MRI were included in the study (32 AD patients with cortical PiB-positive and 13 cortical amyloid -negative patients). Individual areas of gray matter (GM) and WM were segmented, then regional GM and WM standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) normalized to cerebellar GM with partial volume effects correction was calculated. Three regional SUVRs except WM in the centrum semiovale in the AD group were significantly larger than those in the PiB-negative groups. Frontal WM SUVR in the AD group vs frontal WM SUVR in the PiB-negative group was 2.57 ± 0.55 vs 1.64 ± 0.22; parietal, 2.50 ± 0.52 vs 1.74 ± 0.22; posterior cingulate, 2.84 ± 0.59 vs 1.73 ± 0.22; and WM in the centrum semiovale, 2.21 ± 0.53 vs 2.42 ± 0.36, respectively. We found that PiB uptake in AD brain is significantly larger than that in PiB-negative brain in the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate subcortical WM, except in the centrum semiovale.

  5. Distribution and initiation of seizure activity in a rat brain with subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z F; Schottler, F; Bertram, E; Gall, C M; Anzivino, M J; Lee, K S

    2000-05-01

    Misplaced (heterotopic) cortical neurons are a common feature of developmental epilepsies. To better understand seizure disorders associated with cortical heterotopia, the sites of aberrant discharge activity were investigated in vivo and in vitro in a seizure-prone mutant rat (tish) exhibiting subcortical band heterotopia. Depth electrode recordings and postmortem assessment of regional c-fos mRNA levels were used to characterize the distribution of aberrant discharge activity during spontaneous seizures in vivo. Electrophysiologic recordings of spontaneous and evoked activity also were performed by using in vitro brain slices from the tish rat treated with proconvulsant drugs (penicillin and 4-aminopyridine). Depth electrode recordings demonstrate that seizure activity begins almost simultaneously in the normotopic and heterotopic areas of the tish neocortex. Spontaneous seizures induce c-fos mRNA in normotopic and heterotopic neocortical areas, and limbic regions. The threshold concentrations of proconvulsant drugs for inducing epileptiform spiking were similar in the normotopic and heterotopic areas of tish brain slices. Manipulations that blocked communication between the normotopic and heterotopic areas of the cortex inhibited spiking in the heterotopic, but not the normotopic, area of the cortex. These findings indicate that aberrant discharge activity occurs in normotopic and heterotopic areas of the neocortex, and in certain limbic regions during spontaneous seizures in the tish rat. Normotopic neurons are more prone to exhibit epileptiform activity than are heterotopic neurons in the tish cortex, and heterotopic neurons are recruited into spiking by activity initiated in normotopic neurons. The findings indicate that seizures in the tish brain primarily involve telencephalic structures, and suggest that normotopic neurons are responsible for initiating seizures in the dysplastic neocortex.

  6. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  7. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  8. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. E.; Leitch, D. B.; Wong, P.; Kaas, J. H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Cortical expansion, both in absolute terms and in relation to subcortical structures, is considered a major trend in mammalian brain evolution with important functional implications, given that cortical computations should add complexity and flexibility to information processing. Here, we investigate the numbers of neurons that compose 4 structures in the visual pathway across 11 non-human primate species to determine the scaling relationships that apply to these structures and among them. We...

  9. Effects of cannabis and familial loading on subcortical brain volumes in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Jatzko, Alexander; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with familial loading as heritable risk factor and cannabis abuse as the most relevant environmental risk factor up to date. Cannabis abuse has been related to an earlier onset of the disease and persisting cannabis consumption is associated with reduced symptom improvement. However, the underlying morphological and biochemical brain alterations due to these risk factors as well as the effects of gene-environmental interaction are still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 47 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects, we investigated effects of previous cannabis abuse and increased familial risk on subcortical brain regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and subsegments of the corpus callosum (CC). In a subsequent single-volume (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, we investigated spectra in the left hippocampus and putamen to detect metabolic alterations. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients displayed decreased volumes of the left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and caudate nucleus as well as an increased area of the midsagittal CC1 segment of the corpus callosum. Patients fulfilling the criteria for cannabis abuse at admission showed an increased area of the CC2 segment compared to those who did not fulfill the criteria. Patients with a family history of schizophrenia combined with previous cannabis abuse showed lower volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus compared to all other patients, implicating an interaction between the genetic background and cannabis abuse as environmental factor. Patients with cannabis abuse also had higher ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left putamen, suggesting a possible neuroprotective effect in this area. However, antipsychotic medication prior to MRI acquisition and gender effects may have influenced our results. Future longitudinal studies in first

  10. Development of the subcortical brain structures in the second trimester: assessment with 7.0-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Haiwei; Geng, Hequn; Lin, Xiangtao; Feng, Lei; Liu, Shuwei [Shandong University, Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy, School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Zhonghe [Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan, Shandong (China); Teng, Gaojun; Fang, Fang; Zang, Fengchao [Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Zhong Da Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-10-15

    This study aims to obtain the signal intensity changes and quantitative measurements of the subcortical brain structures of 12-22 weeks gestational age (GA). Sixty-nine fetal specimens were selected and scanned by 7.0-T MR. The signal intensity changes of the subcortical brain structures were analyzed. The three-dimensional visualization models of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus were rebuilt with Amira 4.1, and the developmental trends between the measurements and GA were analyzed. The germinal matrix was delineated on 7.0-T MR images at 12 weeks GA, with high signals on T1-weighted images (WI). While at 16 weeks GA, the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and internal and external capsules could be distinguished. The caudate nucleus was high signal intensity on T1WI. The signal intensity of the putamen was high on T1WI during 15-17 weeks GA and was delineated as an area with uneven signal intensities. The signal intensity of the peripheral area of the putamen became higher after 18 weeks GA. The signal intensity of the globus pallidus was high on T1WI and low on T2WI after 20 weeks GA. At 18 weeks GA, the claustrum was delineated with low signals on T2WI. Measurements of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus linearly increased with the GA. Development of the subcortical brain structures during 12-22 weeks GA could be displayed with 7.0-T MRI. The measurement provides significant reference beneficial to the clinical evaluation of fetal brain development. (orig.)

  11. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  12. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics to acetazolamide using brain perfusion SPECT in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-Ah; Yang, Chung-Yong; Choi, See-Sung; Kim, Woo Hyoung

    2011-02-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene located on chromosome 19, leading to 4 cardinal features with aura, cerebrovascular ischemic events, mood disturbances, and dementia. Acetazolamide (ACZ) has been promoted as a drug to determine cerebral hemodynamics, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in patients with cerebrovascular disease. In CADASIL patients with small-vessel disease, ACZ may be possible to increase CBF. We present that reduced CBF was dramatically improved after administration of ACZ on Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in a CADASIL patient.

  14. The brain subcortical white matter and aging: A quantitative fractional anisotropy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the integrity of hemispheric subcortical white matter by comparing normal young and elderly subjects using quantitative fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA. Methods: Subjects of two different age groups (young=12, elderly=12 were included. MR - GE Signa Horizon - 1.5T scans were performed. Cases with Fazekas scores £3 were assessed on FLAIR sequence. Standard parameters for DTI-FA were used. ROIs were placed at various sites of the subcortical white matter, and the genu and splenium of the midline corpus callosum. Analysis was performed using Functool. Statistics for anterior and posterior white matter, as well as the genu and splenium were compared between the groups. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of IPUB-UFRJ and informed consent obtained. Results: DTI-FA showed lower anisotropy values in the anterior region (subcortical white matter and genu, but not in the posterior region (subcortical white matter and splenium, in elderly normal subjects compared to young subjects. Conclusion: The results may represent loss of integrity of anterior (frontal white matter fibers in the elderly subjects. These fibers constitute important intra- and inter-hemispheric tracts, components of neural networks that provide cognitive, behavioral, motor and sensory integration. The loss of integrity of the anterior segments of the studied fiber systems with ageing, represents a disconnection process that may underlie clinical manifestations found in elderly subjects such as executive dysfunction.

  15. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development. Modest TH insufficiency in pregnant rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) results in formation of a structural abnormality, a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), in brains of offspring. PTU reduces TH by inhibiting the s...

  16. Dynamic Networks in the Emotional Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz; McMenamin, Brenton

    2016-10-25

    Research on the emotional brain has often focused on a few structures thought to be central to this type of processing-hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, and so on. Conceptual thinking about emotion has viewed this mental faculty as linked to broader brain circuits, too, including early ideas by Papez and others. In this article, we discuss research that embraces a distributed view of emotion circuits and efforts to unravel the impact on emotional manipulations on the processing of several large-scale brain networks that are chiefly important for mental operations traditionally labeled with terms such as "perception," "action," and "cognition." Furthermore, we describe networks as dynamic processes and how emotion-laden stimuli strongly affect network structure. As networks are not static entities, their organization unfolds temporally, such that specific brain regions affiliate with them in a time-varying fashion. Thus, at a specific moment, brain regions participate more strongly in some networks than others. In this dynamic view of brain function, emotion has broad, distributed effects on processing in a manner that transcends traditional boundaries and inflexible labels, such as "emotion" and "cognition." What matters is the coordinated action that supports behaviors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  18. Extensive white matter hyperintensities may increase brain volume in cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Jouvent, Eric; During, Marco; Godin, Ophélia; Hervé, Dominique; Guichard, Jean Pierre; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    The extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with cerebral atrophy in elderly people. WMH is a radiological hallmark of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), but their relationship with brain volume remains poorly understood. The association between WMH and brain volume was analyzed in a large population of patients with CADASIL. Demographic and MRI data of 278 patients recruited from a prospective cohort study were analyzed. Volumes of WMH and lacunar infarcts, number of cerebral microbleeds, and brain parenchymal fraction were measured. Multivariate analysis was used to study the impact of WMH on brain volume at baseline. In univariate analyses, brain parenchymal fraction was negatively associated with age, male sex, and all MRI markers. Multiple regression modeling showed that brain parenchymal fraction was inversely related to age, number of cerebral microbleeds, and normalized volume of lacunar infarcts but positively related to normalized volume of WMH (Pbrain parenchymal fraction ≥86.37% (median values, both P≤0.001). The results of the present study suggest that extensive WMH may be associated with increase of brain volume in CADASIL. In this disorder, WMH may be related not only to loss of white matter components, but also to a global increase of water content in the cerebral tissue.

  19. A case of Baraitser-Winter syndrome with unusual brain MRI findings: pachygyria, subcortical-band heterotopia, and periventricular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiihara, Takashi; Maruyama, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Akira; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru

    2010-06-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BaWS) is characterized by iris coloboma, ptosis, hypertelorism, and mental retardation; it is a rare multiple congenital anomaly or a mental-retardation syndrome of unknown etiology. Patients suffering from this syndrome have been also found to show brain anomalies such as pachygyria, subcortical-band heterotopia (SBH), and hippocampal malformations; therefore, these anomalies have been included in the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome. We report the case of a Japanese boy suffering from BaWS; the patient's brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pachygyria, SBH, and periventricular heterotopia. However, the results of the genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders.

  1. Effects of emotional valence and three-dimensionality of visual stimuli on brain activation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, A R; Almeida, I; Barbosa, F; Castelo-Branco, M; Monteiro, L; Reis, M; de Sousa, L; Caldas, A Castro

    2013-01-01

    Examining changes in brain activation linked with emotion-inducing stimuli is essential to the study of emotions. Due to the ecological potential of techniques such as virtual reality (VR), inspection of whether brain activation in response to emotional stimuli can be modulated by the three-dimensional (3D) properties of the images is important. The current study sought to test whether the activation of brain areas involved in the emotional processing of scenarios of different valences can be modulated by 3D. Therefore, the focus was made on the interaction effect between emotion-inducing stimuli of different emotional valences (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral valences) and visualization types (2D, 3D). However, main effects were also analyzed. The effect of emotional valence and visualization types and their interaction were analyzed through a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. Post-hoc t-tests were performed under a ROI-analysis approach. The results show increased brain activation for the 3D affective-inducing stimuli in comparison with the same stimuli in 2D scenarios, mostly in cortical and subcortical regions that are related to emotional processing, in addition to visual processing regions. This study has the potential of clarify brain mechanisms involved in the processing of emotional stimuli (scenarios' valence) and their interaction with three-dimensionality.

  2. Subcortical Facilitation of Behavioral Responses to Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-10-12

    Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images. In Experiment 3, we presented pairs of snakes or neutral images into the temporal or nasal hemifield. For snakes only, we observed a temporal hemifield advantage, which indicates facilitation by the retino-tectal subcortical pathway. These results advance the current understanding of processing of threat by adult humans by revealing the characteristics of behaviors driven by a lower-order neural mechanism that is specialized for the processing of ancestral threats. The results also contribute to ongoing debates concerning the biological generality of neural mechanisms for processing of complex, emotionally-relevant stimuli by providing evidence for conservation of lower-order neural mechanisms for processing of ancestral threats across both ontogeny and phylogeny.

  3. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  4. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A; Abramovic, Lucija; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; van Eijk, Kristel R; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  5. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Oosterwijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  6. Toward defining deep brain stimulation targets in MNI space: A subcortical atlas based on multimodal MRI, histology and structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Siobhan; Plettig, Philip; Li, Ningfei; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Collins, D Louis; Herrington, Todd M; Kühn, Andrea A; Horn, Andreas

    2017-05-20

    Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity. In a first step, four key structures were defined on the template itself using a combination of multispectral image analysis and manual segmentation. Second, these structures were used as anchor points to coregister a detailed histological atlas into standard space. Results show that this approach significantly improved coregistration accuracy over previously published methods. Finally, a sub-segmentation of STN and GPi into functional zones was achieved based on structural connectivity. The result is a composite atlas that defines key nuclei on the template itself, fills the gaps between them using histology and further subdivides them using structural connectivity. We show that the atlas can be used to segment DBS targets in single subjects, yielding more accurate results compared to priorly published atlases. The atlas will be made publicly available and constitutes a resource to study DBS electrode localizations in combination with modern neuroimaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-10-01

    Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the "gold standard" in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, [Formula: see text]). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and small Hausdorff distance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms.

  8. Emotional Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, Gary; Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Research in Brain-computer interface (BCI) has significantly increased during the last few years. In addition to their initial role as assisting devices for the physically challenged, BCIs are now proposed for a wider range of applications. As in any HCI application, BCIs can also benefit from

  9. Emotional Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Tsoneva, T.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Heylen, D.K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Research in brain-computer interface (BCI) has significantly increased during the last few years. Additionally to their initial role as assisting devices for the physically challenged, BCIs are now proposed for a wider range of applications. As any human-machine interaction system, BCIs can benefit

  10. Functional and dysfunctional brain circuits underlying emotional processing of music in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Andrea; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona

    2011-12-01

    Despite intersubject variability, dramatic impairments of socio-communicative skills are core features of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A deficit in the ability to express and understand emotions has often been hypothesized to be an important correlate of such impairments. Little is known about individuals with ASD's ability to sense emotions conveyed by nonsocial stimuli such as music. Music has been found to be capable of evoking and conveying strong and consistent positive and negative emotions in healthy subjects. The ability to process perceptual and emotional aspects of music seems to be maintained in ASD. Individuals with ASD and neurotypical (NT) controls underwent a single functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session while processing happy and sad music excerpts. Overall, fMRI results indicated that while listening to both happy and sad music, individuals with ASD activated cortical and subcortical brain regions known to be involved in emotion processing and reward. A comparison of ASD participants with NT individuals demonstrated decreased brain activity in the premotor area and in the left anterior insula, especially in response to happy music excerpts. Our findings shed new light on the neurobiological correlates of preserved and altered emotional processing in ASD.

  11. Abnormalities in emotion processing within cortical and subcortical regions in criminal psychopaths: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using pictures with emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Sommer, Monika; Wagner, Verena; Lange, Kirsten; Taschler, Heidrun; Röder, Christian H; Schuierer, Gerhardt; Klein, Helmfried E; Hajak, Göran

    2003-07-15

    Neurobiology of psychopathy is important for our understanding of current neuropsychiatric questions. Despite a growing interest in biological research in psychopathy, its neural underpinning remains obscure. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the influence of affective contents on brain activation in psychopaths. Series containing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System were shown to six male psychopaths and six male control subjects while 100 whole-brain echo-planar-imaging measurements were acquired. Differences in brain activation were evaluated using BrainVoyager software 4.6. In psychopaths, increased activation through negative contents was found right-sided in prefrontal regions and amygdala. Activation was reduced right-sided in the subgenual cingulate and the temporal gyrus, and left-sided in the dorsal cingulate and the parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation through positive contents was found left-sided in the orbitofrontal regions. Activation was reduced in right medial frontal and medial temporal regions. These findings underline the hypotheses that psychopathy is neurobiologically reflected by dysregulation and disturbed functional connectivity of emotion-related brain regions. These findings may be interpreted within a framework including prefrontal regions that provide top-down control to and regulate bottom-up signals from limbic areas. Because of the small sample size, the results of this study have to be regarded as preliminary.

  12. The contribution of brain sub-cortical loops in the expression and acquisition of action understanding abilities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Miall, R. Chris; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Research on action understanding in cognitive neuroscience has led to the identification of a wide “action understanding network” mainly encompassing parietal and premotor cortical areas. Within this cortical network mirror neurons are critically involved implementing a neural mechanism according to which, during action understanding, observed actions are reflected in the motor patterns for the same actions of the observer. We suggest that focusing only on cortical areas and processes could be too restrictive to explain important facets of action understanding regarding, for example, the influence of the observer's motor experience, the multiple levels at which an observed action can be understood, and the acquisition of action understanding ability. In this respect, we propose that aside from the cortical action understanding network, sub-cortical processes pivoting on cerebellar and basal ganglia cortical loops could crucially support both the expression and the acquisition of action understanding abilities. Within the paper we will discuss how this extended view can overcome some limitations of the “pure” cortical perspective, supporting new theoretical predictions on the brain mechanisms underlying action understanding that could be tested by future empirical investigations. PMID:23911926

  13. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rossa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-11-17

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  14. Subcortical brain segmentation of two dimensional T1-weighted data sets with FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D MRI data. However, in clinical trials, often no such high-resolution data are acquired and hence no conclusions regarding the impact of new treatments on DGM atrophy were possible so far. In this work, we used FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST to evaluate the possibility of segmenting DGM structures using standard two-dimensional (2D T1-weighted MRI. In a cohort of 70 MS patients, both 2D and 3D T1-weighted data were acquired. The thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, and caudate nucleus were bilaterally segmented using FIRST. Volumes were calculated for each structure and for the sum of basal ganglia (BG as well as for the total DGM. The accuracy and reliability of the 2D data segmentation were compared with the respective results of 3D segmentations using volume difference, volume overlap and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean differences for the individual substructures were between 1.3% (putamen and −25.2% (nucleus accumbens. The respective values for the BG were −2.7% and for DGM 1.3%. Mean volume overlap was between 89.1% (thalamus and 61.5% (nucleus accumbens; BG: 84.1%; DGM: 86.3%. Regarding ICC, all structures showed good agreement with the exception of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the segmentation were additionally validated through expert manual delineation of the caudate nucleus and putamen in a subset of the 3D data. In conclusion, we demonstrate that subcortical segmentation of 2D data are feasible using FIRST. The larger subcortical GM structures can be segmented with high consistency. This forms the basis for the application of

  15. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    the international ENIGMA Working Group collaboration, which in the present analysis was frozen at Feb 8, 2015. Individual sites analysed structural T1-weighted MRI brain scans with harmonised protocols of individuals with ADHD compared with those who do not have this diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to assess......BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we used the data from...

  16. A Multiatlas Approach for Segmenting Subcortical Brain Structures using Local Patch Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela RAMAMOORTHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, often segmenting the brain structures from MRI data is the key step. Since there are larger variations in the anatomical structures of the brain, segmentation becomes a crucial process. Using only the intensity information is not enough to segment structures since two or more structures may share the same tissues. Recently, the use of multiple pre-labeled images called atlases or templates are used in the process of segmentation of image data. Both single atlas and multiple atlases can be used. However, using multiple atlases in the segmentation process proves a dominant method in segmenting brain structures with challenging and overlapping structures. In this paper, we propose two multi atlas segmentation methods: Local Patch Distance Segmentation (LPDS and Weighted Local Patch Distance Segmentation (WLPDS. These methods use local patch distance in the label fusion step. LPDS uses local patch distance to find the best patch match for label propagation. WLPDS uses local patch distance to calculate local weights. The brain MRI images from the MICCAI 2012 segmentation challenge are chosen for experimental purposes. These datasets are publicly available and can be downloaded from MIDAS. The proposed techniques are compared with existing fusion methods such as majority voting and weighted majority voting using the similarity measures such as Dice overlap (DC, Jaccard coefficient (JC and Kappa statistics. For 20 test data sets, LPDS gives DICE=0.95±0.05, JACCARD=0.91±0.04 and KAPPA=0.94±0.07. WLPDS gives DICE=0.98±0.02, JACCARD=0.92±0.03 and KAPPA=0.95±0.04.

  17. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational impacts of the social and emotional brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benningfield, Margaret M; Potter, Mona P; Bostic, Jeff Q

    2015-04-01

    Advances in neuroscience related to social and emotional development have significant implications for educational practice. The human brain cannot fully dissociate cognitive from emotional events, and therefore educational programming that recognizes the importance of social-emotional development also facilitates academic achievement. The ideal learning environment encourages the development of social-emotional and academic neuronal pathways. Taking advantage of the emerging understanding of the developing brain offers opportunities to facilitate greater academic gains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  1. The brain basis of emotion: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Wager, Tor D; Kober, Hedy; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science. With a surge of studies in affective neuroscience in recent decades, scientists are poised to answer this question. In this target article, we present a meta-analytic summary of the neuroimaging literature on human emotion. We compare the locationist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories consistently and specifically correspond to distinct brain regions) with the psychological constructionist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories are constructed of more general brain networks not specific to those categories) to better understand the brain basis of emotion. We review both locationist and psychological constructionist hypotheses of brain-emotion correspondence and report meta-analytic findings bearing on these hypotheses. Overall, we found little evidence that discrete emotion categories can be consistently and specifically localized to distinct brain regions. Instead, we found evidence that is consistent with a psychological constructionist approach to the mind: A set of interacting brain regions commonly involved in basic psychological operations of both an emotional and non-emotional nature are active during emotion experience and perception across a range of discrete emotion categories.

  2. The brain basis of emotion: A meta-analytic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Wager, Tor D.; Kober, Hedy; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science. With a surge of studies in affective neuroscience in recent decades, scientists are poised to answer this question. In this article, we present a meta-analytic summary of the human neuroimaging literature on emotion. We compare the locationist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories consistently and specifically correspond to distinct brain regions) with the psychological constructionist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories are constructed of more general brain networks not specific to those categories) to better understand the brain basis of emotion. We review both locationist and psychological constructionist hypotheses of brain–emotion correspondence and report meta-analytic findings bearing on these hypotheses. Overall, we found little evidence that discrete emotion categories can be consistently and specifically localized to distinct brain regions. Instead, we found evidence that is consistent with a psychological constructionist approach to the mind: a set of interacting brain regions commonly involved in basic psychological operations of both an emotional and non-emotional nature are active during emotion experience and perception across a range of discrete emotion categories. PMID:22617651

  3. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  4. Measuring Emotion Regulation with Single Dry Electrode Brain Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C.N.; Irrmischer, M.; Guo, Y.; Friston, K.; Faisal, A.; Hill, S.; Peng, H.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless brain computer interfaces (BCI’s) are promising for new intelligent applications in which emotions are detected by measuring brain activity. Applications, such as serious games and video game therapy, are measuring and using the user’s emotional state in order to determine the intensity

  5. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D

    2014-04-01

    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one's subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal 'cognitive' elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems.

  6. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Kevin N.; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one’s subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal ‘cognitive’ elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems. PMID:23202664

  7. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Del Piero, Larissa B; Saxbe, Darby E; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-01-01

    Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation...

  8. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  9. Supramodal representations of perceived emotions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Marius V; Atkinson, Anthony P; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-07-28

    Basic emotional states (such as anger, fear, and joy) can be similarly conveyed by the face, the body, and the voice. Are there human brain regions that represent these emotional mental states regardless of the sensory cues from which they are perceived? To address this question, in the present study participants evaluated the intensity of emotions perceived from face movements, body movements, or vocal intonations, while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we compared the similarity of response patterns across modalities to test for brain regions in which emotion-specific patterns in one modality (e.g., faces) could predict emotion-specific patterns in another modality (e.g., bodies). A whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed modality-independent but emotion category-specific activity patterns in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS). Multivoxel patterns in these regions contained information about the category of the perceived emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness) across all modality comparisons (face-body, face-voice, body-voice), and independently of the perceived intensity of the emotions. No systematic emotion-related differences were observed in the overall amplitude of activation in MPFC or STS. These results reveal supramodal representations of emotions in high-level brain areas previously implicated in affective processing, mental state attribution, and theory-of-mind. We suggest that MPFC and STS represent perceived emotions at an abstract, modality-independent level, and thus play a key role in the understanding and categorization of others' emotional mental states.

  10. EEG classification of emotions using emotion-specific brain functional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonuguntla, V; Shafiq, G; Wang, Y; Veluvolu, K C

    2015-08-01

    The brain functional network perspective forms the basis to relate mechanisms of brain functions. This work analyzes the network mechanisms related to human emotion based on synchronization measure - phase-locking value in EEG to formulate the emotion specific brain functional network. Based on network dissimilarities between emotion and rest tasks, most reactive channel pairs and the reactive band corresponding to emotions are identified. With the identified most reactive pairs, the subject-specific functional network is formed. The identified subject-specific and emotion-specific dynamic network pattern show significant synchrony variation in line with the experiment protocol. The same network pattern are then employed for classification of emotions. With the study conducted on the 4 subjects, an average classification accuracy of 62 % was obtained with the proposed technique.

  11. Effect of the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor val(66)met polymorphism on the recovery in patients with acute subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Lim, Jong Youb; Shin, Joon Ho; Park, Hye Kyung; Tan, Samuel Arnado; Park, Kyoung Un; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism on the recovery after subcortical stroke, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Subcortical stroke patients with copies of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism (n=7) were compared to their controls (n=7) without a copy of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism after matching for initial severity, location and type of stroke. The mRS scores at 1 and 3 months after discharge from the neurorehabilitation unit were compared between the groups. A repeated measures ANOVA for mRS revealed significant interaction between time and group (F(2, 24) =37.2, pfactor for recovery and responses to rehabilitation therapies after stroke in Korean patients. There is a need for developing different rehabilitation strategies for the population with BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism. Further studies assessing different outcomes for various functional domains of stroke recovery are needed to clarify the role of BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism.

  12. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Zitman, Frans G; Veltman, Dick J; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether patients with MDD show distributed changes in functional connectivity with a set of independently derived brain networks that have shown high correspondence with different task demands, including stimulus salience and emotional processing. We further explored if connectivity during emotional word processing related to the tendency to engage in positive or negative emotional states. In this study, 25 medication-free MDD patients without current or past comorbidity and matched controls (n = 25) performed an emotional word-evaluation task during functional MRI. Using a dual regression approach, individual spatial connectivity maps representing each subject's connectivity with each standard network were used to evaluate between-group differences and effects of positive and negative emotionality (extraversion and neuroticism, respectively, as measured with the NEO-FFI). Results showed decreased functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and ventral striatum with the fronto-opercular salience network in MDD patients compared to controls. In patients, abnormal connectivity was related to extraversion, but not neuroticism. These results confirm the hypothesis of a relative (para)limbic-cortical decoupling that may explain dysregulated affect in MDD. As connectivity of these regions with the salience network was related to extraversion, but not to general depression severity or negative emotionality, dysfunction of this network may be responsible for the failure to sustain engagement in rewarding behavior.

  13. Emotion, decision-making and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels to the automatic system. This chapter will discuss a theoretical framework for understanding the role of emotion in decision-making and evidence supporting the underlying neural substrates. This chapter applies a conceptual framework to understanding the role of emotion in decision-making, and emphasizes a distinction between expected and immediate emotions. Expected emotions refer to anticipated emotional states associated with a given decision that are never actually experienced. Immediate emotions, however, are experienced at the time of decision, and either can occur in response to a particular decision or merely as a result of a transitory fluctuation. This chapter will review research from the neuroeconomics literature that supports a neural dissociation between these two classes of emotion and also discuss a few interpretive caveats. Several lines of research including regret, uncertainty, social decision-making, and moral decision-making have yielded evidence consistent with our formulization--expected and immediate emotions may invoke dissociable neural systems. This chapter provides a more specific conceptualization of the mediating role of emotions in the decision-making process, which has important implications for understanding the interacting neural systems underlying the interface between emotion and cognition--a topic of immediate value to anyone investigating topics within the context of social-cognitive-affective-neuroscience.

  14. The brain decade in debate: III. Neurobiology of emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Blanchard

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium in which active researchers were invited by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC to discuss the advances of the last decade in the neurobiology of emotion. Four basic questions were debated: 1 What are the most critical issues/questions in the neurobiology of emotion? 2 What do we know for certain about brain processes involved in emotion and what is controversial? 3 What kinds of research are needed to resolve these controversial issues? 4 What is the relationship between learning, memory and emotion? The focus was on the existence of different neural systems for different emotions and the nature of the neural coding for the emotional states. Is emotion the result of the interaction of different brain regions such as the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens, or the periaqueductal gray matter or is it an emergent property of the whole brain neural network? The relationship between unlearned and learned emotions was also discussed. Are the circuits of the former the underpinnings of the latter? It was pointed out that much of what we know about emotions refers to aversively motivated behaviors, like fear and anxiety. Appetitive emotions should attract much interest in the future. The learning and memory relationship with emotions was also discussed in terms of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, innate and learned fear, contextual cues inducing emotional states, implicit memory and the property of using this term for animal memories. In a general way it could be said that learning modifies the neural circuits through which emotional responses are expressed.

  15. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia: EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V A; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J T M; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J A M; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG parameters in subcortical vCIND in comparison with amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment to determine the additional diagnostic value of quantitative EEG in this setting. Fifty-seven community-residing patients with an uneventful central neurologic history and first presentation of cognitive decline without dementia were included. Neuropsychological test results were correlated with EEG parameters. Predictive values for vCIND and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression modeling. Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment differed with regard to the EEG (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (DTABR) and pairwise derived brain symmetry index. We found statistically significant correlations between pairwise derived brain symmetry index and immediate verbal memory, immediate global memory, verbal recognition, working memory, and mean memory score in vCIND. Verbal fluency (odds ratio: 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.28, P = 0.033) and (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (odds ratio: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.94, P = 0.036) emerged as independent diagnostic predictors for vCIND with an overall correct classification rate of 95.0%. Our data indicate that EEG is of additional value in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of patients presenting with cognitive decline. These findings may have an impact on memory care.

  16. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pera-Guardiola

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths' impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects.

  17. Neuropsychology of subcortical dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C R

    1997-12-01

    Subcortical dementias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share primary pathology in subcortical structure and a characteristic pattern of neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the neurobiological and cognitive features of three prototypical subcortical dementias, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy, concentrating of traits shared by disorders. Clinical features are also discussed, especially those which differentiate subcortical dementias from cortical dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease. The cortical-subcortical nomenclature has been criticized over the years, but it continues to provide an effective means of classifying dementia profiles in clinically and theoretically useful ways.

  18. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T. G. M.; Hibar, D. P.; Rasmussen, J. M.; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G. D.; Andreassen, O. A.; Agartz, I.; Westlye, L. T.; Haukvik, U. K.; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C. B.; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B.; Zilles, D.; Donohoe, G.; Kelly, S.; McDonald, C.; Morris, D. W.; Cannon, D. M.; Corvin, A.; Machielsen, M. W. J.; Koenders, L.; de Haan, L.; Veltman, D. J.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Wolf, D. H.; Gur, R. C.; Gur, R. E.; Potkin, S. G.; Mathalon, D. H.; Mueller, B. A.; Preda, A.; Macciardi, F.; Ehrlich, S.; Walton, E.; Hass, J.; Calhoun, V. D.; Bockholt, H. J.; Sponheim, S. R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; van Haren, N. E. M.; Pol, H. E. H.; Ophoff, R. A.; Kahn, R. S.; Roiz-Santianez, R.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Wang, L.; Alpert, K. I.; Jonsson, E. G.; Dimitrova, R.; Bois, C.; Whalley, H. C.; McIntosh, A. M.; Lawrie, S. M.; Hashimoto, R.; Thompson, P. M.; Turner, J. A.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and

  19. Emotional brain states carry over and enhance future memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambini, Arielle; Rimmele, Ulrike; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2017-02-01

    Emotional arousal can produce lasting, vivid memories for emotional experiences, but little is known about whether emotion can prospectively enhance memory formation for temporally distant information. One mechanism that may support prospective memory enhancements is the carry-over of emotional brain states that influence subsequent neutral experiences. Here we found that neutral stimuli encountered by human subjects 9-33 min after exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli had greater levels of recollection during delayed memory testing compared to those studied before emotional and after neutral stimulus exposure. Moreover, multiple measures of emotion-related brain activity showed evidence of reinstatement during subsequent periods of neutral stimulus encoding. Both slow neural fluctuations (low-frequency connectivity) and transient, stimulus-evoked activity predictive of trial-by-trial memory formation present during emotional encoding were reinstated during subsequent neutral encoding. These results indicate that neural measures of an emotional experience can persist in time and bias how new, unrelated information is encoded and recollected.

  20. Mapping Aesthetic Musical Emotions in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions. PMID:22178712

  1. Mapping aesthetic musical emotions in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-12-01

    Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions.

  2. Fluoxetine as a treatment for emotional lability after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, R L; Brown, K W; Pentland, B

    1992-01-01

    Emotional lability or emotionalism is a relatively common phenomenon and frequently occurs following vascular or traumatic brain injury. It is distressing and embarrassing to sufferers and their families, and often interferes with rehabilitation. At present there is no satisfactory or reliable treatment for this condition. We describe an open trial using fluoxetine, a newer antidepressant with a specific serotonergic action, in the treatment of emotional lability due to brain injury. Six consecutive cases of emotional lability attending a rehabilitation unit were studied (five cases of cerebrovascular accident and one of traumatic brain injury). Response to treatment was measured using a modification of the scale described by Lawson and MacLeod [1]. All showed a marked improvement within one week of commencing fluoxetine and the drug was well tolerated with no reported side-effects. The speed of onset and degree of improvement suggest that fluoxetine may be a useful agent in the treatment of emotional lability due to brain injury. Our observations indicate that further investigation of the role of fluoxetine in the treatment of emotional lability is warranted.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of the brain: emotion and cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Muezzinoglu, M K [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-08

    Experimental investigations of neural system functioning and brain activity are standardly based on the assumption that perceptions, emotions, and cognitive functions can be understood by analyzing steady-state neural processes and static tomographic snapshots. The new approaches discussed in this review are based on the analysis of transient processes and metastable states. Transient dynamics is characterized by two basic properties, structural stability and information sensitivity. The ideas and methods that we discuss provide an explanation for the occurrence of and successive transitions between metastable states observed in experiments, and offer new approaches to behavior analysis. Models of the emotional and cognitive functions of the brain are suggested. The mathematical object that represents the observed transient brain processes in the phase space of the model is a structurally stable heteroclinic channel. The possibility of using the suggested models to construct a quantitative theory of some emotional and cognitive functions is illustrated. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Simultaneous direct cortical motor evoked potential monitoring and subcortical mapping for motor pathway preservation during brain tumor surgery: is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Patrick; Eccher, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    The warning-sign hierarchy between quantitative subcortical motor mapping and continuous motor evoked potential monitoring during resection of supratentorial brain tumors: clinical article.Seidel K, Beck J, Steiglitz L, Schucht P, Raabe A.J Neurosurg 2013; 118:287-296. Mapping and monitoring are believed to provide an early warning sign to determine when to stop tumor removal to avoid mechanical damage to the corticospinal tract (CST). The objective of this study was to systematically compare subcortical monopolar stimulation thresholds (1-20 mA) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS)-motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring signal abnormalities and to correlate both with new postoperative motor deficits. The authors sought to define a mapping threshold and DCS-MEP monitoring signal changes indicating a minimal safe distance from the CST. A consecutive cohort of 100 patients underwent tumor surgery adjacent to the CST while simultaneous subcortical motor mapping and DCS-MEP monitoring were used. Evaluation was performed regarding the lowest subcortical mapping threshold (monopolar stimulation, train of 5 stimuli, interstimulus interval 4.0 milliseconds, pulse duration 500 microseconds) and signal changes in DCS-MEPs (same parameters, 4 contact strip electrode). Motor function was assessed 1 day after the surgery, at discharge, and at 3 months postoperatively. The lowest individual motor thresholds (MTs) were as follows (MT in mA, number of patients): >20 mA, n = 12; 11 to 20 mA, n = 13; 6 to 10 mA, n = 20; 4 to 5 mA, n = 30; and 1 to 3 mA, n = 25. Direct cortical stimulation showed stable signals in 70 patients, unspecific changes in 18, irreversible alterations in 8, and irreversible loss in 4 patients. At 3 months, 5 patients had a postoperative new or worsened motor deficit (lowest mapping MT 20 mA, 13 mA, 6 mA, 3 mA, and 1 mA). In all 5 patients, DCS-MEP monitoring alterations were documented (2 sudden irreversible threshold increases and 3 sudden irreversible

  5. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... resonance imaging in 76 healthy adults. We observed robust increased response to emotional faces in the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, fusiform gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and lateral prefrontal and occipito-parietal cortices. We observed dissociation between 5-HTTLPR groups such that LA LA individuals...

  6. Emotional arousal and multiple memory systems in the mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Packard, Mark G.; Jarid eGoodman

    2012-01-01

    Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the “type” of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the “cognitive” and stimulus-respon...

  7. Emotion, decision-making and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels

  8. Moral judgments, emotions and the utilitarian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    The investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying the moral mind is of paramount importance for understanding complex human behaviors, from altruism to antisocial acts. A new study on patients with prefrontal damage provides key insights on the neurobiology of moral judgment and raises new questions on the mechanisms by which reason and emotion contribute to moral cognition.

  9. Context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence is associated with activation of cortical and subcortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, Yann; Hoots, Jennifer K; Cifani, Carlo; Adhikary, Sweta; Martin, Jennifer; Minier-Toribio, Angelica; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-06-29

    We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A. Next, we transferred them to context B where for the paired group, but not unpaired group, 50 percent of cocaine-reinforced lever presses caused aversive footshock. We then tested the rats for cocaine seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. We also retested them for relapse after retraining in context A and repunishment in context B. In exp. 2, we used Fos immunoreactivity to determine relapse-associated neuronal activation in brain regions of rats exposed to context A, context B or neither context. Results showed the selective shock-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration and context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence in rats exposed to paired, but not unpaired, footshock. Additionally, context-induced relapse was associated with selective activation of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, lateral habenula, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and dorsal raphe, but not nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and other brain regions. Together, context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence generalizes to rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and is associated with selective activation of cortical and subcortical regions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, André

    2013-12-30

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative emotional learning. Patients and controls filled out an alexithymia questionnaire and performed an associative emotional learning task with positive, negative and neutral picture-word pairs during fMRI scanning. After scanning, they indicated for each pair whether they remembered it. We conducted standard GLM analysis and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both the GLM results and task-related ICA components were compared between groups. The alexithymia questionnaire indicated more cognitive-emotional processing difficulties in patients than controls, but equal experienced intensity of affective states. Patients remembered less picture-word pairs, irrespective of valence. GLM analysis showed significant visual, temporal, amygdalar/hippocampal, and prefrontal activation in all subjects. ICA identified a network of brain areas similar to GLM, mainly in response to negative stimuli. Neither analysis showed differences between patients and controls during learning. Although in previous studies schizophrenia patients showed abnormalities in both memory and emotion processing, neural circuits involved in cross-modal associative emotional learning may remain intact to a certain degree, which may have potential consequences for treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P; Schweren, Lizanne S J; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Medland, Sarah E; Shumskaya, Elena; Jahanshad, Neda; Zeeuw, Patrick de; Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo; Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, Alberdingk M H; Dammers, Janneke T; Mostert, Jeanette C; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Kohls, Gregor; Oberwelland, Eileen; Seitz, Jochen; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Ambrosino, Sara; Doyle, Alysa E; Høvik, Marie F; Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Tamm, Leanne; van Erp, Theo G M; Dale, Anders; Schork, Andrew; Conzelmann, Annette; Zierhut, Kathrin; Baur, Ramona; McCarthy, Hazel; Yoncheva, Yuliya N; Cubillo, Ana; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Mehta, Mitul A; Paloyelis, Yannis; Hohmann, Sarah; Baumeister, Sarah; Bramati, Ivanei; Mattos, Paulo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Douglas, Pamela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Rubia, Katya; Kelly, Clare; Martino, Adriana Di; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, Francisco X; Frodl, Thomas; Zentis, Mariam; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Jernigan, Terry L; Haavik, Jan; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Polier, Georg von; Konrad, Kerstin; Vilarroya, Oscar; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Soliva, Joan Carles; Durston, Sarah; Buitelaar, Jan K; Faraone, Stephen V; Shaw, Philip; Thompson, Paul M; Franke, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we used the data from the international ENIGMA Working Group collaboration, which in the present analysis was frozen at Feb 8, 2015. Individual sites analysed structural T1-weighted MRI brain scans with harmonised protocols of individuals with ADHD compared with those who do not have this diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to assess case-control differences in subcortical structures and intracranial volume through pooling of all individual data from all cohorts in this collaboration. For this analysis, p values were significant at the false discovery rate corrected threshold of p=0·0156. Our sample comprised 1713 participants with ADHD and 1529 controls from 23 sites with a median age of 14 years (range 4-63 years). The volumes of the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·15), amygdala (d=-0·19), caudate (d=-0·11), hippocampus (d=-0·11), putamen (d=-0·14), and intracranial volume (d=-0·10) were smaller in individuals with ADHD compared with controls in the mega-analysis. There was no difference in volume size in the pallidum (p=0·95) and thalamus (p=0·39) between people with ADHD and controls. Exploratory lifespan modelling suggested a delay of maturation and a delay of degeneration, as effect sizes were highest in most subgroups of children (21 years): in the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·19 vs -0·10), amygdala (d=-0·18 vs -0·14), caudate (d=-0·13 vs -0·07), hippocampus (d=-0·12 vs -0·06), putamen (d=-0·18 vs -0·08), and

  12. Emotion regulation modulates anticipatory brain activity that predicts emotional memory encoding in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Griffiths, Victoria A; Otten, Leun J

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that the effectiveness with which unpleasant events are encoded into memory is related to brain activity set in train before the events. Here, we assessed whether encoding-related activity before an aversive event can be modulated by emotion regulation. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy women while they performed an incidental encoding task on randomly intermixed unpleasant and neutral visual scenes. A cue presented 1.5 s before each picture indicated the upcoming valence. In half of the blocks of trials, the instructions emphasized to let emotions arise in a natural way. In the other half, participants were asked to decrease their emotional response by adopting the perspective of a detached observer. Memory for the scenes was probed 1 day later with a recognition memory test. Brain activity before unpleasant scenes predicted later memory of the scenes, but only when participants felt their emotions and did not detach from them. The findings indicate that emotion regulation can eliminate the influence of anticipatory brain activity on memory encoding. This may be relevant for the understanding and treatment of psychiatric diseases with a memory component.

  13. Mirroring pain in the brain : emotional expression versus motor imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budell, Lesley; Kunz, Miriam; Jackson, Philip L; Rainville, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Perception of pain in others via facial expressions has been shown to involve brain areas responsive to self-pain, biological motion, as well as both performed and observed motor actions. Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain

  14. The Mindful Brain and Emotion Regulation in Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Farb, Norman A. S.; Anderson, Adam K.; Segal, Zindel V.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness involves nonjudgmental attention to present-moment experience. In its therapeutic forms, mindfulness interventions promote increased tolerance of negative affect and improved well being. However, the neural mechanisms underlying mindful mood regulation are poorly understood. Mindfulness training appears to enhance attentional monitoring systems in the brain, supported by the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices. In emotion regulation, this prefrontal training seems t...

  15. Overnight Therapy? The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew P.; van Der Helm, Els

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes and, most recently, on the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. This review…

  16. The Brain: Its Relationship to Learning, Emotional States, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Terry

    1977-01-01

    Outlines findings of contemporary neuro-scientists studying the biological basis of human learning and behavior. Areas of research discussed are: (1) the center of human emotion--the limbic system; (2) brain rhythms; and (3) the molecular basis of learning. (CS)

  17. Acute stress enhances emotional face processing in the aging brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, D.S.; Klumpers, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Healthy aging has been associated with stable emotional wellbeing and attenuated brain responses to negative stimuli. At the same time, depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The neural mechanisms behind this paradox remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that acute stress

  18. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, part II: Prefrontal-subcortical pathways and relationship with anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wager, T.D.; Ast, V.A. van; Hughes, B.L.; Davidson, M.L.; Lindquist, M.A.; Ochsner, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    Social evaluative threat (SET) is a potent stressor in humans that causes autonomic changes, endocrine responses, and multiple health problems. Neuroimaging has recently begun to elucidate the brain correlates of SET, but as yet little is known about the mediating cortical-brainstem pathways in

  19. [Emotions and the brain--from child to adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Kabicheva, Galina

    2010-05-06

    Contemporary neuroscience relates human behaviour, emotions and cognition to underlying neurobiological processes in the brain. Increased awareness of such processes may improve our understanding of emotional regulatory problems and development of psychopathology in some children and adolescents. This article is based on articles identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed and on publications from the authors' own database. Several processes form the biological basis for how children and adolescents regulate their emotions when relating to others: linear development of white matter, growth and subsequent elimination of gray matter and maturation of various neuronal networks in the brain. Emotional regulation develops discontinuously in children and adolescents, and varying degrees of maturation of specific neural networks involved in self-regulation may explain different behavioural traits that are typical for specific age groups. Emotional regulation develops in a complex interaction between a child's relationships, experiences, activities and underlying biological/genetic factors. Knowledge of these underlying neural constraints may contribute to understanding typical behavioural traits at different ages and in children and adolescents who have difficulties controlling their emotions. Identification of genetic or environmental factors that can help children and adolescents regulate their feelings may also be important for development of more specific therapies.

  20. Anger, emotion and mental stress: From brain to heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eTaggart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Strong emotion and mental stress are now recognised as playing a significant role in severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanisms although incompletely understod, include central processing at the cortical and brain stem level, the autonomic nerves and the electrophysiology of the myocardium. Each of these are usually studied separately by investigators from different disciplines. However, many are regulatory processes which incorporate interactive feedforward and feedback mechanisms. In this review we consider the whole as an integrated interactive brain-heart system (brain-heart system

  1. Brain network dysregulation, emotion, and complaints after mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    ObjectivesTo assess the role of brain networks in emotion regulation and post-traumatic complaints in the sub-acute phase after non-complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Experimental designFifty-four patients with mTBI (34 with and 20 without complaints) and 20 healthy controls

  2. Basic, specific, mechanistic? Conceptualizing musical emotions in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigie, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The number of studies investigating music processing in the human brain continues to increase, with a large proportion of them focussing on the correlates of so-called musical emotions. The current Review highlights the recent development whereby such studies are no longer concerned only with basic emotions such as happiness and sadness but also with so-called music-specific or "aesthetic" ones such as nostalgia and wonder. It also highlights how mechanisms such as expectancy and empathy, which are seen as inducing musical emotions, are enjoying ever-increasing investigation and substantiation with physiological and neuroimaging methods. It is proposed that a combination of these approaches, namely, investigation of the precise mechanisms through which so-called music-specific or aesthetic emotions may arise, will provide the most important advances for our understanding of the unique nature of musical experience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after sub-cortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908

  4. Early Brain-Body Impact of Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Manon; Rigoulot, Simon; Honoré, Jacques; Lepore, Franco; Sequeira, Henrique

    2009-01-01

    Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG) data and skin conductance response (SCR), a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant) and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the SCR, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links. PMID:20428514

  5. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  6. Emotion Walking for Humanoid Avatars Using Brain Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hoirul Basori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between humans and humanoid avatar representations is very important in virtual reality and robotics, since the humanoid avatar can represent either a human or a robot in a virtual environment. Many researchers have focused on providing natural interactions for humanoid avatars or even for robots with the use of camera tracking, gloves, giving them the ability to speak, brain interfaces and other devices. This paper provides a new multimodal interaction control for avatars by combining brain signals, facial muscle tension recognition and glove tracking to change the facial expression of humanoid avatars according to the user's emotional condition. The signals from brain activity and muscle movements are used as the emotional stimulator, while the glove acts as emotion intensity control for the avatar. This multimodal interface can determine when the humanoid avatar needs to change their facial expression or their walking power. The results show that humanoid avatar have different timelines of walking and facial expressions when the user stimulates them with different emotions. This finding is believed to provide new knowledge on controlling robots' and humanoid avatars' facial expressions and walking.

  7. Brain. Conscious and Unconscious Mechanisms of Cognition, Emotions, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid; Ilin, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC). Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the Gödel’s difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still “believed” in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes “from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious” (representations, plans, models, concepts). These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. “From vague to crisp” explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music. PMID:24961270

  8. Brain. Conscious and unconscious mechanisms of cognition, emotions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid; Ilin, Roman

    2012-12-18

    Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC). Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the Gödel's difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still "believed" in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes "from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious" (representations, plans, models, concepts). These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. "From vague to crisp" explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music.

  9. Brain. Conscious and Unconscious Mechanisms of Cognition, Emotions, and Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Ilin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC. Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the Gödel’s difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still “believed” in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes “from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious” (representations, plans, models, concepts. These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. “From vague to crisp” explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music.

  10. Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Methods: Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the “old” or the “new” button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very

  11. Play it again Sam: Brain Correlates of Emotional Music Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eAltenmüller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory.Methods: 18 non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 second length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 sec was followed by a 20 sec resting period during which participants pressed either the old or the new to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance.

  12. Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the "old" or the "new" button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very fast.

  13. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  14. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poggesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI. Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD.

  15. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  16. THE TIME COURSE OF ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN SUBCORTICAL VISUAL CENTRE FOLLOWING EARLY IMPAIRMENT OF BINOCULAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia related to congenital strabismus belongs to neurological disorders since it is caused by structural and functional remodeling of the visual parts of the brain without any baseline retinal pathology. Although a large number of animal studies on experimentally induced strabismus, as well as clinical cases have been published, the mechanisms and time course of the processes within the brain structures are not fully understood. Aim: To study the time course of abnormalities in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd in animals with surgically induced convergent strabismus. LGNd is the structure through which the information from the retina goes to the visual cortex separately for each eye. Materials and methods: 14 strabismic and 17 intact kittens of four age groups were studied. Histochemical method was used to identify cytochrome oxidase which is a  mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme whose activity correlates with neuronal functional activity. Optical density in eye-specific layers  A  and A1 was measured on the images of stained LGNd sections, with calculation of the contrast difference between them. Results: In strabismic kittens, there were changes in activity of A and A1 layers in the projection of the central part of visual field in LGNd of both hemispheres. At early stages of their formation, a relative decrease in activity was found in both hemispheres in the LGNd layers innervated through non-crossed pathways from both retinae. Thereafter, the time course of abnormalities in LGNd of both hemispheres was different. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the squinting eye, the difference in layer activity was highest at the age from 3 to 5 months. However, in the opposite hemisphere the same difference indicating a decreased activity in the layer of the squinting eye were observed only at the age of 5 months. Conclusion: The process of amblyopia development during congenital convergent strabismus is

  17. Frontal Electroencephalographic Correlates of Individual Differences in Emotion Expression in Infants: A Brain Systems Perspective on Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    1994-01-01

    This essay reviews empirical evidence that suggests that emotion type and emotion intensity are associated with distinct and independent patterns of frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in infants. The role of the frontal lobe and related brain systems in emotion expression and regulation is also discussed from a developmental…

  18. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  19. Anger, Emotion, and Arrhythmias: from Brain to Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart, Peter; Boyett, Mark R; Logantha, Sunil Jit R. J.; Lambiase, Pier D.

    2011-01-01

    Strong emotion and mental stress are now recognized as playing a significant role in severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanisms, although incompletely understood, include central processing at the cortical and brain stem level, the autonomic nerves and the electrophysiology of the myocardium. Each of these is usually studied separately by investigators from different disciplines. However, many are regulatory processes which incorporate interactive feedforward and feedback mechan...

  20. Anger, emotion and mental stress: From brain to heart

    OpenAIRE

    Peter eTaggart; Pier eLambiase

    2011-01-01

    Strong emotion and mental stress are now recognised as playing a significant role in severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanisms although incompletely understod, include central processing at the cortical and brain stem level, the autonomic nerves and the electrophysiology of the myocardium. Each of these are usually studied separately by investigators from different disciplines. However, many are regulatory processes which incorporate interactive feedforward and feedback mechani...

  1. Brain structure correlates of emotion-based rash impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlert, N; Lawrence, A D

    2015-07-15

    Negative urgency (the tendency to engage in rash, ill-considered action in response to intense negative emotions), is a personality trait that has been linked to problematic involvement in several risky and impulsive behaviours, and to various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology, but its neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether inter-individual variation in levels of trait negative urgency was associated with inter-individual variation in regional grey matter volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample (n=152) of healthy participants, we found that smaller volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, regions previously linked to emotion appraisal, emotion regulation and emotion-based decision-making, were associated with higher levels of trait negative urgency. When controlling for other impulsivity linked personality traits (sensation seeking, lack of planning/perseverance) and negative emotionality per se (neuroticism), these associations remained, and an additional relationship was found between higher levels of trait negative urgency and smaller volumes of the left ventral striatum. This latter finding mirrors recent VBM findings in an animal model of impulsivity. Our findings offer novel insight into the brain structure correlates of one key source of inter-individual differences in impulsivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Identification of emotion associated brain functional network with phase locking value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonuguntla, V; Mallipeddi, R; Veluvolu, K C

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of discriminative brain functional network pattern and regions corresponding to emotions are important in understanding the neuron functional network underlying the human emotion process. Emotion models mapping onto brain is possible with the help of emotion-specific network patterns and its corresponding brain regions. This paper presents a method to identify emotion related functional connectivity pattern and their distinctive associated regions using EEG phase synchrony (phase locking value (PLV)) connectivity analysis. The emotion-specific channel pairs, reactive band, and synchrony related locations are identified based on the network dissimilarities between emotion and rest tasks. With the most reactive pairs identified, the emotion-specific functional network is formed. The proposed method is validated on `database for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP)' that confirms the distinct nature of identified functional connectivity pattern and the regions corresponding to the emotion.

  3. Cognitive and emotional modulation of brain default operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    dissonant musical sounds, there was an interaction between the experimental condition and the stimulus type. The current results are consistent with the previously reported effect of task difficulty on task-related brain activation decreases. The results also indicate that task-related decreases may......Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption...... cognitive load and emotional stimulus connotation on task-related decreases in the default network by employing an auditory working memory (WM) task with musical sounds. The performance of the WM task, compared to passive listening, lowered the activity in medial and lateral, prefrontal, parietal, temporal...

  4. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    .... Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance...

  5. Assessing brain activations associated with emotional regulation during virtual reality mood induction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, A.; Rey, B.; Clemente, M.; Wrzesien, M.; Alcañiz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional regulation strategies are used by people to influence their emotional responses to external or internal emotional stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the brain activations that are associated with the application of two different emotional regulation strategies (cognitive

  6. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the VS. With [11 C]-raclopride, BPND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BPND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human Emotion Detection via Brain Waves Study by Using Electroencephalogram (EEG)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W.O. A.S. Wan Ismail; M. Hanif; S. B. Mohamed; Noraini Hamzah; Zairi Ismael Rizman

    2016-01-01

    .... This research was conducted to detect or identify human emotion via the study of brain waves. In addition, the research aims to develop computer software that can detect human emotions quickly and easily...

  8. Impaired emotional contagion following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline Ann; McDonald, Skye; Randall, Rebekah; de Sousa, Arielle; Trimmer, Emily; Fisher, Alana

    2013-09-01

    Empathy deficits are widely-documented in individuals after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study examined the relationship between empathy deficits and psychophysiological responsivity in adults with TBI to determine if impaired responsivity is ameliorated through repeated emotional stimulus presentations. Nineteen TBI participants (13 males; 41 years) and 25 control participants (14 males; 31 years) viewed five repetitions of six 2-min film clip segments containing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral content. Facial muscle responses (zygomaticus and corrugator), tonic heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded. Mean responses for each viewing period were compared to a pre-experiment 2-min resting baseline period. Self-reported emotional empathy was also assessed. TBI participants demonstrated identical EMG response patterns to controls, i.e. an initial large facial response to both pleasant and unpleasant films, followed by habituation over repetitions for pleasant films, and sustained response to unpleasant films. Additionally, an increase in both arousal and HR deceleration to stimulus repetitions was found, which was larger for TBI participants. Compared to controls, TBI participants self-reported lower emotional empathy, and had lower resting arousal, and these measures were positively correlated. Results are consistent with TBI producing impairments in emotional empathy and responsivity. While some normalisation of physiological arousal appeared with repeated stimulus presentations, this came at the cost of greater attentional effort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  10. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  11. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  12. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

  13. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

  14. Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  15. Facing mixed emotions: Analytic and holistic perception of facial emotion expressions engages separate brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaux, Emilie; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-11-01

    The ability to decode facial emotions is of primary importance for human social interactions; yet, it is still debated how we analyze faces to determine their expression. Here we compared the processing of emotional face expressions through holistic integration and/or local analysis of visual features, and determined which brain systems mediate these distinct processes. Behavioral, physiological, and brain responses to happy and angry faces were assessed by presenting congruent global configurations of expressions (e.g., happy top+happy bottom), incongruent composite configurations (e.g., angry top+happy bottom), and isolated features (e.g. happy top only). Top and bottom parts were always from the same individual. Twenty-six healthy volunteers were scanned using fMRI while they classified the expression in either the top or the bottom face part but ignored information in the other non-target part. Results indicate that the recognition of happy and anger expressions is neither strictly holistic nor analytic Both routes were involved, but with a different role for analytic and holistic information depending on the emotion type, and different weights of local features between happy and anger expressions. Dissociable neural pathways were engaged depending on emotional face configurations. In particular, regions within the face processing network differed in their sensitivity to holistic expression information, which predominantly activated fusiform, inferior occipital areas and amygdala when internal features were congruent (i.e. template matching), whereas more local analysis of independent features preferentially engaged STS and prefrontal areas (IFG/OFC) in the context of full face configurations, but early visual areas and pulvinar when seen in isolated parts. Collectively, these findings suggest that facial emotion recognition recruits separate, but interactive dorsal and ventral routes within the face processing networks, whose engagement may be shaped by

  16. Reading emotions after childhood brain injury: case series evidence of dissociation between cognitive abilities and emotional expression processing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Frampton, Ian; Yates, Phil; Wall, Sarah E; Slater, Alan

    2008-04-01

    A previous study has shown that children with brain injuries are worse than their same age peers at reading emotions. It has not clearly been established that cognitive impairments and emotion processing impairments are dissociable in children and the question of whether emotion-reading skills can be selectively impaired in children after brain injury is explored here. This study addresses this issue by testing a case series of seven children with brain injuries, who were identified as experiencing emotional or behavioural difficulties, according to a social-behavioural measure. A battery of tests of cognitive function and measures that assess ability in reading emotions from faces, voices and eyes was administered to each child. Some cases demonstrate broadly based deficits that affect both cognitive and emotion processing domains, whilst other cases demonstrate highly selective deficits in reading emotions. Based on the profile of results across the cases, this study reports that modality-specific, selective impairments in reading emotional expression can be found in children after brain injury. In addition, the data provide evidence of dissociation between cognitive abilities and emotional expression processing.

  17. A novel emotion elicitation index using frontal brain asymmetry for enhanced EEG-based emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims at providing a novel method for evaluating the emotion elicitation procedures in an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition setup. By employing the frontal brain asymmetry theory, an index, namely asymmetry Index (AsI), is introduced, in order to evaluate this asymmetry. This is accomplished by a multidimensional directed information analysis between different EEG sites from the two opposite brain hemispheres. The proposed approach was applied to three-channel (Fp1, Fp2, and F3/F4 10/20 sites) EEG recordings drawn from 16 healthy right-handed subjects. For the evaluation of the efficiency of the AsI, an extensive classification process was conducted using two feature-vector extraction techniques and a SVM classifier for six different classification scenarios in the valence/arousal space. This resulted in classification results up to 62.58% for the user independent case and 94.40% for the user-dependent one, confirming the efficacy of AsI as an index for the emotion elicitation evaluation.

  18. Effects of ketamine on cognition-emotion interaction in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Milan; Henning, Anke; Walter, Martin; Boeker, Heinz; Weigand, Anne; Seifritz, Erich; Grimm, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Cognition-emotion interaction in the brain can be investigated by incorporating stimuli with emotional content into cognitive tasks. Emotional stimuli in the context of a working memory (WM) task yield increased activation in WM-related lateral prefrontal regions, whereas cognitive effort enhances deactivation in emotion-related cortical midline regions. N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are critically involved in WM, and NMDA-R antagonists, such as ketamine, accordingly affect WM but also have a profound impact on emotional processing, as underscored by the rapid reduction of depressive symptoms after administration of a single dose of ketamine. The effect of ketamine on both cognitive and emotional processing therefore makes it a useful tool to further explore cognition-emotion interaction in the brain. Twenty-three healthy subjects were administered ketamine to investigate whether its effects on WM performance and brain reactivity depend on emotional content or emotional valence of stimuli. Furthermore, we aimed at investigating how ketamine affects the integration of emotion and WM processes in emotion-related cortical midline regions and WM-related lateral prefrontal regions. Results show that ketamine modulates cognition-emotion interaction in the brain by inducing lateralized and valence-specific effects in emotion-related cortical midline regions, WM-related lateral prefrontal regions and insula. In emotion-related cortical midline regions ketamine abolishes enhancement of deactivation normally observed during cognitive effort, while in the right DLPFC and the left insula the previously described pattern of increased activation due to emotional content is abrogated exclusively for negative stimuli. Our data therefore shows a specific effect of ketamine on cognition-emotion interaction in the brain and indicates that its effect on amelioration of negative biases in MDD patients might be related to less interference of cognitive processing by

  19. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  20. Infants' Emerging Sensitivity to Emotional Body Expressions: Insights from Asymmetrical Frontal Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Using event-related brain potentials, it has recently been shown that the ability to discriminate between emotional body expressions develops between 4 and 8 months of age. However, it is not clear whether the perception of emotional body expressions…

  1. Subcortical cerebral infarctions in sickle cell trait.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, M G

    1989-01-01

    At necropsy, two patients with sickle cell trait and progressive motor and visual deficits, lethargy and coma showed infarctions of the deep cerebral white matter and brain stem. The findings in these patients and another reported in the literature suggest that subcortical infarctions may be more common in sickle cell trait than has been recognised and should be suspected in any patient with sickle cell trait who presents with an unusual neurological illness.

  2. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  3. The role of the medial temporal limbic system in processing emotions in voice and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Subcortical brain structures of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, are thought to decode the emotional value of sensory information. Recent neuroimaging studies, as well as lesion studies in patients, have shown that the amygdala is sensitive to emotions in voice and music. Similarly, the hippocampus, another part of the temporal limbic system (TLS), is responsive to vocal and musical emotions, but its specific roles in emotional processing from music and especially from voices have been largely neglected. Here we review recent research on vocal and musical emotions, and outline commonalities and differences in the neural processing of emotions in the TLS in terms of emotional valence, emotional intensity and arousal, as well as in terms of acoustic and structural features of voices and music. We summarize the findings in a neural framework including several subcortical and cortical functional pathways between the auditory system and the TLS. This framework proposes that some vocal expressions might already receive a fast emotional evaluation via a subcortical pathway to the amygdala, whereas cortical pathways to the TLS are thought to be equally used for vocal and musical emotions. While the amygdala might be specifically involved in a coarse decoding of the emotional value of voices and music, the hippocampus might process more complex vocal and musical emotions, and might have an important role especially for the decoding of musical emotions by providing memory-based and contextual associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Techniques of the brain and the paradox of emotions, 1880-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, O E

    2001-12-01

    This essay studies the convergence of brain research with the physiology of emotions during the early twentieth century. It argues that the brain entered the laboratory of emotions not as an object of knowledge, but as a technique for producing emotions, in spite of the laboratory. The new brain-generated emotion signaled an epistemic break in the nature of studied emotion. It restructured the relationships between physiological and psychological forms of knowledge. It embodied the historical and political concerns of physiologists with pain. And it excluded the affectively experiencing subject from the study of "emotion." The essay also suggests that the brain-generated emotion was an object suspended in time and abstracted from history. Its unique a-temporal and de-contextualized characteristic transformed emotion into a product of a laboratory whose mode of production mimicked the modern factory. The constitutive elements that were assembled in creating the brain as emotion-generator were instrumental for the important studies of James Papez, Paul MacLean, and for the modern concept of Limbic System.

  5. Different brain activity in response to emotional faces alone and augmented by contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Siegle, Greg J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional face stimuli differ from the neural reactivity associated with more ecological contextually augmented stimuli. Participants were scanned when they viewed contextually rich pictures depicting both emotional faces and context, and pictures of emotional faces presented alone. Emotional faces alone were more strongly associated with brain activity in paralimbic and social information processing regions, whereas emotional faces augmented by context were associated with increased and sustained activity in regions potentially representing increased complexity and subjective emotional experience. Furthermore, context effects were modulated by emotional intensity and valence. These findings suggest that cortical elaboration that is apparent in contextually augmented stimuli may be missed in studies of emotional faces alone, whereas emotional faces may more selectively recruit limbic reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Fronto-Limbic Brain Dysfunction during the Regulation of Emotion in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M Eack

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is characterized by significant and widespread impairments in the regulation of emotion. Evidence is only recently emerging regarding the neural basis of these emotion regulation impairments, and few studies have focused on the regulation of emotion during effortful cognitive processing. To examine the neural correlates of deficits in effortful emotion regulation, schizophrenia outpatients (N = 20 and age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (N = 20 completed an emotional faces n-back task to assess the voluntary attentional control subprocess of emotion regulation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral measures of emotional intelligence and emotion perception were administered to examine brain-behavior relationships with emotion processing outcomes. Results indicated that patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly greater activation in the bilateral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal, and right orbitofrontal cortices during the effortful regulation of positive emotional stimuli, and reduced activity in these same regions when regulating negative emotional information. The opposite pattern of results was observed in healthy individuals. Greater fronto-striatal response to positive emotional distractors was significantly associated with deficits in facial emotion recognition. These findings indicate that abnormalities in striatal and prefrontal cortical systems may be related to deficits in the effortful emotion regulatory process of attentional control in schizophrenia, and may significantly contribute to emotion processing deficits in the disorder.

  7. Neural substrates of inhibitory and emotional processing in adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Sarah J; Peter Chiu, C Y; Walz, Nicolay C; Wade, Shari L

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of emotional regulation and social difficulties are common in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent research suggests that developments within ``socio-emotional'' brain systems during early adolescence and more protracted development of "cognitive control'' systems have implications for emotional and behavioral regulation during adolescence. However, few functional neuroimaging studies have directly examined the interaction of these neuropsychological processes in adolescents with TBI. The current study examined how affective processing might modulate inhibitory processing in an Emotional Go/NoGo paradigm. The study uses a cross-sectional, age, gender, and maternal education matched design.A response inhibition paradigm (i.e., the Go/NoGo task with emotional faces) was used to examine emotional-cognition interaction in 11 adolescents with complicated mild to moderate TBI, at least 12 months post injury, and 14 typically-developing (TD) adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants saw adult facial expressions of emotions (happy, sad, fearful, and angry) and were instructed to respond (``go'') on all expressions other than angry (``no-go''). Preliminary results (p= 0.001 uncorrected, cluster size = 50) showed higher levels of inhibition-related activation in TD adolescents than in adolescents with TBI in several brain regions including anterior cingulate and motor/premotor regions. These results suggest that TBI in adolescence might alter brain activation patterns and interrupt the development of brain networks governing emotion-cognition interactions.

  8. Impact of Laser Irradiation on Brain Resistance to Postresuscitative Emotional Stresses (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows how to solve the urgent problem of posthypoxic rat brain resistance to emotional stress. An hour hypovolemic hypotension (mean blood pressure 45 mm Hg served as a model of a terminal condition. The integra-tive activity of the rat brain was evaluated by the elevated cross labyrinth test. Emotional stress was induced by confrontation between the falsely operated and antihypertensive rats within 30 postischemic days. Laser irradiation was carried out an hour after blood reinfusion. Laser irradiation used before emotional stress was shown to increase the resistance of the posthypoxic rat brain to emotional stress and to prevent the development of depression-like states in the late periods after resuscitation. Key words: blood loss, postresuscitative period, emotional stress, laser irradiation.

  9. Mirroring pain in the brain: emotional expression versus motor imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Budell

    Full Text Available Perception of pain in others via facial expressions has been shown to involve brain areas responsive to self-pain, biological motion, as well as both performed and observed motor actions. Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain expressions using a two-task paradigm, and including both observation and execution of the expressions. BOLD responses were measured as subjects watched video clips showing different intensities of pain expression and, after a variable delay, either expressed the amount of pain they perceived in the clips (pain task, or imitated the facial movements (movement task. In the pain task condition, pain coding involved overlapping activation across observation and execution in the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, and the inferior parietal lobule, and a pain-related increase (pain vs. neutral in the anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the postcentral gyrus. The 'mirroring' response was stronger in the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus during the pain task, and stronger in the inferior parietal lobule in the movement task. These results strongly suggest that while motor mirroring may contribute to the perception of pain expressions in others, interpreting these expressions in terms of pain content draws more heavily on networks involved in the perception of affective meaning.

  10. Mirroring pain in the brain: emotional expression versus motor imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budell, Lesley; Kunz, Miriam; Jackson, Philip L; Rainville, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Perception of pain in others via facial expressions has been shown to involve brain areas responsive to self-pain, biological motion, as well as both performed and observed motor actions. Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain expressions using a two-task paradigm, and including both observation and execution of the expressions. BOLD responses were measured as subjects watched video clips showing different intensities of pain expression and, after a variable delay, either expressed the amount of pain they perceived in the clips (pain task), or imitated the facial movements (movement task). In the pain task condition, pain coding involved overlapping activation across observation and execution in the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, and the inferior parietal lobule, and a pain-related increase (pain vs. neutral) in the anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the postcentral gyrus. The 'mirroring' response was stronger in the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus during the pain task, and stronger in the inferior parietal lobule in the movement task. These results strongly suggest that while motor mirroring may contribute to the perception of pain expressions in others, interpreting these expressions in terms of pain content draws more heavily on networks involved in the perception of affective meaning.

  11. A review of brain oscillations in perception of faces and emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-05-01

    The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensely Pleasurable Responses to Music Correlate with Activity in Brain Regions Implicated in Reward and Emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne J. Blood; Robert J. Zatorre

    2001-01-01

    .... As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral...

  13. The Affective Brain : Novel insights into the biological mechanisms of motivation and emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Affective neuroscience is a new emerging doctrine in the brain sciences, which studies the neurobiological correlates of motivation and emotion. The research reported in this thesis starts with discussing empirical studies on the lateralized involvement of the prefrontal cortex in

  14. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most

  15. Prefrontal Brain Activation During Emotional Processing: A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbach, Evelyn; Mühlberger, Andreas; Gschwendtner, Kathrin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Pauli, Paul; Herrmann, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The limbic system and especially the amygdala have been identified as key structures in emotion induction and regulation. Recently research has additionally focused on the influence of prefrontal areas on emotion processing in the limbic system and the amygdala. Results from fMRI studies indicate that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved not only in emotion induction but also in emotion regulation. However, studies using fNIRS only report prefrontal brain activation during emotion induction. So far it lacks the attempt to compare emotion induction and emotion regulation with regard to prefrontal activation measured with fNIRS, to exclude the possibility that the reported prefrontal brain activation in fNIRS studies are mainly caused by automatic emotion regulation processes. Therefore this work tried to distinguish emotion induction from regulation via fNIRS of the prefrontal cortex. 20 healthy women viewed neutral pictures as a baseline condition, fearful pictures as induction condition and reappraised fearful pictures as regulation condition in randomized order. As predicted, the view-fearful condition led to higher arousal ratings than the view-neutral condition with the reappraise-fearful condition in between. For the fNIRS results the induction condition showed an activation of the bilateral PFC compared to the baseline condition (viewing neutral). The regulation condition showed an activation only of the left PFC compared to the baseline condition, although the direct comparison between induction and regulation condition revealed no significant difference in brain activation. Therefore our study underscores the results of previous fNIRS studies showing prefrontal brain activation during emotion induction and rejects the hypothesis that this prefrontal brain activation might only be a result of automatic emotion regulation processes.

  16. Brain correlates of musical and facial emotion recognition: evidence from the dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S; Hornberger, M; Piguet, O; Hodges, J R

    2012-07-01

    The recognition of facial expressions of emotion is impaired in semantic dementia (SD) and is associated with right-sided brain atrophy in areas known to be involved in emotion processing, notably the amygdala. Whether patients with SD also experience difficulty recognizing emotions conveyed by other media, such as music, is unclear. Prior studies have used excerpts of known music from classical or film repertoire but not unfamiliar melodies designed to convey distinct emotions. Patients with SD (n = 11), Alzheimer's disease (n = 12) and healthy control participants (n = 20) underwent tests of emotion recognition in two modalities: unfamiliar musical tunes and unknown faces as well as volumetric MRI. Patients with SD were most impaired with the recognition of facial and musical emotions, particularly for negative emotions. Voxel-based morphometry showed that the labelling of emotions, regardless of modality, correlated with the degree of atrophy in the right temporal pole, amygdala and insula. The recognition of musical (but not facial) emotions was also associated with atrophy of the left anterior and inferior temporal lobe, which overlapped with regions correlating with standardized measures of verbal semantic memory. These findings highlight the common neural substrates supporting the processing of emotions by facial and musical stimuli but also indicate that the recognition of emotions from music draws upon brain regions that are associated with semantics in language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief group music therapy for acquired brain injury: cognition and emotional needs

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to the brain are the leading cause of permanent disability and death. Survivors of\\ud acquired brain injury (ABI) experience cognitive impairments and emotional problems.\\ud These often persist into community rehabilitation and are among the most significant needs\\ud for those in chronic stages of rehabilitation. There is a dearth of research providing\\ud evidence of music therapy addressing cognitive deficits and emotional needs in a holistic\\ud approach. This research answers the q...

  18. Authors’ response: what are emotions and how are they created in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Wager, Tor D; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kober, Hedy; Barret, Lisa Feldman

    2012-06-01

    In our response, we clarify important theoretical differences between basic emotion and psychological construction approaches. We evaluate the empirical status of the basic emotion approach, addressing whether it requires brain localization, whether localization can be observed with better analytic tools, and whether evidence for basic emotions exists in other types of measures. We then revisit the issue of whether the key hypotheses of psychological construction are supported by our meta-analytic findings. We close by elaborating on commentator suggestions for future research.

  19. The Development of Emotion and Empathy Skills after Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Slater, Alan; Frampton, Ian; Wall, Sarah E.; Yates, Phil; Williams, W. Huw

    2009-01-01

    Lasting socio-emotional behaviour difficulties are common among children who have suffered brain injuries. A proportion of difficulties may be attributed to impaired cognitive and/or executive skills after injury. A recent and rapidly accruing body of literature indicates that deficits in recognizing and responding to the emotions of others are…

  20. Who benefits from treatment for executive dysfunction after brain injury? Negative effects of emotion recognition deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Boelen, Danielle H. E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; van der Naalt, Joukje; Fasotti, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in emotion recognition, a crucial aspect of social cognition, are common after serious brain injury, as are executive deficits. Since social cognition and executive function are considered to be separate constructs, our first aim was to examine the presence of emotion recognition problems

  1. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  2. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  3. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and imagination. Alexithymia is widely regarded to arise from an impairment of emotion regulation. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to critically evaluate this by investigating the neural correlates of emotion regulation as a function of alexithymia levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying the two alexithymia dimensions during emotion perception and emotion regulation. Using fMRI, we scanned 51 healthy subjects while viewing, reappraising or suppressing negative emotional pictures. The results support the idea that cognitive alexithymia, but not affective alexithymia, is associated with lower activation in emotional attention and recognition networks during emotion perception. However, in contrast with several theories, no alexithymia-related differences were found during emotion regulation (neither reappraisal nor suppression). These findings suggest that alexithymia may result from an early emotion processing deficit rather than compromised frontal circuits subserving higher-order emotion regulation processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  5. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes dietary management alters responses to food pictures in brain regions associated with motivation and emotion: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechlacz, M; Rotshtein, P; Klamer, S; Porubská, K; Higgs, S; Booth, D; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H; Abele, H; Birbaumer, N; Nouwen, A

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesised that living with type 2 diabetes would enhance responses to pictures of foods in brain regions known to be involved in learnt food sensory motivation and that these stronger activations would relate to scores for dietary adherence in diabetes and to measures of potential difficulties in adherence. We compared brain responses to food images of 11 people with type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy control participants, matched for age and weight, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Having type 2 diabetes increased responses to pictured foods in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basal ganglia and, within these regions, the effect of the fat content of the foods was larger in participants with type 2 diabetes than in healthy controls. Furthermore, increased activation to food within the insula and OFC positively correlated with external eating, dietary self-efficacy and dietary self-care. In contrast, responses within subcortical structures (amygdala and basal ganglia) were positively correlated with emotional eating and rated appetite for the food stimuli and negatively correlated with dietary self-care. Type 2 diabetes is associated with changes in brain responses to food that are modulated by dietary self-care. We propose that this is linked to the need to follow a life-long restrictive diet.

  7. Similar patterns of brain activation abnormalities during emotional and non-emotional judgments of faces in a schizophrenia family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilka, Michael J; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-02-01

    Schizophrenia patients have impaired performance and abnormal brain activation during facial emotion recognition, which may represent a marker of genetic liability to schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment is specific to recognizing emotion from faces or is instead attributable to more generalized dysfunction. The current study aimed to distinguish between specific and generalized neural dysfunction underlying impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia and examine associations with genetic liability. Twenty-eight schizophrenia patients, 27 nonpsychotic first-degree relatives, and 27 community controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while making judgments about either the emotion or age of emotional faces. Patients had performance deficits during the emotion and age discrimination conditions compared to relatives and controls, while relatives had intact performance. Patients had hypoactivation compared to controls across conditions, mainly in medial prefrontal cortex. Unlike controls, patients demonstrated a failure to recruit the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in social cognition and decision-making, and relatives had a pattern of recruitment intermediate between patients and controls. Compared to controls, relatives had greater deactivation of regions associated with the default mode network, and patients had similar findings during age discrimination. The common patterns of performance deficits and activation abnormalities during emotion and age discrimination in schizophrenia suggest that generalized cognitive impairment, notably in social cognition and decision-making, contributes to impaired facial emotion recognition. Similar functional activation patterns in relatives, despite intact performance, suggest that brain activation may represent a more sensitive marker of genetic liability than behaviour. Hyperdeactivation of default mode network regions in relatives may represent cognitive

  8. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  9. Neural correlates of emotion-cognition interactions: A review of evidence from brain imaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda

    2011-09-01

    Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a "double-edged sword" that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individual differences that may affect the way we perceive, experience, and eventually remember emotional experiences, or respond to emotionally challenging situations. Understanding these relationships is critical, as unbalanced emotion-cognition interactions may lead to devastating effects, such as those observed in mood and anxiety disorders. The present review analyses the reciprocal relationships between emotion and cognition, based on evidence derived from brain imaging investigations focusing on three main topics: (1) the impact of emotion on cognition, (2) the impact of cognition on emotion, and (3) the role of individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions. This evidence will be discussed in the context of identifying aspects that are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and to understanding changes associated with affective disorders.

  10. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes : Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not

  11. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  12. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  13. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions.

  14. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron (FeD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established - severe deficiency producing significant neurological dysfunction - there is a paucity of data on neurological impairments that accompany modest degrees of TH disruption. Quantitative m...

  15. More than Just a Brain: Emotions and the Doctoral Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterall, Sara

    2013-01-01

    While the epistemological and ontological challenges faced by doctoral candidates are well documented, the same cannot be said of the emotional dimensions of the journey. This paper draws on Activity Theory in exploring the role of emotion in the longitudinal doctoral learning experiences of six international PhD candidates studying in Australia.…

  16. Emotional brain rhythms and their impairment in post-traumatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan E; Shalev, Hadar; Admon, Roee; Hefetz, Shy; Gasho, Christopher J; Shachar, Lavi J; Shelef, Ilan; Hendler, Talma; Friedman, Alon

    2013-06-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from a failure of cognitive control over emotional distracters. The physiological substrates of cognitive-emotional interactions and their breakdown in disease are, however, unknown. Here, we studied brain activity in PTSD patients and healthy controls in response to emotion-provoking pictures using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We demonstrate that in healthy individuals, emotion-induced frontal theta rhythm modulates activity in the beta rhythm mainly in sensory-motor regions. In contrast, in PTSD patients, beta activity is elevated irrespective of emotion, and is not modulated by frontal theta activity in response to negative emotion. EEG source localization and fMRI findings suggest that theta activity is localized to the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices while beta activity is localized to sensory-motor regions. We further found that beta activity in sensory-motor regions is related to the emotion-induced slowing of the motor response in healthy controls while the excess frontal theta activity in PTSD is related to the intensity of negative emotional experience. These findings reveal for the first time the importance of brain electrical oscillations and coherence in emotional top-down modulation and point to specific failure of these mechanisms in PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  18. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-06-01

    Cortical-subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical-subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical-subcortical circuits-the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions-was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical-subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan.

  20. Music and the brain. Lessons from brain diseases and some reflections on the "emotional" brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Heinz Gregor

    2003-11-01

    Studies are reviewed from the perspective of a neurologist and epileptologist interested in "music and the brain." At the neurocognitive level, deficits in pitch discrimination of patients with brain lesions and those during the intracarotid amobarbital test are outlined, because they show that the temporal lobe and, in particular, the right acoustic cortex are crucial. Hallucinations of music during epileptic seizures as well as the analysis of musicogenic epilepsy point to the same gross localization and lateralization. At the esthetic level, music theoretical concepts on the consonance-dissonance dichotomy and related EEG examinations are reported, which illustrate the importance of mesiolimbic temporal lobe structures for the pleasure that we might experience when listening to music. The complex interaction of many neuronal circuits and assemblies of both hemispheres in musical perception and performance is illustrated by musical analysis of a recording by an organ player who experienced a right temporal lobe seizure. This analysis revealed that the seizure-induced errors of the left hand were compensated with the right hand in a musically meaningful way.

  1. Study of heart-brain interactions through EEG, ECG, and emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2017-04-01

    Neurocardiology is the exploration of neurophysiological, neurological and neuroanatomical facets of neuroscience's influence in cardiology. The paraphernalia of emotions on the heart and brain are premeditated because of the interaction between the central and peripheral nervous system. This is an investigative attempt to study emotion based neurocardiology and the factors that influence this phenomenon. The factors include: interaction between sleep EEG (electroencephalogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram), relationship between emotion and music, psychophysiological coherence between the heart and brain, emotion recognition techniques, and biofeedback mechanisms. Emotions contribute vitally to the mundane life and are quintessential to a numerous biological and everyday-functional modality of a human being. Emotions are best represented through EEG signals, and to a certain extent, can be observed through ECG and body temperature. Confluence of medical and engineering science has enabled the monitoring and discrimination of emotions influenced by happiness, anxiety, distress, excitement and several other factors that influence the thinking patterns and the electrical activity of the brain. Similarly, HRV (Heart Rate Variability) widely investigated for its provision and discerning characteristics towards EEG and the perception in neurocardiology.

  2. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

  3. Nonverbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eKreifelts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a nonverbal emotion communication training (NECT on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face- and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in nonverbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in grey matter volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  4. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin...... decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges...

  5. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  6. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J.; Gromann, P.M.; Swart, M.; Wiersma, D.; de Haan, L.; Bruggeman, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and

  7. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and

  8. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and

  9. Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in Rat Offspring Following Maternal Hypothyroxinemia: Structural and Functional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation, neuronal migration, and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported...

  10. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz cit...

  11. Differential brain activation during facial emotion discrimination in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reske, Martina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo; Backes, Volker; Jon Shah, N; von Wilmsdorff, Martina; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zilles, Karl; Schneider, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Aberrant brain activation during facial emotion discrimination has been described in chronic schizophrenia, while little is known about early stages of the illness. The aim of the current study was to investigate valence-specific brain activation of emotion discrimination in first-episode schizophrenia. These patients provide the advantage of lacking the effects of long-term medication and chronic illness course and can hence further enhance the understanding of underlying psychopathological mechanisms. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated 18 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 18 matched healthy subjects during an explicit emotion discrimination task presenting happy, sad and neutral monochromatic facial expressions. A repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the factors Group (patients, healthy subjects), Gender and Emotion (happy, sad, neutral) was performed on behavioural and functional data. Behavioural performance did not differ between groups. Valence-independent hypoactivations in patients were observed for the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex while hyperactivations emerged in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. Emotion-specific group differences were revealed in inferior parietal and orbitofrontal brain areas and the hippocampus. First-episode schizophrenia already affects areas involved in processing of both, emotions and primary facial information. Our study underlines the role of dysfunctional neural networks as the basis of disturbed social interactions in early schizophrenia.

  12. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  13. Disturbed prefrontal and temporal brain function during emotion and cognition interaction in criminal psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Impaired emotional responsiveness has been revealed as a hallmark of psychopathy. In spite of an increasing database on emotion processing, studies on cognitive function and in particular on the impact of emotion on cognition in psychopathy are rare. We used pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) and a Simon Paradigm to address emotion-cognition interaction while functional and structural imaging data were obtained in 12 healthy controls and 10 psychopaths. We found an impaired emotion-cognition interaction in psychopaths that correlated with a changed prefrontal and temporal brain activation. With regard to the temporal cortex, it is shown that structure and function of the right superior temporal gyrus is disturbed in psychopathy, supporting a neurobiological approach to psychopathy, in which structure and function of the right STG may be important. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments are Associated with Brain Volume Abnormalities in Individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S.; Walker, Keenan A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Folkers, Anna M.; Pina, Mathew M.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV− associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  15. Towards a Brain-Sensitive Intelligent Tutoring System: Detecting Emotions from Brainwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Heraz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates a multiagents system called NORA that predicts emotional attributes from learners' brainwaves within an intelligent tutoring system. The measurements from the electrical brain activity of the learner are combined with information about the learner's emotional attributes. Electroencephalogram was used to measure brainwaves and self-reports to measure the three emotional dimensions: pleasure, arousal, and dominance, the eight emotions occurring during learning: anger, boredom, confusion, contempt curious, disgust, eureka, and frustration, and the emotional valence positive for learning and negative for learning. The system is evaluated on natural data, and it achieves an accuracy of over 63%, significantly outperforming classification using the individual modalities and several other combination schemes.

  16. Brain activity of adolescents with high functioning autism in response to emotional words and facial emoticons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Hyun Han

    Full Text Available Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.

  17. Brain activity of adolescents with high functioning autism in response to emotional words and facial emoticons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Bung Nyun; McMahon, William; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-01-01

    Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words) were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces) were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.

  18. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761

  19. Hyposmia, not emotion perception, is associated with psychosocial outcome after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Crowley, Katherine; McDonald, Skye

    2016-10-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether 2 variables associated with orbitofrontal damage, hyposmia and emotion perception deficits, are associated with socially disinhibited behavior and psychosocial outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT), an emotion labeling task, an emotion intensity rating task, and an observational measure of social disinhibition were completed by 23 individuals with severe TBI. The disinhibition domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the interpersonal relationships subscale of the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (SPRS-IR) were completed by a close other. Fifteen control participants provided norms against which to assess performance on the emotion intensity rating task. BSIT scores predicted informant-reported change in interpersonal relationships on the SPRS-IR. Hyposmia, though, was not associated with informant-reported or observed social disinhibition. An impairment in accuracy scores on both emotion perceptions tasks was found for participants with TBI, yet intensity ratings did not differ between groups. This suggests that people with TBI are not actually impaired at detecting intensity of emotion but are less likely to perceive the target emotion as the dominant emotion. Emotion perception was not related to disinhibition or change in interpersonal relationships. These results support previous claims that hyposmia has prognostic significance following TBI. On the other hand, emotion perception impairment measured by standardized tasks does not appear to be an important factor in interpersonal outcomes. Finally, these results suggest that standardized emotion perception tasks may underestimate the emotion perception capabilities of people with TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  1. Altered brain mechanisms of emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marianne J U; Warren, Jason D; Henley, Susie M D; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard S; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2012-04-01

    Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment, including an early decline in ability to recognize emotional states in others. The pathophysiology underlying the earliest manifestations of the disease is not fully understood; the objective of our study was to clarify this. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate changes in brain mechanisms of emotion recognition in pre-manifest carriers of the abnormal Huntington's disease gene (subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease): 16 subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease and 14 control subjects underwent 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanning while viewing pictures of facial expressions from the Ekman and Friesen series. Disgust, anger and happiness were chosen as emotions of interest. Disgust is the emotion in which recognition deficits have most commonly been detected in Huntington's disease; anger is the emotion in which impaired recognition was detected in the largest behavioural study of emotion recognition in pre-manifest Huntington's disease to date; and happiness is a positive emotion to contrast with disgust and anger. Ekman facial expressions were also used to quantify emotion recognition accuracy outside the scanner and structural magnetic resonance imaging with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess the relationship between emotion recognition accuracy and regional grey matter volume. Emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease was associated with reduced neural activity for all three emotions in partially separable functional networks. Furthermore, the Huntington's disease-associated modulation of disgust and happiness processing was negatively correlated with genetic markers of pre-manifest disease progression in distributed, largely extrastriatal networks. The modulated disgust network included insulae, cingulate cortices, pre- and postcentral gyri, precunei, cunei, bilateral putamena

  2. Memory with emotional content, brain amygdala and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R R; de Castro, C C; Bertolucci, P H F

    2009-08-01

    A highly adaptive aspect of human memory is the enhancement of explicit, consciously accessible memory by emotional stimuli. We studied the performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly controls using a memory battery with emotional content, and we correlated these results with the amygdala and hippocampus volume. Twenty controls and 20 early AD patients were subjected to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and to magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric measurements of the medial temporal lobe structures. The results show that excluding control group subjects with 5 or more years of schooling, both groups showed improvement with pleasant or unpleasant figures for the IAPS in an immediate free recall test. Likewise, in a delayed free recall test, both the controls and the AD group showed improvement for pleasant pictures, when education factor was not controlled. The AD group showed improvement in the immediate and delayed free recall test proportional to the medial temporal lobe structures, with no significant clinical correlation between affective valence and amygdala volume. AD patients can correctly identify emotions, at least at this early stage, but this does not improve their memory performance.

  3. Gender Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity Density

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men...

  4. Real-time fMRI of cortico-limbic brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, K.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Gao, K.; Moore, G.J.; Tancer, M.E.; Posse, S.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to detect dynamic changes in brain activity during affective processing within individual subjects in real-time can advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of emotion, psychiatric illness, and therapeutic intervention. We investigated whether activity in limbic and paralimbic

  5. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, A.; Mercure, E.; Lloyd-Fox, S.; Thomson, A.; Brammer, M.; Sauter, D.; Deeley, Q.; Barker, G.J.; Renvall, V.; Deoni, S.; Gasston, D.; Williams, S.C.R.; Johnson, M.H.; Simmons, A.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  6. [Does Prefrontal Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Alleviating Symptoms in Depression and Schizophrenia Impact Mood and Emotion Processing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiades, Marion; Fonteneau, Clara; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Brunelin, Jérôme

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are noninvasive brain stimulation techniques currently used as therapeutic tools in various psychiatric conditions. Applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), they showed their efficacy in reducing drug-resistant symptoms in patients with major depression and in patients with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms. The DLPFC is a brain structure involved in the expression of these symptoms as well as in other dysfunctional functions observed in theses conditions such as emotional processes. The goal of this review is to establish whether or not a link exists between clinical improvements and modulation of emotional processes following the stimulation of the DLPFC in both conditions. The data collected show that improved emotional processes is not linked to a clinical improvement neither in patients with depression nor in patients with negative schizophrenia. Our results suggests that although sharing common brain structures, the brain networks involved in both symptoms and in emotional processes would be separate.

  7. Individual differences in alexithymia and brain response to masked emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Maraike; Ohrmann, Patricia; Rauch, Astrid V; Kugel, Harald; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Suslow, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Alexithymia is considered a dimensional personality trait that refers to a cluster of deficits in the recognition, differentiation, and verbalization of emotions. Research on the neurobiology of alexithymia has focused hitherto on impairments in the controlled processing of emotional information. In the present study automatic brain reactivity to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia (as assessed by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale - TAS-20). During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of sad, happy, and neutral facial expression masked by neutral faces were presented to 33 healthy women. A priori regions of interest in the whole brain analysis were cerebral structures that are known to be crucially involved in the emotion perception from the face. Independently from trait anxiety and depression TAS-20 alexithymia was negatively correlated with activation to masked sad and happy faces in several regions of interest (in particular, insula, superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital and parahippocampal gyrus). In addition, the TAS-20 score was negatively correlated with response of the left amygdala to masked sad faces. A reduced automatic reactivity of the amygdala and visual occipito-temporal areas could implicate less automated engagement in the encoding of emotional stimuli in high alexithymia. In addition, a low spontaneous insular and amygdalar responsivity in high alexithymia individuals could be related to an attenuation of basic emotional experiences which may contribute to problems in identifying and differentiating one's feelings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotion Regulatory Brain Function and SSRI Treatment in PTSD: Neural Correlates and Predictors of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy E; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Liberzon, Israel; Stein, Murray B; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-a chronic, debilitating condition, broadly characterized by emotion dysregulation-is prevalent among US military personnel who have returned from Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for PTSD, but treatment mechanisms are unknown and patient response varies. SSRIs may exert their effects by remediating emotion regulatory brain activity and individual differences in patient response might be explained, in part, by pre-treatment differences in neural systems supporting the downregulation of negative affect. Thirty-four OEF/OIF veterans, 17 with PTSD and 17 without PTSD underwent 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging scans 12 weeks apart. At each scan, they performed an emotion regulation task; in the interim, veterans with PTSD were treated with the SSRI, paroxetine. SSRI treatment increased activation in both the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during emotion regulation, although only change in the SMA over time occurred in veterans with PTSD and not those without PTSD. Less activation of the right ventrolateral PFC/inferior frontal gyrus during pre-treatment emotion regulation was associated with greater reduction in PTSD symptoms with SSRI treatment, irrespective of pre-treatment severity. Patients with the least recruitment of prefrontal emotion regulatory brain regions may benefit most from treatment with SSRIs, which appear to augment activity in these regions.

  9. Brain effects of antidepressants in major depression: a meta-analysis of emotional processing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveau, Pauline; Jabourian, Maritza; Lemogne, Cédric; Guionnet, Sophie; Bergouignan, Loretxu; Fossati, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    A consistent brain activity pattern has been identified in major depression across many resting positron emission tomography (PET) studies. This dysfunctional pattern seems to be normalized by antidepressant treatment. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify more clearly the pattern associated with clinical improvement of depression following an antidepressant drug treatment, in emotional activation studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A quantitative Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed across 9 emotional activation fMRI and PET studies (126 patients) using the Activation Likelihood Estimation technique. Following the antidepressant drug treatment, the activation of dorsolateral, dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices was increased whereas the activation of the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal region, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula was decreased. Additionally, there was a decreased activation in the anterior (BA 32) and posterior cingulate cortices, as well as in the precuneus and inferior parietal lobule, which could reflect a restored deactivation of the default mode network. The small number of emotional activation studies, using heterogeneous tasks, included in the ALE analysis. The activation of several brain regions involved in major depression, in response to emotional stimuli, was normalized after antidepressant treatment. To refine our knowledge of antidepressants' effect on the neural bases of emotional processing in major depression, neuroimaging studies should use consistent emotional tasks related to depressive symptoms and that involve the default mode network, such as self-referential processing tasks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Social-emotional behaviour in infants and toddlers with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric head trauma is a serious health concern often leading to neurological, behavioural and cognitive impairments. In Estonia head trauma incidence is especially high in children up to 4 years. The aim was to investigate young children's pre-injury social-emotional behaviour to discover potential risk signs for brain trauma and to study social-emotional outcome 9 months post-injury. Thirty-five 3-65 month old children with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and 70 matched controls were retrospectively assessed with child monitoring system Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. During follow-up 27 patients and 54 controls were re-assessed after 9 months. Children with MTBI showed altered social-emotional development already before the injury. Deficits were evident in self-regulation and autonomy. Age-specific social-emotional risk signs for MTBI were found. Compared to controls more pre-injury affective problems were seen in 12-month olds, self-regulation, and communication difficulties in 30-month olds and autonomy disturbances in 60-month old children. 9 months post-injury impairments in autonomy and self-regulation were still present and new difficulties in interaction had developed. Childhood MTBI has a serious negative effect on further development of interaction skills. To prevent possible traumas, parents should be informed of different age-specific pre-injury social-emotional risk signs.

  11. Neurologizing the Psychology of Affects: How Appraisal-Based Constructivism and Basic Emotion Theory Can Coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-09-01

    Abundant neurobehavioral data, not discussed by Lisa Feldman Barrett (2006), support the existence of a variety of core emotional operating systems in ancient subneocortical regions of the brain (Panksepp, 1998a, 2005a). Such brain systems are the primary-process ancestral birthrights of all mammals. There may be as many genetically and neurochemically coded subcortical affect systems in emotionally rich medial regions of the brain as there are "natural" emotional action systems in the brain. When emotional primes are aroused directly, as with local electrical or chemical stimulation, the affective changes sustain conditioned place preferences and place aversions, which are the premier secondary-process indices of affective states in animals. Humans are not immune to such brain manipulations; they typically exhibit strong emotional feelings. Human emotion researchers should not ignore these systems and simply look at the complex and highly variable culturally molded manifestations of emotions in humans if they wish to determine what kinds of "natural" emotional processes exist within all mammalian brain. Basic emotion science has generated workable epistemological strategies for under-standing the primal sources of human emotional feelings by detailed study of emotional circuits in our fellow animals. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  12. Modulation of visual processing by attention and emotion: windows on causal interactions between human brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Driver, Jon

    2007-05-29

    Visual processing is not determined solely by retinal inputs. Attentional modulation can arise when the internal attentional state (current task) of the observer alters visual processing of the same stimuli. This can influence visual cortex, boosting neural responses to an attended stimulus. Emotional modulation can also arise, when affective properties (emotional significance) of stimuli, rather than their strictly visual properties, influence processing. This too can boost responses in visual cortex, as for fear-associated stimuli. Both attentional and emotional modulation of visual processing may reflect distant influences upon visual cortex, exerted by brain structures outside the visual system per se. Hence, these modulations may provide windows onto causal interactions between distant but interconnected brain regions. We review recent evidence, noting both similarities and differences between attentional and emotional modulation. Both can affect visual cortex, but can reflect influences from different regions, such as fronto-parietal circuits versus the amygdala. Recent work on this has developed new approaches for studying causal influences between human brain regions that may be useful in other cognitive domains. The new methods include application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) measures in brain-damaged patients to study distant functional impacts of their focal lesions, and use of transcranial magnetic stimulation concurrently with fMRI or EEG in the normal brain. Cognitive neuroscience is now moving beyond considering the putative functions of particular brain regions, as if each operated in isolation, to consider, instead, how distinct brain regions (such as visual cortex, parietal or frontal regions, or amygdala) may mutually influence each other in a causal manner.

  13. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Line eGebauer; Joshua eSkewes; Gitte eWestphael; Pamela eHeaton; Peter eVuust

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  14. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  15. Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Waugh, Christian E; Stanton, Steven J; Meier, Elizabeth A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.

  16. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  17. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, E.M.; Kortekaas, R.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Woudstra, S.; van Buchem, M.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  18. Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking.

  19. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhofen, Cristina; McDonald, Skye

    2008-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 strategies, errorless learning (EL) and self-instruction training (SIT), for remediating emotion perception deficits in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Randomized controlled trial comparing groups receiving 25 hours (across 10 weeks) of treatment with either EL or SIT with waitlist control. Eighteen adult outpatient volunteers with severe TBI who were at least 6 months postinjury. Photograph-based emotion recognition tasks, The Awareness of Social Inferences Test, and questionnaire measures, for example, the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale. Both treatment groups showed modest improvement in emotion perception ability. Limited evidence suggests that SIT may be a favorable approach for this type of remediation. Although further research is needed, there are reasons for optimism regarding rehabilitation of emotion perception following TBI.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Developing Socio-Emotional Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is currently recognized as the most common known cause of mental retardation, affecting from 1 to 7 per 1000 live-born infants. Individuals with FAS suffer from changes in brain structure, cognitive impairments, and behavior problems. Researchers investigating neuropsychological functioning have identified deficits in…

  1. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  2. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  3. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J

    2001-09-25

    We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of "shivers-down-the-spine" or "chills." Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, sex, and drugs of abuse. This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.

  4. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Heitzeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40 were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS. Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20 or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.

  5. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory of Caribbean Brain Research Organization in the decade of the brain midpoint. Results in reaching behavior--interferences of subcortical motor centers, neurotransmitter blocking and brain function modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mesa, N; Antón, M; Arza-Marqués, M; Aneiros-Riba, R; Groning-Roque, E

    1996-01-01

    CARIBRO was founded in response to the United Nations declaration that the 1990s be designated the Decade of the Brain. The Program of Action is: 1. Annual meetings; 2. Training courses of the Caribbean School of Neurosciences; 3. Network scientific programs; 4. Fellowship programs; and 5. Dissemination of information on neuroscience. In the same program, a CARIBRO Laboratory was created in one of the Medical Faculties of Havana with the aim to teach students from the Caribbean in neuroscience research. As part of this program, we have been working in lateralized motor functions. Preliminary results in rats show that reaching acquisition allows classification of the animals as right-handed (40%), left-handed (40%), and ambidextrous (20%). Electrolytic lesion of caudate nucleus or amygdala impairs lateralized response. Contralateral lesions increase reaching attempts. Ipsilateral lesions to the preferred forepaw do not affect the reaction. The results remain the same 10, 20, and 90 d after the interference. Pharmacological experiments showed that trihexiphenidil (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) induced handedness reversion in 50% if the animals, whereas haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) produced immobility, tremor, and autonomic symptoms. This effect remained the same in young as well as in old animals. We are also working on mathematical modelation. In this sense, preliminary reports about a model for synaptic modification in the framework of the Fukushima hypothesis is discussed.

  7. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognition of nonverbal communication of emotion after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Julie; Parente, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty processing nonverbal communication (Ekman, 1976) The published research in this area has focused on a TBI patient's ability to recognize facial expression, vocal intonation, and postural expression (Croker, 2005; Hopkins, Dywan & Segalowitz, 2002). This study compared the non-verbal processing skills of brain-injured patients versus non-injured controls in all three domains. The stimuli were photographs of facial and postural expressions and audio recordings of intonational expressions. The results indicated that persons with TBI have particular difficulty recognizing non-verbal communication resulting from vocal intonations. The TBI patients had difficulty processing tonality, therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that clinicians, friends, and family members should emphasize the explicit verbal content of spoken language when speaking to a person with TBI.

  9. Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Výtvarová

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Focal epilepsies affect large-scale brain networks beyond the epileptogenic zones. Cortico-subcortical functional connectivity disturbance was displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. Significant changes in the resting-state functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures suggest an important role of the BG and thalamus in focal epilepsies.

  10. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  11. Beneficial Roles of Emotion in Decision Making: Functional Association of Brain and Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ohira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though traditional microeconomics has supposed that human decisions are based on logical and exact computation of cost-benefit balances or efficacies, studies in behavioral economics have shown that humans sometimes make seemingly irrational decisions driven by emotions. In our everyday situations, factors related to decisions are complex and which alternative will be the most beneficial is uncertain. In such cases, emotions have been thought adaptive because they can quickly reduce negative alternatives and facilitate fast and effective decision making. Some theorists argued that one of important sources of such emotional drives affecting decision making is bodily responses that are represented in brain regions (Craig, 2009; Damasio, 1994. In this article, empirical evidence for the functional associations of the brain and body accompanying decision making will be shown as follows. (1 Heart rate responses and concentration of inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 can predict acceptance or rejection of an unfair offer in an economical negotiation game, the Ultimatum Game. Activation of the anterior insula mediates relationship between bodily states and decision making. (2 Sympathetic responses reflected by secretion of adrenaline are represented in brain regions such as the midbrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and anterior insula, and furthermore can determine exploration of decision making in a situation where an action-outcome contingency is stochastic and unstable. These findings suggest beneficial roles of emotion and bodily responses in decision making.

  12. Brain responses to 40-Hz binaural beat and effects on emotion and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-10-01

    Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion. Therefore, modulation of the brain activity can lead to manipulation of cognitive functions. The stimulus used in this study was 40-Hz binaural beat because binaural beat induces frequency following response. This study aimed to investigate the neural oscillation responding to the 40-Hz binaural beat and to evaluate working memory function and emotional states after listening to that stimulus. Two experiments were developed based on the study aims. In the first experiment, electroencephalograms were recorded while participants listened to the stimulus for 30min. The results suggested that frontal, temporal, and central regions were activated within 15min. In the second experiment, word list recall task was conducted before and after listening to the stimulus for 20min. The results showed that, after listening, the recalled words were increase in the working memory portion of the list. Brunel Mood Scale, a questionnaire to evaluate emotional states, revealed changes in emotional states after listening to the stimulus. The emotional results suggested that these changes were consistent with the induced neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Alters Prefrontal Correlates of Emotion Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Sarah K B; Folley, Bradley S; Mayer, Jutta S; Park, Sohee; Charles, P David; Camalier, Corrie R; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. STN DBS may also affect emotion, possibly by impacting a parallel limbic cortico-striatal circuit. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in prefrontal cortical activity related to DBS during an emotion induction task. We used near infrared spectroscopy to monitor prefrontal cortex hemodynamic changes during an emotion induction task. Seven DBS patients were tested sequentially in the stimulation-on and stimulation-off states while on dopaminergic medication. Patients watched a series of positive, negative, and neutral videos. The general linear model was used to compare prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration between DBS states. Deep brain stimulation was correlated with prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin changes relative to the stimulation off state in response to both positive and negative videos. These changes were specific to emotional stimuli and were not seen during neutral stimuli. These results suggest that STN stimulation influences the prefrontal cortical representation of positive and negative emotion induction. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  14. Amygdala and whole brain activity to emotional faces distinguishes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jay C.; Keener, Matthew T.; Almeida, Jorge; Kronhaus, Dina M.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives It can be clinically difficult to distinguish depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine potential biomarkers of difference between the two disorders, the current study examined differences in the functioning of emotion processing neural regions during a dynamic emotional faces task. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, healthy control adults (HC) (n = 29) and depressed adults with MDD (n = 30) and BD (n = 22) performed an implicit emotional-faces task in which they identified a color label superimposed on neutral faces that dynamically morphed into one of four emotional faces (angry, fearful, sad, happy). We compared neural activation between the groups in an amygdala region-of-interest and at the whole brain level. Results Adults with MDD showed significantly greater activity than adults with BD in the left amygdala to the anger condition (p = 0.01). Results of whole brain analyses (at p emotional faces. Those with BD showed greater activity during mood-congruent (i.e., sad) faces, whereas, those with MDD showed greater activity for mood-incongruent (i.e., fear, anger, and happy) faces. Such findings may reflect markers of differences between BD and MDD depression in underlying pathophysiological processes. PMID:23911154

  15. Amygdala and whole-brain activity to emotional faces distinguishes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jay C; Keener, Matthew T; Almeida, Jorge; Kronhaus, Dina M; Phillips, Mary L

    2013-11-01

    It can be clinically difficult to distinguish depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine potential biomarkers of difference between the two disorders, the current study examined differences in the functioning of emotion-processing neural regions during a dynamic emotional faces task. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, healthy control adults (HC) (n = 29) and depressed adults with MDD (n = 30) and BD (n = 22) performed an implicit emotional-faces task in which they identified a color label superimposed on neutral faces that dynamically morphed into one of four emotional faces (angry, fearful, sad, happy). We compared neural activation between the groups in an amygdala region-of-interest and at the whole-brain level. Adults with MDD showed significantly greater activity than adults with BD in the left amygdala to the anger condition (p = 0.01). Results of whole-brain analyses (at p depressed adults with BD and MDD in the processing of emerging emotional faces. Those with BD showed greater activity during mood-congruent (i.e., sad) faces, whereas those with MDD showed greater activity for mood-incongruent (i.e., fear, anger, and happy) faces. Such findings may reflect markers of differences between BD and MDD depression in underlying pathophysiological processes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Emotional processing and brain activity in youth at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-07-01

    Even in the absence of heavy alcohol use, youth with familial alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) exhibit atypical brain functioning and behavior. Although emotional and cognitive systems are affected in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), little attention has focused on whether brain and behavior phenotypes related to the interplay between affective and executive functioning may be a premorbid risk factor for the development of AUDs in FHP youth. Twenty-four FHP and 22 family history negative (FHN) 12- to 16-year-old adolescents completed study procedures. After exclusion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms and those who did not meet performance criteria during an Emotional Go-NoGo task, 19 FHP and 17 FHN youth were included in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. Resting state functional connectivity MRI, using amygdalar seed regions, was analyzed in 16 FHP and 18 FHN youth, after exclusion of participants with excessive head movement. fMRI showed that brain activity in FHP youth, compared with FHN peers, was reduced during emotional processing in the superior temporal cortex, as well as during cognitive control within emotional contexts in frontal and striatal regions. Group differences in resting state amygdalar connectivity were seen bilaterally between FHP and FHN youth. In FHP youth, reduced resting state synchrony between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was related to poorer response inhibition, as measured during the fMRI task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine emotion-cognition interactions and resting state functional connectivity in FHP youth. Findings from this research provide insight into neural and behavioral phenotypes associated with emotional processing in familial alcoholism, which may relate to increased risk of developing AUDs. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. [Subcortical laminal heterotopia and lissencephaly: cerebral malformations of X-linked inheritance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, J M; Desguerre, I; Motte, J; Dulac, O; Ponsot, G

    1995-03-01

    Subcortical laminar heterotopia (band heterotopia) is a brain malformation now recognized by MRI. We report 3 families (2 previously described) in which several members had subcortical laminar heterotopia or a more severe malformation (agyria/pachygyria). In these families, subcortical laminar heterotopia were observed in women and were associated with epilepsy or slight mental retardation depending on the extend of heterotopia. Males had lissencephaly with refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. The pedigrees of these families demonstrate that these 2 malformations originate from a single genetic origin. A single X-linked dominant gene is postulated. Diagnosis of subcortical laminar heterotopia in a female or lissencephaly in a male (except in the case of Miller-Dieker syndrome) requires appropriate genetic counselling in the family: brain imaging should be performed in relatives.

  18. The effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions: a psychoanatomical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ricardo M

    2014-12-01

    Child abuse is the most extreme form of stress in childhood and adolescence, and has severe effects on the child's development. Limbic nuclei and circuitry development are especially vulnerable to child abuse and neglect during the first year of life. Development at the neuronal level can be severely disturbed by trauma during early infancy, resulting in maladaptive synaptic formation, impeding experience-expectant brain development. Development of basic emotions may favor the development of negative instead of positive emotions. The new concept of psychoanatomical formulation is introduced. A case vignette is presented and analyzed, based on the disturbed neuroanatomy underlying symptom expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated localization of periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vrooman, Henri A.; Rueckert, Daniel; Hammers, Alexander; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2007-03-01

    It is still unclear whether periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions (WMLs) differ in etiology or clinical consequences. Studies addressing this issue would benefit from automated segmentation and localization of WMLs. Several papers have been published on WML segmentation in MR images. Automated localization however, has not been investigated as much. This work presents and evaluates a novel method to label segmented WMLs as periventricular and subcortical. The proposed technique combines tissue classification and registration-based segmentation to outline the ventricles in MRI brain data. The segmented lesions can then be labeled into periventricular WMLs and subcortical WMLs by applying region growing and morphological operations. The technique was tested on scans of 20 elderly subjects in which neuro-anatomy experts manually segmented WMLs. Localization accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of the automated method with a manual localization. Similarity indices and volumetric intraclass correlations between the automated and the manual localization were 0.89 and 0.95 for periventricular WMLs and 0.64 and 0.89 for subcortical WMLs, respectively. We conclude that this automated method for WML localization performs well to excellent in comparison to the gold standard.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional face processing after mild traumatic brain injury in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Thebault-Dagher, Fanny; Bernier, Annie; Gravel, Jocelyn; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that social skills are affected by childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but the neural and affective substrates of these difficulties are still underexplored. In particular, nothing is known about consequences on the perception of emotional facial expressions, despite its critical role in social interactions and the importance of the preschool period in the development of this ability. This study thus aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of emotional facial expressions processing after early mTBI. To this end, 18 preschool children (mean age 53 ± 8 months) who sustained mTBI and 15 matched healthy controls (mean age 55 ± 11 months) were presented with pictures of faces expressing anger, happiness, or no emotion (neutral) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. The main results revealed that P1 amplitude was higher for happy faces than for angry faces, and that N170 latency was shorter for emotional faces than for neutral faces in the control group only. These findings suggest that preschool children who sustain mTBI do not present the early emotional effects that are observed in healthy preschool children at visuospatial and visual expertise stages. This study provides new evidence regarding the consequences of childhood mTBI on socioemotional processing, by showing alterations of emotional facial expressions processing, an ability known to underlie social competence and appropriate social interactions.

  1. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  2. [The CADASIL syndrome: a model of subcortical-cortical disconnection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Menéndez, R; Aguado Balsas, A M; Blanco, E; Lobo Rodríguez, B; Vera De La Puente, E

    CADASIL syndrome (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarts and Leukoencephalopathy) includes some neurological signs and symptoms (gait disturbances, epileptic seizures, pseudobulbar palsy, migraines, etc.), as well as neuropsychological dysfunctions (cognitive and executive impairment, emotional disorders and, frequently, dementia). This syndrome is a good model of white matter damage and potential disconnection syndromes. In this article, the neuropsychological profile of a 47 year-old woman diagnosed of CADASIL is investigated and thoroughly discussed. Results show the presence of a moderate cognitive and executive impairment, specially of memory, psychomotor abilities, executive functions and verbal fluency, but not dementia, overall suggesting the presence of a temporal-frontal-subcortical disfunction. This clinical pattern is an illuminating example of the neuropsychological consequences of the partial disconnection of prefrontal cortex from the thalamus and basal ganglia.

  3. Sparse coding reveals greater functional connectivity in female brains during naturalistic emotional experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Ren

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is widely used to examine changes in brain function associated with age, gender or neuropsychiatric conditions. FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging studies employ either laboratory-designed tasks that engage the brain with abstracted and repeated stimuli, or resting state paradigms with little behavioral constraint. Recently, novel neuroimaging paradigms using naturalistic stimuli are gaining increasing attraction, as they offer an ecologically-valid condition to approximate brain function in real life. Wider application of naturalistic paradigms in exploring individual differences in brain function, however, awaits further advances in statistical methods for modeling dynamic and complex dataset. Here, we developed a novel data-driven strategy that employs group sparse representation to assess gender differences in brain responses during naturalistic emotional experience. Comparing to independent component analysis (ICA, sparse coding algorithm considers the intrinsic sparsity of neural coding and thus could be more suitable in modeling dynamic whole-brain fMRI signals. An online dictionary learning and sparse coding algorithm was applied to the aggregated fMRI signals from both groups, which was subsequently factorized into a common time series signal dictionary matrix and the associated weight coefficient matrix. Our results demonstrate that group sparse representation can effectively identify gender differences in functional brain network during natural viewing, with improved sensitivity and reliability over ICA-based method. Group sparse representation hence offers a superior data-driven strategy for examining brain function during naturalistic conditions, with great potential for clinical application in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Brain contusion as the main risk factor of memory or emotional complaints in chronic complicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bei-Yi; Guo, Nai-Wen; Chen, Nan-Chun; Lin, Sheng-Sian; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Liao, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Chia-Min; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Willy; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Yen, Shih-Yin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the risk factors for memory or emotional complaints in patients with complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted by physicians in a teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan, and complicated mTBI had been identified by means of computed tomography. Psychological complaints, including problems with memory and emotions, were collected by structured telephone interviews, 10-15 minutes long, and were held with subjects who agreed to participate in our study. Among 327 patients who were injured for more than two years, 190 agreed to join this study (mean age: 41.6 years; male: 60.5%; stably employed: 50.0%). We used demographic data and neurological factors to predict memory or emotional complaints without muscle power or response speed (MEMR) complaints. Only the presence or absence of cerebral contusions predicted memory or emotional complaints without MEMR complaints in different employed status, and the odds ratio was 4.82-13.50 times higher for those with cerebral contusions than for those without. Cerebral contusions were the primary risk factor for MEMR complaints in chronic complicated mTBI. Early preventive psychological intervention might be necessary for patients with complicated mTBI and cerebral contusions.

  5. Orienting and emotional perception: Facilitation, attenuation, and interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Bradley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are considered here to be founded on motivational circuits in the brain that evolved to protect (defensive and sustain (appetitive the life of individuals and species. These circuits are phylogenetically old, shared among mammals, and involve the activation of both subcortical and cortical structures that mediate attention, perception, and action. Circuit activation begins with a feature-match between a cue and an existing representation in memory that has motivational significance. Subsequent processes include rapid cue-directed orienting, information gathering, and action selection – What is it? Where is it? What to do? In our studies of emotional perception, we have found that measures that index orienting to emotional cues generally show enhanced circuit activation and response facilitation, relative to orienting indicators occasioned by affectively neutral cues, whether presented concurrently or independently. Here, we discuss these findings, considering both physiological reflex and brain measures as they are modulated during orienting and emotional perception.

  6. A functional architecture of the human brain: emerging insights from the science of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-11-01

    The 'faculty psychology' approach to the mind, which attempts to explain mental function in terms of categories that reflect modular 'faculties', such as emotions, cognitions, and perceptions, has dominated research into the mind and its physical correlates. In this paper, we argue that brain organization does not respect the commonsense categories belonging to the faculty psychology approach. We review recent research from the science of emotion demonstrating that the human brain contains broadly distributed functional networks that can each be re-described as basic psychological operations that interact to produce a range of mental states, including, but not limited to, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and so on. When compared to the faculty psychology approach, this 'constructionist' approach provides an alternative functional architecture to guide the design and interpretation of experiments in cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrating emotion in interaction in the case of aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    ”, are investigated. Critical emotional displays seem to depend on circumstantial factors; which situation, persons, purpose or the challenge there is at stake (to win the argument versus being polite etc.) rather than retrievable interactional/organizational patterns (Harris 1998: 25; Goodwin 2003a; Klemmensen...... on a study, which investigates routines and emotion displays mainly in a care home setting, where some of the participants have severe acquired brain injury. Critical situations where emotion is relevant, e.g. cases of compliance and non-compliance to having memorized something “wrong” or ”correctly......, forthcoming). The organization of talk after trauma is often characterized as ‘atypical’ in their organizational patterns (Perkins 2003). The notion ‘atypical communication’ represents the current data-driven analytical discourse in rehabilitation studies and health communication (Goodwin 2003a, 2003b...

  8. Brain activation during emotion regulation in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nicole; Ghahremani, Dara G; Rapkin, Andrea J; Berman, Steven M; Liang, Letty; London, Edythe D

    2017-11-17

    Difficulties in regulating emotions are linked to the core symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We therefore investigated the neural substrates of emotion-regulation problems in women with PMDD. On the basis of self-evaluations over 2 months on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems, eligible participants were assigned to two groups: PMDD and control (18 per group). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a well-validated task were used to assess brain function during emotion regulation. Participants were tested twice, once during the follicular (asymptomatic) and once in the late luteal (symptomatic) phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with PMDD gave higher ratings of negative affect in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, and compared with healthy control participants during the luteal phase. A region-of-interest fMRI analysis indicated that during the late luteal phase, women with PMDD had hypoactivation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during all conditions of the emotion-regulation task, not only in the contrast that isolated emotion regulation. An exploratory whole-brain, voxel-wise analysis showed that women with PMDD had less activation in the precentral gyrus during the luteal phase than the follicular phase, and less activation in the postcentral gyrus compared with control participants. During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, women with PMDD experience difficulty regulating emotions. Hypoactivation in the right dlPFC may contribute to this problem, but may be related more generally to other affective symptoms of PMDD. Hypofunction in the right pre- and postcentral gyri warrants additional study.

  9. Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the positive effects of mindfulness meditation on executive control. What has been lacking, however, is an understanding of the mechanism underlying this effect. Some theorists have described mindfulness as embodying two facets—present moment awareness and emotional acceptance. Here, we examine how the effect of meditation practice on executive control manifests in the brain, suggesting that emotional acceptance and performance monitoring play important roles. We investigated the effect of meditation practice on executive control and measured the neural correlates of performance monitoring, specifically, the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological response that occurs within 100 ms of error commission. Meditators and controls completed a Stroop task, during which we recorded ERN amplitudes with electroencephalography. Meditators showed greater executive control (i.e. fewer errors), a higher ERN and more emotional acceptance than controls. Finally, mediation pathway models further revealed that meditation practice relates to greater executive control and that this effect can be accounted for by heightened emotional acceptance, and to a lesser extent, increased brain-based performance monitoring. PMID:22507824

  10. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Koeda, Michihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2006-09-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was no sex difference in the self-rating score of jealousy for sexual and emotional infidelity, men and women showed different brain activation patterns in response to the two types of infidelity. During jealous conditions, men demonstrated greater activation than women in the brain regions involved in sexual/aggressive behaviors such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. In contrast, women demonstrated greater activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Our fMRI results are in favor of the notion that men and women have different neuropsychological modules to process sexual and emotional infidelity. Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of the jealousy-related behaviors predominantly observed in males.

  11. How the brain heals emotional wounds: the functional neuroanatomy of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eRicciardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In life, everyone goes through hurtful events caused by significant others: a deceiving friend, a betraying partner, or an unjustly blaming parent. In response to painful emotions, individuals may react with anger, hostility, and the desire for revenge. As an alternative, they may decide to forgive the wrongdoer and relinquish resentment. In the present study, we examined the brain correlates of forgiveness using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Healthy participants were induced to imagine social scenarios that described emotionally hurtful events followed by the indication to either forgive the imagined offenders, or harbor a grudge towards them. Subjects rated their imaginative skills, levels of anger, frustration and/or relief when imagining negative events as well as following forgiveness. Forgiveness was associated with positive emotional states as compared to unforgiveness. Granting forgiveness was associated with activations in a brain network involved in theory of mind, empathy and the regulation of affect through cognition, which comprised the precuneus, right inferior parietal regions and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results uncovered the neuronal basis of reappraisal-driven forgiveness, and extend extant data on emotional regulation to the resolution of anger and resentment following negative interpersonal events.

  12. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia Me; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    .... To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT...

  13. Fatigue is a Brain-Derived Emotion that Regulates the Exercise Behavior to Ensure the Protection of Whole Body Homeostasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2012-01-01

    ... an exhaustion of the nervous system." It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso's idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex...

  14. Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler for Nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. El-Saify

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distillation process is vital in many fields of chemical industries, such as the two-coupled distillation columns that are usually highly nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO coupled processes. The control of MIMO process is usually implemented via a decentralized approach using a set of Single-Input Single-Output (SISO loop controllers. Decoupling the MIMO process into group of single loops requires proper input-output pairing and development of decoupling compensator unit. This paper proposes a novel intelligent decoupling approach for MIMO processes based on new MIMO brain emotional learning architecture. A MIMO architecture of Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC is developed and applied as a decoupler for 4 input/4 output highly nonlinear coupled distillation columns process. Moreover, the performance of the proposed Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler (BELBID is enhanced using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique. The performance is compared with the PSO optimized steady state decoupling compensation matrix. Mathematical models of the distillation columns and the decouplers are built and tested in simulation environment by applying the same inputs. The results prove remarkable success of the BELBID in minimizing the loops interactions without degrading the output that every input has been paired with.

  15. Morphologic characteristics of subcortical heterotopia: MR imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, A J

    2000-02-01

    Gray matter heterotopia have been divided into three groups based on clinical and imaging characteristics: subependymal, subcortical, and band heterotopia. Nonetheless, subcortical heterotopia can have variable morphologic findings. The purpose of this study was to perform a morphologic analysis of a series of cases of subcortical heterotopia based on MR images, to correlate the morphologic appearance with clinical characteristics, and to speculate about the embryologic implications of our results. The MR imaging studies and clinical records of 24 patients with subcortical heterotopia were retrospectively reviewed. The morphologic findings of the heterotopia were recorded along with presence and type of associated malformations. These results were correlated with available data on development and neurologic status. Analysis revealed that, in six cases, the heterotopia were composed exclusively of multiple nodules, in 13, they appeared primarily as curvilinear ribbons of cortex extending into the white matter, and in five, they had deep nodular regions with curvilinear areas more peripherally. All of the curvilinear regions were contiguous with the cerebral cortex in at least two locations. In eight cases, curvilinear heterotopia contained curvilinear areas of flow void that were thought to be blood vessels; in 10, they contained fluid resembling CSF. No difference in developmental or neurologic manifestations was noted among patients with heterotopia of different morphologic appearances. Subcortical heterotopia can have nodular or curvilinear morphologic appearances. Although no difference was found in the clinical conditions of the patients with differing morphologic appearances, additional analysis of these patients or studies of animal models of these malformations may further our understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

  16. Fatty acid–induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Mckie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-01-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an in...

  17. Variation of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and brain connectivity during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branislava; Swart, Marte; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Aleman, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Associative emotional learning, which is important for the social emotional functioning of individuals and is often impaired in psychiatric illnesses, is in part mediated by dopamine and glutamate pathways in the brain. The protein DARPP-32 is involved in the regulation of dopaminergic and

  18. Differential Fairness Decisions and Brain Responses after Expressed Emotions of Others in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Aghajani, Moji; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Colins, Olivier F.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how emotions expressed by others influence social decisions and associated brain responses in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to explicitly expressed emotions of others in boys with ASD and typically developing (TD) boys. Participants with ASD…

  19. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. PMID:27025242

  20. Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers Exhibit Differences in Frontal Brain Electrical Activity during the Expression of Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined electrical brain activity during negative and positive emotion expression in infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Found that, compared with infants of nondepressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers exhibited increased EEG activation in the frontal but not parietal region when expressing negative emotions. There were no…

  1. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, A W; de Gelder, B

    2016-08-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Interaction between DRD2 variation and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, T; Fasano, M C; Taurisano, P; Fazio, L; Antonucci, L A; Gelao, B; Romano, R; Mancini, M; Porcelli, A; Masellis, R; Pallesen, K J; Bertolino, A; Blasi, G; Brattico, E

    2017-01-26

    Sounds, like music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' mood and emotions. However, these effects are highly variable across individuals. A putative source of variability is genetic background. Here we explored the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 rs1076560, G>T, previously associated with the relative expression of D2S/L isoforms) and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 (G/G=26; G/T=12) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of an implicit emotion-processing task while listening to music or noise. Individual variation in mood induction was assessed before and after the task. Results showed mood improvement after music exposure in DRD2GG subjects and mood deterioration after noise exposure in GT subjects. Moreover, the music, as opposed to noise environment, decreased the striatal activity of GT subjects as well as the prefrontal activity of GG subjects while processing emotional faces. These findings suggest that genetic variability of dopamine receptors affects sound environment modulations of mood and emotion processing. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmission of facial expressions of emotion co-evolved with their efficient decoding in the brain: behavioral and brain evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Philippe G; Petro, Lucy S; Smith, Marie L

    2009-05-20

    Competent social organisms will read the social signals of their peers. In primates, the face has evolved to transmit the organism's internal emotional state. Adaptive action suggests that the brain of the receiver has co-evolved to efficiently decode expression signals. Here, we review and integrate the evidence for this hypothesis. With a computational approach, we co-examined facial expressions as signals for data transmission and the brain as receiver and decoder of these signals. First, we show in a model observer that facial expressions form a lowly correlated signal set. Second, using time-resolved EEG data, we show how the brain uses spatial frequency information impinging on the retina to decorrelate expression categories. Between 140 to 200 ms following stimulus onset, independently in the left and right hemispheres, an information processing mechanism starts locally with encoding the eye, irrespective of expression, followed by a zooming out to processing the entire face, followed by a zooming back in to diagnostic features (e.g. the opened eyes in "fear", the mouth in "happy"). A model categorizer demonstrates that at 200 ms, the left and right brain have represented enough information to predict behavioral categorization performance.

  4. Differential influences of emotion, task, and novelty on brain regions underlying the processing of speech melody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethofer, Thomas; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wiethoff, Sarah; Wolf, Jonathan; Grodd, Wolfgang; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the functional characteristics of brain regions implicated in processing of speech melody by presenting words spoken in either neutral or angry prosody during a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a factorial habituation design. Subjects judged either affective prosody or word class for these vocal stimuli, which could be heard for either the first, second, or third time. Voice-sensitive temporal cortices, as well as the amygdala, insula, and mediodorsal thalami, reacted stronger to angry than to neutral prosody. These stimulus-driven effects were not influenced by the task, suggesting that these brain structures are automatically engaged during processing of emotional information in the voice and operate relatively independent of cognitive demands. By contrast, the right middle temporal gyrus and the bilateral orbito-frontal cortices (OFC) responded stronger during emotion than word classification, but were also sensitive to anger expressed by the voices, suggesting that some perceptual aspects of prosody are also encoded within these regions subserving explicit processing of vocal emotion. The bilateral OFC showed a selective modulation by emotion and repetition, with particularly pronounced responses to angry prosody during the first presentation only, indicating a critical role of the OFC in detection of vocal information that is both novel and behaviorally relevant. These results converge with previous findings obtained for angry faces and suggest a general involvement of the OFC for recognition of anger irrespective of the sensory modality. Taken together, our study reveals that different aspects of voice stimuli and perceptual demands modulate distinct areas involved in the processing of emotional prosody.

  5. Sparsity enables estimation of both subcortical and cortical activity from MEG and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Obregon-Henao, Gabriel; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Khan, Sheraz; Babadi, Behtash; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-11-14

    Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources. We then demonstrate that if the cortical activity is spatially sparse, both cortical and subcortical sources can be resolved with M/EEG. Building on this insight, we develop a hierarchical sparse inverse solution for M/EEG. We assess the performance of this algorithm on realistic simulations and auditory evoked response data, and show that thalamic and brainstem sources can be correctly estimated in the presence of cortical activity. Our work provides alternative perspectives and tools for characterizing electrophysiological activity in subcortical structures in the human brain. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Emotional fronto-cingulate cortex activation and brain derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Hahn, Andreas; Ganger, Sebastian; Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Oreland, Lars; Wikström, Johan; Epperson, C Neill; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the prototypical sex-specific disorder in which symptom onset and offset require a particular hormonal milieu and for which there is moderate heritability. The present study investigated brain emotion processing in PMDD and healthy controls, as well as functional polymorphisms in two candidate genes for PMDD, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were genotyped in 31 patients with PMDD and 31 healthy controls. A subset of 16 patients and 15 controls participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging-sessions performing an emotion processing task; once in the mid-follicular, and once in the late luteal phase which corresponds with maximum severity of mood symptoms. Genotypes were not directly associated with PMDD. A main effect of group was found in the whole brain analysis, with patients having lower activation of the pre-genual anterior cingulate and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, independent of menstrual cycle phase. Post-hoc functional ROI analyses in the fronto-cingulate cluster showed no effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype but a genotype-by-group-by-phase interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met. Women with PMDD who were carriers of the Met-allele had lower fronto-cingulate cortex activation in the luteal phase compared to Met-allele carrying controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of impaired emotion-induced fronto-cingulate cortex activation in PMDD patients. Although limited by a small sample, the potential influence of BDNF Val66Met in PMDD is in line with preclinical findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants’ brain responses to emotional body expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Marie Krol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programming of the mammalian offspring’s brain. Exclusive breastfeeding duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current study, we examined whether and how the duration of exclusive breastfeeding impacts the neural processing of emotional signals by measuring electro-cortical responses to body expressions in 8-month-old infants. Our analyses revealed that infants with high exclusive breastfeeding experience show a significantly greater neural sensitivity to happy body expressions than those with low exclusive breastfeeding experience. Moreover, regression analyses revealed that the neural bias toward happiness or fearfulness differs as a function of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Specifically, longer breastfeeding duration is associated with a happy bias, whereas shorter breastfeeding duration is associated with a fear bias. These findings suggest that breastfeeding experience can shape the way in which infants respond to emotional signals.

  9. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Sterpenich

    Full Text Available Persistence (PS is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala. Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  10. Brain dynamics in spider-phobic individuals exposed to phobia-relevant and other emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Melzig, Christiane A; Weike, Almut I; Stockburger, Jessica; Schupp, Harald T; Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-06-01

    Dense sensor event-related brain potentials were measured in participants with spider phobia and nonfearful controls during viewing of phobia-relevant spider and standard emotional (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral) pictures. Irrespective of the picture content, spider phobia participants responded with larger P1 amplitudes than controls, suggesting increased vigilance in this group. Furthermore, spider phobia participants showed a significantly enlarged early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) during the encoding of phobia-relevant pictures compared to nonfearful controls. No group differences were observed for standard emotional materials indicating that these effects were specific to phobia-relevant material. Within group comparisons of the spider phobia group, though, revealed comparable EPN and LPP evoked by spider pictures and emotional (unpleasant and pleasant) picture contents. These results demonstrate a temporal unfolding in perceptual processing from unspecific vigilance (P1) to preferential responding (EPN and LPP) to phobia-relevant materials in the spider phobia group. However, at the level of early stimulus processing, these effects of increased attention seem to be related to emotional relevance of the stimulus cues rather than reflecting a fear-specific response.

  11. Differential neural activation when voluntarily regulating emotions in service members with chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Daniel, Thomas A; Goodman, Adam M; Katz, Jeffrey S; Denney, Thomas; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-09-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize the functional activation of the neural correlates of voluntary regulation of emotion in soldiers both with and without chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a battery of cognitive and psychological health measures, we assessed differences between active-duty U.S. soldiers with chronic mTBI (n = 37) and without (Controls, n = 35). Participants were instructed to maintain (passively view), enhance, and suppress emotions associated with negative and neutral visual stimuli. The mTBI group showed significantly greater clinical symptoms, but only a mild decrement in attention. Group contrasts, while controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, revealed a differential neural activation pattern compared to controls, but only during the enhance condition. Specifically, the mTBI group showed greater activation in the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Finally, the effect of PTSD symptoms during the enhance condition was associated with accentuated activation of the frontal and limbic regions implicated in both emotion regulation and PTSD. Hyperactivation of neural regions in the mTBI group during the enhance condition may reflect vigilance towards negative contextual stimuli and/or poor strategy that might result in suboptimal allocation of resources to regulate emotions.

  12. Social behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury: contribution of emotion perception deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Melissa E; Younan, Shameran Slewa; Lah, Suncica

    2013-01-01

    This theoretically driven study aimed to determine contribution of emotional perception impairments to social behaviour following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with severe TBI (n = 24) participated. Emotion perception predictors included: (i) appraisal: Montreal Set of Facial Displays of Emotion, The Adapted Story Task, (ii) affective state: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and (iii) regulation: Delis Kaplan Executive Function System - Colour Word Interference and Word Fluency. Social behavioural outcomes were (i) interpersonal: Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI) - Interpersonal Difficulties and (ii) communication: KBCI - Communication Problems. Social behaviours correlated with affective state, but not appraisal or regulation. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed significant independent contributions of affective state: (i) the IRI Perspective Taking to the KBCI Interpersonal Difficulties and (ii) the DASS-21 (composite) and IRI Perspective Taking to the KBCI Communication Problems. The models explained 52% and 72% of the variance of the KBCI Interpersonal Difficulties and Communication Problems respectively. This study provides evidence that impairments in certain aspects of emotion perception: affective state [empathy (perspective taking) and mood], but not appraisal and regulation, contribute to social behaviour difficulties in patients with severe TBI, which has important implications for rehabilitation.

  13. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  14. Neurophysiological correlates of dysregulated emotional arousal in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alana C; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye; Parks, Nicklas; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to elucidate relationships between dysregulated emotional arousal after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), alpha power and skin conductance levels (SCL), and brain atrophy. Nineteen adults with severe TBI and 19 age-, education-, and gender-matched controls (all p's>0.05) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan established bilateral insulae and amygdale volumes. Mean EEG alpha power and SCLs were recorded simultaneously across four, 2 min conditions: eyes-closed pre-task baseline, view neutral face, happy face and angry face. Scalp-wide alpha suppression occurred from pre-task baseline to the face-viewing conditions (parousal. Findings suggest that alpha power provides a sensitive measure of dysregulated emotional arousal post-TBI. Atrophy in pertinent brain structures may contribute to these disturbances. These findings have potential implications for the assessment and remediation of TBI-related arousal deficits, by directing more targeted remediation, and better assessing post-TBI recovery. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. False memories to emotional stimuli are not equally affected in right- and left-brain-damaged stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditory cortex involvement in emotional learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, A; Cambiaghi, M; Concina, G; Sacco, T; Sacchetti, B

    2015-07-23

    Emotional memories represent the core of human and animal life and drive future choices and behaviors. Early research involving brain lesion studies in animals lead to the idea that the auditory cortex participates in emotional learning by processing the sensory features of auditory stimuli paired with emotional consequences and by transmitting this information to the amygdala. Nevertheless, electrophysiological and imaging studies revealed that, following emotional experiences, the auditory cortex undergoes learning-induced changes that are highly specific, associative and long lasting. These studies suggested that the role played by the auditory cortex goes beyond stimulus elaboration and transmission. Here, we discuss three major perspectives created by these data. In particular, we analyze the possible roles of the auditory cortex in emotional learning, we examine the recruitment of the auditory cortex during early and late memory trace encoding, and finally we consider the functional interplay between the auditory cortex and subcortical nuclei, such as the amygdala, that process affective information. We conclude that, starting from the early phase of memory encoding, the auditory cortex has a more prominent role in emotional learning, through its connections with subcortical nuclei, than is typically acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  18. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Wang, Yishi; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  19. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective.

  20. Atypical brain laterality in adults with ADHD during dichotic listening for emotional intonation and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T Sigi; Zaidel, Eran; McGough, James J; Phillips, Joseph M; McCracken, James T

    2006-01-01

    Few studies directly examined the nature of hemispheric specialization and interaction in ADHD. The present experiment investigated left/right brain dynamics in unmedicated right handed adults with ADHD (n = 19) and in controls (n = 19), using a dichotic listening task to assess hemispheric differences in word and emotion recognition. We also assessed how focusing attention on a single ear modulated lateralized performance and affected cross-callosal interference effects. Analysis of variance indicated that ADHD subjects showed reduced left hemisphere specialization, were better at processing emotions, and worse at processing words compared to controls. These differences were eliminated during focused attention. Finally, during presumed right hemisphere processing of linguistic stimuli, subjects with ADHD showed reduced left hemisphere interference. We concluded that ADHD subjects demonstrated greater right hemisphere and reduced left hemisphere contribution during this task relative to controls. We posit that these hemispheric differences were due to management or use of available cognitive resources rather than inherent capacity.

  1. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  2. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Aaron J; McDonald, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  3. How the amygdala affects emotional memory by altering brain network properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Battaglia, Francesco P; Atsak, Piray; de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-07-01

    The amygdala has long been known to play a key role in supporting memory for emotionally arousing experiences. For example, classical fear conditioning depends on neural plasticity within this anterior medial temporal lobe region. Beneficial effects of emotional arousal on memory, however, are not restricted to simple associative learning. Our recollection of emotional experiences often includes rich representations of, e.g., spatiotemporal context, visceral states, and stimulus-response associations. Critically, such memory features are known to bear heavily on regions elsewhere in the brain. These observations led to the modulation account of amygdala function, which postulates that amygdala activation enhances memory consolidation by facilitating neural plasticity and information storage processes in its target regions. Rodent work in past decades has identified the most important brain regions and neurochemical processes involved in these modulatory actions, and neuropsychological and neuroimaging work in humans has produced a large body of convergent data. Importantly, recent methodological developments make it increasingly realistic to monitor neural interactions underlying such modulatory effects as they unfold. For instance, functional connectivity network modeling in humans has demonstrated how information exchanges between the amygdala and specific target regions occur within the context of large-scale neural network interactions. Furthermore, electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques in rodents are beginning to make it possible to quantify and even manipulate such interactions with millisecond precision. In this paper we will discuss that these developments will likely lead to an updated view of the amygdala as a critical nexus within large-scale networks supporting different aspects of memory processing for emotionally arousing experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nurturing the brain nutritionally and emotionally from before conception to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2007-01-01

    Sound nurture requires skills concerning nutrition and emotions, skills that are particularly important in key stages relating to brain development. We are recognizing more clearly the way that serious changes from our hunter-gatherer waterside lifestyle are affecting both our diet and our emotional relationships: first the changes a few hundred generations ago in the agricultural revolution: and more recently in the industrial revolution. These effects have been aggravated in the last century by excessively profit-driven intensive farming, and recently by intensive food-marketing--particularly to children. People are gradually becoming aware how very susceptible is the most vulnerable stage of the lifecycle, the reproductive phase. From long before fertilization and conception, parental nutrition affects a person's development and health for life. Controlled trials show marked effects of nurture on the brain's subsequent acuity. Brain structure throughout development has become visible through modern scans, and also brain activity and mental response. The neural tube, forming at around 3 weeks, if undernourished may be inadequately sealed and demarcated, leading to incomplete interconnection between brain regions. Results vary, but can emanate as: autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (AD/HD); difficulty with relationships and social sense; poor self-control, with risk of violence. Evidence indicates that over 80% of current reproductive hazards, including infertility and malformations, might be prevented purely by sound all-round nurture. Between the embryonic stage and adulthood the brain makes several developmental spurts. Particularly during these spurts, sound nutrition and activity help the brain reach its full genetic potential for capacity, acuity, and connections between regions. From the beginning, hormones and nutrients, or their deficits, are setting gene-switches for life. Good bonding and feeding sets gene-switches positively; shock

  5. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Blunted brain activation in patients with schizophrenia in response to emotional cognitive inhibition: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsuo, Koji; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenichiro; Nakano, Masayuki; Matsubara, Toshio; Takahashi, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have deficits of facial emotion processing and cognitive inhibition, but the brain pathophysiology underlying these deficits and their interaction are not clearly understood. We tested brain activity during an emotional face go/no-go task that requires rapid executive control affected by emotional stimuli in patients with SZ using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five patients with SZ and 28 healthy control subjects were studied. We evaluated behavioral performance and used fNIRS to measure oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in fronto-temporal areas during the emotional go/no-go task with emotional and non-emotional blocks. Patients with SZ made more errors and had longer reaction times in both test blocks compared with healthy subjects. Significantly greater activation in the inferior, superior, middle, and orbital frontal regions were observed in healthy subjects during the emotional go/no-go block compared to the non-emotional go/no-go block, but this difference was not observed in patients with SZ. Relative to healthy subjects, patients with SZ showed less activation in the superior and orbital frontal and middle temporal regions during the emotional go/no-go block. Our results suggest that fronto-temporal dysfunction in patients with SZ is due to an interaction between abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions with negative valence and cognitive inhibition, especially during the rapid selection of rule-based associations that override automatic emotional response tendencies. They indicate that fronto-temporal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of emotional-cognitive deficits in patients with SZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  8. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Teppo eSärkämö; Pablo eRipollés; Henna eVepsäläinen; Taina eAutti; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Eero eSalli; Sari eLaitinen; Anita eForsblom; Seppo eSoinila; Antoni eRodríguez-Fornells

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve...

  9. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Rudolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21. The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”

  10. Brain Network Involved in the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotion in the Early Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kitada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that the brain network responsible for the recognition of facial expressions of emotion (FEEs begins to emerge early in life. However, it has been unclear whether visual experience of faces is necessary for the development of this network. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain network underlying the recognition of FEEs is not dependent on visual experience of faces. Early-blind, late-blind and sighted subjects participated in the psychophysical experiment. Regardless of group, subjects haptically identified basic FEEs at above-chance levels, without any feedback training. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the early-blind and sighted subjects haptically identified facemasks portraying three different FEEs and casts of three different shoe types. The sighted subjects also completed a visual task that compared the same stimuli. Within the brain regions activated by the visually-identified FEEs (relative to shoes, haptic identification of FEEs (relative to shoes by the early-blind and sighted individuals activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus adjacent to the superior temporal sulcus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. Collectively, these results suggest that the brain network responsible for FEE recognition can develop without any visual experience of faces.

  11. The structural neuroanatomy of music emotion recognition: Evidence from frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M.D.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Sauter, Disa A.; Frost, Chris; Scott, Sophie K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing clinical and neurobiological interest in the brain mechanisms that process emotion in music, these mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) frequently exhibit clinical syndromes that illustrate the effects of breakdown in emotional and social functioning. Here we investigated the neuroanatomical substrate for recognition of musical emotion in a cohort of 26 patients with FTLD (16 with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, bvFTD, 10 with semantic dementia, SemD) using voxel-based morphometry. On neuropsychological evaluation, patients with FTLD showed deficient recognition of canonical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger and fear) from music as well as faces and voices compared with healthy control subjects. Impaired recognition of emotions from music was specifically associated with grey matter loss in a distributed cerebral network including insula, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, anterior temporal and more posterior temporal and parietal cortices, amygdala and the subcortical mesolimbic system. This network constitutes an essential brain substrate for recognition of musical emotion that overlaps with brain regions previously implicated in coding emotional value, behavioural context, conceptual knowledge and theory of mind. Musical emotion recognition may probe the interface of these processes, delineating a profile of brain damage that is essential for the abstraction of complex social emotions. PMID:21385617

  12. The structural neuroanatomy of music emotion recognition: evidence from frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Bartlett, Jonathan W; Hailstone, Julia C; Gordon, Elizabeth; Sauter, Disa A; Frost, Chris; Scott, Sophie K; Warren, Jason D

    2011-06-01

    Despite growing clinical and neurobiological interest in the brain mechanisms that process emotion in music, these mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) frequently exhibit clinical syndromes that illustrate the effects of breakdown in emotional and social functioning. Here we investigated the neuroanatomical substrate for recognition of musical emotion in a cohort of 26 patients with FTLD (16 with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, bvFTD, 10 with semantic dementia, SemD) using voxel-based morphometry. On neuropsychological evaluation, patients with FTLD showed deficient recognition of canonical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger and fear) from music as well as faces and voices compared with healthy control subjects. Impaired recognition of emotions from music was specifically associated with grey matter loss in a distributed cerebral network including insula, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, anterior temporal and more posterior temporal and parietal cortices, amygdala and the subcortical mesolimbic system. This network constitutes an essential brain substrate for recognition of musical emotion that overlaps with brain regions previously implicated in coding emotional value, behavioural context, conceptual knowledge and theory of mind. Musical emotion recognition may probe the interface of these processes, delineating a profile of brain damage that is essential for the abstraction of complex social emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Improved Brain-Inspired Emotional Learning Algorithm for Fast Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classification is an important task of machine intelligence in the field of information. The artificial neural network (ANN is widely used for classification. However, the traditional ANN shows slow training speed, and it is hard to meet the real-time requirement for large-scale applications. In this paper, an improved brain-inspired emotional learning (BEL algorithm is proposed for fast classification. The BEL algorithm was put forward to mimic the high speed of the emotional learning mechanism in mammalian brain, which has the superior features of fast learning and low computational complexity. To improve the accuracy of BEL in classification, the genetic algorithm (GA is adopted for optimally tuning the weights and biases of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the BEL neural network. The combinational algorithm named as GA-BEL has been tested on eight University of California at Irvine (UCI datasets and two well-known databases (Japanese Female Facial Expression, Cohn–Kanade. The comparisons of experiments indicate that the proposed GA-BEL is more accurate than the original BEL algorithm, and it is much faster than the traditional algorithm.

  14. The on-line processing of socio-emotional information in prototypical scenarios: inferences from brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth; Murphy, Kirsty; Mackenzie, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the time course of the mechanisms involved in the on-line processing of socio-emotional information. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue using vignettes that described prototypical, social scenarios. An initial sentence established the social context and the following target sentence ended with a critical word that informed the reader of the character’s socio-emotional response to the situation. Critical words that mismatched rather th...

  15. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  16. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  17. Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Susanne; Hampshire, Adam; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-01-01

    So-called ‘brain-training’ programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training) improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects), especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making) in our daily emotive environments. PMID:21949712

  18. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."

  19. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naive depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

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    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  20. Brain Activation Patterns Associated with the Effects of Emotional Distracters during Working Memory Maintenance in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Yang, Jong-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the neural mechanisms of the effects of emotion on cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. In this functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the effects of emotional interference on working memory (WM) maintenance in GAD patients. Fifteen patients with GAD participated in this study. Event-related fMRI data were obtained while the participants performed a WM task (face recognition) with neutral and anxiety-provoking distracters. The GAD patients showed impaired performance in WM task during emotional distracters and showed greater activation on brain regions such as DLPFC, VLPFC, amygdala, hippocampus which are responsible for the active maintenance of goal relevant information in WM and emotional processing. Although our results are not conclusive, our finding cautiously suggests the cognitive-affective interaction in GAD patients which shown interfering effect of emotional distracters on WM maintenance.

  1. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain-Abdulah Arjmand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo – and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation – is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18–38 years who listened to four stimuli—pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music, neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3–FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a

  2. Brain Activation During Emotional Memory Processing Associated with Subsequent Course of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hui; Opmeer, Esther M; Veltman, Dick J; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Buchem, Mark A; Aleman, André; van Tol, Marie-José

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a heterogeneous course and identifying patients at risk for an unfavorable course is difficult. Neuroimaging studies may identify brain predictors of clinical course and may help to further unravel the neurobiological processes underlying an unfavorable course. We investigated whether brain activation during an emotional memory paradigm is associated with depressive course. To this end, we followed 74 MDD patients and 45 healthy controls (HCs) for 2 years. At baseline, participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation patterns were compared between patients with fast remission (n=22), remission with recurrence (n=23), non-remission (n=29), and HCs. Additionally, linear relations of brain activation and time to remission during the follow-up period were investigated across patients. We observed that during encoding of negative words, non-remitters showed higher activation of the left insula than HCs. Groups also differed in activation of the right hippocampus and left amygdala during negative encoding, with a trend for higher activation in non-remitters compared with HCs. Furthermore, hippocampal activation during negative word encoding was significantly and positively correlated with time to remission, irrespective of illness severity. Our findings suggest that higher activation in the left insula could serve as a neural marker of a naturalistic non-remitting course, whereas higher hippocampal activation is associated with delayed remission. Longitudinal analyses should clarify whether abnormal activation progresses further as a function of time with depression or may serve as load-independent markers of MDD course.

  3. Effects of Pre-Encoding Stress on Brain Correlates Associated with the Long-Term Memory for Emotional Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Weymar, Mathias; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT) or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400–800 ms) during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant) pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant) scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes. PMID:24039697

  4. Effects of pre-encoding stress on brain correlates associated with the long-term memory for emotional scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Wirkner

    Full Text Available Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400-800 ms during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes.

  5. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  6. The Emotional Brain as a Predictor and Amplifier of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Presseau, E.; Centeno, M.V.; Ren, W.; Berger, S.E.; Tétreault, P.; Ghantous, M.; Baria, A.; Farmer, M.; Baliki, M.N.; Schnitzer, T.J.; Apkarian, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Human neuroimaging studies and complementary animal experiments now identify the gross elements of the brain involved in the chronification of pain. We briefly review these advances in relation to somatic and orofacial persistent pain conditions. First, we emphasize the importance of reverse translational research for understanding chronic pain—that is, the power of deriving hypotheses directly from human brain imaging of clinical conditions that can be invasively and mechanistically studied in animal models. We then review recent findings demonstrating the importance of the emotional brain (i.e., the corticolimbic system) in the modulation of acute pain and in the prediction and amplification of chronic pain, contrasting this evidence with recent findings regarding the role of central sensitization in pain chronification, especially for orofacial pain. We next elaborate on the corticolimbic circuitry and underlying mechanisms that determine the transition to chronic pain. Given this knowledge, we advance a new mechanistic definition of chronic pain and discuss the clinical implications of this new definition as well as novel therapeutic potentials suggested by these advances. PMID:26965423

  7. fMRI brain activation in bipolar mania: Evidence for disruption of the ventrolateral prefrontal-amygdala emotional pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M.; Eliassen, James C.; Lamy, Martine; Cerullo, Michael A.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Madore, Michelle; Lee, Jing-Huei; Welge, Jeffrey A.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Fleck, David E.; Adler, Caleb M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bipolar I disorder is defined by the occurrence of mania. The presence of mania, coupled with a course of illness characterized by waxing and waning of affective symptoms, suggests that bipolar disorder arises from dysfunction of neural systems that maintain emotional arousal and homeostasis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study manic bipolar subjects as they performed a cognitive task designed to examine the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. Methods We used fMRI to study regional brain activation in 40 DSM-IV manic bipolar I patients and 36 healthy subjects while they performed a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distracters. Event-related region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the primary hypothesis. Voxelwise analyses were also completed. Results Compared with healthy subjects, the manic subjects exhibited blunted activation to emotional and neutral images, but not targets, across most of the predefined regions of interest. Several additional brain regions identified in the voxelwise analysis also exhibited similar differences between groups, including right parahippocampus, right lingual gyrus, and medial thalamus. In addition to these primary findings, the manic subjects also exhibited increased activation in response to targets in number of brain regions that were primarily associated with managing affective stimuli. Group differences did not appear to be secondary to medication exposure or other confounds. Conclusions Bipolar manic subjects exhibit blunted brain fMRI response to emotional cues throughout the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. Disruption of this emotional network may contribute to the mood dysregulation of bipolar disorder. PMID:21051038

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging brain activation in bipolar mania: evidence for disruption of the ventrolateral prefrontal-amygdala emotional pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Eliassen, James C; Lamy, Martine; Cerullo, Michael A; Allendorfer, Jane B; Madore, Michelle; Lee, Jing-Huei; Welge, Jeffrey A; DelBello, Melissa P; Fleck, David E; Adler, Caleb M

    2011-02-15

    Bipolar I disorder is defined by the occurrence of mania. The presence of mania, coupled with a course of illness characterized by waxing and waning of affective symptoms, suggests that bipolar disorder arises from dysfunction of neural systems that maintain emotional arousal and homeostasis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study manic bipolar subjects as they performed a cognitive task designed to examine the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. We used fMRI to study regional brain activation in 40 DSM-IV manic bipolar I patients and 36 healthy subjects while they performed a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distracters. Event-related region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the primary hypothesis. Voxelwise analyses were also completed. Compared with healthy subjects, the manic subjects exhibited blunted activation to emotional and neutral images, but not targets, across most of the predefined regions of interest. Several additional brain regions identified in the voxelwise analysis also exhibited similar differences between groups, including right parahippocampus, right lingual gyrus, and medial thalamus. In addition to these primary findings, the manic subjects also exhibited increased activation in response to targets in a number of brain regions that were primarily associated with managing affective stimuli. Group differences did not appear to be secondary to medication exposure or other confounds. Bipolar manic subjects exhibit blunted brain fMRI response to emotional cues throughout the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. Disruption of this emotional network may contribute to the mood dysregulation of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The provision of emotional support to the families of traumatic brain injury patients: perspectives of Finnish nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Kirsi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-05-01

    To examine nursing staff's perceptions about how often they provide interventions of emotional support and the level of competence needed on neurosurgical wards to support traumatic brain injury patients' family members. Traumatic brain injury in one individual affects the health of their whole family. Studying the emotional support provided by nursing staff is important because such support is crucial for the family members of a traumatic brain injury patient during the acute phase of treatment. Members of the nursing staff provide emotional support to family members by consoling them; this alleviates insecurity, anxiety, hopelessness and depression. A structured self-reported questionnaire presented to 172 nurses working on neurosurgical wards. The response rate was 67% (n = 115). Descriptive statistics were used to determine how often nurses provided emotional support to the traumatic brain injury patients family members and one-way anova to examine the relationships between the background variables and the respondents' evaluations of how often they gave emotional support to brain injury patients' family members. Thirty-seven percentage of nurses stated that they always took account of family members' individuality and 65% that they were always respectful. All registered nurses and staff members with long work experience (21 years or more) on a neurosurgical ward reported that they took family members' feelings of anger and guilt into consideration slightly more often than other nursing staff did. Most nurses considered these skills to represent basic competencies. Further service training on dealing with difficult emotions of traumatic brain injury patients' family members could help nurses to face these situations. Both education and work experience affected the frequency at which nursing staff provided emotional support to traumatic brain injury patients' family members. The results are relevant for example when planning specialised studies or in

  10. Magnetisation transfer measurements of the subcortical grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia and in progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Hanyu, H.; Asano, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takasaki, M. [Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo Medical University (Japan); Shindo, H.; Abe, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We measured the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in the subcortical grey and white matter of 11 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia, six with PD with dementia (PDD), six with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 12 elderly control subjects to assess regional differences in structural brain damage. There were no significant differences in MTR in any region between PD and controls. However, patients with PDD had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical white matter, including the frontal white matter and the genu of the corpus callosum than the controls, whereas PSP had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical grey matter, including the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus, in addition to the subcortical white matter. This suggests that regional patterns of structural brain damage can be detected using the magnetisation transfer technique. Measurement of MTR in the subcortical grey and white matter may be useful in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey G. McIntosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT, or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT+DBS. Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC and young controls (HYC also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT+DBS nor therapy state (ON/OFF altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  12. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  13. Age-induced differences in brain neural activation elicited by visual emotional stimuli: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolaki, Anthoula C; Kosmidou, Vasiliki E; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis Yiannis; Papadaniil, Chrysa; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios; Tsolaki, Magda

    2017-01-06

    Identifying the brain sources of neural activation during processing of emotional information remains a very challenging task. In this work, we investigated the response to different emotional stimuli and the effect of age on the neuronal activation. Two negative emotion conditions, i.e., 'anger' and 'fear' faces were presented to 22 adult female participants (11 young and 11 elderly) while acquiring high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 256 channels. Brain source localization was utilized to study the modulations in the early N170 event-related-potential component. The results revealed alterations in the amplitude of N170 and the localization of areas with maximum neural activation. Furthermore, age-induced differences are shown in the topographic maps and the neural activation for both emotional stimuli. Overall, aging appeared to affect the limbic area and its implication to emotional processing. These findings can serve as a step toward the understanding of the way the brain functions and evolves with age which is a significant element in the design of assistive environments. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Perinatal programming of emotional brain circuits:An integrative view from systems to molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental influences such as perinatal stress have been shown to program the developing organism to adapt brain and behavioral functions to cope with daily life challenges. Evidence is now accumulating that the specific and individual effects of early life adversity on the functional development of brain and behavior emerge as a function of the type, intensity, timing and the duration of the adverse environment, and that early life stress (ELS is a major risk factor for developing behavioral dysfunctions and mental disorders. Results from clinical as well as experimental studies in animal models support the hypothesis that ELS can induce functional ‘scars’ in prefrontal and limbic brain areas, regions that are essential for emotional control, learning and memory functions. On the other hand, the concept of stress inoculation is emerging from more recent research, which revealed positive functional adaptations in response to early life stress resulting in resilience against stress and other adversities later in life. Moreover, recent studies indicate that early life experiences and the resulting behavioral consequences can be transmitted to the next generation, leading to a transgenerational cycle of adverse or positive adaptations of brain function and behavior. In this review we propose a unifying view of stress vulnerability and resilience by connecting genetic predisposition and programming sensitivity to the context of experience-expectancy and transgenerational epigenetic traits. The adaptive maturation of stress responsive neural and endocrine systems requires environmental challenges to optimize their functions. Repeated environmental challenges can be viewed within the framework of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the outcome, psychopathology or resilience, depends on the respective predisposition and on the context later in life.

  16. Subcortical regional morphology correlates with fluid and spatial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; MacDonald, Penny A; Martínez, Kenia; Román, Francisco J; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Ramos González, Ana; Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations between intelligence and brain morphology. However, researchers have focused primarily on the anatomical features of the cerebral cortex, whereas subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia (BG), have often been neglected despite extensive functional evidence on their relation with higher-order cognition. Here we performed shape analyses to understand how individual differences in BG local morphology account for variability in cognitive performance. Structural MRI was acquired in 104 young adults (45 men, 59 women, mean age = 19.83, SD = 1.64), and the outer surface of striatal structures (caudate, nucleus accumbens, and putamen), globus pallidus, and thalamus was estimated for each subject and hemisphere. Further, nine cognitive tests were used to measure fluid (Gf), crystallized (Gc), and spatial intelligence (Gv). Latent scores for these factors were computed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and regressed vertex-wise against subcortical shape (local displacements of vertex position), controlling for age, sex, and adjusted for brain size. Significant results (FDR intelligence-related prefrontal areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  18. [Experimental and therapeutic neuromodulation of emotion and social cognition with non-invasive brain stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielacher, C; Scheele, D; Hurlemann, R

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is not only a highly elegant method for basic neuroscientific research that employs transient lesions to explore the relationship between brain structure and function but in a clinical context it is also a very promising approach to augmentation therapy in middle to severe grade depressive episodes. This overview illustrates the methodological basis of TMS and illuminates its neuromodulatory potential with reference to findings from recent studies on emotion regulation and social cognition. Against this empirical background, it becomes clear that preclinical studies on healthy participants are extremely important to develop innovative stimulation protocols and define functionally relevant target regions to be tested in clinical studies for therapeutic efficacy. Finally, the perspectives and limitations of functionally guided, individualized TMS neuronavigation will be explored based on task-independent connectivity and task-dependent activity measurements.

  19. Deep brain stimulation reveals emotional impact processing in ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Geday, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that modulation of monoaminergic tone with deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus would reveal a site of reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that we previously identified by modulating serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms by blocking serotonin...... and the change of blood flow associated with the DBS. In subjects with a low emotional impact, activity measured as blood flow rose when the electrode was turned on, while in subjects of high impact, the activity at this site in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex declined when the electrode was turned on. We...... conclude that changes of neurotransmission in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex had an effect on the tissue that depends on changes of monoamine concentration interacting with specific combinations of inhibitory and excitatory monoamine receptors....

  20. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression : psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Mechelli, Andrea; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Two groups

  1. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  2. Combining electroencephalographic activity and instantaneous heart rate for assessing brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-05-13

    Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli), is still unknown. To this extent, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and instantaneous heart rate estimates to study emotional processing in healthy subjects. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. The experimental protocol foresaw 110 pictures, each of which lasted 10 s, associated to 25 different combinations of arousal and valence levels, including neutral elicitations. EEG data were processed using short-time Fourier transforms to obtain time-varying maps of cortical activation, whereas the associated instantaneous cardiovascular dynamics was estimated in the time and frequency domains through inhomogeneous point-process models. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Considering EEG oscillations in theθband (4-8 Hz), MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes between positive and negative stimuli, especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels through the prefrontal cortex interplay. Moreover, high arousing elicitations seem to mitigate changes in brain-heart dynamics in response to pleasant/unpleasant visual elicitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Emotional eating is associated with increased brain responses to food-cues and reduced sensitivity to GLP-1 receptor activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloemendaal, L.; Veltman, D.J.; ten Kulve, J.S.; Drent, M.L.; Barkhof, F.; Diamant, M.; IJzerman, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The neural correlates and pathophysiology of emotional eating are insufficiently known. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a postprandial hormone, plays a role in feeding behavior by signaling satiety to the brain. GLP-1 receptor agonists, used for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM),

  4. Graph theoretical connectivity analysis of the human brain while listening to music with emotional attachment: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmonik, Christof; Brandt, Anthony K; Fung, Steve H; Grossman, Robert G; Frazier, J Todd

    2013-01-01

    Benefits of listening to music with emotional attachment while recovering from a cerebral ischemic event have been reported. To develop a better understanding of the effects of music listening on the human brain, an algorithm for the graph-theoretical analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was developed. From BOLD data of two paradigms (block-design, first piece: music without emotional attachment, additional visual guidance by a moving cursor in the score sheet; second piece: music with emotional attachment), network graphs were constructed with correlations between signal time courses as edge weights. Functional subunits in these graphs were identified with the MCODE clustering algorithm and mapped back into anatomical space using AFNI. Emotional centers including the right amygdala and bilateral insula were activated by the second piece (emotional attachment) but not by the first piece. Network clustering analysis revealed two separate networks of small-world property corresponding to task-oriented and resting state conditions, respectively. Functional subunits with highest interactions were bilateral precuneus for the first piece and left middle frontal gyrus and right amygdala, bilateral insula, left middle temporal gyrus for the second piece. Our results indicate that fMRI in connection with graph theoretical network analysis is capable of identifying and differentiating functional subunits in the human brain when listening to music with and without emotional attachment.

  5. Consciousness and arousal effects on emotional face processing as revealed by brain oscillations. A gamma band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Lucchiari, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    It remains an open question whether it is possible to assign a single brain operation or psychological function for facial emotion decoding to a certain type of oscillatory activity. Gamma band activity (GBA) offers an adequate tool for studying cortical activation patterns during emotional face information processing. In the present study brain oscillations were analyzed in response to facial expression of emotions. Specifically, GBA modulation was measured when twenty subjects looked at emotional (angry, fearful, happy, and sad faces) or neutral faces in two different conditions: supraliminal (10 ms) vs subliminal (150 ms) stimulation (100 target-mask pairs for each condition). The results showed that both consciousness and significance of the stimulus in terms of arousal can modulate the power synchronization (ERD decrease) during 150-350 time range: an early oscillatory event showed its peak at about 200 ms post-stimulus. GBA was enhanced by supraliminal more than subliminal elaboration, as well as more by high arousal (anger and fear) than low arousal (happiness and sadness) emotions. Finally a left-posterior dominance for conscious elaboration was found, whereas right hemisphere was discriminant in emotional processing of face in comparison with neutral face.

  6. Does noninvasive brain stimulation applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex nonspecifically influence mood and emotional processing in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eMondino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is often targeted with noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS to modulate in vivo human behaviors. This brain region plays a key role in mood, emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional information. In this article, we ask the question: when we target the DLPFC with NIBS, do we modulate these processes altogether, nonspecifically, or can we modulate them selectively? We thus review articles investigating the effects of NIBS applied over the DLPFC on mood, emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. We discuss that NIBS over the DLPFC can modulate emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional stimuli, without specifically influencing mood. Indeed, there seems to be a lack of evidence that NIBS over the DLPFC influence on mood in healthy individuals. Finally, there appears to be a hemispheric lateralization: when applied over the left DLPFC, NIBS improved processing of positive stimuli and reduced selective attention for stimuli expressing anger, whereas when applied over the right DLPFC, it increased selective attention for stimuli expressing anger.

  7. Neuro emotional technique effects on brain physiology in cancer patients with traumatic stress symptoms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniel A; Tobia, Anna; Stoner, Marie; Wintering, Nancy; Matthews, Michael; He, Xiao-Song; Doucet, Gaelle; Chervoneva, Inna; Tracy, Joseph I; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neurophysiological and clinical effects that may result from the neuro emotional technique (NET) in patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that self-regulatory processing of traumatic memories would be observable as physiological changes in key brain areas after undergoing the NET intervention and that these changes would be associated with improvement of traumatic stress symptoms. We enrolled 23 participants with a prior cancer diagnosis who expressed a distressing cancer-related memory that was associated with traumatic stress symptoms of at least 6 months in duration. Participants were randomized to either the NET intervention or a waitlist control condition. To evaluate the primary outcome of neurophysiological effects, all participants received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of both a neutral stimulus and a description of the specific traumatic event. Pre/post-comparisons were performed between the traumatic and neutral condition, within and between groups. Psychological measures included the Impact of Event Scale (IES), State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18, and Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). The initial fMRI scans in both groups showed significant increases in the bilateral parahippocampus and brainstem. After NET, reactivity in the parahippocampus, brainstem, anterior cingulate, and insula was significantly decreased during the traumatic stimulus. Likewise, participants receiving the NET intervention had significant reductions (p brain regions involved with traumatic memories and distress such as the brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampus had significantly reduced activity after the NET intervention and were associated with clinical improvement of symptoms associated with distressing recollections. This preliminary study suggests that the

  8. The relations among cognitive impairment, coping style, and emotional adjustment following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Gershon; Schönberger, Michael; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the direct, mediated, and moderated associations among cognition, coping, and emotional adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional, single-group design. Ninety-seven participants with mild to severe TBI recruited from their rehabilitation hospital and assessed on average 19 months postinjury. The BIRT Memory and Information Processing Battery, Doors Test from the Doors and People Test, Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test, Digit Span, Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral Version, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Coping Scale for Adults. Poorer performance on measures of memory, executive functions, and attention and information processing was associated with greater levels of self-reported depression and anxiety. No mediated relation was found between cognition and emotional adjustment. However, the use of adaptive coping strategies was found to moderate the relation between the Hayling A-a measure of information processing speed-and self-reported depression. Greater impairments in cognition directly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression following TBI. In addition, the results suggest that the use of adaptive coping strategies has a greater effect on levels of depression for individuals with poor information processing speed.

  9. Disruptions in cortico-subcortical covariance networks associated with anxiety in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Garcia-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24 and without (n = 62 anxiety disorders. Graph theory (GT analyses based on the covariance between the volumes of 85 cortical/subcortical regions were investigated. Both groups with epilepsy demonstrated less inter-modular relationships in the synchronization of cortical/subcortical volumes compared to controls, with the epilepsy and anxiety group presenting the strongest modular organization. Frontal and occipital regions in non-anxious epilepsy, and areas throughout the brain in children with epilepsy and anxiety, showed the highest centrality compared to controls. Furthermore, most of the nodes correlating to amygdala volumes were subcortical structures, with the exception of the left insula and the right frontal pole, which presented high betweenness centrality (BC; therefore, their influence in the network is not necessarily local but potentially influencing other more distant regions. In conclusion, children with recent onset epilepsy and anxiety demonstrate large scale disruptions in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Network science may not only provide insight into the possible neurobiological correlates of important comorbidities of epilepsy, but also the ways that cortical and subcortical disruption occurs.

  10. Safety of eptifibatide for subcortical stroke progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Shaltoni, Hashem; Abraham, Anitha T; Barreto, Andrew D; Hallevi, Hen; Gonzales, Nicole R; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2009-01-01

    There is no proven treatment for stroke progression in patients with subcortical infarcts. Eptifibatide, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, might halt stroke progression by improving flow in the microcirculation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with subcortical stroke who experienced deterioration and were treated with eptifibatide (loading dose 180 microg/kg; infusion 2 m microg/kg/min) for 24-48 h. Oral antiplatelet agents were started 6 h before discontinuation of eptifibatide. Twenty-four patients with subcortical strokes were treated. The median admission NIHSS score was 5.0, which worsened to 8.5 (motor 5.0) before starting eptifibatide. The median NIHSS score 24 h after starting eptifibatide was 5.5. At 24 h, 42% had motor NIHSS scores less than or equal to pre-deterioration scores (50% for total NIHSS), and 50% had improved at least 1 motor point compared to pre-eptifibatide scores, which was sustained until hospital discharge. At discharge, the median total NIHSS score was 4.5. Ninety-two percent of patients were discharged home or to inpatient rehabilitation. Treatment was stopped early in 1 case due to a platelet drop Eptifibatide infusion may be safe in patients with subcortical ischemic strokes. Future studies are needed to test the safety and potential efficacy of this agent in subcortical stroke progression. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Does excessive play of violent first-person-shooter-video-games dampen brain activity in response to emotional stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Weber, Bernd; Trautner, Peter; Newport, Beate; Markett, Sebastian; Walter, Nora T; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present case-control study investigated the processing of emotional pictures in excessive first-person-shooter-video-players and control persons. All participants of the fMRI experiment were confronted with pictures from four categories including pleasant, unpleasant, neutral content and pictures from the first-person-shooter-video-game 'Counterstrike'. Compared to controls, gamers showed a significantly lower activation of the left lateral medial frontal lobe while processing negative emotions. Another interesting finding of the study represents the higher activation of frontal and temporal brain areas in gamers when processing screen-shots from the first-person-shooter-video-game 'Counterstrike'. Higher brain activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex could represent a protection mechanism against experiencing negative emotions by down-regulating limbic brain activity. Due to a frequent confrontation with violent scenes, the first-person-shooter-video-gamers might have habituated to the effects of unpleasant stimuli resulting in lower brain activation. Individual differences in brain activations of the contrast Counterstrike>neutral pictures potentially resemble the activation of action-scripts related to the video-game. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia: molecular basis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, R J; Pilz, D T; Matsumoto, N; Ledbetter, D H; Dobyns, W B

    2000-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is now used routinely in the evaluation of developmental and neurological disorders and provides exquisite images of the living human brain. Consequently, it is evident that cortical malformations are more common than previously thought. Among the most severe is classical lissencephaly, in which the cortex lacks the complex folding that characterizes the normal human brain. Lissencephaly includes agyria and pachygyria, and merges with subcortical band heterotopia. Current molecular genetic techniques combined with the identification of affected patients have enabled the detection of two of the genes responsible: LIS1 (PAFAH1B1) on chromosome 17 and DCX (doublecortin) on the X chromosome. This review highlights the discovery of these genes and discusses the advances made in understanding the molecular basis of cortical development and improvements in diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  13. Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia: attentional cortex study in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zheng, J; Wang, J; Gui, L

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Stroop test were used to assess attentional cortex activation in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subcortical vascular dementia, and normal control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia demonstrated similar locations of cortical activation, including the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyri, anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule in response to Stroop colour word stimuli. This activation was distinctly decreased in patients with dementia compared with normal control subjects. Different regions of the brain were activated in patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia compared with normal controls. fMRI is a useful tool for the study of dementia in humans and has some potential diagnostic value. Further studies with larger numbers of participants are required.

  14. Emotion-related brain structures associated with trait creativity in middle children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yunman; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-09-29

    Middle childhood is an important period for individual trait shaping, during which children are likely to generate and own their distinct neuromechanism of creative-related traits. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain structures that underlie trait creativity (as measured by the Williams Creativity Aptitude Test) in a sample of typical developing children (aged 9-12, n=64). The results indicated that several emotion-related regions may relate to trait creativity in middle children. Specifically, the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the amygdala and hippocampus was negatively related to creative traits of challenge and risk-taking, which indicates that children with increased trait creativity may be more impulsive when they engage in creative activities. An increased rGMV in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was related to an increased trait of imagination, which may be associated with stronger sensation-seeking in children. These findings are the first to demonstrate the brain structures that underlie trait creativity in middle children, and indicated that, driven by a relatively stronger effect of sensation-seeking (via recruitment of the OFC), children with increased trait creativity may exhibit more risk-taking and challenging behaviors (via recruitment of the amygdala and hippocampus) when they practice their creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  16. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  17. Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; McKie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-08-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.

  18. Review and Classification of Emotion Recognition Based on EEG Brain-Computer Interface System Research: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Al-Nafjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and studies in brain-computer interface (BCI technologies have facilitated emotion detection and classification. Many BCI studies have sought to investigate, detect, and recognize participants’ emotional affective states. The applied domains for these studies are varied, and include such fields as communication, education, entertainment, and medicine. To understand trends in electroencephalography (EEG-based emotion recognition system research and to provide practitioners and researchers with insights into and future directions for emotion recognition systems, this study set out to review published articles on emotion detection, recognition, and classification. The study also reviews current and future trends and discusses how these trends may impact researchers and practitioners alike. We reviewed 285 articles, of which 160 were refereed journal articles that were published since the inception of affective computing research. The articles were classified based on a scheme consisting of two categories: research orientation and domains/applications. Our results show considerable growth of EEG-based emotion detection journal publications. This growth reflects an increased research interest in EEG-based emotion detection as a salient and legitimate research area. Such factors as the proliferation of wireless EEG devices, advances in computational intelligence techniques, and machine learning spurred this growth.

  19. Leptin is associated with exaggerated brain reward and emotion responses to food images in adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-11-01

    In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation's youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: Emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eStollstorff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias towards or away from emotional stimuli and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention towards negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with that towards positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Two groups, homozygous 5-HTTLPR long allele carriers or homozygous short allele carriers, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied with regards to the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic Stroop effect (slower responses for incongruent than congruent trials, which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the Long group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the "Short" group recruited these regions when task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin

  1. Cannabis Dampens the Effects of Music in Brain Regions Sensitive to Reward and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Wall, Matthew B; Bisby, James A; Luijten, Maartje; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Lawn, Will; Moss, Abigail; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the current shift towards permissive cannabis policies, few studies have investigated the pleasurable effects users seek. Here, we investigate the effects of cannabis on listening to music, a rewarding activity that frequently occurs in the context of recreational cannabis use. We additionally tested how these effects are influenced by cannabidiol, which may offset cannabis-related harms. Across 3 sessions, 16 cannabis users inhaled cannabis with cannabidiol, cannabis without cannabidiol, and placebo. We compared their response to music relative to control excerpts of scrambled sound during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging within regions identified in a meta-analysis of music-evoked reward and emotion. All results were False Discovery Rate corrected (P<.05). Compared with placebo, cannabis without cannabidiol dampened response to music in bilateral auditory cortex (right: P=.005, left: P=.008), right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus (P=.025), right amygdala (P=.025), and right ventral striatum (P=.033). Across all sessions, the effects of music in this ventral striatal region correlated with pleasure ratings (P=.002) and increased functional connectivity with auditory cortex (right: P< .001, left: P< .001), supporting its involvement in music reward. Functional connectivity between right ventral striatum and auditory cortex was increased by cannabidiol (right: P=.003, left: P=.030), and cannabis with cannabidiol did not differ from placebo on any functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging measures. Both types of cannabis increased ratings of wanting to listen to music (P<.002) and enhanced sound perception (P<.001). Cannabis dampens the effects of music in brain regions sensitive to reward and emotion. These effects were offset by a key cannabis constituent, cannabidol.

  2. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  3. Transcranial sonography of subcortical structures in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puz, P; Lasek-Bal, A; Radecka, P

    2017-07-01

    Transcranial sonography may be applied to assess the basal ganglia nuclei and brain atrophy by the measurement of the width of the third ventricle. The aim of this study was to assess usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the echogenicity of subcortical structures and the width of the third ventricle. Transcranial sonography evaluation of substantia nigra, brain stem raphe nuclei, diameter of the third ventricle, width of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, thalamus, lenticular nucleus, and head of the caudate nucleus in 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 23 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 20 healthy controls was compared. A potential link between the patients' age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, relapse index, and ultrasound parameters was assessed. The following were found in patients with MS, as compared to the control group: a greater area of the substantia nigra, a longer diameter of the third ventricle and wider frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, hypo-echogenicity of the brain stem raphe, and hyperechogenicity of the lenticular nucleus. The study group was found to have a significant correlation between the area of the substantia nigra, and the age of patients, the duration of the illness, EDSS score, and the number of relapses. There was a significant correlation between the diameter of the third ventricle and the age of patients and EDSS score. Patients with MS reveal ultrasound features of subcortical structure atrophy. Selected TCS findings show a correlation with disease progression and activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  6. Music for the ageing brain: Cognitive, emotional, social, and neural benefits of musical leisure activities in stroke and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Music engages an extensive network of auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional processing regions in the brain. Coupled with the fact that the emotional and cognitive impact of music is often well preserved in ageing and dementia, music is a powerful tool in the care and rehabilitation of many ageing-related neurological diseases. In addition to formal music therapy, there has been a growing interest in self- or caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities or hobbies as a widely applicable means to support psychological wellbeing in ageing and in neurological rehabilitation. This article reviews the currently existing evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural benefits of musical leisure activities in normal ageing as well as in the rehabilitation and care of two of the most common and ageing-related neurological diseases: stroke and dementia.

  7. Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Schon, Daniele; Anton, Jean-Luc; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2005-12-19

    Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test for the lateralization of the brain regions specifically involved in the recognition of negatively and positively valenced musical emotions. The manipulation of two major musical features (mode and tempo), resulting in the variation of emotional perception along the happiness-sadness axis, was shown to principally involve subcortical and neocortical brain structures, which are known to intervene in emotion processing in other modalities. In particular, the minor mode (sad excerpts) involved the left orbito and mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex, which does not confirm the valence lateralization model. We also show that the recognition of emotions elicited by variations of the two perceptual determinants rely on both common (BA 9) and distinct neural mechanisms.

  8. Impact of socio-emotional context, brain development, and pubertal maturation on adolescent risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    While there is little doubt that risk-taking is generally more prevalent during adolescence than before or after, the underlying causes of this pattern of age differences have long been investigated and debated. One longstanding popular notion is the belief that risky and reckless behavior in adolescence is tied to the hormonal changes of puberty. However, the interactions between pubertal maturation and adolescent decision making remain largely understudied. In the current review, we discuss changes in decision making during adolescence, focusing on the asynchronous development of the affective, reward-focused processing system and the deliberative, reasoned processing system. As discussed, differential maturation in the structure and function of brain systems associated with these systems leaves adolescents particularly vulnerable to socio-emotional influences and risk-taking behaviors. We argue that this asynchrony may be partially linked to pubertal influences on development and specifically on the maturation of the affective, reward-focused processing system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anger in brain and body: the neural and physiological perturbation of decision-making by emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Zorab, Emma; Navaratnam, Nakulan; Engels, Miriam; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Minati, Ludovico; Dowell, Nicholas G; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and cognition are dynamically coupled to bodily arousal: the induction of anger, even unconsciously, can reprioritise neural and physiological resources toward action states that bias cognitive processes. Here we examine behavioural, neural and bodily effects of covert anger processing and its influence on cognition, indexed by lexical decision-making. While recording beat-to-beat blood pressure, the words ANGER or RELAX were presented subliminally just prior to rapid word/non-word reaction-time judgements of letter-strings. Subliminal ANGER primes delayed the time taken to reach rapid lexical decisions, relative to RELAX primes. However, individuals with high trait anger were speeded up by subliminal anger primes. ANGER primes increased systolic blood pressure and the magnitude of this increase predicted reaction time prolongation. Within the brain, ANGER trials evoked an enhancement of activity within dorsal pons and an attenuation of activity within visual occipitotemporal and attentional parietal cortices. Activity within periaqueductal grey matter, occipital and parietal regions increased linearly with evoked blood pressure changes, indicating neural substrates through which covert anger impairs semantic decisions, putatively through its expression as visceral arousal. The behavioural and physiological impact of anger states compromises the efficiency of cognitive processing through action-ready changes in autonomic response that skew regional neural activity. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Small, Gary W. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Center on Aging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer' s Disease Research, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [{sup 18}F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k{sup '}{sub 2}) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region. Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  11. Music‐evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    ... to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music‐evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion...

  12. Contextual and Perceptual Brain Processes Underlying Moral Cognition: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. Data Source A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results & Conclusions Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of

  13. Contextual and perceptual brain processes underlying moral cognition: a quantitative meta-analysis of moral reasoning and moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of moral input is affected by task demands. The results provide novel

  14. Effects of emotion regulation strategy on brain responses to the valence and social content of visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2011-04-01

    Emotion Regulation (ER) includes different mechanisms aiming at volitionally modulating emotional responses, including cognitive re-evaluation (re-appraisal; REAP) or inhibition of emotion expression and behavior (expressive suppression; ESUP). However, despite the importance of these ER strategies, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have not sufficiently disentangled the specific neural impact of REAP versus ESUP on brain responses to different kinds of emotion-eliciting events. Moreover, although different effects have been reported for stimulus valence (positive vs. negative), no study has systematically investigated how ER may change emotional processing as a function of particular stimulus content variables (i.e., social vs. nonsocial). Our fMRI study directly compared brain activation to visual scenes during the use of different ER strategies, relative to a "natural" viewing condition, but also examined the effects of ER as a function of the social versus nonsocial content of scenes, in addition to their negative versus positive valence (by manipulating these factors orthogonally in a 2×2 factorial design). Our data revealed that several prefrontal cortical areas were differentially recruited during either REAP or ESUP, independent of the valence and content of images. In addition, selective modulations by either REAP or ESUP were found depending on the negative valence of scenes (medial fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, dmPFC), and on their nonsocial (middle insula) or social (bilateral amygdala, mPFC, posterior cingulate) significance. Furthermore, we observed a significant lateralization in the amygdala for the effect of the two different ER strategies, with a predominant modulation by REAP on the left side but by ESUP on the right side. Taken together, these results do not only highlight the distributed nature of neural changes induced by ER, but also reveal the specific impact of different strategies (REAP or ESUP), and the

  15. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: a PET study and neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Antje A T S; Willemsen, Antoon T M; den Boer, Johan A; Vos, Herry P J; Veltman, Dick J; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-09-30

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n=11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n=16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state. Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively. Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the parahippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus. Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and parahippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby undermodulating emotion regulation. This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural correlates of emotion?cognition interactions: A review of evidence from brain imaging investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D.; Dolcos, Sanda

    2011-01-01

    Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a ?double-edged sword? that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individ...

  17. Self-Report and Brain Indicators of Impaired Emotion Regulation in the Broad Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Kristel; Van Strien, Jan W.

    2017-01-01

    Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the…

  18. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The impact of stroke on emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Bronwyn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional intelligence (EI is important for personal, social and career success and has been linked to the frontal anterior cingulate, insula and amygdala regions. Aim To ascertain which stroke lesion sites impair emotional intelligence and relation to current frontal assessment measurements. Methods One hundred consecutive, non aphasic, independently functioning patients post stroke were evaluated with the Bar-On emotional intelligence test, "known as the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i" and frontal tests that included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Frontal Systems Behavioral Inventory (FRSBE for correlational validity. The results of a screening, bedside frontal network syndrome test (FNS and NIHSS to document neurological deficit were also recorded. Lesion location was determined by the Cerefy digital, coxial brain atlas. Results After exclusions (n = 8, patients tested (n = 92, mean age 50.1, CI: 52.9, 47.3 years revealed that EQ-i scores were correlated (negatively with all FRSBE T sub-scores (apathy, disinhibition, executive, total, with self-reported scores correlating better than family reported scores. Regression analysis revealed age and FRSBE total scores as the most influential variables. The WCST error percentage T score did not correlate with the EQ-i scores. Based on ANOVA, there were significant differences among the lesion sites with the lowest mean EQ-i scores associated with temporal (71.5 and frontal (87.3 lesions followed by subtentorial (91.7, subcortical gray (92.6 and white (95.2 matter, and the highest scores associated with parieto-occipital lesions (113.1. Conclusions 1 Stroke impairs EI and is associated with apathy, disinhibition and executive functioning. 2 EI is associated with frontal, temporal, subcortical and subtentorial stroke syndromes.

  20. Distinct subcortical volume alterations in pediatric and adult OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H.; Arnold, Paul D.; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C.; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, Damiaan; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M.; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y.C. Janardhan; Sato, Joao R.; Simpson, H. Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Tolin, David F.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Structural brain imaging studies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in disease profile and developmental stage. Methods To address these limitations, we conducted a meta- and mega-analysis of data from OCD sites worldwide. T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 controls were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ in OCD patients and healthy controls. We additionally examined potential modulating effects of clinical characteristics on morphological differences in OCD patients. Results The meta-analysis indicated that adult patients had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.13; p=5.1x10−3, % difference −2.80) and larger pallidum volumes (d=0.16; p=1.6x10−3, % difference 3.16) compared to adult controls. Both effects were stronger in medicated patients compared to controls (d=−0.29; p=2.4x10−5, % difference −4.18 and d=0.29; p=1.2x10−5, % difference 4.38, respectively). Unmedicated pediatric patients had larger thalamic volumes (d=0.38, p=2.1x10−3) compared to pediatric controls. None of these findings were mediated by sample characteristics such as mean age or field strength. Overall the mega-analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Our study indicates a different pattern of subcortical abnormalities in pediatric versus adult OCD patients. The pallidum and hippocampus seem to be of importance in adult OCD, whereas the thalamus seems to be key in pediatric OCD. This highlights the potential importance of neurodevelopmental alterations in OCD, and suggests that further research on neuroplasticity in OCD may be useful. PMID:27609241

  1. Emotional Incongruence of Facial Expression and Voice Tone Investigated with Event-Related Brain Potentials of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Arai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are perceived from multi-modal information including facial expression and voice tone. We aimed to investigate development of neural mechanism for cross-modal perception of emotions. We presented congruent and incongruent combinations of facial expression (happy and voice tone (happy or angry, and measured EEG to analyze event-related brain potentials for 8-10 month-old infants and adults. Ten repetitions of 10 trials were presented in random order for each participant. Half of them performed 20% congruent (happy face with happy voice and 80% incongruent (happy face with angry voice trials, and the others performed 80% congruent and 20% incongruent trials. We employed the oddball paradigm, but did not instruct participants to count a target. The odd-ball (infrequent stimulus increased the amplitude of P2 and delayed its latency for infants in comparison with the frequent stimulus. When the odd-ball stimulus was also emotionally incongruent, P2 amplitude was more increased and its latency was more delayed than for the odd-ball and emotionally congruent stimulus. However, we did not find difference of P2 amplitude or latency for adults between conditions. These results suggested that the 8–10 month-old infants already have a neural basis for detecting emotional incongruence of facial expression and voice tone.

  2. Brain Activity Changes in Somatosensory and Emotion-Related Areas With Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Masaru; Tadenuma, Taku; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014. Excluding seven patients with osteochondral lesions, 12 patients (five males and seven females; mean age, 20 years) with MPFL deficiency were sequentially included in this study. Eleven control subjects (four males and seven females; mean age, 23 years) were recruited from medical students who had no history of knee injury. Diagnosis of the MPFL deficiency was made with MR images, which confirmed the rupture, and by proving the instability with a custom-made biomechanical device. Brain activity during passive lateral stress to the patella was assessed by functional MRI. Functional and anatomic images were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Differences in functional MRI outcome measures from the detected activated brain regions between the patients with MPFL deficiency and controls were assessed using t tests. Intergroup analysis showed less activity in several sensorimotor cortical areas, including the contralateral primary somatosensory areas (% signal change for MPFL group 0.49% versus 1.1% for the control group; p < 0.001), thalamus (0.2% versus 0.41% for the MPFL versus control, respectively; p < 0.001), ipsilateral

  3. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of emotional content on brain activation and the late positive potential in a word n-back task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kopf

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence for the influence of emotional content on working memory performance. This is particularly important in light of the emotion processing that needs to take place when emotional content interferes with executive functions. In this study, we used emotional words of different valence but with similar arousal levels in an n-back task. METHODS: We examined the effects on activation in the prefrontal cortex by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and on the late positive potential (LPP. FNIRS and LPP data were examined in 30 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BEHAVIORAL RESULTS SHOW AN INFLUENCE OF VALENCE ON THE ERROR RATE DEPENDING ON THE DIFFICULTY OF THE TASK: more errors were made when the valence was negative and the task difficult. Brain activation was dependent both on the difficulty of the task and on the valence: negative valence of a word diminished the increase in activation, whereas positive valence did not influence the increase in activation, while difficulty levels increased. The LPP also differentiated between the different valences, and in addition was influenced by the task difficulty, the more difficult the task, the less differentiation could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Summarized, this study shows the influence of valence on a verbal working memory task. When a word contained a negative valence, the emotional content seemed to take precedence in contrast to words containing a positive valence. Working memory and emotion processing sites seemed to overlap and compete for resources even when words are carriers of the emotional content.

  5. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  6. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.

  7. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  8. Anatomical distance affects cortical-subcortical connectivity in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Li, Lehua; Zhang, Zhikun; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2017-08-01

    Brain structural and functional alterations in the cortical-subcortical circuits have been observed in somatization disorder (SD). However, whether and how anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical connectivity in SD remain unclear. This study aims to examine whether anatomical distance affects the cortical-subcortical in first-episode, drug-naive SD. Twenty-five first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and twenty-eight healthy controls were recruited for a resting-state scan. Regional functional connectivity strength (FCS) was calculated for each voxel in the brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range FCSs. Correlation analyses were conducted between abnormal FCS and clinical/cognitive variables in the patients. Compared with the controls, the patients showed increased short-range positive FCS (spFCS) in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and decreased spFCS in the left pallidum, and increased long-range positive FCS (lpFCS) in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Positive correlations were observed between the spFCS values in the right SFG and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire psychoticism scores (r=0.441, p=0.027, uncorrected) and between the lpFCS values in the right ITG and scores of digit symbol-coding of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (r=0.416, p=0.039, uncorrected) in the patients CONCLUSIONS: The patients exhibited increased spFCS/lpFCS in the cortical regions and decreased spFCS in the subcortical regions. The left pallidum is first reported here to show decreased spFCS in SD. The present results suggest that abnormal cortical-subcortical circuits may play an important role in SD neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring emotions using invasive methods: review of 60 years of human intracranial electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Sean A; Bujarski, Krzysztof A

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 60 years, human intracranial electrophysiology (HIE) has been used to characterize seizures in patients with epilepsy. Secondary to the clinical objectives, electrodes implanted intracranially have been used to investigate mechanisms of human cognition. In addition to studies of memory and language, HIE methods have been used to investigate emotions. The aim of this review is to outline the contribution of HIE (electrocorticography, single-unit recording and electrical brain stimulation) to our understanding of the neural representations of emotions. We identified 64 papers dating back to the mid-1950s which used HIE techniques to study emotional states. Evidence from HIE studies supports the existence of widely distributed networks in the neocortex, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical nuclei which contribute to the representation of emotional states. In addition, evidence from HIE supports hemispheric dominance for emotional valence. Furthermore, evidence from HIE supports the existence of overlapping neural areas for emotion perception, experience and expression. Lastly, HIE provides unique insights into the temporal dynamics of neural activation during perception, experience and expression of emotional states. In conclusion, we propose that HIE techniques offer important evidence which must be incorporated into our current models of emotion representation in the human brain. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exploring emotions using invasive methods: review of 60 years of human intracranial electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Sean A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, human intracranial electrophysiology (HIE) has been used to characterize seizures in patients with epilepsy. Secondary to the clinical objectives, electrodes implanted intracranially have been used to investigate mechanisms of human cognition. In addition to studies of memory and language, HIE methods have been used to investigate emotions. The aim of this review is to outline the contribution of HIE (electrocorticography, single-unit recording and electrical brain stimulation) to our understanding of the neural representations of emotions. We identified 64 papers dating back to the mid-1950s which used HIE techniques to study emotional states. Evidence from HIE studies supports the existence of widely distributed networks in the neocortex, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical nuclei which contribute to the representation of emotional states. In addition, evidence from HIE supports hemispheric dominance for emotional valence. Furthermore, evidence from HIE supports the existence of overlapping neural areas for emotion perception, experience and expression. Lastly, HIE provides unique insights into the temporal dynamics of neural activation during perception, experience and expression of emotional states. In conclusion, we propose that HIE techniques offer important evidence which must be incorporated into our current models of emotion representation in the human brain. PMID:24509492

  11. Extended Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article...

  12. Successful emotion regulation is predicted by amygdala activity and aspects of personality: A latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2017-04-01

    The experience of emotions and their cognitive control are based upon neural responses in prefrontal and subcortical regions and could be affected by personality and temperamental traits. Previous studies established an association between activity in reappraisal-related brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus and amygdala) and emotion regulation success. Given these relationships, we aimed to further elucidate how individual differences in emotion regulation skills relate to brain activity within the emotion regulation network on the one hand, and personality/temperamental traits on the other. We directly examined the relationship between personality and temperamental traits, emotion regulation success and its underlying neuronal network in a large sample (N = 82) using an explicit emotion regulation task and functional MRI (fMRI). We applied a multimethodological analysis approach, combing standard activation-based analyses with structural equation modeling. First, we found that successful downregulation is predicted by activity in key regions related to emotion processing. Second, the individual ability to successfully upregulate emotions is strongly associated with the ability to identify feelings, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Third, the successful downregulation of emotion is modulated by openness to experience and habitual use of reappraisal. Fourth, the ability to regulate emotions is best predicted by a combination of brain activity and personality as well temperamental traits. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, we provide a first step toward a causal model of individual differences in emotion regulation ability by linking biological systems underlying emotion regulation with descriptive constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Inter-hemispheric EEG coherence analysis in Parkinson's disease: assessing brain activity during emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R; Satiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only characterized by its prominent motor symptoms but also associated with disturbances in cognitive and emotional functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of emotion processing on inter-hemispheric electroencephalography (EEG) coherence in PD. Multimodal emotional stimuli (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) were presented to 20 PD patients and 30 age-, education level-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) while EEG was recorded. Inter-hemispheric coherence was computed from seven homologous EEG electrode pairs (AF3-AF4, F7-F8, F3-F4, FC5-FC6, T7-T8, P7-P8, and O1-O2) for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. In addition, subjective ratings were obtained for a representative of emotional stimuli. Interhemispherically, PD patients showed significantly lower coherence in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands than HC during emotion processing. No significant changes were found in the delta frequency band coherence. We also found that PD patients were more impaired in recognizing negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, and disgust) than relatively positive emotions (happiness and surprise). Behaviorally, PD patients did not show impairment in emotion recognition as measured by subjective ratings. These findings suggest that PD patients may have an impairment of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (i.e., a decline in cortical connectivity) during emotion processing. This study may increase the awareness of EEG emotional response studies in clinical practice to uncover potential neurophysiologic abnormalities.

  14. Early Life Stress and the Anxious Brain: Evidence for A Neural Mechanism Linking Childhood Emotional Maltreatment to Anxiety in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Simmons, Alan N.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Allard, Carolyn B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) increases likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood, but the neural processes underlying conferment of this risk have not been established. Here, we test the potential for neuroimaging the adult brain to inform understanding of the mechanism linking CEM to adult anxiety symptoms. Methods One hundred eighty-two adults (148 females, 34 males) with a normal-to-clinical range of anxiety symptoms underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotion-processing paradigm with facial expressions of fear, anger, and happiness. Participants completed self-report measures of CEM and current anxiety symptoms. Voxelwise mediation analyses on gray matter volumes and activation to each emotion condition were used to identify candidate brain mechanisms relating CEM to anxiety in adulthood. Results During processing of fear and anger faces, greater amygdala and less right dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) activation partially mediated the positive relationship between CEM and anxiety symptoms. Greater right posterior insula activation to fear also partially mediated this relationship, as did greater ventral anterior cingulate (ACC) and less dorsal ACC activation to anger. Responses to happy faces in these regions did not mediate the CEM-anxiety relationship. Smaller right dlPFC gray matter volumes also partially mediated the CEM-anxiety relationship. Conclusions Activation patterns of the adult brain demonstrate the potential to inform mechanistic accounts of the CEM conferment of anxiety symptoms. Results support the hypothesis that exaggerated limbic activation to negative valence facial emotions links CEM to anxiety symptoms, which may be consequent to a breakdown of cortical regulatory processes. PMID:26670947

  15. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group, increased activity in response to happy compared to sad music was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal regions and in the rolandic operculum/insula, and we propose that this reflects increased cognitive processing and physiological arousal in response to emotional musical stimuli in this group.

  16. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line eGebauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group, increased activity in response to happy compared to sad music was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal regions and in the rolandic operculum/insula, and we propose that this reflects increased cognitive processing in response to emotional musical stimuli in this group.

  17. The Feasibility and Potential Impact of Brain Training Games on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Curtis, Ashley F; Branscombe-Caird, Laura M; Comrie, Janna K; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-30

    To investigate whether a commercially available brain training program is feasible to use with a middle-aged population and has a potential impact on cognition and emotional well-being (proof of concept). Fourteen participants (ages 46-55) completed two 6-week training conditions using a crossover (counterbalanced) design: (1) experimental brain training condition and (2) active control "find answers to trivia questions online" condition. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery and a self-report measure of depression and anxiety were administered at baseline (first time point, before training) and after completing each training condition (second time point at 6 weeks, and third time point at 12 weeks). Cognitive composite scores were calculated for participants at each time point. Study completion and protocol adherence demonstrated good feasibility of this brain training protocol in healthy middle-aged adults. Exploratory analyses suggested that brain training was associated with neurocognitive improvements related to executive attention, as well as improvements in mood. Overall, our findings suggest that brain training programs are feasible in middle-aged cohorts. We propose that brain training games may be linked to improvements in executive attention and affect by promoting cognitive self-efficacy in middle-aged adults.

  18. Emotion perception after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Hannah; Dethier, Marie; Kessels, Roy P C; Westbrook, R Frederick; McDonald, Skye

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative emotions that is vulnerable to brain injury. However, studies typically do not equate for differential difficulty between emotions. We aimed to examine whether emotion recognition deficits in people with TBI were specific to negative emotions, while equating task difficulty, and to determine whether perception deficits might be accounted for by other cognitive processes. Twenty-seven people with TBI and 28 matched control participants identified 6 basic emotions at 2 levels of intensity (a) the conventional 100% intensity and (b) "equated intensity"-that is, an intensity that yielded comparable accuracy rates across emotions in controls. (a) At 100% intensity, the TBI group was impaired in recognizing anger, fear, and disgust but not happiness, surprise, or sadness and performed worse on negative than positive emotions. (b) At equated intensity, the TBI group was poorer than controls overall but not differentially poorer in recognizing negative emotions. Although processing speed and nonverbal reasoning were associated with emotion accuracy, injury severity by itself was a unique predictor. When task difficulty is taken into account, individuals with TBI show impairment in recognizing all facial emotions. There was no evidence for a specific impairment for negative emotions or any particular emotion. Impairment was accounted for by injury severity rather than being a secondary effect of reduced neuropsychological functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Identification of DCX gene mutation in lissencephaly spectrum with subcortical band heterotopia using whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Woo, Hye In; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Jeehun; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Malformations of cortical development include a wide range of brain developmental anomalies that commonly lead to developmental delay and epilepsy. Lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia are major malformations of cortical development due to abnormal neuronal migration and several genes have been identified including ARX, DCX, LIS1, RELN, TUBA1A, and VLDLR. Traditionally, genetic testing for lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia has been done in the order of the probability of detection of mutation according to the radiologic features, but the success rate could be variable with this time-consuming approach. In this study we used whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in a 5-year-old girl with lissencephaly spectrum with subcortical band heterotopia. After excluding lissencephaly-related genes, one deleterious mutation (NM_178153.2:c.665C > T, p.Thr222Ile) in the DCX gene was identified. Further Sanger sequencing validated the variant in the patient but not in both parents indicating a de novo mutation. The present report demonstrates that whole-exome sequencing may be a useful tool for the identification of mutations in patients with lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopias as well as malformations of cortical development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early and late brain signatures of emotional prosody among individuals with high versus low power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Uskul, Ayse K

    2017-04-01

    Using ERPs, we explored the relationship between social power and emotional prosody processing. In particular, we investigated differences at early and late processing stages between individuals primed with high or low power. Comparable to previously published findings from nonprimed participants, individuals primed with low power displayed differentially modulated P2 amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies, whereas participants primed with high power failed to do so. Similarly, participants primed with low power showed differentially modulated amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies at a later processing stage (late ERP component), whereas participants primed with high power did not. These ERP results suggest that high versus low power leads to emotional prosody processing differences at the early stage associated with emotional salience detection and at a later stage associated with more in-depth processing of emotional stimuli. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. BRAIN Journal - The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamidi; Dr. Mohammad Khatib

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language profic...

  2. Is the effect of coping styles disease specific? : relationships with emotional distress and quality of life in acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ingrid; Bol, Yvonne; Stapert, Sven; Köhler, Sebastian; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of coping styles and the relationships linking coping to emotional distress and quality of life in patients with acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis. METHOD: Cross-sectional cohort study of 143 patients with acquired brain injury and 310 patients with

  3. Effectiveness of a Treatment for Impairments in Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation (T-ScEmo) after traumatic brain injury : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Fasotti, Luciano; Schönherr, Marleen C.; Vink, Martie; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multifaceted Treatment for Social cognition and Emotion regulation (T-ScEmo) in patients with a traumatic brain injury. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury randomly assigned to an experimental T-ScEmo intervention or

  4. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Anger in brain and body: the neural and physiological perturbation of decision-making by emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Zorab, Emma; Navaratnam, Nakulan; Engels, Miriam; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Minati, Ludovico; Dowell, Nicholas G; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and cognition are dynamically coupled to bodily arousal: the induction of anger, even unconsciously, can reprioritise neural and physiological resources toward action states that bias cognitive processes...

  6. Effects of Scene Properties and Emotional Valence on Brain Activations: A Fixation-Related fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kuniecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition. The fMRI data were analyzed using a novel fixation-based event-related (FIBER method, which allows the tracking of brain activity linked to individual fixations. The results revealed that fixating an emotional object was linked to greater deactivation in the right lingual gyrus than fixating the background of an emotional image, while no difference between object and background was found for neutral images. We suggest that deactivation in the lingual gyrus might be linked to inhibition of saccade execution. This was supported by fixation duration results, which showed that in the negative condition, fixations falling on the object were longer than those falling on the background. Furthermore, increase in the image clarity was correlated with fixation-related activity within the lateral occipital complex, the structure linked to object recognition. This correlation was significantly stronger for negative images, presumably due to greater deployment of attention towards emotional objects. Our eye-tracking results are in line with these observations, showing that the chance of fixating an object rose faster for negative images over neutral ones as the level of noise decreased. Overall, our study demonstrated that emotional value of an image changes the way that low and high-level scene properties affect the characteristics of

  7. Graph theory analysis of cortical-subcortical networks in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Olusola; Lamar, Melissa; Leow, Alex; Zhang, Aifeng; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand

    2014-02-01

    Late-life major depression (LLD) is characterized by distinct epidemiologic and psychosocial factors, as well as medical comorbidities that are associated with specific neuroanatomical differences. The purpose of this study was to use interregional correlations of cortical and subcortical volumes to examine cortical-subcortical structural network properties in subjects with LLD compared with healthy comparison subjects. This was a cross-sectional neuroimaging study conducted in the general community. We recruited 73 healthy elderly comparison subjects and 53 subjects with LLD who volunteered in response to advertisements. Brain network connectivity measures were generated by correlating regional volumes after controlling for age, gender, and intracranial volume by using the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Results for overall network strength revealed that LLD networks showed a greater magnitude of associations for both positive and negative correlation weights compared with healthy elderly networks. LLD networks also demonstrated alterations in brain network structure compared with healthy comparison subjects. LLD networks were also more vulnerable to targeted attacks compared with healthy elderly comparison subjects, and this vulnerability was attenuated when controlling for white matter alterations. Overall, this study demonstrates that cortical-subcortical network properties are altered in LLD and may reflect the underlying neuroanatomical vulnerabilities of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  9. Beyond Human Intentions and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eJuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON, these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person’s position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/ bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in an interpersonal and emotional context. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of fMRI studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions versus those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help further develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  10. Beyond human intentions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  11. Human emotion in the brain and the body: Why language matters. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-06-01

    What is an Emotion? This question has fascinated scientific research since William James. Despite the fact that a consensus has been reached about the biological origin of emotions, uniquely human aspects of emotions are still poorly understood. One of these blind spots concerns the relationship between emotion and human language. Historically, many theories imply a duality between emotions on the one hand and cognitive functions such as language on the other hand. Especially for symbolic forms of written language and word processing, it has been assumed that semantic information would bear no relation to bodily, affective, or sensorimotor processing (for an overview see Ref. [1]). The Quartet Theory proposed by Koelsch and colleagues [2] could provide a solution to this problem. It offers a novel, integrative neurofunctional model of human emotions which considers language and emotion as closely related. Crucially, language - be it spoken or written - is assumed to "regulate, modulate, and partly initiate" activity in core affective brain systems in accord with physical needs and individual concerns [cf. page 34, line 995]. In this regard, the Quartet Theory combines assumptions from earlier bioinformational theories of emotions [3], contemporary theories of embodied cognition [4], and appraisal theories such as the Component Process Model [5] into one framework, thereby providing a holistic model for the neuroscientific investigation of human emotion processing at the interface of emotion and cognition, mind and body.

  12. Discrimination of Fearful and Angry Emotional Voices in Sleeping Human Neonates: a Study of the Mismatch Brain Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate processing of human voices with different threat-related emotions is of evolutionarily adaptive value for the survival of individuals. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the sensitivity to threat-related information is present at birth. Using an oddball paradigm, the current study investigated the neural correlates underlying automatic processing of emotional voices of fear and anger in sleeping neonates. Event-related potential data showed that the frontocentral scalp distribution of the neonatal brain could discriminate fearful voices from angry voices; the mismatch response (MMR was larger in response to the deviant stimuli of anger, compared with the standard stimuli of fear. Furthermore, this fear-anger MMR discrimination was observed only when neonates were in active sleep state. Although the neonates’ sensitivity to threat-related voices is not likely associated with a conceptual understanding of fearful and angry emotions, this special discrimination in early life may provide a foundation for later emotion and social cognition development.

  13. COMT Val158Met polymorphism, verbalizing of emotion and activation of affective brain systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; Bruggeman, Richard; Laroi, Frank; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Kema, Ido; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been shown to influence performance on cognitive and emotional tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that the Met allele might be less advantageous than the Val allele with respect to emotional processing.

  14. Emotion regulation in children with behavior problems: Linking behavioral and brain processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, I.; Meusel, L.A.; Lamm, C.; Woltering, S.; Lewis, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have shown that aggressive children exhibit rigid (rather than flexible) parent–child interactions; these rigid repertoires may provide the context through which children fail to acquire emotion-regulation skills. Difficulties in regulating emotion are associated with minimal activity

  15. Different Brain Activities Predict Retrieval Success during Emotional and Semantic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Brandeis, Daniel; Perrig, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing line of evidence supporting the idea that the formation of lasting memories involves neural activity preceding stimulus presentation. Following this line, we presented words in an incidental learning setting and manipulated the prestimulus state by asking the participants to perform either an emotional (neutral or emotional)…

  16. Epigenetic mechanisms and associated brain circuits in the regulation of positive emotions: A role for transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, Simona; Guffanti, Guia; Fallon, James; Macciardi, Fabio

    2016-10-15

    Epigenetic programming and reprogramming are at the heart of cellular differentiation and represent developmental and evolutionary mechanisms in both germline and somatic cell lines. Only about 2% of our genome is composed of protein-coding genes, while the remaining 98%, once considered "junk" DNA, codes for regulatory/epigenetic elements that control how genes are expressed in different tissues and across time from conception to death. While we already know that epigenetic mechanisms are at play in cancer development and in regulating metabolism (cellular and whole body), the role of epigenetics in the developing prenatal and postnatal brain, and in maintaining a proper brain activity throughout the various stages of life, in addition to having played a critical role in human evolution, is a relatively new domain of knowledge. Here we present the current state-of-the-art techniques and results of these studies within the domain of emotions, and then speculate on how genomic and epigenetic mechanisms can modify and potentially alter our emotional (limbic) brain and affect our social interactions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2944-2954, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early neurone loss in Alzheimer's disease: cortical or subcortical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Brückner, Martina K; Morawski, Markus; Jäger, Carsten; Gertz, Hermann-Josef

    2015-02-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disorder where the distribution of pathology throughout the brain is not random but follows a predictive pattern used for pathological staging. While the involvement of defined functional systems is fairly well established for more advanced stages, the initial sites of degeneration are still ill defined. The prevailing concept suggests an origin within the transentorhinal and entorhinal cortex (EC) from where pathology spreads to other areas. Still, this concept has been challenged recently suggesting a potential origin of degeneration in nonthalamic subcortical nuclei giving rise to cortical innervation such as locus coeruleus (LC) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). To contribute to the identification of the early site of degeneration, here, we address the question whether cortical or subcortical degeneration occurs more early and develops more quickly during progression of AD. To this end, we stereologically assessed neurone counts in the NbM, LC and EC layer-II in the same AD patients ranging from preclinical stages to severe dementia. In all three areas, neurone loss becomes detectable already at preclinical stages and is clearly manifest at prodromal AD/MCI. At more advanced AD, cell loss is most pronounced in the NbM > LC > layer-II EC. During early AD, however, the extent of cell loss is fairly balanced between all three areas without clear indications for a preference of one area. We can thus not rule out that there is more than one way of spreading from its site of origin or that degeneration even occurs independently at several sites in parallel.

  18. P2-27: Electrophysiological Correlates of Conscious and Unconscious Processing of Emotional Faces in Individuals with High and Low Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Vukusic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available LeDoux (1996 The Emotional Brain has suggested that subconsciouss presentation of fearful emotional information is relayed to the amygdala along a rapid subcortical route. Rapid emotion processing is important because it alerts other parts of brain to emotionally salient information. It also produces immediate reflexive responses to threating stimuli in comparison to slower conscious appraisal, which is of important adaptive survival value. Current theoretical models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD have linked impairments in the processing of emotional information to amygdala dysfunction. It can be suggested that impairment in face processing found in autism may be the result of impaired rapid subconscious processing of emotional information which does not make faces socially salient. Previous studies examined subconscious processing of emotional stimuli with backward masking paradigms by using very brief presentation of emotional face stimuli proceeded by a mask. We used an event-related potential (ERP study within a backward masking paradigm with subjects with low and high autistic tendencies as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ questionnaire. The time course of processing of fearful and happy facial expressions and an emotionally neutral face was investigated during subliminal (16 ms and supraliminal (166 ms stimuli presentation. The task consisted of an explicit categorization of emotional and neutral faces. We looked at ERP components N2, P3a, and also N170 for differences between subjects with low ( 19 AQ.

  19. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise increases mTOR signaling in brain regions involved in cognition and emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Brian A; Hake, Holly S; Ishiwata, Takayuki; Farmer, Caroline E; Loetz, Esteban C; Fleshner, Monika; Bland, Sondra T; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2017-04-14

    Exercise can enhance learning and memory and produce resistance against stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. In rats, these beneficial effects of exercise occur regardless of exercise controllability: both voluntary and forced wheel running produce stress-protective effects. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of exercise remain unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a translation regulator important for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. mTOR has been implicated in enhancing learning and memory as well as antidepressant effects. Moreover, mTOR is sensitive to exercise signals such as metabolic factors. The effects of exercise on mTOR signaling, however, remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that exercise, regardless of controllability, increases levels of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) in brain regions important for learning and emotional behavior. Rats were exposed to 6 weeks of either sedentary (locked wheel), voluntary, or forced wheel running conditions. At 6 weeks, rats were sacrificed during peak running and levels of p-mTOR were measured using immunohistochemistry. Overall, both voluntary and forced exercise increased p-mTOR-positive neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala compared to locked wheel controls. Exercise, regardless of controllability, also increased numbers of p-mTOR-positive glia in the striatum, hippocampus, and amygdala. For both neurons and glia, the largest increase in p-mTOR positive cells was observed after voluntary running, with forced exercise causing a more modest increase. Interestingly, voluntary exercise preferentially increased p-mTOR in astrocytes (GFAP+), while forced running increased p-mTOR in microglia (CD11+) in the inferior dentate gyrus. Results suggest that mTOR signaling is sensitive to exercise, but subtle differences exist depending on exercise controllability

  1. Brain imaging investigation of the impairing effect of emotion on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gloria; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Morey, Rajendra; Wang, Lihong; McCarthy, Gregory; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-02-01

    Emotions can impact cognition by exerting both enhancing (e.g., better memory for emotional events) and impairing (e.g., increased emotional distractibility) effects (reviewed in (1)). Complementing our recent protocol (2) describing a method that allows investigation of the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion (see also (1, 3-5)), here we present a protocol that allows investigation of the neural correlates of the detrimental impact of emotion on cognition. The main feature of this method is that it allows identification of reciprocal modulations between activity in a ventral neural system, involved in 'hot' emotion processing (HotEmo system), and a dorsal system, involved in higher-level 'cold' cognitive/executive processing (ColdEx system), which are linked to cognitive performance and to individual variations in behavior (reviewed in (1)). Since its initial introduction (6), this design has proven particularly versatile and influential in the elucidation of various aspects concerning the neural correlates of the detrimental impact of emotional distraction on cognition, with a focus on working memory (WM), and of coping with such distraction (7,11), in both healthy (8-11) and clinical participants (12-14).

  2. Spontaneous emotion regulation: differential effects on evoked brain potentials and facial muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Ramona; Conzelmann, Annette; Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Late positive potentials (LPPs) were found to be decreased during down-regulation and increased during up-regulation of positive and negative emotions. However, previous studies lack ecological validity, since they explicitly instructed their participants to use certain regulation strategies. The goal of our study was to test an ecologically more valid paradigm of emotion regulation. We therefore investigated the effects of freely chosen emotion regulation strategies on LPPs and additionally assessed facial EMG responses and valence and arousal ratings as control variables. Responses to positive IAPS pictures were marked by pleasant valence ratings and high activations of M. zygomaticus major, negative pictures elicited unpleasant valence ratings and high activations of M. corrugator supercilii, and both, positive and negative pictures, went along with increased arousal ratings and LPPs. Importantly, ratings and EMG activity were intensified through up-regulation and attenuated through down-regulation of emotions, while LPPs were increased through both up-and down-regulation. We conclude that LPPs in paradigms with free choice of emotion regulation strategies might be a marker of attentional resources required for the selection of adequate emotion up- and down-regulation strategies, while LPP effects following emotion regulation with specific, instructed strategies reflect modulated arousal processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered Brain Activation during Emotional Face Processing in Relation to Both Diagnosis and Polygenic Risk of Bipolar Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tesli

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a highly heritable disorder with polygenic inheritance. Among the most consistent findings from functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies are limbic hyperactivation and dorsal hypoactivation. However, the relation between reported brain functional abnormalities and underlying genetic risk remains elusive. This is the first cross-sectional study applying a whole-brain explorative approach to investigate potential influence of BD case-control status and polygenic risk on brain activation.A BD polygenic risk score (PGRS was estimated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD case-control study, and assigned to each individual in our independent sample (N=85 BD cases and 121 healthy controls (HC, all of whom participated in an fMRI emotional faces matching paradigm. Potential differences in BOLD response across diagnostic groups were explored at whole-brain level in addition to amygdala as a region of interest. Putative effects of BD PGRS on brain activation were also investigated.At whole-brain level, BD cases presented with significantly lower cuneus/precuneus activation than HC during negative face processing (Z-threshold=2.3 as cluster-level correction. The PGRS was associated positively with increased right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG activation during negative face processing. For amygdala activation, there were no correlations with diagnostic status or PGRS.These findings are in line with previous reports of reduced precuneus and altered rIFG activation in BD. While these results demonstrate the ability of PGRS to reveal underlying genetic risk of altered brain activation in BD, the lack of convergence of effects at diagnostic and PGRS level suggests that this relation is a complex one.

  4. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and brain function during emotional distraction from cognitive processing in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonin signaling may predict differences in brain circuitry involved in emotion processing and deficits associated with PTSD. In healthy individuals, common functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 have been shown to modulate amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC activity in response to salient emotional stimuli. Similar patterns of differential neural responses to emotional stimuli have been demonstrated in PTSD but genetic factors influencing these activations have yet to be examined. Methods We investigated whether SLC6A4 promoter polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and several downstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs modulated activity of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion in post-9/11 veterans with PTSD. We used functional MRI to examine neural activity in a PTSD group (n = 22 and a trauma-exposed control group (n = 20 in response to trauma-related images presented as task-irrelevant distractors during the active maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory task. Regions of interest were derived by contrasting activation for the most distracting and least distracting conditions across participants. Results In patients with PTSD, when compared to trauma-exposed controls, rs16965628 (associated with serotonin transporter gene expression modulated task-related ventrolateral PFC activation and 5-HTTLPR tended to modulate left amygdala activation. Subsequent to combat-related trauma, these SLC6A4 polymorphisms may bias serotonin signaling and the neural circuitry mediating cognitive control of emotion in patients with PTSD. Conclusions The SLC6A4 SNP rs16965628 and 5-HTTLPR are associated with a bias in neural responses to traumatic reminders and cognitive control of emotions in patients with PTSD. Functional MRI may help identify

  5. Preserved episodic memory in subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura; Sherman, Elisabeth; Langfitt, John; Berg, Michel; Connolly, Mary

    2004-05-01

    Neuropsychological profiles of four patients with subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are presented to delineate further the phenotype of this disorder. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of cognitive functioning, including intelligence, processing speed, attention, language, visuomotor skills, memory, and fine motor ability were administered to four patients with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of SBH. Despite intellectual impairment and other severe cognitive deficits, all four patients displayed relatively intact episodic memory. This selective sparing of memory functions has not been previously reported in individuals with SBH and suggests that doublecortin does not play a role in the development of memory systems in the mesial temporal region, which tend to be spared in SBH.

  6. Enhanced brain susceptibility to emotional stimuli in adolescents: EEG oscillatory evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxin eMeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our recent event-related potential (ERP study showed that adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative events compared to adults, regardless of the valence strength of the events. The current work aimed to confirm this age-related difference in response to emotional stimuli of diverse intensities by examining EEG oscillatory power in time-frequency analysis. Methods: Time-frequency analyses were performed on the Electroencephalography (EEG data recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults during a covert emotional task. The results showed a significant age by emotion interaction effect in the theta and beta oscillatory power during the 500-600ms. Results: Adolescents showed significantly less pronounced theta spectral power (5.5-7.5Hz for HN stimuli, and larger beta (18-20Hz spectral power for both HN and MN stimuli, in comparison with neutral stimuli. By contrast, adults exhibited no significant emotion effects in theta and beta frequency bands. In addition, the analysis of the alpha spectral power (10.5-12 Hz; 850-950ms showed a main effect of emotion, while the emotion by age interaction was not significant. Irrespective of adolescents or adults, HN and MN stimuli elicited enhanced alpha suppression compared to Neutral stimuli, while the alpha power was similar across HN and MN conditions.Conclusions: These results confirmed prior findings that adolescents are more sensitive to emotionally negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of emotion intensity, possibly due to the developing prefrontal control system during adolescence.

  7. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-08-01

    Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. © 2015 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  9. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J; Bermudez, P; Evans, A C

    1999-04-01

    Neural correlates of the often-powerful emotional responses to music are poorly understood. Here we used positron emission tomography to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes related to affective responses to music. Ten volunteers were scanned while listening to six versions of a novel musical passage varying systematically in degree of dissonance. Reciprocal CBF covariations were observed in several distinct paralimbic and neocortical regions as a function of dissonance and of perceived pleasantness/unpleasantness. The findings suggest that music may recruit neural mechanisms similar to those previously associated with pleasant/unpleasant emotional states, but different from those underlying other components of music perception, and other emotions such as fear.

  10. Emotional distress and quality of life in relatives of patients with severe brain injury: the first month after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Lykke Mortensen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    31 primary relatives of patients with severe brain injury. The participants were recruited at admission to Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup. All relatives completed the depression and anxiety scales from SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist) and the Role Emotional, Social...... of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression at the time of admission. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating interventions in the acute phase....... Function, Mental Health and Vitality scale of the SF-36 approximately 36 days after injury. Data concerning severity of injury, the patients' level of consciousness and function was also collected. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: The participants had significantly lower scores on all quality of life scales (p...

  11. Hippocampal-cortical interaction during periods of subcortical silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, N K; Eschenko, O; Murayama, Y; Augath, M; Steudel, T; Evrard, H C; Besserve, M; Oeltermann, A

    2012-11-22

    Hippocampal ripples, episodic high-frequency field-potential oscillations primarily occurring during sleep and calmness, have been described in mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys and humans, and so far they have been associated with retention of previously acquired awake experience. Although hippocampal ripples have been studied in detail using neurophysiological methods, the global effects of ripples on the entire brain remain elusive, primarily owing to a lack of methodologies permitting concurrent hippocampal recordings and whole-brain activity mapping. By combining electrophysiological recordings in hippocampus with ripple-triggered functional magnetic resonance imaging, here we show that most of the cerebral cortex is selectively activated during the ripples, whereas most diencephalic, midbrain and brainstem regions are strongly and consistently inhibited. Analysis of regional temporal response patterns indicates that thalamic activity suppression precedes the hippocampal population burst, which itself is temporally bounded by massive activations of association and primary cortical areas. These findings suggest that during off-line memory consolidation, synergistic thalamocortical activity may be orchestrating a privileged interaction state between hippocampus and cortex by silencing the output of subcortical centres involved in sensory processing or potentially mediating procedural learning. Such a mechanism would cause minimal interference, enabling consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory.

  12. Mirroring Pain in the Brain: Emotional Expression versus Motor Imitation: e0107526

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesley Budell; Miriam Kunz; Philip L Jackson; Pierre Rainville

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain expressions using a two-task paradigm, and including both observation and execution of the expressions...

  13. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to

  14. Binding neutral information to emotional contexts: Brain dynamics of long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Moltó, Javier; Poy, Rosario; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, effects of an emotionally charged context on memory for associated neutral elements is also important, particularly in trauma and stress-related disorders, where strong memories are often activated by neutral cues due to their emotional associations. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate long-term recognition memory (1-week delay) for neutral objects that had been paired with emotionally arousing or neutral scenes during encoding. Context effects were clearly evident in the ERPs: An early frontal ERP old/new difference (300-500 ms) was enhanced for objects encoded in unpleasant compared to pleasant and neutral contexts; and a late central-parietal old/new difference (400-700 ms) was observed for objects paired with both pleasant and unpleasant contexts but not for items paired with neutral backgrounds. Interestingly, objects encoded in emotional contexts (and novel objects) also prompted an enhanced frontal early (180-220 ms) positivity compared to objects paired with neutral scenes indicating early perceptual significance. The present data suggest that emotional--particularly unpleasant--backgrounds strengthen memory for items encountered within these contexts and engage automatic and explicit recognition processes. These results could help in understanding binding mechanisms involved in the activation of trauma-related memories by neutral cues.

  15. Comparative neuropsychology of cortical and subcortical dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M; Oscar-Berman, M

    1986-11-01

    The terms "cortical" and "subcortical" dementia are controversial; however, the clinical distinction between them is real. For example, although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (prototypical of cortical and subcortical dementia, respectively) share clinical features, they differ in the presence of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in Alzheimer's disease but not in Parkinson's dementia. We review our studies aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the differences between these neurological disorders. Experimental paradigms adopted from animal models were used to study the functional anatomy and neuropsychological characteristics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The tasks administered include delayed alternation (DA) and delayed response (DR), which are sensitive to frontal system damage, and tactile discrimination learning (TOL) and reversal (TRL) paradigms sensitive to parietal system damage. Alzheimer's patients were significantly impaired on all tasks whereas Parkinsonians with dementia were impaired only on DR and TRL. Consideration of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in DA, DR, TOL, and TRL appears to have sharpened the distinction between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. Dementia in Alzheimer's disease may involve dorsolateral frontal, orbitofrontal and parietal systems. In contrast, dementia in Parkinson's disease may involve prominent dorsolateral frontal system damage.

  16. Does gender matter? Differences in social-emotional behavior among infants and toddlers before and after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a common cause of acquired disability in childhood. While much is known about cognitive sequelae of brain trauma, gender-specific social-emotional problems in children with mild traumatic brain injury is far less understood. The aims of the study were to investigate gender differences in social-emotional behavior before and after mild traumatic brain injury. Thirty-five 3- to 65-month-old children with mild traumatic brain injury and 70 controls were assessed with Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. Nine months later, 27 of 35 patients and 54 of 70 controls were reassessed. We found that before injury, boys had more self-regulation and autonomy difficulties and girls had problems with adaptive functioning. Nine months after injury, boys continued to struggle with self-regulation and autonomy and new difficulties with interaction had emerged, whereas in girls, problems in interaction had evolved. Even mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood disrupts normal social-emotional development having especially devastating influence on interaction skills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Sangster, Matthew-Donald; Collins, Nancy; Brown, Lucy L

    2014-07-01

    Theory and research suggest that sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), found in roughly 20% of humans and over 100 other species, is a trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsiveness to the environment and to social stimuli. Self-report studies have shown that high-SPS individuals are strongly affected by others' moods, but no previous study has examined neural systems engaged in response to others' emotions. This study examined the neural correlates of SPS (measured by the standard short-form Highly Sensitive Person [HSP] scale) among 18 participants (10 females) while viewing photos of their romantic partners and of strangers displaying positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions. One year apart, 13 of the 18 participants were scanned twice. Across all conditions, HSP scores were associated with increased brain activation of regions involved in attention and action planning (in the cingulate and premotor area [PMA]). For happy and sad photo conditions, SPS was associated with activation of brain regions involved in awareness, integration of sensory information, empathy, and action planning (e.g., cingulate, insula, inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], middle temporal gyrus [MTG], and PMA). As predicted, for partner images and for happy facial photos, HSP scores were associated with stronger activation of brain regions involved in awareness, empathy, and self-other processing. These results provide evidence that awareness and responsiveness are fundamental features of SPS, and show how the brain may mediate these traits.

  18. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Abutalebi, Jubin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2005-12-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological language switching and mixing were found in both languages. Remission of these phenomena was reflected on brain perfusion SPECT revealing improved perfusion in the left frontal lobe and left caudate nucleus. The parallelism between the evolution of language symptoms and the SPECT findings may demonstrate that a subcortical left frontal lobe circuity is crucially involved in language switching and mixing.

  19. Biophysical changes in subcortical nuclei: the impact of diabetes and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Cohen, J; Lamar, M; Bhaumik, D

    2016-04-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is a neuroimaging technique that is frequently used to characterize the biophysical abnormalities in both gray and white matter regions of the brain. In our study, we used MT to examine the integrity of key nodes in frontal-subcortical circuits in four subject groups: patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without major depression (MDD), a healthy control group, and a group diagnosed with MDD without diabetes. In the MDD group, MT studies demonstrated lower magnetization transfer ratios (MTR), a marker of abnormalities in the macromolecular protein pool, in the thalami when compared with the control groups. The group with diabetes and MDD showed lower MTR in the globus pallidus when compared with the group with MDD. Biophysical measures, in subcortical nuclei, correlated inversely with measures of glycemic control, cerebrovascular burden and depression scores. These findings have broad implications for the underlying neuronal circuitry and neurobiology of mood disorders.

  20. The rehabilitation of attention in patients with mild cognitive impairment and brain subcortical vascular changes using the Attention Process Training-II. The RehAtt Study: rationale, design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Valenti, Raffaella; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect. The RehAtt study is designed as a 3-year prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: (1) MCI defined according to Winblad et al. criteria; (2) evidence of impairment across attention neuropsychological tests; (3) evidence on MRI of moderate/severe white matter hyperintensities. All enrolled patients are evaluated at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, according to an extensive clinical, functional, MRI and neuropsychological protocol. The baseline RehAtt cohort includes 44 patients (66 % males, mean ± SD age and years of education 75.3 ± 6.8 and 8.3 ± 4.3, respectively). After baseline assessment, patients have been randomly assigned to 'attention training' or 'standard care'. Treatments and follow-up visits at 6 months are completed, while follow-up visits at 12 months are ongoing. This study is the first attempt to reduce attention deficits in patients affected by MCI with SVD. The results of this pilot experience will represent an essential background for designing larger multicenter, prospective, double-blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. NCT02033850 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier).

  1. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Loktev, K V; Korenyok, V V; Aftanas, L I

    2014-12-05

    Despite growing interest in meditation as a tool for alternative therapy of stress-related and psychosomatic diseases, brain mechanisms of beneficial influences of meditation practice on health and quality of life are still unclear. We propose that the key point is a persistent change in emotional functioning, specifically the modulation of the early appraisal of motivational significance of events. The main aim was to study the effects of long-term meditation practice on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during affective picture viewing. ERPs were recorded in 20 long-term Sahaja Yoga meditators and 20 control subjects without prior experience in meditation. The meditators' mid-latency (140-400ms) ERPs were attenuated for both positive and negative pictures (i.e. there were no arousal-related increases in ERP positivity) and this effect was more prominent over the right hemisphere. However, we found no differences in the long latency (400-800ms) responses to emotional images, associated with meditation practice. In addition we found stronger ERP negativity in the time window 200-300ms for meditators compared to the controls, regardless of picture valence. We assume that long-term meditation practice enhances frontal top-down control over fast automatic salience detection, based on amygdala functions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect on emotions and brain activity by the direct/indirect lighting in the residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Bin; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore how direct/indirect lighting affects emotions and brain oscillations compared to the direct lighting when brightness and color temperature are controlled. Twenty-eight subjects (12 females; mean age 22.5) participated. The experimental conditions consisted of two lighting environments: direct/indirect lighting (400 lx downlight, 300 lx uplight) and direct lighting (700 lx downlight). On each trial, a luminance environment was presented for 4 min, followed by participants rated their emotional feelings of the lighting environment. EEG data were recorded during the experiment. Spectral analysis was performed for the range of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma ranges. The participants felt cooler and more pleasant and theta oscillations on the F4, F8, T4, and TP7 electrodes were more enhanced in the direct/indirect lighting environment compared to the direct lighting environment. There was significant correlation between the "cool" rating and the theta power of the F8 electrode. The participants felt more pleasant in the direct/indirect lighting environment, indicating that space with direct/indirect lighting modulated subjective perception. Additionally, our results suggest that theta oscillatory activity can be used as a biological marker that reflects emotional status in different lighting environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal use and emotion regulatory brain function in combat-exposed veterans with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Rabinak, Christine A; Rauch, Sheila A M; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit marked deficits in emotion regulation. Past research has demonstrated underengagement of the prefrontal cortex during regulation of negative affect in those with PTSD, but has been unable to find evidence of impaired downregulation of the amygdala. One possibility is that there exists variability in amygdala reactivity that cuts across diagnostic status and which can be characterized using a continuous measure of individual differences. In healthy/nontraumatized volunteers, individual variability in amygdala engagement during emotion processing and regulation has been shown to relate to habitual use of regulation strategies. The current study examined whether self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression regulation strategies correlated with brain activation during cognitive reappraisal in combat-exposed veterans with (n = 28) and without PTSD (combat-exposed controls, CEC; n = 20). Results showed that greater self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal was associated with less activation in the right amygdala during volitional attempts to attenuate negative affect using reappraisal, irrespective of PTSD diagnosis. This finding is in line with prior work and extends evidence of an association between habitual use of regulation strategies and amygdala engagement during emotion regulation to a trauma-exposed sample of individuals both with and without PTSD. Furthermore, by providing evidence of individual differences in regulation-related amygdala response in a traumatized sample, this result may increase understanding of the neural mechanisms that support variability in symptom manifestation observed across individuals with PTSD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The on-line processing of socio-emotional information in prototypical scenarios: inferences from brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth; Murphy, Kirsty; Mackenzie, Ian G

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the time course of the mechanisms involved in the on-line processing of socio-emotional information. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue using vignettes that described prototypical, social scenarios. An initial sentence established the social context and the following target sentence ended with a critical word that informed the reader of the character's socio-emotional response to the situation. Critical words that mismatched rather than matched with a character's expected feelings elicited a larger ERP negativity (N400) ~200-500 ms after word onset, followed by a larger frontal positivity. Dipole source modeling results indicated that an anterior temporal lobe source accounted for the N400-like effect, which we attribute to the increased demands of integrating general knowledge about social situations (e.g. scripts) with personal- and context-specific information. An additional mediofrontal source contributed to the later ERP effect and presumably reflects high-level mindreading functions. Together, these findings indicate that readers rapidly infer and evaluate on-line a character's likely socio-emotional response based on the prototypical information provided by the text.

  5. Subcortical volumes differ in Parkinson's disease motor subtypes: New insights into the pathophysiology of disparate symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Rosenberg-Katz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD can be classified, based on their motor symptoms, into the Postural Instability Gait Difficulty (PIGD subtype or the Tremor Dominant (TD subtype. Gray matter changes between the subtypes have been reported using whole brain Voxel-Based Morphometry, however, the evaluation of subcortical gray matter volumetric differences between these subtypes using automated volumetric analysis has only been studied in relatively small sample sizes and needs further study to confirm that the negative findings were not due to the sample size. Therefore, we aim to evaluate volumetric changes in subcortical regions and their association with PD motor subtypes. Methods: Automated volumetric MRI analysis quantified the subcortical gray matter volumes of patients with PD in the PIGD subtype (n=30, in the TD subtype (n=30, and in 28 healthy controls. Results: Significantly lower amygdala and globus pallidus gray matter volume was detected in the PIGD, as compared to the TD subtype, with a trend for an association between globus pallidus degeneration and higher (worse PIGD scores. Furthermore, among all the patients with PD, higher hippocampal volumes were correlated with a higher (better dual tasking gait speed (r=0.30, p<0.002 and with a higher global cognitive score (r=0.36, p<0.0001. Lower putamen volume was correlated (r=-0.28, p<0.004 with higher (worse freezing of gait score, an episodic symptom which is common among the PIGD subtype. As expected, differences detected between healthy controls and patients in the PD subgroups included regions within the amygdala and the dorsal striatum but not the ventral striatum, a brain region that is generally considered to be more preserved in PD.Conclusions: The disparate patterns of subcortical degeneration can explain some of the differences in symptoms between the PD subtypes such as gait disturbances and cognitive functions. These findings may, in the future, help to

  6. Are there neurophenotypes for asthma? Functional brain imaging of the interaction between emotion and inflammation in asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Rosenkranz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease noteworthy for its vulnerability to stress and emotion-induced symptom intensification. The fact that psychological stress and mood and anxiety disorders appear to increase expression of asthma symptoms suggests that neural signaling between the brain and lung at least partially modulates the inflammatory response and lung function. However, the precise nature of the neural pathways implicated in modulating asthma symptoms is unknown. Moreover, the extent to which variations in neural signaling predict different phenotypes of disease expression has not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural signals in response to asthma-specific emotional cues, following allergen exposure, in asthmatics with a dual response to allergen challenge (significant inflammation, asthmatics with only an immediate response (minimal inflammation, and healthy controls. The anterior insular cortex was differentially activated by asthma-relevant cues, compared to general negative cues, during the development of the late phase of the dual response in asthmatics. Moreover, the degree of this differential activation predicted changes in airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that neurophenotypes for asthma may be identifiable by neural reactivity of brain circuits known to be involved in processing emotional information. Those with greater activation in the anterior insula, in response to asthma-relevant psychological stimuli, exhibit greater inflammatory signals in the lung and increased severity of disease and may reflect a subset of asthmatics most vulnerable to the development of psychopathology. This approach offers an entirely new target for potential therapeutic intervention in asthma.

  7. Review on Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation and Music: Implications for Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiancheng; Song, Bei; Chen, Andrew C N; Sun, Changan; Zhou, Jiaxian; Zhu, Haidong; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of emotion regulation and the neural changes that are evoked by music exposure. However, the link between music and emotion regulation is poorly understood. The objectives of this review are to (1) synthesize what is known about the neural correlates of emotion regulation and music-evoked emotions, and (2) consider the possibility of therapeutic effects of music on emotion dysregulation. Music-evoked emotions can modulate activities in both cortical and subcortical systems, and across cortical-subcortical networks. Functions within these networks are integral to generation and regulation of emotions. Since dysfunction in these networks are observed in numerous psychiatric disorders, a better understanding of neural correlates of music exposure may lead to more systematic and effective use of music therapy in emotion dysregulation.

  8. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G; Toomey, John M; Balsters, Joshua H; Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants' ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic-cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck.

  9. Brain Research, Learning and Emotions: Implications for Education Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Christina; Miyamoto, Koji; Della-Chiesa, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Recent advancements in neuroscience heighten its relevance to education. Newly developed imaging technologies enable scientists to peer into the working brain for the first time, providing powerful insights into how we learn. Research reveals that the brain is not a stable and isolated entity, but a dynamic system that is keenly responsive to…

  10. Rethinking: What is an emotion? : Hierarchial Hypothesis of Emotions based on Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an evolutionary hierarchical hypothesis that feelings/emotions in humans consist of four sub-systems of emotion based on brain structure, brain functions, brain evolution and emotional evolution. Feelings/emotions in humans are composed of primitive emotions, core emotions, social emotions/feelings and intellectual feelings, with respect to evolution. Primitive emotions are composed of two emotions, well and unwell states, that are elicited by positive and negative reinfor...

  11. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Robin IM

    2007-01-01

    The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis) is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20) add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social me