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Sample records for subcortical 5-ht2a receptor

  1. Cortical and subcortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Rasmussen, Hans; Kristiansen, Klaus Nyegaard

    2008-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor is suspected to be involved in a number of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In particular, atypical antipsychotics have antagonistic effects on the 5-HT(2A) receptors, supporting a specific role of the 5-HT(2A) receptor in the pathophysiology...... of this disease. The aim of this study is to investigate cortical and subcortical 5-HT(2A) binding in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. Fifteen neuroleptic-naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 27.5+/-4.5 years), 11 men and 4 women, and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age (28.......5+/-5.7 years) and gender underwent a 40 min positron emission tomography (PET) study using the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, [(18)F]altanserin, as a radioligand. PET images were co-registered to 3 T magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each individual subject, and ROIs were applied automatically onto the individual...

  2. Antagonist Functional Selectivity: 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Antagonists Differentially Regulate 5-HT2A Receptor Protein Level In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Prem N.; Kroeze, Wesley K.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the 5-HT2A receptor is implicated in both the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Although the essential role of 5-HT2A receptors in atypical antipsychotic drug actions is widely accepted, the contribution of 5-HT2A down-regulation to their efficacy is not known. We hypothesized that down-regulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors contributes to the therapeutic action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of chronically administere...

  3. Inverse agonist activity of sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT2A-receptor antagonist, at the constitutively active human 5-HT2A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntasir, Habib Abul; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Ishiguro, Masaji; Ozaki, Masanobu; Nagatomo, Takafumi

    2006-10-01

    Mutations producing constitutively active G-protein coupled receptors have been found in the pathophysiology of several diseases, implying that inverse agonists at the constitutively active receptors may have preferred therapeutic applications. Because of the involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in mediating many cardiovascular diseases, constitutively active mutants of the 5-HT(2A) receptor may be responsible for the disease states. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the inverse agonist activity of sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A)-receptor antagonist, and its active metabolite, M-1; and we compared their activities with those of other 5-HT(2A)-receptor antagonists such as ritanserin, ketanserin, and cyproheptadine. Using a constitutively active mutant (C322K) of the human 5-HT(2A) receptor, we demonstrated that like other 5-HT(2A)-receptor antagonists, sarpogrelate acts as a potent inverse agonist by significantly reducing basal inositol phosphate levels. However, there were no significant differences between sarpogrelate and other 5-HT(2A)-receptor antagonists for their inverse agonist activity. Compared with the wild type receptor, mutant receptor displayed significantly higher affinity for 5-HT and lower affinity for sarpogrelate. These results indicate that stabilization of the inactive conformation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor may be a key component of the mechanism of action of sarpogrelate.

  4. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa

    2009-01-01

    of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...... an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...... in dorsal hippocampus (77 +/- 35%, p effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A receptor...

  5. BDNF downregulates 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in hippocampal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V; Santini, M A; Marcussen, Anders Bue

    2009-01-01

    Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT(2A)) have been related to depression pathology. Specific 5-HT(2A) receptor changes seen in BDNF conditional mutant mice suggest that BDNF regulates the 5-HT(2A) receptor level. Here we show a direct effect of BDNF...... on 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice...... with reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT(2A), but not of 5-HT(1A), receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures...

  6. Cocaine potentiates multiple 5-HT2A receptor signaling pathways and is associated with decreased phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jade M; Carrasco, Gonzalo A

    2015-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder in which the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used Sprague-Dawley rats injected with either saline (1 ml/kg) or cocaine (15 mg/kg) for 7 days (b.i.d, i.p) to study the effect of cocaine on several components of 5-HT2A receptor signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFCx). We detected enhanced activation of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated phospholipase C beta (PLCβ) and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 activity in PFCx of cocaine-treated rats. Although we were unable to detect changes in the protein levels of several proteins associated with 5-HT2A receptor signaling such as caveolin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, β-arrestin 2, etc., we found a significant reduction in the phosphorylation status of cortical 5-HT2A receptors. This phenomenon was associated with reduced levels of G-protein receptor kinase 5 (GRK5), but not GRK2 or RSK2, proteins. Our results suggest that decreased phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors could mediate, at least in part, the cocaine-induced potentiation of multiple 5-HT2A receptor signaling pathways in rat PFCx. As discussed in this manuscript, we hypothesize that preventing these neuroadaptations in 5-HT2A receptor signaling may alleviate some of the aversive withdrawal-associated symptoms that contribute to relapse to cocaine abuse.

  7. Antagonist Functional Selectivity: 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Antagonists Differentially Regulate 5-HT2A Receptor Protein Level In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Prem N.; Kroeze, Wesley K.; Farrell, Martilias S.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the 5-HT2A receptor is implicated in both the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Although the essential role of 5-HT2A receptors in atypical antipsychotic drug actions is widely accepted, the contribution of 5-HT2A down-regulation to their efficacy is not known. We hypothesized that down-regulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors contributes to the therapeutic action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of chronically administered antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, and haloperidol) and several 5-HT2A antagonists [ketanserin, altanserin, α-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidinemethanol (M100907), α-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinemethano (M11939), 4-[(2Z)-3-{[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]amino}-3-(2-fluorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-ylidene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one (SR46349B), and pimavanserin], on the phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotor response and cortical 5-HT2A receptor levels in C57BL/6J mice. Clozapine and olanzapine, but not haloperidol, induced receptor down-regulation and attenuated PCP-induced locomotor responses. Of the selective 5-HT2A antagonists tested, only ketanserin caused significant receptor protein down-regulation, whereas SR46349B up-regulated 5-HT2A receptors and potentiated PCP-hyperlocomotion; the other 5-HT2A receptor antagonists were without effect. The significance of these findings with respect to atypical antipsychotic drug action is discussed. PMID:21737536

  8. Growing Evidence for Heterogeneous Synaptic Localization of 5-HT2A Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécamel, Carine; Berthoux, Coralie; Barre, Alexander; Marin, Philippe

    2017-05-17

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor subtype continues to attract attention as a target for numerous psychoactive drugs including psychedelic hallucinogens, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and atypical antipsychotics. 5-HT2A receptors are a principal G protein-coupled receptor subtype mediating the excitatory effects of serotonin. Nonetheless, pre- vs postsynaptic localization of 5HT2A receptors, relative to glutamatergic synapses, has remained controversial. Here, we discuss recent findings highlighting the existence and roles of presynaptic 5-HT2A receptors in regulating glutamatergic transmission and cognition.

  9. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese Ay mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A y mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A y mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A y mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels

  10. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding is increased in patients with Tourette's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbøl, Steven; Pinborg, Lars H.; Regeur, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data have suggested that abnormalities in the serotonergic neurotransmissions in frontal-subcortical circuits are involved in Tourette's syndrome. To test the hypothesis that the brain's 5-HT2A receptor binding is increased in patients with Tourette's syndrome, PET imaging...... was performed. Twenty adults with Tourette's syndrome and 20 healthy control subjects were investigated with PET-[18F]altanserin using a bolus-infusion protocol. Regions of interest were delineated automatically on co-registered MRI images, and partial volume-corrected binding parameters were extracted from...... the PET images. Comparison between control subjects and Tourette's syndrome patients showed increased specific [18F]altanserin binding, not only in the a-priori selected brain regions hypothesized to be involved in Tourette's syndrome, but also post-hoc analysis showed a global up-regulation when testing...

  11. Changes in 5-HT2A receptor expression in untreated, de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melse, Maartje; Tan, Sonny K H; Temel, Yasin; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus J P G; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implied in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor is associated with the regulation of motor function and mood. To assess regional 5-HT2A receptor expression in unmedicated patients with de novo PD. Eight de novo, drug naïve patients with PD and eight healthy control subjects underwent a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan with the highly selective 5-HT2A radioligand 123I-5-I-R91150. In de novo PD patients 5-HT2A receptor binding was significantly reduced in the anterior striatum and the premotor cortex in PD patients compared to controls. In addition, occipital binding was elevated in PD patients. No changes in 5-HT2A receptor binding were found in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. In de novo PD patients, 5-HT2A receptor expression is changed in key areas of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit and occipital cortex. This suggests altered 5-HT neurotransmission to contribute to development of PD motor and non-motor symptoms.

  12. Impaired impulse control is associated with a 5-HT2A receptor polymorphism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Wei J; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Teng-Yi; Chang, Yi-Lin; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-07-30

    The impact of the serotonin2a (5-HT2A) receptor gene on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is inconclusive despite accumulating evidence implicating the 5-HT2A receptor. To simplify the complexity of genetic analysis, we used an endophenotype approach. The relationship between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) performance and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance was examined. Both patients with schizophrenia (n=255) and healthy volunteers (n=380) were recruited. All were genotyped for the -1438A/G polymorphism and assessed with the CPT. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms were used to evaluate patients' clinical symptoms. The distribution of the 5-HT2A genotypes between patients and healthy controls was similar. Impulse control in schizophrenic patients, assessed with the false-alarm rate of the CPT, differed significantly between those with different 5-HT2A genotypes. We hypothesize that the 5-HT2A receptor gene is a modifier gene of schizophrenia and suggest that additional studies are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A QSAR model of Olanzapine derivatives as potential inhibitors for 5-HT2A Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pooja; Rastogi, Aishwarya; Rajpoot, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay; Srivastava, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental disorder, affecting about 21 million people worldwide. It is characterized by symptoms, including distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, disorganized speech, sense of self and behavior. Recently, a numbers of marketed drugs for Schizophrenia are available against dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we docked Olanzapine derivatives (collected from literature) with 5-HT2A Receptor using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1.9.2) and then evaluating the stability of complex structure by calculating RMSD values. NAMD is a parallel, object-oriented molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems. A quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was built using energy-based descriptors as independent variable and pKi value as dependent variable of eleven known Olanzapine derivatives with 5-HT2A Receptor, yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.63861. The predictive performance of QSAR model was assessed using different crossvalidation procedures. Our results suggest that a ligand-receptor binding interaction for 5-HT2A receptor using a QSAR model is promising approach to design more potent 5-HT2A receptor inhibitors prior to their synthesis.

  14. Activation of 5-HT2A/C receptor reduces glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured auditory cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao

    2016-02-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) permeable to chloride only mediate tonic inhibition in the cerebral cortex where glycinergic projection is completely absent. The functional modulation of GlyRs was largely studied in subcortical brain regions with glycinergic transmissions, but the function of cortical GlyRs was rarely addressed. Serotonin could broadly modulate many ion channels through activating 5-HT2 receptor, but whether cortical GlyRs are subjected to serotonergic modulation remains unexplored. The present study adopted patch clamp recordings to examine functional regulation of strychnine-sensitive GlyRs currents in cultured cortical neurons by DOI (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. DOI caused a concentration-dependent reduction of GlyR currents with unchanged reversal potential. This reduction was blocked by the selective receptor antagonists (ritanserin and risperidone) and G protein inhibitor (GDP-β-s) demonstrated that the reducing effect of DOI on GlyR current required the activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Strychnine-sensitive tonic currents revealed the inhibitory tone mediated by nonsynaptic GlyRs, and DOI similarly reduced the tonic inhibition. The impaired microtube-dependent trafficking or clustering of GlyRs was thought to be involved in that nocodazole as a microtube depolymerizing drug largely blocked the inhibition mediated by 5-HT2A/C receptors. Our results suggested that activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors might suppress cortical tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and the findings would provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and possibly facilitate to develop the therapeutic treatment of neurological diseases such as tinnitus through regulating cortical GlyRs.

  15. The effect of prolonged exposure to morphine on canine cerebral 5-HT2A receptors measured with (123)I-R91150 SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Vermeire, Simon; Waelbers, Tim; Croubels, Siska; Duchateau, Luc; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Eersels, Jos; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-07-01

    Down-stream neuronal alterations, including changes in the 5-HT-2A receptor system, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of depression. The present study examined the effect of prolonged opioid treatment on cerebral 5-HT2A receptors. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability was estimated in seven healthy five-year-old female neutered Beagle dogs pre and post 10-day morphine treatment (oral sustained release morphine 20mg twice daily for 10 days) with (123)I-R-91150, a 5-HT2A selective radioligand, and SPECT. 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (BI) for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and the subcortical region were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed-effect model with treatment as fixed effect and dog as random effect. Morphine treatment significantly (P≤0.05) lowered 5-HT2A BIs in the right and left frontal cortex, the right and left temporal cortex, the right and left parietal cortex, and the subcortical region. The decreased cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability following prolonged morphine exposure provides further evidence for an interaction between the opioid and serotonergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Reformulating a Pharmacophore for 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younkin, Jason; Gaitonde, Supriya A; Ellaithy, Amr; Vekariya, Rakesh; Baki, Lia; Moreno, José L; Shah, Sneha; Drossopoulos, Peter; Hideshima, Kelsey S; Eltit, Jose Miguel; González-Maeso, Javier; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Dukat, Malgorzata; Glennon, Richard A

    2016-09-21

    Several pharmacophore models have been proposed for 5-HT2A serotonin receptor antagonists. These typically consist of two aromatic/hydrophobic moieties separated by a given distance from each other, and from a basic amine. Although specified distances might vary, the models are relatively similar in their general construction. Because our preliminary data indicated that two aromatic (hydrophobic) moieties might not be required for such action, we deconstructed the serotonin-dopamine antipsychotic agent risperidone (1) into four smaller structural fragments that were thoroughly examined in 5-HT2A receptor binding and functional (i.e., two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) and intracellular calcium release) assays. It was apparent that truncated risperidone analogues behaved as antagonists. In particular, 6-fluoro-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)benzisoxazole (4) displayed high affinity for 5-HT2A receptors (Ki of ca. 12 nM) relative to risperidone (Ki of ca. 5 nM) and behaved as a potent 5-HT2A serotonin receptor antagonist. These results suggest that multiple aromatic (hydrophobic) moieties are not essential for high-affinity 5-HT2A receptor binding and antagonist activity and that current pharmacophore models for such agents are very much in need of revision.

  17. Structural combination of established 5-HT(2A) receptor ligands: new aspects of the binding mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Vasko; Herth, Matthias M; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    MH.MZ, MDL 100907, and altanserin are structurally similar 4-benzoyl-piperidine derivatives and are well accommodated to receptor interaction models. We combined structural elements of different high-affinity and selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists, as MH.MZ, altanserin, and SR 46349B, to improve......) with a moderate affinity toward the 5-HT(2A) receptor (K(i) = 57 nm). The remarkably reduced affinity of other compounds (4a), (4b), and (4c) (K(i) = 411, 360 and 356 nm respectively) indicates that MH.MZ can only bind to the 5-HT(2A) receptor with the p-fluorophenylethyl residue in a sterically restricted...

  18. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitate apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Chan; Jun, Dae Won; Kwon, Young Il; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2013-04-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are upregulated in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and are therefore thought to play an important role in their activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-HT2A receptor antagonists affect the activation or apoptosis of HSCs in vitro and/or in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, the viability, apoptosis and wound healing ability of LX-2 cells were examined after treatment with various 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Levels of HSC activation markers (procollagen type I, α-SMA, TGF-β and Smad 2/3) were measured. For in vivo experiments, rats were divided into three groups: (i) a control group, (ii) a disease group, in which cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (iii) a treatment group, in which cirrhosis was induced and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (sarpogrelate, 30 mg/kg) was administered. 5-HT2A , but not 5-HT2B receptor mRNA increased with time upon HSC activation. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (ketanserin and sarpogrelate) inhibited viability and wound healing in LX-2 cells and induced apoptosis. Expression of α-SMA and procollagen type I was also inhibited. In the in vivo study, lobular inflammation was reduced in the sarpogrelate-treated group, but there was only slight and statistically insignificant attenuation of periportal fibrosis. Expression of α-SMA, TGF-β and Smad 2/3 was also reduced in the treatment group. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists can reduce inflammation and the activation of HSCs in this cirrhotic model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Current radiosynthesis strategies for 5-HT2A receptor PET tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Matthias M; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2015-06-15

    Serotonin 2A receptors have been implicated in various psychophysiological functions and disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's disease, or schizophrenia. Therefore, neuroimaging of this specific receptor is of significant clinical interest, and it is not surprising that many attempts have been made to develop a suitable 5-HT2A R positron emission tomography-tracer. In this review, we give an overview on the precursor, reference compound synthesis, and the preparation of promising 5-HT2A R radiopharmaceuticals applied in positron emission tomography. We also highlight possible learning outcomes that can be made from these tracer development processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Contribution of 5-HT2A receptors on diaphragmatic recovery after chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J

    2017-10-01

    Unilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) interrupts bulbospinal respiratory pathways innervating ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons, resulting in cessation of ipsilateral diaphragm motor output. Plasticity within the spinal neural circuitry controlling the diaphragm can induce partial recovery of phrenic bursting which correlates with the time-dependent return of spinal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in the vicinity of phrenic motoneurons. The 5-HT 2A receptor subtype is present on phrenic motoneurons and its expression is up-regulated after cervical spinal cord injury; however the functional role of these receptors following injury has not been clearly defined. The present study evaluated the functional role of 5-HT 2A receptors by testing the hypothesis that pharmacologic blockade would attenuate diaphragm activity in rats with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Bilateral diaphragm electromyography (EMG) was performed in vagal-intact and spontaneously breathing rats before and after intravenous administration of the 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (1mg/kg). Intravenous ketanserin significantly attenuated ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity in C2Hx animals but had no impact on diaphragm output in uninjured animals. We conclude that 5-HT 2A receptor activation contributes to the recovery of ipsilateral phrenic motor output after chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Agonist induced-phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein reduces coupling to 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ju; Damjanoska, Katerina J; Singh, Rakesh K; Carrasco, Gonzalo A; Garcia, Francisca; Grippo, Angela J; Landry, Michelle; Sullivan, Nicole R; Battaglia, George; Muma, Nancy A

    2007-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that 24-h treatment with (-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI) causes phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein at serine 154 and that this phosphorylation causes desensitization of serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor signaling in A1A1v cells (Shi et al., 2007). We now report that treatment of A1A1v cells with DOI for 24 h produces a greater reduction in the Bmax of [125I](+/-)-DOI-labeled high-affinity binding sites (46%) than the reduction of [3H]ketanserin binding sites (25%). Although the KD values are not altered, there is a smaller amount of GTPgammaS [guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate]-sensitive [125I](+/-)-DOI binding in DOI-treated cells. These results suggest that DOI treatment causes down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors and reductions in G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors. In contrast, in cells transfected with the phosphorylation state mimic G(alpha11)S154D, GTPgammaS-sensitive [125I](+/-)-DOI binding was decreased by 48%; however, there was no significant difference in the KD and Bmax values of [125I](+/-)-DOI-labeled receptors. The receptor binding experiments suggest that phosphorylation of Galpha11 on serine 154 reduces coupling of 5-HT2A receptors, whereas DOI causes down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in addition to the phosphorylation-induced uncoupling of Galpha11 to 5-HT2A receptors. To determine whether DOI increases phosphorylation of Galphaq/11 protein in vivo, rats were treated with 1 mg/kg/day DOI or saline for 1 to 7 days. Seven days of DOI treatment significantly decreased phospholipase C activity stimulated by an Emax concentration of 5-HT by 40% and increased phosphorylation of Galphaq/11 proteins by 51% in the frontal cortex. These data suggest that DOI causes phosphorylation of Galphaq/11 in vivo and could thereby contribute to the desensitization of 5-HT2A receptors.

  2. Modulation of osteoblast differentiation and bone mass by 5-HT2A receptor signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenjiro; Hirai, Takao; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Izumo, Nobuo; Togari, Akifumi

    2015-09-05

    Recent studies reported that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) may be an endogenous paracrine and/or autocrine factor that is used for intercellular communication in bone cells and between multiple organs regulating bone homeostasis. In the present study, we showed that the administration of MDL11939, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, reduced bone mass in mice. The loss of bone mass in MDL11939-treated mice was associated with impaired bone formation in vivo, as demonstrated by the lower expression of osterix (Osx) and osteocalcin than that in vehicle-treated mice. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in osteoclast numbers between MDL11939- and vehicle-treated mice. The pharmacological blockade of 5-HT2A receptor signaling significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblastic cells. In addition, the knockdown of the 5-HT2A receptor by a siRNA treatment decreased Osx, but not Runx2 gene expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that 5-HT2A receptor signaling mediated bone mass by regulating osteoblast differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clozapine-Induced Locomotor Suppression is Mediated by 5-HT2A Receptors in the Forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOmish, Caitlin E; Lira, Alena; Hanks, James B; Gingrich, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    The need for safer, more effective therapeutics for the treatment of schizophrenia is widely acknowledged. To optimally target novel pharmacotherapies, in addition to establishing the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of antipsychotics, the pathways underlying the most severe side effects must also be elucidated. Here we investigate the role of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A), serotonin 2C (5-HT2C), and dopamine 2 receptors (D2) in mediating adverse effects associated with canonical first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs in mice. Wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice treated with haloperidol, clozapine, and risperidone were assessed for locomotor activity and catalepsy. WT mice showed a marked reduction in locomotor activity following acute administration of haloperidol and high-dose risperidone, which was most likely secondary to the severe catalepsy caused by these compounds. Clozapine also dramatically reduced locomotor activity, but in the absence of catalepsy. Interestingly, 5-HT2A KO mice were cataleptic following haloperidol and risperidone, but did not respond to clozapine's locomotor-suppressing effects. Restoration of 5-HT2A expression to cortical glutamatergic neurons re-instated the locomotor-suppressing effects of clozapine in the open field. In sum, we confirm that haloperidol and risperidone caused catalepsy in rodents, driven by strong antagonism of D2. We also demonstrate that clozapine decreases locomotor activity in a 5-HT2A-dependent manner, in the absence of catalepsy. Moreover, we show that it is the cortical population of 5-HT2A that mediate the locomotor-suppressing effects of clozapine. PMID:22871913

  4. 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR BIOLOGY: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) serotonin receptors are important pharmacological targets for a large number of central nervous system and peripheral serotonergic medications. In this review article I summarize work mainly from my lab regarding serotonin receptor anatomy, pharmacology, signaling and regulation. I highlight the role of serotonin receptor interacting proteins and the emerging paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor functional selectivity. PMID:21288474

  5. Decreased frontal serotonin 5-HT2a receptor binding index in deliberate self-harm patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, K.; Laere, K. van; Dierckx, R.A.; Dumont, F.; Slegers, G.; Mertens, J.; Heeringen, C. van

    2001-01-01

    Studies of serotonin metabolites in body fluids in attempted suicide patients and of post-mortem brain tissue of suicide victims have demonstrated the involvement of the serotonergic neurotransmission system in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour. Recently developed neuroimaging techniques offer the unique possibility of investigating in vivo the functional characteristics of this system. In this study the 5-HT 2a receptor population of patients who had recently attempted suicide was studied by means of the highly specific radio-iodinated 5-HT 2a receptor antagonist 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] -5-iodo-2-methox ybenzamide or 123 I-5-I-R91150. Nine patients who had recently (1-7 days) attempted suicide and 12 age-matched healthy controls received an intravenous injection of 185 MBq 123 I-5-I-R91150 and were scanned with high-resolution brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Stereotactic realigned images were analysed semi-quantitatively using predefined volumes of interest. Serotonin binding capacity was expressed as the ratio of specific to non-specific activity. The cerebellum was used as a measure of non-specific activity. An age-dependent 5-HT 2a binding index was found, in agreement with previous literature. Deliberate self-harm patients had a significantly reduced mean frontal binding index after correction for age (P=0.002) when compared with controls. The reduction was more pronounced among deliberate self-injury patients (DSI) (P 2a serotonin receptor system in attempted suicide patients who are free of drugs influencing the serotonergic system shows in vivo evidence of a decreased frontal binding index of the 5-HT 2a receptor, indicating a decrease in the number and/or in the binding affinity of 5-HT 2a receptors. (orig.)

  6. Mechanism Exploration of Arylpiperazine Derivatives Targeting the 5-HT2A Receptor by In Silico Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a G-protein coupled receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A receptor is known for its critical role in the cognitive, behavioural and physiological functions, and thus is a primary molecular target to treat psychiatric diseases, including especially depression. With purpose to explore the structural traits affecting the inhibitory activity, currently a dataset of 109 arylpiperazine derivatives as promising 5-HT2A antagonists was built, based on which the ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR study by using both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA approaches was carried out. The resultant optimal CoMSIA model displays proper validity and predictability with cross-validated correlation coefficient Q2 = 0.587, non-cross-validated correlation coefficient R2ncv = 0.900 and predicted correlation coefficient for the test set of compounds R2pre = 0.897, respectively. Besides, molecular docking was also conducted to investigate the binding mode between these ligands and the active site of the 5-HT2A receptor. Meanwhile, as a docking supplementary tool to study the antagonists’ conformation in the binding cavity, molecular dynamics (MD simulation was also performed, providing further elucidation about the changes in the ligand-receptor complex. Lastly, some new molecules were also newly-designed based on the above results that are potential arylpiperazine antagonists of 5-HT2A receptor. We hope that the present models and derived information may be of help for facilitating the optimization and design of novel potent antagonists as antidepressant drugs as well as exploring the interaction mechanism of 5-HT2A antagonists.

  7. Glucocorticoid treatment increases density of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Anders; Mjörndal, Tom; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been suggested, albeit the details for such interactions have yet to be established. Animal studies have shown that the density of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors is increased after administration of exogenous glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to explore possible changes in the pattern of density and affinity of 5-HT2A receptors in humans after treatment with glucocorticoids. Using a radioactive binding assay, the density and affinity (measured as Bmax and Kd) of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors were measured in blood samples drawn from 27 individuals diagnosed with polymyalgia rheumatica and/or giant cell arteritis before and after start of an oral treatment with prednisolone. For each patient Bmax and Kd at baseline before prednisolone treatment were compared with Bmax and Kd in samples drawn at a first and second follow-up clinic visit at an average of 8.8 (±2.5) days and 33.6 (±6.8) days, respectively. The density of 5-HT2A receptors increased after treatment in 23 individuals. The mean Bmax value at baseline for all patients was 45.2 fmol/mg protein compared with 64.9 fmol/mg protein in the corresponding samples drawn at the second follow-up visit (p=0.001). There also was an association between individuals accumulated prednisolone dose and the magnitude of change in Bmax between baseline and the first follow-up visit. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count or gender had no influence on the results. There were no significant differences in Kd during the treatment period. However, a low Kd value at baseline was a predictor for an increase in Bmax following treatment. The results of this study showed that the density of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in man is increased after a subchronic treatment with glucocorticoids. The magnitude of the increase appears to be associated with the affinity of 5-HT2A receptors before treatment and the accumulated dose of

  8. Acute 5-HT2A receptor blocking alters the processing of fearful faces in orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James; Elliott, Rebecca; Paulson, Olaf B.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor has been implicated in neural-processing of emotionally salient information. To elucidate its role in processing of fear and anger, healthy individuals were studied with functional MRI (fMRI) after 5-HT2A receptor blockade, while judging the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. Methods 5-HT2A receptors were blocked with ketanserin to a variable degree across subjects by adjusting the time between ketanserin-infusion and onset of the fMRI protocol. Neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in terms of the binding potential (BPp) was assessed prior to fMRI with 18F-altanserin positron emission tomography (PET) and subsequently integrated in the fMRI data analysis. Also functional connectivity analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of ketanserin blocking on connectivity. Results Compared to a control session, 5-HT2A receptor blockade reduced the neural response to fearful faces in medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), independently of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy or neocortical 5-HT2A receptor BPp. The medial OFC also showed increased functional coupling with left amygdala during processing of fearful faces depending on the amount of blocked 5-HT2A receptors. Conclusions 5-HT2A receptor mediated signaling increases the sensitivity of OFC to fearful facial expressions and regulates the strength of a negative feedback signal from OFC to amygdala during processing of fearful faces. PMID:23824248

  9. The effect of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist on pain-related behavior, endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine production, and the expression 5-HT2A receptors in dorsal root ganglia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kinshi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-15

    Controlled, interventional, animal study. To evaluate the effect of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist on pain-related behavior, endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plasma levels, and expression of 5-HT2A receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) in a rat lumbar disc herniation model. Application of nucleus pulposus on the nerve root induces immediate peripheral 5-HT production and the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the adjacent DRG. However, the efficacy of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist for pain relief in this situation and the mechanism remain unknown. Autologous nucleus pulposus was applied to the left L5 nerve root of 91 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SPG; 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once a day from 1 to 21 days postoperatively. Von Frey tests were used to test pain behavior before and after surgery. To assess the effect of SPG on endogenous 5-HT release surrounding the inflamed nerve root, we measured levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, a 5-HT metabolite, in plasma. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the left L5 DRG was examined with immunoblotting. The higher dose (10 mg/kg) of SPG significantly improved the mechanical withdrawal thresholds from 5 to 21 days after surgery compared with vehicle treatment. 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in plasma was not significantly different among any groups at any time points. Both doses of SPG inhibited the expression of 5-HT2A receptors after surgery compared with vehicle treatment. A selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist attenuated pain-related behavior and suppressed 5-HT2A receptor expression in the DRG, but did not affect peripheral 5-HT production. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may attenuate sciatica by blocking and downregulating 5-HT2A receptors in DRGs in lumbar disc herniation. NA.

  10. Activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors reduces the excitability of cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Dang, Minyan; Luo, Bin; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao

    2016-10-06

    The abundant forebrain serotonergic projections are believed to modulate the activities of cortical neurons. 5-HT2 receptor among multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors contributes to the modulation of excitability, synaptic transmissions and plasticity. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp recording was adopted to examine whether activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors would have any impact on the excitability of cultured cortical neurons. We found that 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, rapidly and reversibly depressed spontaneous action potentials mimicking the effect of serotonin. The decreased excitability was also observed for current-evoked firing. Additionally DOI increased neuronal input resistance. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic channels (HCN) did not account for the inhibition of spontaneous firing. The synaptic contribution was ruled out in that DOI augmented excitation and attenuated inhibition to actually favor an increase in the excitability. Our findings revealed that activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors reduces neuronal excitability, which would deepen our understanding of serotonergic modulation of cortical activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation blocks TNF-α mediated inflammation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nau

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inflammation, and its production and signaling contribute to many inflammatory related diseases. Recently, we discovered that selective activation of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with the agonist (R-DOI produces a super-potent blockade of proinflammatory markers in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Here, we demonstrate that systemic administration of (R-DOI can block the systemic effects of TNF-α in whole animal, with potent anti-inflammatory effects in the aortic arch and small intestine. This includes blockade of TNF-α-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion (Icam-1, Vcam-1, cytokine (Il-6, IL-1b, and chemokine (Mcp-1, Cx3cl1 genes, and expression of VCAM-1 protein in the intestine. Further, systemic (R-DOI also prevents the TNF-α-induced increase of circulating IL-6. Importantly, utilizing receptor selective antagonists, we have demonstrated that the mechanism underlying the systemic anti-inflammatory effects of (R-DOI is activation of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Our results highlight a powerful new role for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor in inflammatory processes, and indicate that agonism of serotonin receptors may represent an effective and novel approach to develop powerful small molecule therapeutics for inflammatory diseases and conditions such as atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation blocks TNF-α mediated inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Felix; Yu, Bangning; Martin, David; Nichols, Charles D

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a key role in inflammation, and its production and signaling contribute to many inflammatory related diseases. Recently, we discovered that selective activation of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with the agonist (R)-DOI produces a super-potent blockade of proinflammatory markers in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Here, we demonstrate that systemic administration of (R)-DOI can block the systemic effects of TNF-α in whole animal, with potent anti-inflammatory effects in the aortic arch and small intestine. This includes blockade of TNF-α-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion (Icam-1, Vcam-1), cytokine (Il-6, IL-1b), and chemokine (Mcp-1, Cx3cl1) genes, and expression of VCAM-1 protein in the intestine. Further, systemic (R)-DOI also prevents the TNF-α-induced increase of circulating IL-6. Importantly, utilizing receptor selective antagonists, we have demonstrated that the mechanism underlying the systemic anti-inflammatory effects of (R)-DOI is activation of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Our results highlight a powerful new role for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor in inflammatory processes, and indicate that agonism of serotonin receptors may represent an effective and novel approach to develop powerful small molecule therapeutics for inflammatory diseases and conditions such as atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. PET analysis of the 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist ACP-103 in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Anna-Lena; Mansson, Mattias; Jovanovic, Hristina; Karlsson, Per; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Vanover, Kimberly E; Hacksell, Uli; Brann, Mark R; Davis, Robert E; Weiner, David M

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying the clinical properties of atypical antipsychotics have been postulated to be mediated, in part, by interactions with the 5-HT2A receptor. Recently, it has been recognized that clinically effective antipsychotic drugs are 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists rather than neutral antagonists. In the present study, which is part of the clinical development of the novel, selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist ACP-103, we applied positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand [11C]N-methylspiperone ([11C]NMSP) to study the relationship between oral dose, plasma level, and uptake of ACP-103 in living human brain. The safety of drug administration was also assessed. Four healthy volunteers were examined by PET at baseline, and after the oral administration of various single doses of ACP-103. Two subjects each received 1, 5, and 20 mg doses, and two subjects each received 2, 10, and 100 mg doses, respectively. ACP-103 was well tolerated. Detectable receptor binding was observed at very low ACP-103 serum levels. Cortical [11C]NMSP binding was found to be dose-dependent and fitted well to the law of mass action. A reduction in binding was detectable after an oral dose of ACP-103 as low as 1 mg, and reached near maximal displacement following the 10-20 mg dose. In conclusion, administration of ACP-103 to healthy volunteers was found to be safe and well tolerated, and single oral doses as low as 10 mg were found to fully saturate 5-HT2A receptors in human brain as determined by PET.

  14. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 produces antiparkinsonian effects and decreases striatal glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twum eAnsah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 5-HT plays a regulatory role in voluntary movements of the basal ganglia and have a major impact on disorders of the basal ganglia such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. Clinical studies have suggested that 5-HT2 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of the motor symptoms of PD. We hypothesized that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may restore motor function by regulating glutamatergic activity in the striatum. Mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. Peripheral administration of the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 improved performance of MPTP-treated mice on the beam-walking apparatus. In vivo microdialysis revealed an increase in striatal extracellular glutamate in MPTP-treated mice and local perfusion of M100907 into the dorsal striatum significantly decreased extracellular glutamate levels in saline and MPTP-treated mice. Our studies suggest that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors may represent a novel therapeutic target for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Role of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanover, Kimberly E; Davis, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Kimberly E Vanover1, Robert E Davis21Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., New York; 23-D Pharmaceutical Consultants, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia encompasses a difficulty in falling asleep (sleep-onset insomnia) and/or a difficulty in staying asleep (SMI). Several selective serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor ­antagonists have been in development as potential treatments for SMI. However, none have shown a ­sufficiently robust benefit-to-risk ratio, and none have reached ...

  16. G protein- and agonist-bound serotonin 5-HT2A receptor model activated by steered molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ísberg, Vignir; Balle, Thomas; Sander, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    A 5-HT(2A) receptor model was constructed by homology modeling based on the ß(2)-adrenergic receptor and the G protein-bound opsin crystal structures. The 5-HT(2A) receptor model was transferred into an active conformation by an agonist ligand and a G(aq) peptide in four subsequent steered...

  17. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  18. Sustained Treatment with a 5-HT2A Receptor Agonist Causes Functional Desensitization and Reductions in Agonist-labeled 5-HT2A Receptors Despite Increases in Receptor Protein Levels in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ju; Landry, Michelle; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.; Battaglia, George; Muma, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive changes in serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptor signaling are associated with the clinical response to a number of psychiatric drugs including atypical antipsychotics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The present study examined possible mechanisms of agonist-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptors in rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after 4 and 7 days of treatment with 1 mg/kg (-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI). The magnitude of 5-HT2A r...

  19. The 5-HT2A receptor binding pattern in the human brain is strongly genetically determined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Arfan, Haroon; Haugbol, Steven

    2007-01-01

    With the appropriate radiolabeled tracers, positron emission tomography (PET) enables in vivo human brain imaging of markers for neurotransmission, including neurotransmitter synthesis, receptors, and transporters. Whereas structural imaging studies have provided compelling evidence that the human...... variability in cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding as measured with [(18)F]altanserin PET imaging. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.67 for dizygotic and 0.87 for monozygotic twin pairs. For comparison, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 in a group of six male healthy subjects...

  20. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S

    2010-01-01

    specific for the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) in prefrontal cortex was described previously in these mice. This is of much interest, as 5-HT(2A)Rs have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders and anxiety-related behavior. Here we further characterized the serotonin receptor alterations triggered...

  1. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. [Implication of 5-HT2A receptors in the genetic mechanisms of the brain 5-HT system autoregulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V S; Tsybko, A S; Bazovkina, D V; Popova, N K

    2012-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in pathophysiology of anxiety, depression, drug addiction, and schizophrenia. 5-HT2A receptor is involved in the mechanisms of stress-induced psychopathology and impulsive behavior. Here, we investigated the role of 5-HT2A receptor in the autoregulation of the brain 5-HT system. The chronic treatment with agonist of 5-HT2A receptor DOI (1.0 mg/kg, i.p./14 days) produced considerable decrease of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated "head-twitches" in AKR/J mice indicating desensitization of 5-HT2A receptors. Chronic DOI treatment failed to alter 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the midbrain, hippocampus and frontal cortex. At the same time, the increase in the expression of the gene encoding key enzyme of 5-HT synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the increase in TPH2 activity and 5-HT levels and decreased expression of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene was found in the midbrain of DOI-treated mice. The results provide new evidence of receptor-gene cross-talk in the brain 5-HT system and the implication of 5-HT2A receptor in the autoregulation of the brain 5-HT system.

  3. Serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptors are involved in prolactin secretion in hyperestrogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, E S; Paixão, L; Ribeiro, M F; Spritzer, P M

    2014-10-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to participate in prolactin secretion through a complex process resulting in both positive and negative effects. Estrogen has also been recognized as being involved in this serotonergic effect on prolactin release. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether estradiol modulates serotonergic involvement in prolactin secretion though 5-HT1A and/or 5-HT2A/2C receptors. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats, treated for 2 weeks with estrogen to induce a hyperprolactinemic status (hyperestrogenic rats) or with sunflower oil vehicle (hypoestrogenic rats), were injected daily with normal saline solution or 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine (MK-212), an 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, for 4 days. Other groups of ovariectomized animals received 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or pindolol, an agonist and antagonist of the 5-HT1A receptor respectively, on the last day of treatment with estrogen or vehicle. Prolactin levels were compared among groups in each experiment under the distinct drug treatments. MK-212 was found to increase prolactin concentrations both in hyper- and hypoestrogenic females compared to controls (pHT2A/2C receptors on prolactin release through serotonergic pathways in female animals, especially in hyperestrogenic states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postnatal fluoxetine-evoked anxiety is prevented by concomitant 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade and mimicked by postnatal 5-HT2A/C receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ambalika; Chachra, Parul; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2014-12-01

    Postnatal treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, evokes anxiety and depressive behavior in rodent models in adulthood. We examined the role of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A), serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors, implicated in the development of anxiety, in the behavioral consequences of postnatal fluoxetine (PNFlx). Control and PNFlx rat pups received concomitant treatment with the 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist, ketanserin, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL100907, the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB242084, or the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, and were tested for behavior in adulthood. The effect of postnatal treatment with the 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist, DOI, on anxiety behavior was examined in adulthood. Postnatal 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade prevented PNFlx-evoked anxiety, attenuated depressive behavior, and normalized specific gene expression changes in the prefrontal cortex. Postnatal, selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist treatment blocked PNFlx-evoked anxiety and depressive behavior, whereas 5-HT2C receptor antagonist treatment prevented anxiety but not depressive behavior. Postnatal 5-HT2A/C receptor stimulation was sufficient to evoke anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor blockade did not alter PNFlx-evoked anxiety but resulted in anxiety in control animals, an effect attenuated by concomitant 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade. Postnatal fluoxetine-evoked anxiety and depressive behavior, as well as specific gene expression changes in the prefrontal cortex, were prevented by 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade. Adult anxiety was evoked by either 5-HT2A/C receptor stimulation or 5-HT1A receptor blockade of naive control pups. Our findings implicate serotonin 2 receptors in the development of perturbed emotionality following PNFlx and suggest that an altered balance of signaling through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptors in early life influences anxiety behavior. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society

  5. Association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism 102T/C with ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole F; Bennike, Bente; Dam, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    common polymorphisms in the 5-HT2A receptor gene. The two polymorphisms under investigation, namely the 102T/C and the -1438A/G variations of the 5-HT2A receptor gene, were examined in a case control association study involving 99 stroke patients and a comparable number of controls. Among patients...... and stroke was significant in both males and females. There was no association between stroke and the -1438A/G polymorphism. Taken together, this study indicates that the 102T/C polymorphism in the 5-HT2A receptor gene could be an independent risk factor for developing stroke....

  6. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of 11C-CIMBI-5 as a 5-HT2A receptor agonist radioligand for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettrup, Anders; Palner, Mikael; Gillings, Nic; Santini, Martin A; Hansen, Martin; Kornum, Birgitte R; Rasmussen, Lars K; Någren, Kjell; Madsen, Jacob; Begtrup, Mikael; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-11-01

    PET brain imaging of the serotonin 2A (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A, or 5-HT(2A)) receptor has been widely used in clinical studies, and currently, several well-validated radiolabeled antagonist tracers are used for in vivo imaging of the cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor. Access to 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracers would, however, enable imaging of the active, high-affinity state of receptors, which may provide a more meaningful assessment of membrane-bound receptors. In this study, we radiolabel the high-affinity 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[(11)C-OCH(3)]methoxybenzyl)ethanamine ((11)C-CIMBI-5) and investigate its potential as a PET tracer. The in vitro binding and activation at 5-HT(2A) receptors by CIMBI-5 was measured with binding and phosphoinositide hydrolysis assays. Ex vivo brain distribution of (11)C-CIMBI-5 was investigated in rats, and PET with (11)C-CIMBI-5 was conducted in pigs. In vitro assays showed that CIMBI-5 was a high-affinity agonist at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. After intravenous injections of (11)C-CIMBI-5, ex vivo rat studies showed a specific binding ratio of 0.77 ± 0.07 in the frontal cortex, which was reduced to cerebellar levels after ketanserin treatment, thus indicating that (11)C-CIMBI-5 binds selectively to the 5-HT(2A) receptor in the rat brain. The PET studies showed that the binding pattern of (11)C-CIMBI-5 in the pig brain was in accordance with the expected 5-HT(2A) receptor distribution. (11)C-CIMBI-5 gave rise to a cortical binding potential of 0.46 ± 0.12, and the target-to-background ratio was similar to that of the widely used 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist PET tracer (18)F-altanserin. Ketanserin treatment reduced the cortical binding potentials to cerebellar levels, indicating that in vivo (11)C-CIMBI-5 binds selectively to the 5-HT(2A) receptor in the pig brain. (11)C-CIMBI-5 showed a cortex-to-cerebellum binding ratio equal to the widely used 5-HT(2A) antagonist PET tracer (18)F

  7. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of 11C-CIMBI-5 as a 5-HT2A receptor agonist radioligand for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Palner, Mikael; Gillings, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    PET brain imaging of the serotonin 2A (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A, or 5-HT(2A)) receptor has been widely used in clinical studies, and currently, several well-validated radiolabeled antagonist tracers are used for in vivo imaging of the cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor. Access to 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist...... PET tracers would, however, enable imaging of the active, high-affinity state of receptors, which may provide a more meaningful assessment of membrane-bound receptors. In this study, we radiolabel the high-affinity 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[(11)C-OCH(3...

  8. Role of the 5-HT2A receptor in the locomotor hyperactivity produced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Powell, Susan B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor mediates the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens and may play a role in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Given these findings, there is a need for animal models to assess the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Our previous studies demonstrated that the phenylalkylamine hallucinogen and 5-HT2A/2C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) produces dose-dependent effects on locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice,...

  9. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Mohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus.

  10. Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the cerebral cortex studied using genetically modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT2A subtype are robustly expressed in the cerebral cortex where they have been implicated in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of mental disorders and the actions of hallucinogens. Much less is known, however, about the specific cell types expressing 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. In the current study we use immunohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in genetically modified mice to address the expression of the Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. We first use an EGFP expressing BAC transgenic mice and identify three main Htr2A gene expressing neuronal populations in cortex. The largest of these cell populations corresponds to layer V pyramidal cells of the anterior cortex, followed by GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers, and nonpyramidal cells of the subplate/Layer VIb. We then use 5-HT2A receptor knockout mice to identify an antibody capable of localizing 5-HT2A receptors in brain and use it to map these receptors. We find strong laminar expression of 5-HT2A receptors in cortex, especially along a diffuse band overlaying layer Va. This band exhibits a strong anteroposterior gradient that closely matches the localization of Htr2A expressing pyramidal cells of layer V. Finally we use electrophysiological and immunohistochemical approaches to show that most, but not all, GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers are parvalbumin expressing Fast-spiking interneurons and that these cells are depolarized and excited by serotonin, most likely through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors. These results clarify and extend our understanding of the cellular distribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  11. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of oligomeric states of the native 5HT2A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Gopa; Jaiswal, Priyank; Dey, Sandip; Sengupta, Jayati; Mukherjee, Sujoy

    2018-02-06

    The serotonin 5HT2A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) is involved in a plethora of neuromodulatory functions and its dysregulation is linked to psychiatric disorders. However, there is insufficient, direct structural evidence of the structure, dynamics and the mechanism of function of this receptor. Cholesterol plays an important role in the function of many GPCRs and reduced cholesterol levels may be linked to serotonergic pathway disruptions. But cholesterol's effect on the structure, especially the oligomeric states of the 5HT2A receptor is not well understood. Structural studies on most GPCRs typically require the substitution of the dynamic intracellular loop 3 along with other mutations and truncations for stability and hence, structural characterization of native receptor sequence is relatively rare. Here we have cloned, over-expressed and purified native sequence of rat serotonin 5HT2A GPCR using baculoviral expression system. Subsequently, we used cryo-electron microscopy to show that the 5HT2A GPCR forms a dimer in presence of cholesterol but converts to a monomer when cholesterol is depleted. Since dimer formation is necessary for signaling by 5HT2A receptors, our results also indicate the importance of cholesterol in serotonin 5HT2A receptor's function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia: present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, J M

    2010-03-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZD) and non-BZD hypnotics improve sleep induction and sleep maintenance. BZD induces a further reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, whereas SWS and REM values remain decreased during non-BZD administration. There is evidence indicating that the nonselective serotonin 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ketanserin, seganserin and ICI-169369, the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist eplivanserin and the 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist pimavanserin, increase SWS in subjects with normal sleep. In addition, it has been shown that prior administration of ritanserin prevents the nitrazepam-induced suppression of SWS in normal subjects. Of note, ritanserin also induced an increase of SWS in poor sleepers, patients with chronic primary insomnia and psychiatric patients with a generalized anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. The 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist APD-125 gave rise to a similar effect in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Thus, presently available evidence tends to indicate that the association of a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist or a 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist with a BZD or a non-BZD hypnotic could be a valid alternative to normalize SWS in patients with primary or comorbid insomnia. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. 4-(Phenylsulfonyl)piperidines: novel, selective, and bioavailable 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephen R; Burkamp, Frank; Blurton, Peter; Cheng, Susan K F; Clarkson, Robert; O'Connor, Desmond; Spinks, Daniel; Tudge, Matthew; van Niel, Monique B; Patel, Smita; Chapman, Kerry; Marwood, Rose; Shepheard, Sara; Bentley, Graham; Cook, Gina P; Bristow, Linda J; Castro, Jose L; Hutson, Peter H; MacLeod, Angus M

    2002-01-17

    On the basis of a spirocyclic ether screening lead, a series of acyclic sulfones have been identified as high-affinity, selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists. Bioavailability lacking in the parent, 1-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)ethyl)-4-(phenylsulfonyl)piperidine (12), was introduced by using stability toward rat liver microsomes as a predictor of bioavailability. By this means, the 4-cyano- and 4-carboxamidophenylsulfonyl derivatives 26 and 31 were identified as orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant analogues suitable for evaluation in animal models. Bioavailability was also attainable by N substitution leading to the N-phenacyl derivative 35. IKr activity detected through counterscreening was reduced to insignificant levels in vivo with the latter compound.

  14. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C

    2008-01-01

    ]altanserin PET in a bolus-infusion approach. A significant global reduction of 20-30% in 5-HT(2A) binding (atrophy corrected) was found in most neocortical areas. Reduced 5-HT(2A) binding in the striatum correlated significantly with Neuropsychiatric Inventory depression and anxiety scores. We conclude...

  15. Role of the 5-HT2A receptor in the locomotor hyperactivity produced by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Powell, Susan B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor mediates the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens and may play a role in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Given these findings, there is a need for animal models to assess the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Our previous studies demonstrated that the phenylalkylamine hallucinogen and 5-HT2A/2C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) produces dose-dependent effects on locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice, increasing activity at low to moderate doses and reducing activity at high doses. DOI did not increase locomotor activity in 5-HT2A knockout mice, indicating the effect is a consequence of 5-HT2A receptor activation. Here, we tested a series of phenylalkylamine hallucinogens in C57BL/6J mice using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM) to determine whether these compounds increase locomotor activity by activating the 5-HT2A receptor. Low doses of mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylamphetamine (DOPR), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2), and the conformationally restricted phenethylamine (4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine (TCB-2) increased locomotor activity. By contrast, the non-hallucinogenic phenylalkylamine 2,5-dimethoxy-4-tert-butylamphetamine (DOTB) did not alter locomotor activity at any dose tested (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p.). The selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 blocked the locomotor hyperactivity induced by mescaline and TCB-2. Similarly, mescaline and TCB-2 did not increase locomotor activity in 5-HT2A knockout mice. These results confirm that phenylalkylamine hallucinogens increase locomotor activity in mice and demonstrate that this effect is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. Thus, locomotor hyperactivity in mice can be used to assess phenylalkylamines for 5-HT2A agonist activity and hallucinogen-like behavioral effects. These studies provide additional support for the link between 5-HT2A activation and

  16. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional BDNF knock-out mice

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, AB; Santini, MA; Aznar, S; Knudsen, GM; Rios, M

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF2L/2LCk-cre). A severe impairment specific for the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) in prefrontal cortex was described previously in these mice. This is of much interest, as 5-HT2A receptors have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorder...

  17. 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation on cerebellar fastigial nucleus neurons and promotion of motor behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Zheng; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; He, Ye-Cheng; Li, Guang-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2014-07-01

    It has long been known that serotonergic afferent inputs are the third largest afferent population in the cerebellum after mossy fibers and climbing fibers. However, the role of serotonergic inputs in cerebellar-mediated motor behaviors is still largely unknown. Here, we show that only 5-HT2A receptors among the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily are expressed and localized in the rat cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN), one of the ultimate outputs of the spinocerebellum precisely regulating trunk and limb movements. Remarkably, selective activation of 5-HT2A receptors evokes a postsynaptic excitatory effect on FN neurons in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, which is in accord with the 5-HT-elicited excitation on the same tested neurons. Furthermore, selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 concentration-dependently blocks the excitatory effects of 5-HT and TCB-2, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, on FN neurons. Consequently, microinjection of 5-HT into bilateral FNs significantly promotes rat motor performances on accelerating rota-rod and balance beam and narrows stride width rather than stride length in locomotion gait. All these motor behavioral effects are highly consistent with those of selective activation of 5-HT2A receptors in FNs, and blockage of the component of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated endogenous serotonergic inputs in FNs markedly attenuates these motor performances. All these results demonstrate that postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors greatly contribute to the 5-HT-mediated excitatory effect on cerebellar FN neurons and promotion of the FN-related motor behaviors, suggesting that serotonergic afferent inputs may actively participate in cerebellar motor control through their direct modulation on the final output of the spinocerebellum.

  18. CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS UPREGULATE AND ENHANCE SEROTONIN 2A (5-HT2A) RECEPTOR ACTIVITY VIA ERK1/2 SIGNALING

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent behavioral studies suggest that non-selective agonists of cannabinoid receptors may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission. Two cannabinoids receptors are found in brain, CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the molecular mechanism by which cannabinoid receptors would regulate 5-HT2A receptor neurotransmission remains unknown. Interestingly, we have recently found that certain cannabinoid receptor agonists can specifically upregulate 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we present experime...

  19. The Role of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors in Memory and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor, recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the 1 receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and 2 receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances nonspatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. G protein- and agonist-bound serotonin 5-HT2A receptor model activated by steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, Vignir; Balle, Thomas; Sander, Tommy; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Gloriam, David E

    2011-02-28

    A 5-HT(2A) receptor model was constructed by homology modeling based on the β(2)-adrenergic receptor and the G protein-bound opsin crystal structures. The 5-HT(2A) receptor model was transferred into an active conformation by an agonist ligand and a G(αq) peptide in four subsequent steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The driving force for the transformation was the addition of several known intermolecular and receptor interhelical hydrogen bonds enforcing the necessary helical and rotameric movements. Subsquent MD simulations without constraints confirmed the stability of the activated receptor model as well as revealed new information about stabilizing residues and bonds. The active 5-HT(2A) receptor model was further validated by retrospective ligand screening of more than 9400 compounds, whereof 182 were known ligands. The results show that the model can be used in drug discovery for virtual screening and structure-based ligand design as well as in GPCR activation studies.

  1. 5HT2A and 5HT2B Receptors Contribute to Serotonin-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter M.; Harrod, Jeremy S.; Lamping, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    Although 5HT2A receptors mediate contractions of normal arteries to serotonin (5HT), in some cardiovascular diseases, other receptor subtypes contribute to the marked increase in serotonin contractions. We hypothesized that enhanced contractions of arteries from diabetics to 5HT are mediated by an increased contribution from multiple 5HT receptor subtypes. We compared responses to selective 5HT receptor agonists and expression of 5HT receptor isoforms (5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B) in aorta from n...

  2. [On the Functional Cross-Talk between Brain 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V S; Bazovkina, D V; Kondaurova, E M

    2015-01-01

    We have found that activation of 5-HT1A receptor with 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i. p.) considerably and dose-dependently reduced the number of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated head-twitches, whereas 5-HT1A receptor blockade with WAY-100635 (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i. p.), on the contrary, pro- duced significant enhancement of this 5-HT2A receptor functional response. At the same time 5-HTA receptor activation with DOI (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i. p.) abolished the 5-HT1A receptor-mediated hypothermic reaction, whereas 5-HT2A receptor blockade with ketanserin (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, i. p.) increased this 5-HT1A receptor functional response. Moreover, we revealed that 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, i. p.; or 20 and 40 nmol, i. c. v.) produced the considerable dose-dependent hypothermia. This ketanserin-induced (40 nmol, i. c. v.) hypothermic reaction was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg, i. p.), indicating that 5-HT2A receptor-related hypothermic response is mediated, at least partially, via activation of 5-HT1A receptors. The obtained data indicate that 5-HTA and 5-HT2A receptors are able to modulate each other functional activity by means of bilateral functional cross-talk.

  3. Functional anatomy of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala and hippocampal complex: relevance to memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardi, Cristiano; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The amygdaloid complex and hippocampal region contribute to emotional activities, learning, and memory. Mounting evidence suggests a primary role for serotonin (5-HT) in the physiological basis of memory and its pathogenesis by modulating directly the activity of these two areas and their cross-talk. Indeed, both the amygdala and the hippocampus receive remarkably dense serotoninergic inputs from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Anatomical, behavioral and electrophysiological evidence indicates the 5-HT2A receptor as one of the principal postsynaptic targets mediating 5-HT effects. In fact, the 5-HT2A receptor is the most abundant 5-HT receptor expressed in these brain structures and is expressed on both amygdalar and hippocampal pyramidal glutamatergic neurons as well as on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing interneurons. 5-HT2A receptors on GABAergic interneurons stimulate GABA release, and thereby have an important role in regulating network activity and neural oscillations in the amygdala and hippocampal region. This review will focus on the distribution and physiological functions of the 5-HT2A receptor in the amygdala and hippocampal region. Taken together the results discussed here suggest that 5-HT2A receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for those disorders related to hippocampal and amygdala dysfunction.

  4. 5HT2A and 5HT2B Receptors Contribute to Serotonin-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although 5HT2A receptors mediate contractions of normal arteries to serotonin (5HT, in some cardiovascular diseases, other receptor subtypes contribute to the marked increase in serotonin contractions. We hypothesized that enhanced contractions of arteries from diabetics to 5HT are mediated by an increased contribution from multiple 5HT receptor subtypes. We compared responses to selective 5HT receptor agonists and expression of 5HT receptor isoforms (5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B in aorta from nondiabetic (ND compared to type 2 diabetic mice (DB, BKS.Cg-Dock7m+/+Leprdb/J. 5HT, 5HT2A (TCB2 and BRL54443, and 5HT2B (norfenfluramine and BW723C86 receptor agonists produced concentration-dependent contractions of ND arteries that were markedly increased in DB arteries. Neither ND nor DB arteries contracted to a 5HT1B receptor agonist. MDL11939, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, and LY272015, a 5HT2B receptor antagonist, reduced contractions of arteries from DB to 5HT more than ND. Expression of 5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B receptor subtypes was similar in ND and DB. Inhibition of rho kinase decreased contractions to 5HT and 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptor agonists in ND and DB. We conclude that in contrast to other cardiovascular diseases, enhanced contraction of arteries from diabetics to 5HT is not due to a change in expression of multiple 5HT receptor subtypes.

  5. 5HT2A and 5HT2B Receptors Contribute to Serotonin-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Harrod, Jeremy S.; Lamping, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    Although 5HT2A receptors mediate contractions of normal arteries to serotonin (5HT), in some cardiovascular diseases, other receptor subtypes contribute to the marked increase in serotonin contractions. We hypothesized that enhanced contractions of arteries from diabetics to 5HT are mediated by an increased contribution from multiple 5HT receptor subtypes. We compared responses to selective 5HT receptor agonists and expression of 5HT receptor isoforms (5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B) in aorta from nondiabetic (ND) compared to type 2 diabetic mice (DB, BKS.Cg-Dock7 m+/+Leprdb/J). 5HT, 5HT2A (TCB2 and BRL54443), and 5HT2B (norfenfluramine and BW723C86) receptor agonists produced concentration-dependent contractions of ND arteries that were markedly increased in DB arteries. Neither ND nor DB arteries contracted to a 5HT1B receptor agonist. MDL11939, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, and LY272015, a 5HT2B receptor antagonist, reduced contractions of arteries from DB to 5HT more than ND. Expression of 5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B receptor subtypes was similar in ND and DB. Inhibition of rho kinase decreased contractions to 5HT and 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptor agonists in ND and DB. We conclude that in contrast to other cardiovascular diseases, enhanced contraction of arteries from diabetics to 5HT is not due to a change in expression of multiple 5HT receptor subtypes. PMID:23346101

  6. Intrahippocampal LSD accelerates learning and desensitizes the 5-HT(2A) receptor in the rabbit, Romano et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Anthony G; Quinn, Jennifer L; Li, Luchuan; Dave, Kuldip D; Schindler, Emmanuelle A; Aloyo, Vincent J; Harvey, John A

    2010-10-01

    Parenteral injections of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, enhance eyeblink conditioning. Another hallucinogen, (±)-1(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), was shown to elicit a 5-HT(2A)-mediated behavior (head bobs) after injection into the hippocampus, a structure known to mediate trace eyeblink conditioning. This study aims to determine if parenteral injections of the hallucinogens LSD, d,l-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, and 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine elicit the 5-HT(2A)-mediated behavior of head bobs and whether intrahippocampal injections of LSD would produce head bobs and enhance trace eyeblink conditioning. LSD was infused into the dorsal hippocampus just prior to each of eight conditioning sessions. One day after the last infusion of LSD, DOI was infused into the hippocampus to determine whether there had been a desensitization of the 5-HT(2A) receptor as measured by a decrease in DOI-elicited head bobs. Acute parenteral or intrahippocampal LSD elicited a 5-HT(2A) but not a 5-HT(2C)-mediated behavior, and chronic administration enhanced conditioned responding relative to vehicle controls. Rabbits that had been chronically infused with 3 or 10 nmol per side of LSD during Pavlovian conditioning and then infused with DOI demonstrated a smaller increase in head bobs relative to controls. LSD produced its enhancement of Pavlovian conditioning through an effect on 5-HT(2A) receptors located in the dorsal hippocampus. The slight, short-lived enhancement of learning produced by LSD appears to be due to the development of desensitization of the 5-HT(2A) receptor within the hippocampus as a result of repeated administration of its agonist (LSD).

  7. Theoretical studies on the interaction of partial agonists with the 5-HT2A receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elena; Heim, Ralf; Strasser, Andrea; Elz, Sigurd; Dove, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A series of 51 5-HT2A partial agonistic arylethylamines (primary or benzylamines) from different structural classes (indoles, methoxybenzenes, quinazolinediones) was investigated by fragment regression analysis (FRA), docking and 3D-QSAR approaches. The data, pEC50 values and intrinsic activities (Emax) on rat arteries, show high variability of pEC50 from 4 to 10 and of Emax from 15 to 70%. FRA indicates which substructures affect potency or intrinsic activity. The high contribution of halogens in para position of phenethylamines to pEC50 points to a specific hydrophobic pocket. Other results suggest the significance of hydrogen bonds of the aryl moiety for activation and the contrary effect of benzyl groups on affinity (increasing) and intrinsic activity (decreasing). Results from fragment regression and data on all available mutants were considered to derive a common binding site at the rat 5-HT2A receptor. After generation and MD simulations of a receptor model based on the β2-adrenoceptor structure, typical derivatives were docked, leading to the suggestion of common interactions, e.g., with serines in TM3 and TM5 and with a cluster of aromatic amino acids in TM5 and TM6. The whole series was aligned by docking and minimization of the complexes. The pEC50 values correlate well with Sybyl docking energies and hydrophobicity of the aryl moieties. With this alignment, CoMFA and CoMSIA approaches based on a training set of 36 and a test set of 15 compounds were performed. The correlation of pEC50 with steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor fields resulted in sufficient fit ( q 2: 0.75-0.8, r 2: 0.92-0.95) and predictive power ( r pred 2 : 0.85-0.88). The important interaction regions largely reflect the patterns provided by the putative binding site. In particular, the fit of the aryl moieties and benzyl substituents to two hydrophobic pockets is evident.

  8. Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors recovers sensory responsiveness in acute spinal neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Hillary E; Kauer, Sierra D; Allmond, Jacob T; Brumley, Michele R

    2017-02-01

    Quipazine is a 5-HT 2A -receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats. Rat pups were secured in the supine posture with limbs unrestricted. Quipazine or saline was administered intraperitoneally and after a 10-min period, a tail pinch was administered. A 1-min baseline period prior to tail-pinch administration and a 1-min response period postpinch was observed and hind-limb motor activity, including locomotor-like stepping behavior, was recorded and analyzed. Neonatal rats showed an immediate and robust response to sensory stimulation induced by the tail pinch. Quipazine recovered hind-limb movement and step frequency in spinal rats back to intact levels, suggesting a synergistic, additive effect of 5-HT-receptor and sensory stimulation in spinal rats. Although levels of activity in spinal rats were restored with quipazine, movement quality (high vs. low amplitude) was only partially restored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonist DOI alleviates cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells: role of the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Zoya; Walitza, Susanne; Grünblatt, Edna

    2013-07-01

    Disturbances of serotonergic signaling, including the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, have been implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of a 5-HT2A receptor agonist on cytotoxicity in a neuronal cell line and address the involved mechanism. HTR2A mRNA and protein expression in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells was confirmed. Cells were subjected to serum deprivation and cell viability was monitored continuously with xCELLigence. In a dose-response study the 5-HT2A agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) (25 nM to 5 μM) protected against serum deprivation cytotoxicity. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 11,939, the general protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway MEK inhibitor U0126, all attenuated DOI's protective effect. An antibody array suggested that 1 μM DOI affected phosphorylation of several tyrosine kinases. Western blot further confirmed that DOI transiently increased ERK phosphorylation, indicating its activation. Finally, protective concentrations of DOI increased cellular mitochondrial mass, an effect prevented by pretreatment with U0126. In conclusion, our results suggest that DOI protects SK-N-SH cells against serum deprivation through ERK pathway activation. They imply 5-HT2A receptor modulation as a potential target for neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  11. Preclinical Safety Assessment of the 5-HT(2A) Receptor Agonist PET Radioligand [ (11)C]Cimbi-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: [(11)C]Cimbi-36 was recently developed as an agonist radioligand for brain imaging of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT(2A)) with positron emission tomography (PET). This may be used to quantify the high-affinity state of 5-HT(2A) receptors and may have the potential to quantify changes...... in cerebral 5-HT levels in vivo. We here investigated safety aspects related to clinical use of [(11)C]Cimbi-36, including radiation dosimetry and in vivo pharmacology. PROCEDURES: [(11)C]Cimbi-36 was injected in rats or pigs, and radiation dosimetry was examined by ex vivo dissection or with PET scanning......, respectively. Based on animal data, the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment software was used to estimate extrapolated human dosimetry for [(11)C]Cimbi-36. The 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist actions of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 in vivo pharmacological effects in mice elicited by increasing doses of Cimbi-36 were assessed...

  12. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MDMA-Induced Dissociative State not Mediated by the 5-HT2A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew J. Puxty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a single dose of MDMA induce a dissociative state, by elevating feelings of depersonalization and derealization. Typically, it is assumed that action on the 5-HT2A receptor is the mechanism underlying these psychedelic experiences. In addition, other studies have shown associations between dissociative states and biological parameters (heart rate, cortisol, which are elevated by MDMA. In order to investigate the role of the 5-HT2 receptor in the MDMA-induced dissociative state and the association with biological parameters, a placebo-controlled within-subject study was conducted including a single oral dose of MDMA (75 mg, combined with placebo or a single oral dose of the 5-HT2 receptor blocker ketanserin (40 mg. Twenty healthy recreational MDMA users filled out a dissociative states scale (CADSS 90 min after treatments, which was preceded and followed by assessment of a number of biological parameters (cortisol levels, heart rate, MDMA blood concentrations. Findings showed that MDMA induced a dissociative state but this effect was not counteracted by pre-treatment with ketanserin. Heart rate was the only biological parameter that correlated with the MDMA-induced dissociative state, but an absence of correlation between these measures when participants were pretreated with ketanserin suggests an absence of directional effects of heart rate on dissociative state. It is suggested that the 5-HT2 receptor does not mediate the dissociative effects caused by a single dose of MDMA. Further research is needed to determine the exact neurobiology underlying this effect and whether these effects contribute to the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  14. Convergent [18]F-labeling and evaluation of N-benzyl-phenethylamines as 5-HT2A receptor PET ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Villadsen, Jonas; Hansen, Hanne Demant

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) investigations of the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) system can be used as a research tool in diseases such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. We have previously developed a (11)C-labeled agonist PET ligand ([(11)C]Cimbi-36), and the aim...... the pig brain. However, since within-scan intervention with ketanserin, a known orthosteric 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, did not result in significant blocking, the radioligands seem unsuitable for neuroimaging of the 5-HT2AR in vivo....

  15. Anatomical relationships between serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tatsuya; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Takahata, Keisuke; Kitamura, Soichiro; Moriguchi, Sho; Kubota, Manabu; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Yamada, Makiko; Higuchi, Makoto; Okubo, Yoshinori; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteers underwent PET scans with [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, respectively. As a measure of receptor density, a binding potential (BP) was calculated from PET data for 76 cerebral cortical regions. A correlation matrix was calculated between the binding potentials of [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for those regions. The regional relationships were investigated using a bicluster analysis of the correlation matrix with an iterative signature algorithm. We identified two clusters of regions. The first cluster identified a distinct profile of correlation coefficients between 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, with the former in regions related to sensorimotor integration (supplementary motor area, superior parietal gyrus, and paracentral lobule) and the latter in most cortical regions. The second cluster identified another distinct profile of correlation coefficients between 5-HT2A receptors in the bilateral hippocampi and D2 receptors in most cortical regions. The observation of two distinct clusters in the correlation matrix suggests regional interactions between 5-HT2A and D2 receptors in sensorimotor integration and hippocampal function. A bicluster analysis of the correlation matrix of these neuroreceptors may be beneficial in understanding molecular networks in the human brain.

  16. Molecular modeling and docking study on dopamine D2-like and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xinli; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fang; Lei, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, are paid more and more attention by human due to their upward tendency in modern society. D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors have been proposed as targets of antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been deemed to improve the treatment of positive, negative and extrapyramidal symptoms. Unfortunately, no experimental structures for these receptors are available except D3 receptor (D3R). Therefore, it is necessary to construct structures of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors to investigate the interaction between these receptors and their antagonists. Accordingly, homology models of dopamine D2, D3, D4 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors have been built on the high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor, and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of D3R model relative to crystal structure is 1.3Å, which proves the reliability of homology modeling. Docking studies reveal that the binding modes of four homology models and their antagonists are consistent with experimental site-directed mutagenesis data. The calculated pKi values agree well with the experimental pKi ones. Antagonists with linear structures such as butyrophenones and benzisoxazolyl piperidines are easily docked into D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors. Polycyclic aromatic compounds have weaker affinity with four receptors. Homology models of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors will be helpful for predicting the affinity of novel ligands, and could be used as three-dimensional (3D) templates for antipsychotic virtual screening and further drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L. H.; Adams, K. H.; Yndsgaard, S

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an experimental paradigm for the study of serotonergic neurotransmission in humans using positron emission tomography and the 5-HT2A selective radioligand [18F]altanserin. [18F]altanserin studies were conducted in seven subjects using the bolus...... challenge, even after pindolol pretreatment. The biochemical and cellular events possibly affecting the unsuccessful translation of the citalopram/pindolol challenge into a change in 5-HT2A receptor binding of [18F]altanserin are discussed...

  18. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  19. Acute social defeat does not alter cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding in male Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek K D; Meerlo, Peter; Ettrup, Anders

    2014-01-01

    suppressed growth, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior in an open field test. A positron emission tomography scan with the 5-HT2A R tracer [11C]MDL 100907 1 day and 3 weeks after defeat did not show significant changes in receptor binding. To verify these results, [3H]MDL 100907 binding assays were...

  20. Discovery and Structure-Based Optimization of 6-Bromotryptamine Derivatives as Potential 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Wei; Jin, Haixiao; Zhu, Peng; Zhang, Jinrong; Wang, Tingting; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    5-Hydroxytryptamine type 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is an important target for developing innovative antipsychotic agents in neuropsychiatric disorder therapies. To search for 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, a new indole alkaloid termed 6-bromo-N-propionyltryptamine (1), together with one known homologue 6-bromo-N-acetyltryptamine (2) were isolated and identified from a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra QD1-2. Compound 1 with an N-propionyl side chain exhibited stronger 5-HT2A receptor antagonist activity than that of N-acetyl derivative (2), indicating that 6-bromotryptamine analogues with a longer chain acyl group perhaps displayed a more potent capacity to the target. Therefore, a series of new 6-bromotryptamine analogues (3-7) with different chain length of the acyl group (C4-C8) were prepared and evaluated activity against 5-HT2A receptor. Remarkably, 6-bromo-N-hexanoyltryptamine (5) displayed the most effective inhibitory activity, which was 5-fold stronger than that of the parent compound 1 and showed 70% efficacy of the positive control (ketanserin tartrate).

  1. Long-lasting alterations in 5-HT2A receptor after a binge regimen of methamphetamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Zhan, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The repeated administration of methamphetamine (MA) to animals in a single-day 'binge' dosing regimen produces damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals and psychosis-like behaviours similar to those observed in MA abusers. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MA binge exposure on 5-HT2A receptors, the subtype of serotonin receptors putatively involved in psychosis. ICR male mice were treated with MA (4 × 5 mg/kg) or saline at 2 h intervals. Recognition memory and social behaviours were sequentially evaluated by a novel location recognition test, a novel object recognition test, a social interaction and a nest-building test to confirm the persistent cognitive and behavioural impairments after this dosing regimen. Subsequently, a hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch, molecular and electrophysiological responses were monitored. Finally, the levels of 5-HT2C, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex were determined. MA binge exposure produced recognition memory impairment, reduced social behaviours, and increased DOI-induced head-twitch response, c-Fos and Egr-2 expression and field potentials in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, MA binge exposure increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor expression in the medial frontal cortex, whereas 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors were unaffected. These data reveal that the increased behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological responses to DOI might be associated with an up-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex after MA binge exposure. Identifying the biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioural changes in a mouse model of MA binge exposure may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment of MA-related psychiatric disorders.

  2. The Antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists Pizotifen and Cyproheptadine Inhibit Serotonin-Enhanced Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia A.; Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V. P.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  3. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia A; Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V P; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  4. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats' Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-07-01

    A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (PHT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus.

  5. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors inhibits high compulsive drinking on schedule-induced polydipsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Silvia Victoria; Gutiérrez-Ferre, Valeria; Flores, Pilar; Moreno, Margarita

    2015-02-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an established model for studying compulsive behaviour in rats. Serotoninergic drugs effectively reduce compulsive drinking on SIP, and high compulsive drinker rats selected by SIP have shown differences in serotoninergic brain activity. However, the specific serotoninergic receptors that modulate compulsive SIP remain unclear. We investigated the functional role of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A or C (5-HT2A/C) receptors in compulsive SIP behaviour. Rats were selected for low (LD) versus high drinking (HD) behaviour on SIP. The effects of the systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, serotonin 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist DOI hydrochloride ((±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084, serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin and M100907 were assessed on SIP. Subsequently, the effects of DOI were tested after the pre-administration of SB242084, ketanserin and M100907 on SIP. Citalopram and DOI reduced compulsive drinking in HD compared with LD rats on SIP. In contrast, SB242084 increased compulsive drinking in HD compared with LD rats on SIP. Atomoxetine, ketanserin and M100907 had no effect on SIP. The reduction in water intake produced by DOI was blocked by ketanserin and M100907, but not by SB242084 administration, in HD rats. These findings highlight the contribution of serotoninergic 5-HT2A/C receptors compared with noradrenergic mechanisms on SIP and reveal the "therapeutic" activation of serotonin 5-HT2A in the inhibition of the compulsive drinking behaviour in HD rats. Thus, it may represent a potentially new marker of vulnerability and provides additional insight for potential treatments on compulsive behaviours in neuropsychiatric populations.

  6. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  7. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A Lin

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and

  8. The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on 5-HT2A receptors in the impulsive-aggressive dog, as measured with 123I-5-I-R91150 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremans, K.; Hoybergs, Y.; Gielen, I.; Audenaert, K.; Vervaet, M.; Heeringen, C. van; Otte, A.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R.; Blankaert, P.

    2005-01-01

    Involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of citalopram hydrobromide (a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) on the 5-HT 2A receptor and brain perfusion in impulsive-aggressive dogs by means of single-photon emission computed tomography. The binding index of the radioligand 123 I-5-I-R91150 was measured before and after treatment with citalopram hydrobromide in nine impulsive-aggressive dogs. Regional perfusion was measured with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). Behaviour was assessed before treatment and again after 6 weeks of treatment. A correlation was found between decreased binding and behavioural improvement in eight out of nine dogs. The 5-HT 2A receptor binding index was significantly reduced after citalopram hydrobromide treatment in all cortical regions but not in the subcortical area. None of the dogs displayed alterations in perfusion on the post-treatment scans. This study supports previous findings regarding the involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression in dogs in general. More specifically, the effect of treatment on the 5-HT 2A receptor binding index could be demonstrated and the decreased binding index correlated with behavioural improvement. (orig.)

  9. Human trabecular meshwork cells express functional serotonin-2A (5HT2A) receptors: role in IOP reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Najam A; Kelly, Curtis R; McLaughlin, Marsha

    2006-09-01

    To apply a multidisciplinary approach to the identification and pharmacological characterization of the serotonin (5HT) receptors that mediate functional responses in human trabecular meshwork (h-TM) cells. To correlate in vitro findings with intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys. Documented methods were used, including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), phosphoinositide (PI) turnover, and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization. IOP was measured using standard applanation pneumatonometry. h-TM cells expressed robust mRNA signals for 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors. 5HT and its analogues stimulated PI turnover and [Ca2+]i mobilization in h-TM cells from multiple donors (20/24 donors' TM cells responded). The agonist potencies (EC50) of compounds in mobilizing [Ca2+]i were (nM): 5-methoxy tryptamine, 8 +/- 4; (R)-DOI, 18 +/- 6; alpha-methyl-5HT, 22 +/- 3; 5HT, 40 +/- 7; 5-methoxy-dimethyl tryptamine, 64 +/- 27; and BW-723C86, 1213 +/- 210. These effects were potently blocked by the 5HT2A-receptor-selective antagonist, M-100907 (Ki = 1 +/- 0.3 nM), but weakly by antagonists of 5HT2B and 5HT2C receptors. Only 5HT2 receptor agonists such as (R)-DOI (300 microg lowered IOP 34.4% from baseline of 38.2 mm Hg; P 5HT2B receptor mRNAs were detected in h-TM cells. The receptors that coupled to PI hydrolysis and [Ca2+]i mobilization in h-TM cells were the 5HT2A receptor subtype, which also significantly lowered IOP in a primate model. These receptors may mediate the ocular hypotensive actions of 5HT2A agonists.

  10. Central serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor dysfunction in depression and epilepsy: the missing link?

    OpenAIRE

    Guiard, Bruno P.; Giovanni, Giuseppe Di

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, whil...

  11. Central Serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Dysfunction in Depression and Epilepsy: The Missing Link?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Pierre Guiard; Bruno Pierre Guiard; Bruno Pierre Guiard; Giuseppe eDi Giovanni; Giuseppe eDi Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, whil...

  12. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre)). A severe impairment...... was decreased in hippocampus of BDNF mutants, but unchanged in frontal cortex. Molecular analysis indicated corresponding changes in 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) mRNA expression but normal 5-HT(2C) content in these brain regions in BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre) mice. We investigated whether the reduction in frontal 5-HT(2A......)R binding was reflected in reduced functional output in two 5-HT(2A)-receptor mediated behavioral tests, the head-twitch response (HTR) and the ear-scratch response (ESR). BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre) mutants treated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) showed a clearly...

  13. Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Function as a Contributing Factor to Both Neuropsychiatric and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are high levels of comorbidity between neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. A key molecule central to both cognitive and cardiovascular function is the molecule serotonin. In the brain, serotonin modulates neuronal activity and is actively involved in mediating many cognitive functions and behaviors. In the periphery, serotonin is involved in vasoconstriction, inflammation, and cell growth, among other processes. It is hypothesized that one component of the serotonin system, the 5-HT2A receptor, is a common and contributing factor underlying aspects of the comorbidity between neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. Within the brain this receptor participates in processes such as cognition and working memory, been implicated in effective disorders such as schizophrenia, and mediate the primary effects of hallucinogenic drugs. In the periphery, 5-HT2A receptors have been linked to vasoconstriction and hypertension, and to inflammatory processes that can lead to atherosclerosis.

  14. Activation of 5-HT2A receptors by TCB-2 induces recurrent oscillatory burst discharge in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Michael S; Thomas, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a region of neocortex that plays an integral role in several cognitive processes which are abnormal in schizophrenic patients. As with other cortical regions, large-bodied layer 5 pyramidal neurons serve as the principle subcortical output of microcircuits of the mPFC. The coexpression of both inhibitory serotonin 5-HT1A receptors on the axon initial segments, and excitatory 5-HT2A receptors throughout the somatodendritic compartments, by layer 5 pyramidal neurons allows serotonin to provide potent top-down regulation of input-output relationships within cortical microcircuits. Application of 5-HT2A agonists has previously been shown to enhance synaptic input to layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as increase the gain in neuronal firing rate in response to increasing depolarizing current steps. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings obtained from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC of C57/bl6 mice, the aim of our present study was to investigate the modulation of long-term spike trains by the selective 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2. We found that in the presence of synaptic blockers, TCB-2 induced recurrent oscillatory bursting (ROB) after 15-20 sec of tonic spiking in 7 of the 14 cells. In those seven cells, ROB discharge was accurately predicted by the presence of a voltage sag in response to a hyperpolarizing current injection. This effect was reversed by 5-10 min of drug washout and ROB discharge was inhibited by both synaptic activity and coapplication of the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. While the full implications of this work are not yet understood, it may provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of cortical networks. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Cis-urocanic acid, a sunlight-induced immunosuppressive factor, activates immune suppression via the 5-HT2A receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Nghiem, Dat X.; Kazimi, Nasser; Nutt, Leta K.; McConkey, David J.; Norval, Mary; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to UV radiation induces skin cancer and suppresses the immune response. To induce immune suppression, the electromagnetic energy of UV radiation must be absorbed by an epidermal photoreceptor and converted into a biologically recognizable signal. Two photoreceptors have been recognized: DNA and trans-urocanic acid (UCA). Trans-UCA is normally found in the outermost layer of skin and isomerizes to the cis isomer upon exposure to UV radiation. Although UCA was identified as a UV photoreceptor years ago, and many have documented its ability to induce immune suppression, its exact mode of action remains elusive. Particularly vexing has been the identity of the molecular pathway by which cis-UCA mediates immune suppression. Here we provide evidence that cis-UCA binds to the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptor with relatively high affinity (Kd = 4.6 nM). Anti-cis-UCA antibody precipitates radiolabeled 5-HT, and the binding is inhibited by excess 5-HT and/or excess cis-UCA. Similarly, anti-5-HT antibody precipitates radiolabeled cis-UCA, and the binding is inhibited by excess 5-HT or excess cis-UCA. Calcium mobilization was activated when a mouse fibroblast line, stably transfected with the human 5-HT2A receptor, was treated with cis-UCA. Cis-UCA-induced calcium mobilization was blocked with a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. UV- and cis-UCA-induced immune suppression was blocked by antiserotonin antibodies or by treating the mice with 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Our findings identify cis-UCA as a serotonin receptor ligand and indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of cis-UCA and UV radiation are mediated by activation of the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:17085585

  16. Reelin influences the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M J; Lage, S; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I; Brea, J

    2015-04-02

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal guidance during brain neurodevelopment and in synaptic plasticity in adults and has been associated with schizophrenia. Reelin mRNA and protein levels are reduced in various structures of post-mortem schizophrenic brains, in a similar way to those found in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM). Reelin is involved in protein expression in dendritic spines that are the major location where synaptic connections are established. Thus, we hypothesized that a genetic deficit in reelin would affect the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that are associated with the action of current antipsychotic drugs. In this study, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression and function were quantitated by using radioligand binding studies in the frontal cortex and striatum of HRM and wild-type mice (WTM). We observed increased expression (pHT2A receptors from HRM compared to WTM. Our results show parallel alterations of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors that are compatible with a possible hetero-oligomeric nature of these receptors. These changes are similar to changes described in schizophrenic patients and provide further support for the suitability of using HRM as a model for studying this disease and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Central serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor dysfunction in depression and epilepsy: the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiard, Bruno P; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses.

  19. Central Serotonin-2A (5-HT2A Receptor Dysfunction in Depression and Epilepsy: The Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pierre Guiard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses.

  20. Central serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor dysfunction in depression and epilepsy: the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses. PMID:25852551

  1. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Luo, Xiumei; Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (pguinea pigs. 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptor increased both in form deprivation myopia and flickering light induced myopia, indicating that 5-HT possibly involved in myopic development via binding to5-HT2A receptor.

  2. Phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein contributes to agonist-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ju; Zemaitaitis, Bozena; Muma, Nancy A

    2007-01-01

    Agonist treatment causes desensitization of many G protein-coupled receptor systems. Recent advances have delineated changes in receptors in the desensitization response; however, the role of G proteins remains unclear. We investigated the role of phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins in agonist-induced desensitization of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors. In an embryonic rat cortical cell line (A1A1v), 24-h treatment with 100 nM (-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI), a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, decreased DOI-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation and increased the phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of Galpha q/11 and both incorporation of 32P phosphate and labeling with a S/T/Y phosphorylation-dependent antibody. Treatment with DOI for 30 min induced desensitization but did not increase phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in desensitization after short- and long-term treatments. Mutation of S154A in a protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMK) consensus site in Galpha11 significantly reduced DOI-stimulated phosphorylation of Galpha11 and DOI-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling. Inhibition of PKC and CaMK attenuated phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins and DOI-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptors. Expression of Galpha11 S154D, a phosphorylation mimic, reduced DOI-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation. DOI treatment for 24 h also produced heterologous desensitization, as indicated by decreased bradykinin-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation. These data suggest that phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein by PKC and CaMK contributes to agonist-induced homologous desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling as well as heterologous desensitization. The phosphorylation of Galpha protein represents a novel mechanism involved in regulation of receptor signaling and agonist

  3. Synthesis, radiofluorination, and preliminary evaluation of the potential 5-HT2A receptor agonists [18 F]Cimbi-92 and [18 F]Cimbi-150

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgar, Fraser Graeme; Hansen, Hanne D; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    An agonist PET tracer is of key interest for the imaging of the 5-HT2A receptor, as exemplified by the previously reported success of [11 C]Cimbi-36. Fluorine-18 holds several advantages over carbon-11, making it the radionuclide of choice for clinical purposes. In this respect, an 18 F......-labelled agonist 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A R) tracer is highly sought after. Herein, we report a 2-step, 1-pot labelling methodology of 2 tracer candidates. Both ligands display high in vitro affinities for the 5-HT2A R. The compounds were synthesised from easily accessible labelling precursors, and radiolabelled...

  4. Analysis of the 5HT-2A T102C receptor polymorphism and psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Donnelly, Caroline; Hart, Dominic; Carson, Robyn; Passmore, Peter

    2007-01-05

    Although the aetiology of psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multi-factorial, alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission are often implicated. Polymorphisms of the serotonin receptor 5HT-2A are associated with hallucinatory symptoms and delusions in demented and non-demented cohorts. This study examined the role of the 5HT-2A T102C polymorphism in influencing psychotic symptoms in a large Northern Ireland AD population (n = 406, mean MMSE 13/30). Forty-eight percent of patients experienced delusional symptoms and 28% experienced hallucinations during the course of their dementia. No significant association was found either in frequency of genotype or allelic variation for either set of symptoms. Furthermore, the mean delusional and hallucinatory severity scores did not differ significantly among the three genotype groups. The lack of influence of the T102C polymorphism of the 5HT-2A receptor on the emergence of psychotic symptoms in AD contrasts with previous reports in other cohorts involving smaller numbers of subjects.

  5. Cannabinoid-Induced Enhanced Interaction and Protein Levels of Serotonin 5-HT2A and Dopamine D2 Receptors in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission in brain. The molecular mechanisms of this regulation are unknown but could involve cannabinoid-induced enhanced interaction between 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 (D2) receptors. Here, we present experimental evidence that Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist (CP55,940, 50μg/kg, 7days, i.p.) showed enhanced co-immunoprecipitation of 5-HT2A and D2 receptors and enhanced membrane-associated expression of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Furthermore, 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels were increased in PFCx suggesting a cannabinoid-induced upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors. To date, two cannabinoids receptors have been found in brain, CB1 and CB2 receptors. We used selective cannabinoid agonists in a neuronal cell line to study mechanisms that could mediate this 5-HT2A receptor upregulation. We found that selective CB2 receptor agonists upregulate 5-HT2A receptors by a mechanism that seems to involve activation of Gαi G-proteins, ERK1/2, and AP-1 transcription factor. We hypothesize that the enhanced cannabinoid-induced interaction between 5-HT2A and D2 receptors and in 5-HT2A and D2 receptors protein levels in the PFCx might provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be contribute to the pathophysiology of some cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:22791651

  6. Contribution of 5-HT2 receptor subtypes to sleep-wakefulness and respiratory control, and functional adaptations in knock-out mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Daniela; Léna, Clément; Fabre, Véronique; Prenat, Caroline; Gingrich, Jay; Escourrou, Pierre; Hamon, Michel; Adrien, Joëlle

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays key roles in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Evidence indicates that 5-HT2 receptors are involved mainly in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) regulation and respiratory control. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes to NREMS and breathing during sleep, using 5-HT2 subtype-selective ligands in wild-type (5-HT(2A)+/+) and knock-out (5-HT(2A)-/-) mice that do not e...

  7. CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS UPREGULATE AND ENHANCE SEROTONIN 2A (5-HT2A) RECEPTOR ACTIVITY VIA ERK1/2 SIGNALING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent behavioral studies suggest that non-selective agonists of cannabinoid receptors may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission. Two cannabinoids receptors are found in brain, CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the molecular mechanism by which cannabinoid receptors would regulate 5-HT2A receptor neurotransmission remains unknown. Interestingly, we have recently found that certain cannabinoid receptor agonists can specifically upregulate 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we present experimental evidence that rats treated with a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist (CP 55,940, 50μg/kg, 7 days) showed increases in 5-HT2A receptor protein levels, 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels, and 5-HT2A receptor-mediated phospholipase C Beta (PLCβ) activity in prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Similar effects were found in neuronal cultured cells treated with CP 55,940 but these effects were prevented by selective CB2, but not selective CB1, receptor antagonists. CB2 receptors couple to the extracellular kinase (ERK) signaling pathway by Gαi/o class of G-proteins. Noteworthy, GP 1a (selective CB2 receptor agonist) produced a strong upregulation of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and protein, an effect that was prevented by selective CB2 receptor antagonists and by an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD 198306. In summary, our results identified a strong cannabinoid-induced upregulation of 5-HT2A receptor signaling in rat PFCx. Our cultured cell studies suggest that selective CB2 receptor agonists upregulate 5-HT2A receptor signaling by activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with several physiological functions and neuropsychiatric disorders such as stress response, anxiety & depression and schizophrenia. Therefore, these results might provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be relevant to the pathophysiology of some cognitive and mood disorders in humans. PMID:23151877

  8. Preclinical safety assessment of the 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand [ 11C]Cimbi-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettrup, Anders; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Martin; Wasim, Muhammad; Santini, Martin Andreas; Palner, Mikael; Madsen, Jacob; Svarer, Claus; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2013-08-01

    [11C]Cimbi-36 was recently developed as an agonist radioligand for brain imaging of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A) with positron emission tomography (PET). This may be used to quantify the high-affinity state of 5-HT2A receptors and may have the potential to quantify changes in cerebral 5-HT levels in vivo. We here investigated safety aspects related to clinical use of [11C]Cimbi-36, including radiation dosimetry and in vivo pharmacology. [11C]Cimbi-36 was injected in rats or pigs, and radiation dosimetry was examined by ex vivo dissection or with PET scanning, respectively. Based on animal data, the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment software was used to estimate extrapolated human dosimetry for [11C]Cimbi-36. The 5-HT2A receptor agonist actions of [11C]Cimbi-36 in vivo pharmacological effects in mice elicited by increasing doses of Cimbi-36 were assessed with the head-twitch response (HTR). The effective dose as extrapolated from both rat and pig data was low, 7.67 and 4.88 μSv/MBq, respectively. In addition, the estimated absorbed radiation dose to human target organs did not exceed safety levels. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg Cimbi-36 leads to significant HTR compared to saline, whereas 0.05 mg/kg Cimbi-36 (doses much larger than those given in conjunction with a PET scan) did not elicit a significant HTR. Administration of tracer doses of [11C]Cimbi-36 does not seem to be associated with unusual radiation burden or adverse clinical effects.

  9. 5-HT2A receptor deficiency alters the metabolic and transcriptional, but not the behavioral, consequences of chronic unpredictable stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Jaggar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress enhances risk for psychiatric disorders, and in animal models is known to evoke depression-like behavior accompanied by perturbed neurohormonal, metabolic, neuroarchitectural and transcriptional changes. Serotonergic neurotransmission, including serotonin2A (5-HT2A receptors, have been implicated in mediating specific aspects of stress-induced responses. Here we investigated the influence of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS on depression-like behavior, serum metabolic measures, and gene expression in stress-associated neurocircuitry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus in 5-HT2A receptor knockout (5-HT2A−/− and wild-type mice of both sexes. While 5-HT2A−/− male and female mice exhibited a baseline reduced anxiety-like state, this did not alter the onset or severity of behavioral despair during and at the cessation of CUS, indicating that these mice can develop stress-evoked depressive behavior. Analysis of metabolic parameters in serum revealed a CUS-evoked dyslipidemia, which was abrogated in 5-HT2A−/− female mice with a hyperlipidemic baseline phenotype. 5-HT2A−/− male mice in contrast did not exhibit such a baseline shift in their serum lipid profile. Specific stress-responsive genes (Crh, Crhr1, Nr3c1, and Nr3c2, trophic factors (Bdnf, Igf1 and immediate early genes (IEGs (Arc, Fos, Fosb, Egr1-4 in the PFC and hippocampus were altered in 5-HT2A−/− mice both under baseline and CUS conditions. Our results support a role for the 5-HT2A receptor in specific metabolic and transcriptional, but not behavioral, consequences of CUS, and highlight that the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to stress-evoked changes is sexually dimorphic. Keywords: 5-HT2A−/− mice, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus, Gene expression, Sexual dimorphism, Despair

  10. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT2A receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [18F]-altanserin PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M; Haugbøl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. METHODS: [(18)F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT(2A) receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP......(P). The reproducibility as assessed in terms of variability and the reliability as assessed in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare inter- and intraobserver stability and to evaluate the effects of increasing complexity of partial volume (PV) corrections. We also compared the stability...

  11. Effect of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on temporal discrimination by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Sindhunata, Ivan S; Scheffers, Kees; Flynn, Aaron D; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2016-08-01

    Timing deficits are observed in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonergic hallucinogens can also alter the subjective experience of time. Characterizing the mechanism through which the serotonergic system regulates timing will increase our understanding of the linkage between serotonin (5-HT) and schizophrenia, and will provide insight into the mechanism of action of hallucinogens. We investigated whether interval timing in mice is altered by hallucinogens and other 5-HT2 receptor ligands. C57BL/6J mice were trained to perform a discrete-trials temporal discrimination task. In the discrete-trials task, mice were presented with two levers after a variable interval. Responding on lever A was reinforced if the interval was 6.5 s. A 2-parameter logistic function was fitted to the proportional choice for lever B (%B responding), yielding estimates of the indifference point (T50) and the Weber fraction (a measure of timing precision). The 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 increased T50, whereas the 5-HT2C antagonist SB-242,084 reduced T50. The results indicate that 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have countervailing effects on the speed of the internal pacemaker. The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 3 mg/kg IP), a 5-HT2 agonist, flattened the response curve at long stimulus intervals and shifted it to the right, causing both T50 and the Weber fraction to increase. The effect of DOI was antagonized by M100907 (0.03 mg/kg SC) but was unaffected by SB-242,084 (0.1 mg/kg SC). Similar to DOI, the selective 5-HT2A agonist 25CN-NBOH (6 mg/kg SC) reduced %B responding at long stimulus intervals, and increased T50 and the Weber fraction. These results demonstrate that hallucinogens alter temporal perception in mice, effects that are mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. It appears that 5-HT regulates temporal perception, suggesting that altered serotonergic signaling may contribute to the timing deficits observed in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Copyright

  12. Plaque deposition dependent decrease in 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 amyloid overexpressing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Peter; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; El-Sayed, Mona; Elvang, Anders B; Stensbøl, Tine B; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Knudsen, Gitte M; Aznar, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Intrahippocampal injections of aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta)1-42 in rats result in memory impairment and in reduction of hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor levels. In order to investigate how changes in 5-HT2A levels and functionality relate to the progressive accumulation of Abeta protein, we studied 5-HT2A receptor regulation in double transgenic AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 mice which display excess production of Abeta and age-dependent increase in amyloid plaques. Three different age-groups, 4-month-old, 8- month-old, and 11-month-old were included in the study. [3H]-MDL100907, [3H]-escitalopram, and [11C]-PIB autoradiography was performed for measuring 5-HT2A receptor, serotonin transporter (SERT), and Abeta plaque levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontoparietal cortex (FPC), dorsal and ventral hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. To investigate 5-HT2A receptor functionality, animals were treated with the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI and head-twitch response (HTR) subsequently recorded. Expression level of the immediate early gene c-fos was measured by in situ hybridization. We found that the age-related increase in Abeta plaque burden was accompanied by a significant decrease in 5-HT2A receptor binding in mPFC in the 11-month-old group. The changes in 5-HT2A receptor binding correlated negatively with [11C]-PIB binding and were not accompanied by decreases in SERT binding. Correspondingly, 11-month-old transgenic mice showed diminished DOI-induced HTR and reduced increase in expression of c-fos mRNA in mPFC and FPC. These observations point towards a direct association between Abeta accumulation and changes in 5-HT2A receptor expression that is independent of upstream changes in the serotonergic system.

  13. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens. Potential relevance for atypical antipsychotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocci, Giuseppe; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Adell, Albert; Cortés, Roser; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotic drugs modulate information processing in cortico-limbic circuits via dopamine D2 receptor blockade in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs preferentially target cortical serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The brain networks involved in the therapeutic action of atypical drugs are not fully understood. Previous work indicated that medial PFC (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to ventral tegmental area express 5-HT2A receptors suggesting that atypical antipsychotic drugs modulate dopaminergic activity distally, via 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A-R) blockade in PFC. Since the mPFC also projects heavily to NAc, we examined whether NAc-projecting pyramidal neurons also express 5-HT2A-R. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of mPFC-NAc pyramidal neurons in rat brain express 5-HT2A-R mRNA in a layer- and area-specific manner (up to 68% in layer V of contralateral cingulate). The functional relevance of 5-HT2A-R to modulate mPFC-NAc projections was examined in dual-probe microdialysis experiments. The application of the preferential 5-HT2A-R agonist DOI into mPFC enhanced glutamate release locally (+66 ± 18%) and in NAc (+74 ± 12%) indicating that cortical 5-HT2A-R activation augments glutamatergic transmission in NAc. Since NAc integrates glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs, blockade of 5-HT2A-R by atypical drugs may reduce cortical excitatory inputs onto GABAergic neurons of NAc, adding to dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Together with previous observations, the present results suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs may control the activity of the mesolimbic pathway at cell body and terminal level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Which Decreases Hypothalamic 5-HT2A Receptor Expression, Reduces Appetite and Body Weight Independently of Serotonin Synthesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2018-01-01

    A recent report suggested that brain-derived serotonin (5-HT) is critical for maintaining weight loss induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation in rats and that 5-HT2A receptors mediate the feeding suppression and weight loss induced by GLP-1 receptor activation. Here, we show that changes in daily food intake and body weight induced by intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, over 4 days did not differ between mice treated with the tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) for 3 days and mice without PCPA treatment. Treatment with PCPA did not affect hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor expression. Despite the anorexic effect of liraglutide disappearing after the first day of treatment, the body weight loss induced by liraglutide persisted for 4 days in mice treated with or without PCPA. Intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide significantly decreased the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors 1 h after injection. Moreover, the acute anorexic effects of liraglutide were blunted in mice treated with the high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist (4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl) methylamine hydrobromide 14 h or 24 h before liraglutide injection. These findings suggest that liraglutide reduces appetite and body weight independently of 5-HT synthesis in mice, whereas GLP-1 receptor activation downregulates the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors.

  15. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Which Decreases Hypothalamic 5-HT2A Receptor Expression, Reduces Appetite and Body Weight Independently of Serotonin Synthesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Nonogaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent report suggested that brain-derived serotonin (5-HT is critical for maintaining weight loss induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor activation in rats and that 5-HT2A receptors mediate the feeding suppression and weight loss induced by GLP-1 receptor activation. Here, we show that changes in daily food intake and body weight induced by intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, over 4 days did not differ between mice treated with the tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA for 3 days and mice without PCPA treatment. Treatment with PCPA did not affect hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor expression. Despite the anorexic effect of liraglutide disappearing after the first day of treatment, the body weight loss induced by liraglutide persisted for 4 days in mice treated with or without PCPA. Intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide significantly decreased the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors 1 h after injection. Moreover, the acute anorexic effects of liraglutide were blunted in mice treated with the high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist (4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl methylamine hydrobromide 14 h or 24 h before liraglutide injection. These findings suggest that liraglutide reduces appetite and body weight independently of 5-HT synthesis in mice, whereas GLP-1 receptor activation downregulates the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors.

  16. Current radiosynthesis strategies for 5-HT2A receptor PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias M; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 2A receptors have been implicated in various psychophysiological functions and disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's disease, or schizophrenia. Therefore, neuroimaging of this specific receptor is of significant clinical interest, and it is not surprising that many attempts have been...

  17. Selective immunolesion of cholinergic neurons leads to long-term changes in 5-HT2A receptor levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severino, Maurizio; Pedersen, Anja F; Trajkovska, Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Although loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain is considered a key initial feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in other transmitter systems, including serotonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors, are also associated with early AD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... elimination of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain directly affects 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. For this purpose intraventricular injection of the selective immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin was given to rats in doses of either 2.5 or 5 microg. The rats were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 20 weeks. 5-HT(2A......) protein levels were determined by western techniques in frontal cortex and hippocampus. A significant 70% downregulation in frontal cortex and a 100% upregulation in hippocampus of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were observed 20 weeks after the cholinergic lesion when using the highest dose of 192 Ig...

  18. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A......)) receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in 5-HT(2A) receptor or SERT binding were found between the val/val and met carriers, nor were blood BDNF values associated with SERT binding or 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. In conclusion, val66met...... BDNF polymorphism status is not associated with changes in the serotonergic system. Moreover, BDNF levels in blood do not correlate with either 5-HT(2A) or SERT binding....

  19. Serotonin inhibits apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through 5-HT2A receptors involved in the pulmonary artery remodeling of pulmonary artery hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Tian, Hongyan; Yan, Xiaoli; Fan, Fenling; Wang, Wenping; Han, Junli

    2013-03-01

    Decreased pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis play a key role in pulmonary artery remodeling during pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits apoptosis in many pathologic processes by activating the 5-HT2A receptor. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT may be the promoter of decreased apoptosis in PAH through the 5-HT2A receptor. We found that inhibition of the 5-HT2A receptor prevented the increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery remodeling in rats stimulated by monocrotaline. This effect was accompanied by increased apoptosis in the pulmonary artery. Cultured PASMCs stimulated with 5-HT showed a decrease in apoptosis with increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. These effects were markedly prevented by a 5-HT2A receptor inhibitor, an ERK1/2 activation inhibitor peptide I, or a PDK inhibitor. In conclusion, 5-HT inhibited PASMC apoptosis by activating the 5-HT2A receptor through the pERK1/2 and PDK pathways.5-HT decreasing apoptosis through 5-HT2A receptor is involved, at least in part, in pulmonary artery remolding.

  20. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice: A Postmortem Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz; Plenge, Per; Klein, Anders Bue; Westin, Jenny E; Fog, Karina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations. Binding density for the 5-HT2A-specific radioligand [(3)H]-MDL 100.907 was measured in membrane suspensions of frontal cortex tissue from PD patients. Protein levels of AS were further measured using western blotting. Results showed higher AS levels accompanied by increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in PD brains. In a separate study, we looked for changes in 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex in 52-week-old transgenic mice overexpressing human AS. We performed region-specific 5-HT2A receptor binding measurements followed by gene expression analysis. The transgenic mice showed lower 5-HT2A binding in the frontal association cortex that was not accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. This study is one of the first to look at differences in serotonin receptor levels in PD and in relation to AS overexpression.

  1. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...... and the AQ or BIS-11 total scores. Also, there was no significant interaction between gender and frontal cortex 5-HT2AR in predicting trait aggression and trait impulsivity. This is the first study to examine how 5-HT2AR relates to trait aggression and trait impulsivity in a large sample of healthy...... individuals. Our findings are not supportive of a selective role for 5-HT2AR in mediating the 5-HT related effects on aggression and impulsivity in psychiatrically healthy individuals....

  2. Polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecol-O-metiltransferase (COMT: fatores desencadeantes da fibromialgia? Serotonin receptor (5-HT 2A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms: Triggers of fibromyalgia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Budag Matsuda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome reumática caracterizada por dor difusa e crônica associada a fadiga, insônia, ansiedade, depressão, perda de memória e tontura. Embora os mecanismos fisiológicos que controlam a fibromialgia não tenham sido estabelecidos, fatores neuroendócrinos, genéticos ou moleculares podem estar envolvidos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecolO-metiltransferase (COMT em pacientes brasileiros com fibromialgia, a fim de avaliar sua participação na etiologia da doença. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O DNA genômico extraído de 102 amostras de sangue (51 pacientes, 51 controles foi usado para a caracterização molecular dos polimorfismos dos genes 5-HT2A e COMT, por meio de PCR-RFLP. RESULTADOS: A análise molecular dos polimorfismos do gene 5-HT2A demonstrou frequências de 25,49% C/C, 49,02% T/C e 25,49% T/T, nos pacientes com fibromialgia, e 17,65% C/C, 62,74% T/C e 19,61% T/T, no grupo controle, não apresentando diferença significativa entre o grupo de pacientes e o grupo controle. Os polimorfismos do gene da COMT em pacientes com fibromialgia apresentaram uma frequência de 17,65% e 45,10% para os genótipos H/H e L/H, respectivamente. No grupo controle, as frequências foram de 29,42%, para H/H, e 60,78%, para L/H, sem diferença significativa entre ambos os grupos. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na frequência do genótipo L/L em pacientes (37,25% e controles (9,8%, o que permitiu a diferenciação entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência do genótipo L/L foi maior nos pacientes com fibromialgia. Apesar de a fibromialgia envolver uma situação poligênica e fatores ambientais, o estudo molecular do SNP rs4680 do gene da COMT pode auxiliar a identificação de indivíduos suscetíveis.INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic syndrome characterized by diffuse and chronic pain associated with

  3. Existence of Brain 5-HT1A-5-HT2A Isoreceptor Complexes with Antagonistic Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions Regulating 5-HT1A Receptor Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Li, Xiang; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Savelli, David; Narváez, Manuel; Shumilov, Kirill; Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Jimenez-Beristain, Antonio; Pomierny, Bartosz; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Cuppini, Riccardo; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Lindskog, Maria; Fuxe, Kjell

    2017-08-31

    Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e.g., postjunctional 5-HT1A and 5-HT4). These state-of-the-art developments are in line with the hypothesis that the development of major depression can involve an imbalance of the activity between different types of 5-HT isoreceptors. In the current study, using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA), we report evidence for the existence of brain 5-HT1A-5-HT2A isoreceptor complexes validated in cellular models with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET 2 ) assay. A high density of PLA-positive clusters visualizing 5-HT1A-5-HT2A isoreceptor complexes was demonstrated in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1-CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. A marked reduction in the density of PLA-positive clusters was observed in the CA1 and CA2 regions 24 h after a forced swim test session, indicating the dynamics of this 5-HT isoreceptor complex. Using a bioinformatic approach, previous work indicates that receptors forming heterodimers demonstrate triplet amino acid homologies. The receptor interface of the 5-HT1A-5-HT2A isoreceptor dimer was shown to contain the LLG and QNA protriplets in the transmembrane and intracellular domain, respectively. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB2 markedly reduced the affinity of the 5-HT1A agonist ipsapirone for the 5-HT1A agonist binding sites in the frontal lobe using the 5-HT1A radioligand binding assay. This action was blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. It is proposed that

  4. Assessment of binding affinity to 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and inverse agonist activity of naftidrofuryl: comparison with those of sarpogrelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Saida Abdel Regal; Hossain, Murad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Nakamura, Takashi; Nagatomo, Takafumi

    2009-08-01

    Naftidrofuryl is a peripheral vasodilator that has been clinically used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and dementia. It has 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 (5-HT(2)) antiserotonergic activity and selectively binds with the 5-HT(2) receptor. The purpose of the present study is to assess the binding affinity and functional potency of naftidrofuryl to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, to find out the inverse agonist activity of this compound at a constitutively active mutant of 5-HT(2A) receptor, and finally to compare the findings with those of sarpogrelate. The investigation showed that the binding affinity (pK(i)) of naftidrofuryl was decreased 25- or 50-fold compared to sarpogrelate in the wild-type 5-HT(2A) receptor or Cys322Lys mutant receptor, respectively. Moreover, the functional potency (pK(b)) of naftidrofuryl was much lower compared to sarpogrelate at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. In addition, inverse agonist activity of naftidrofuryl was lower compared with sarpogrelate at the constitutively active mutant receptor. Thus, the data of the present study would be very important for the clarification of interaction sites of naftidrofuryl to 5-HT(2A) receptors and also may help to understand the mechanism of inverse agonist activity at the constitutively active mutant receptor.

  5. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding, but not mGluR2, is increased in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 decrease-of-function mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna Vangsgaard; Jacobsen, Jacob P; Caron, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    interesting as a putative translational model of low endogenous 5-HT function that allows for assessment of adaptive changes in different anatomical regions. Here, we determined 5-HT2A receptor binding in several brain regions using in vitro receptor autoradiography and two different radioligands. When using...... the 5-HT2A receptor selective antagonist radioligand (3)H-MDL100907, we found higher binding in the prefrontal cortex (10%, P=0.009), the striatum (26%, P=0.005), and the substantia nigra (21%, P=0.027). The increase was confirmed in the same regions with the 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist, (3)H-CIMBI-36 (2......-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine). 5-HT2A receptors establish heteromeric receptor complexes with metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors (mGluR2), but binding levels of the mGluR2/3 ligand (3)H-LY341495 were unaltered in brain areas with increased 5-HT2A receptor levels. These data...

  6. A homology-based model of the human 5-HT2A receptor derived from an in silico activated G-protein coupled receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James J.; Nichols, David E.

    2002-07-01

    A homology-based model of the 5-HT2A receptor was produced utilizing an activated form of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh) crystal structure [1,2]. In silico activation of the Rh structure was accomplished by isomerization of the 11- cis-retinal (1) chromophore, followed by constrained molecular dynamics to relax the resultant high energy structure. The activated form of Rh was then used as a structural template for development of a human 5-HT2A receptor model. Both the 5-HT2A receptor and Rh are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. The resulting homology model of the receptor was then used for docking studies of compounds representing a cross-section of structural classes that activate the 5-HT2A receptor, including ergolines, tryptamines, and amphetamines. The ligand/receptor complexes that ensued were refined and the final binding orientations were observed to be compatible with much of the data acquired through both diversified ligand design and site directed mutagenesis.

  7. Repeated Clozapine Increases the Level of Serotonin 5-HT1AR Heterodimerization with 5-HT2A or Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Mouse Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, Marta; Kuśmider, Maciej; Pabian, Paulina; Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Żurawek, Dariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Faron-Górecka, Agata

    2018-01-01

    G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimers are new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. Dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors play an important role in neurotransmission and have been implicated in many human psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs (clozapine (CLZ) and haloperidol (HAL)) affected the formation of heterodimers of D2–5-HT1A receptors as well as 5-HT1A–5-HT2A receptors. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) was used to accurately visualize, for the first time, GPCR heterodimers both at in vitro and ex vivo levels. In line with our previous behavioral studies, we used ketamine to induce cognitive deficits in mice. Our study confirmed the co-localization of D2/5-HT1A and 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptors in the mouse cortex. Low-dose CLZ (0.3 mg/kg) administered repeatedly, but not CLZ at 1 mg/kg, increased the level of D2–5-HT1A and 5-HT1A–5-HT2A heterodimers in the mouse prefrontal and frontal cortex. On the other hand, HAL decreased the level of GPCR heterodimers. Ketamine affected the formation of 5-HT1A–5-HT2A, but not D2–5-HT1A, heterodimers. PMID:29497362

  8. Synthesis and in vitro affinities of various MDL 100907 derivatives as potential F-18-radioligands for 5-HT2A receptor imaging with PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias Manfred; Kramer, Vasko; Piel, Markus

    2009-01-01

    (i)-values in the nanomolar range towards the 5-HT(2A) receptor and insignificant binding to other 5-HT receptor subtypes or receptors. Interestingly, compounds MA-1 (53), MH.MZ (55) and (R)-MH.MZ (56) provide a receptor selectivity profile similar to MDL 100907. These compounds could possibly be preferable antagonistic (18......)F-tracers for visualization of the 5-HT(2A) receptor status. Medium affine compounds (VK-1 (32), (51), (52), (54)) were synthesized and have K(i) values between 30 and 120 nM. All promising compounds show logP values between 2 and 3, that is, within the range of those for the established...... radiotracers altanserin and MDL 100907. The novel compounds MA-1 (53) and (R)-MH.MZ (56) thus appear to be promising high affine and selective tracers of (18)F-labelled analogues for 5-HT(2A) imaging with PET....

  9. Cannabinoid-Induced Enhanced Interaction and Protein Levels of Serotonin 5-HT2A and Dopamine D2 Receptors in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission in brain. The molecular mechanisms of this regulation are unknown but could involve cannabinoid-induced enhanced interaction between 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 (D2) receptors. Here, we present experimental evidence that Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist (CP55,940, 50μg/kg, 7days, i.p.) showed enhanced co-immunoprecipita...

  10. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  11. 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor interactions: on their relevance to cognitive function and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lena; Koch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and glutamate have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders but also in the mechanism of antipsychotic and hallucinogenic drug actions. Furthermore, close antagonistic interactions between 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptors have been established over the last decades on the basis of numerous electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral studies. Besides synaptic mechanisms, more recent findings suggested that heterodimeric 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complexes in the prefrontal cortex may account for the functional crosstalk between these two receptor subtypes. In this review, we focus on in-vitro and in-vivo studies documenting the important relationship between 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptors, with relevance to both normal behavioral function and psychosis.

  12. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding, but not mGluR2, is increased in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 decrease-of-function mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christinna V; Jacobsen, Jacob P; Caron, Marc G; Klein, Anders B; Knudsen, Gitte M; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-10-25

    Transgenic mice with a knock-in (KI) of a tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) R439H mutation, analogous to the Tph2 R441H single-nucleotide polymorphism originally identified in a late life depression cohort, have markedly reduced levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). These Tph2KI mice are therefore interesting as a putative translational model of low endogenous 5-HT function that allows for assessment of adaptive changes in different anatomical regions. Here, we determined 5-HT2A receptor binding in several brain regions using in vitro receptor autoradiography and two different radioligands. When using the 5-HT2A receptor selective antagonist radioligand (3)H-MDL100907, we found higher binding in the prefrontal cortex (10%, P=0.009), the striatum (26%, P=0.005), and the substantia nigra (21%, P=0.027). The increase was confirmed in the same regions with the 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist, (3)H-CIMBI-36 (2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine). 5-HT2A receptors establish heteromeric receptor complexes with metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors (mGluR2), but binding levels of the mGluR2/3 ligand (3)H-LY341495 were unaltered in brain areas with increased 5-HT2A receptor levels. These data show that in distinct anatomical regions, 5-HT2A receptor binding sites are up-regulated in 5-HT deficient mice, and this increase is not associated with changes in mGluR2 binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased hippocampal 5-HT2A receptors in post mortem tissue from schizophrenic but not bipolar subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.; Bradbury, R.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The hippocampus is important in cognition and sensory gating,both of which are thought to be impaired in schizophrenia. Since 5HT has also been implicated in cognition we investigated the hippocampal serotonergic system in subjects with either schizophrenia or bipolar mood disorder. Using autoradiography,we found significant (p 3 H] ketanserin binding in the CA3 (Mean ±SEM:29.6 ± 4.0 vs.46.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mgETE), the stratum radiatum (27.3 ± 2.7 vs.38.7 ± 3.9 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (35.6 ± 3.4 vs.51.4 ± 2.7 fmol/ mgETE) of CA1 as well as the outer (8.3 ± 1.5 vs.12.2 ± 1.4 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (16.4 ± 2.5 vs.32.1 ± 3.2 fmol/mgETE) of the subiculum in hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic subjects. No such differences were found in the dentate gyrus or CA2 region from schizophrenia subjects or in any hippocampal region from bipolar subjects. The lack of change in the bipolar cohort suggests that the decreased density of hippocampal 5-HT 2A receptors is disease specific and not a result of neuroleptic treatment, which both cohorts received. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  14. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride, a serotonin 5HT2A receptor antagonist, ameliorates the development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erquan; Maruyama, Junko; Yokochi, Ayumu; Mitani, Yoshihide; Sawada, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Ma, Ning; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SPG), a serotonin 5HT2A receptor antagonist, prevented the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and hypertensive pulmonary vascular remodeling. Forty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (380 mmHg, 10 % oxygen) or room air and administered 50 mg/kg SPG or vehicle by gavage once daily from day -2 to day 14. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were measured. Hypertensive pulmonary vascular remodelings were assessed morphometrically by light microscopy. Serotonin-induced contraction was determined in isolated pulmonary artery rings from 24 rats. In another set of rats, Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining (n = 9) for lung tissue were performed. Chronic hypoxia induced a rise in mean PAP and RVH, increased the percentage of muscularized arteries in peripheral pulmonary arteries and medial wall thickness in small muscular arteries, and potentiated serotonin-induced contraction, each of which was significantly (p pulmonary arteries from chronic hypoxic rats and decreased the MMP-13 mRNA in lung tissue in chronic hypoxic rats. The administration of SPG ameliorated the development of chronic hypoxic PH and hypertensive pulmonary vascular changes.

  15. Existence of Brain 5-HT1A–5-HT2A Isoreceptor Complexes with Antagonistic Allosteric Receptor–Receptor Interactions Regulating 5-HT1A Receptor Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e.g., postjunctional 5-HT1A and 5-HT4). These state-of-the-art developments are in line with the hypothesis that the development of major depression can involve an imbalance of the activity between different types of 5-HT isoreceptors. In the current study, using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA), we report evidence for the existence of brain 5-HT1A–5-HT2A isoreceptor complexes validated in cellular models with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET2) assay. A high density of PLA-positive clusters visualizing 5-HT1A–5-HT2A isoreceptor complexes was demonstrated in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1–CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. A marked reduction in the density of PLA-positive clusters was observed in the CA1 and CA2 regions 24 h after a forced swim test session, indicating the dynamics of this 5-HT isoreceptor complex. Using a bioinformatic approach, previous work indicates that receptors forming heterodimers demonstrate triplet amino acid homologies. The receptor interface of the 5-HT1A–5-HT2A isoreceptor dimer was shown to contain the LLG and QNA protriplets in the transmembrane and intracellular domain, respectively. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB2 markedly reduced the affinity of the 5-HT1A agonist ipsapirone for the 5-HT1A agonist binding sites in the frontal lobe using the 5-HT1A radioligand binding assay. This action was blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. It is proposed

  16. Activation of 5-HT2a receptors in the basolateral amygdala promotes defeat-induced anxiety and the acquisition of conditioned defeat in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinard, Catherine T; Bader, Lauren R; Sullivan, Molly A; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    Conditioned defeat is a model in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in which normal territorial aggression is replaced by increased submissive and defensive behavior following acute social defeat. The conditioned defeat response involves both a fear-related memory for a specific opponent as well as anxiety-like behavior indicated by avoidance of novel conspecifics. We have previously shown that systemic injection of a 5-HT2a receptor antagonist reduces the acquisition of conditioned defeat. Because neural activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for the acquisition of conditioned defeat and BLA 5-HT2a receptors can modulate anxiety but have a limited effect on emotional memories, we investigated whether 5-HT2a receptor modulation alters defeat-induced anxiety but not defeat-related memories. We injected the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist MDL 11,939 (0 mM, 1.7 mM or 17 mM) or the 5-HT2a receptor agonist TCB-2 (0 mM, 8 mM or 80 mM) into the BLA prior to social defeat. We found that injection of MDL 11,939 into the BLA impaired acquisition of the conditioned defeat response and blocked defeat-induced anxiety in the open field, but did not significantly impair avoidance of former opponents in the Y-maze. Furthermore, we found that injection of TCB-2 into the BLA increased the acquisition of conditioned defeat and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, but did not alter avoidance of former opponents. Our data suggest that 5-HT2a receptor signaling in the BLA is both necessary and sufficient for the development of conditioned defeat, likely via modulation of defeat-induced anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Orbitofrontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor mediates chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and alterations of spine density and Kalirin7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Chen, Hui-Bin; Zhou, Meng-He; Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies show that patients with major depression have reduced volume of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Although the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, which is abundant in the OFC, has been implicated in depression, the underlying mechanisms in the development of stress-induced depression remain unclear. Kalirin-7 (Kal7) is an essential component of mature excitatory synapses for maintaining dendritic spines density, size and synaptic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of orbitofrontal 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptors in depressive-like behaviors and their associations with Kal7 and dendritic spines using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), an established animal model of depression. CUMS had no effect on the levels of 5-HT or the 5-HT2A receptor in the OFC. However, CUMS or microinjection of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist (±)-1-(2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)- 2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI, 5 μg/0.5 μL) into the OFC induced depressive-like behaviors, including anhedonia in the sucrose preference test and behavioral despair in the tail suspension test, a significant reduction in body weight gain and locomotor activity in the open field test, which were accompanied by decreased expression of Kal7 and PSD95 as well as decreased density of dendritic spines in the OFC. These alterations induced by CUMS were reversed by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Ket, 5 μg/0.5 μL into the OFC). These results suggest that CUMS alters structural plasticity through activation of the orbital 5-HT2A receptor and is associated with decreased expression of Kal7, thereby resulting in depressive-like behaviors in rats, suggesting an important role of Kal7 in the OFC in depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reverse microdialysis of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist alters extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Ansah, Twum A

    2014-05-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that antagonism of 5-HT2A receptors may benefit patients with parkinsonian symptomatology. The mechanism of the antiparkinsonian effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists has not been fully elucidated. We have shown that the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 [R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenethyl)]-4-piperidinemethanol] improved motor impairments in mice treated with the parkinsonian neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of parkinsonism dopamine denervation is associated with increased cortico-striatal glutamatergic transmission. We hypothesized that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may exert their antiparkinsonian effects by decreasing striatal glutamate. Here, using in vivo microdialysis, we have shown an increased basal level of extracellular striatal glutamate when measured 3weeks after MPTP administration. The local administration of M100907 to the striatum significantly decreased striatal extracellular glutamate levels in MPTP-treated and saline treated mice. Basal extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels were also elevated, whereas dopamine (DA) levels were significantly reduced in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. Infusion of M100907 into the striatum produced no effect on dopamine or 5-HT levels. Local application of tetrodotoxin suppressed glutamate, 5-HT and DA concentrations in striatal dialysates in the presence or absence of M100907. The striatal expression of the glutamate transporter GLT1 was unchanged. However, there was an upregulation of the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. Our data provide further evidence of enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission in parkinsonism and demonstrate that blocking 5-HT2A receptors in the striatum will normalize glutamatergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) gene promoter variant interacts with chronic perceived stress to modulate resting parasympathetic activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Shyu, Jia-Fwa; Huang, San-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Decreased resting vagal (parasympathetic) tone is implicated in the development of stress-related disorders, including anxiety and depression. Chronic stress elevates the expression of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A), while activation of 5-HT2A leads to inhibition of parasympathetic synaptic transmission. The T allele of the promoter variant, rs6311 (C>T), of the 5-HT2A gene has been shown to increase the 5-HT2A expression in vitro and to be associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. We thus hypothesized that the 5-HT2A functional polymorphism may influence resting vagal activity among persons with chronically high levels of perceived stress. A total of 1138 well-defined healthy, medication-free Han Chinese were included for 5-HT2A genotyping. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to measure the level of perceived stress during the last month and participants were divided into low and high PSS groups. Resting-state heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess autonomic function. No significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low PSS group (n=610). However, in the high PSS group (n=528), high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly reduced in T/T genotype carriers compared to C/C homozygotes. Our findings are the first to show that individuals homozygous for the high-expressing 5-HT2A (T) allele exhibit diminished resting vagal tone-an index of stress vulnerability-when experiencing chronically elevated levels of perceived stress. The present results may advance our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying individual differences in susceptibility to stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Test-retest variability of high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cortical serotonin (5HT2A) receptors in older, healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Tiffany W; Mamo, David C; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Houle, Sylvain; Smith, Gwenn S; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2009-01-01

    Position emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]-setoperone to quantify cortical 5-HT 2A receptors has the potential to inform pharmacological treatments for geriatric depression and dementia. Prior reports indicate a significant normal aging effect on serotonin 5HT 2A receptor (5HT 2A R) binding potential. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest variability of [ 18 F]-setoperone PET with a high resolution scanner (HRRT) for measuring 5HT 2A R availability in subjects greater than 60 years old. Methods: Six healthy subjects (age range = 65–78 years) completed two [ 18 F]-setoperone PET scans on two separate occasions 5–16 weeks apart. The average difference in the binding potential (BP ND ) as measured on the two occasions in the frontal and temporal cortical regions ranged between 2 and 12%, with the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient in anterior cingulate regions. We conclude that the test-retest variability of [ 18 F]-setoperone PET in elderly subjects is comparable to that of [ 18 F]-setoperone and other 5HT 2A R radiotracers in younger subject samples

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-labeled 5-HT2A receptor agonists as PET ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Matthias M; Petersen, Ida Nymann; Hansen, Hanne Demant; Hansen, Martin; Ettrup, Anders; Jensen, Anders A; Lehel, Szabolcs; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Gillings, Nic; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2016-08-01

    The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is the most abundant excitatory 5-HT receptor in the human brain and implicated in various brain disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to image specific proteins and processes in the human brain and several 5-HT2AR PET antagonist radioligands are available. In contrast to an antagonist radioligand, an agonist radioligand should be able to image the population of functional receptors, i.e., those capable of inducing neuroreceptor signaling. Recently, we successfully developed and validated the first 5-HT2AR agonist PET tracer, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for neuroimaging in humans and herein disclose some of our efforts to develop an (18)F-labeled 5-HT2AR agonist PET-ligand. Three fluorine containing derivatives of Cimbi-36 were synthesized and found to be potent 5-HT2A agonists. (18)F-labeling of the appropriate precursors was performed using [(18)F]FETos, typically yielding 0.2-2.0GBq and specific activities of 40-120GBq/μmol. PET studies in Danish landrace pigs revealed that [(18)F]1 displayed brain uptake in 5-HT2AR rich regions. However, high uptake in bone was also observed. No blocking effect was detected during a competition experiment with a 5-HT2AR selective antagonist. [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 showed very low brain uptake. None of the investigated (18)F-labeled Cimbi-36 derivatives [(18)F]1, [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 show suitable tracer characteristics for in vivo PET neuroimaging of the 5-HT2AR. Although for [(18)F]1 there was reasonable brain uptake, we suggest that a large proportion radioactivity in the brain was due to radiometabolites, which would explain why it could not be displaced by a 5-HT2AR antagonist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya V. Bazovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors.

  3. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazovkina, Darya V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors.

  4. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [11C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [11C]Cimbi-36, for its......-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT2A receptor occupancy indicates that [11C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5- HT release is sufficiently high....

  5. A database of [(18)F]-altanserin binding to 5-HT(2A) receptors in normal volunteers: normative data and relationship to physiological and demographic variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Karen H; Pinborg, Lars H; Svarer, Claus

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the results of an analysis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptors in 52 healthy subjects. Thirty men and twenty-two women aged between 21 and 79 years were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(18)F]-altanserin positron emission tomography (PET). The di......This study presents the results of an analysis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptors in 52 healthy subjects. Thirty men and twenty-two women aged between 21 and 79 years were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(18)F]-altanserin positron emission tomography (PET...

  6. Role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to aortic constriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairez, O; Cognet, T; Schaak, S; Calise, D; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Parini, A; Mialet-Perez, J

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, as measured by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte area and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Interestingly, activation of calmodulin kinase (CamKII), which is a core mechanism in cardiac hypertrophy, was reduced in cardiac samples from M100907-treated TAC mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a downstream partner of CamKII was significantly diminished in M100907-treated TAC mice. Thus, our results show that selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has beneficial effect in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the CamKII/HDAC4 pathway.

  7. Potentiation of neurite outgrowth by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator: a role for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Tamaki; Futamura, Takashi; Ohgi, Yuta; Yoshimi, Noriko; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Brexpiprazole, a novel atypical antipsychotic drug, is currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The drug is known to act through a combination of partial agonistic activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A, and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic drugs act by promoting neurite outgrowth. In this study, we examined whether brexpiprazole affected neurite outgrowth in cell culture. We found that brexpiprazole significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635, was able to block the effects of brexpiprazole on neurite outgrowth, unlike the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907, but not DOI (5-HT2A receptor agonist), significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), both specific inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, significantly blocked the effects of brexpiprazole. These findings suggest that brexpiprazole-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and subsequent Ca(2+) signaling via IP3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive rigid analogue design maps the binding conformation of potent N-benzylphenethylamine 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonist ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncosa, Jose I; Hansen, Martin; Bonner, Lisa A; Cueva, Juan Pablo; Maglathlin, Rebecca; McCorvy, John D; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Lill, Markus A; Nichols, David E

    2013-01-16

    Based on the structure of the superpotent 5-HT(2A) agonist 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which consists of a ring-substituted phenethylamine skeleton modified with an N-benzyl group, we designed and synthesized a small library of constrained analogues to identify the optimal arrangement of the pharmacophoric elements of the ligand. Structures consisted of diversely substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines, piperidines, and one benzazepine. Based on the structure of (S,S)-9b, which showed the highest affinity of the series, we propose an optimal binding conformation. (S,S)-9b also displayed 124-fold selectivity for the 5-HT(2A) over the 5-HT(2C) receptor, making it the most selective 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist ligand currently known.

  9. Disruption of 5-HT2A receptor-PDZ protein interactions alleviates mechanical hypersensitivity in carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; Pichon, Xavier; Dupuis, Amandine; Hernández, Alejandro; Privat, Anne-Marie; Aissouni, Youssef; Chalus, Maryse; Pelissier, Teresa; Eschalier, Alain; Marin, Philippe; Courteix, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Despite common pathophysiological mechanisms, inflammatory and neuropathic pain do not respond equally to the analgesic effect of antidepressants, except for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which show a limited efficacy in both conditions. We previously demonstrated that an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV) disrupting the interaction between 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ proteins (e.g. PSD-95) reveals a 5-HT2A receptor-mediated anti-hyperalgesic effect and enhances the efficacy of fluoxetine (a SSRI) in diabetic neuropathic pain conditions in rats. Here, we have examined whether the same strategy would be useful to treat inflammatory pain. Sub-chronic inflammatory pain was induced by injecting λ-carrageenan (100 µl, 2%) into the left hind paw of the rat. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV or/and fluoxetine (SSRI) 2.5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. Possible changes in the level of 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ protein PSD-95 upon inflammation induction were quantified by Western blotting in dorsal horn spinal cord. Administration of TAT-2ASCV peptide (100 ng/rat, intrathecally) but not fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) relieves mechanical hyperalgesia (paw pressure test) in inflamed rats. This anti-hyperalgesic effect involves spinal 5-HT2A receptors and GABAergic interneurons as it is abolished by a 5-HT2A antagonist (M100907, 150 ng/rat, intrathecally) and a GABAA antagonist, (bicuculline, 3 µg/rat, intrathecally). We also found a decreased expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the dorsal spinal cord of inflamed animals which could not be rescued by TAT-2ASCV injection, while the amount of PSD-95 was not affected by inflammatory pain. Finally, the coadministration of fluoxetine does not further enhance the anti-hyperalgesic effect of TAT-2ASCV peptide. This study reveals a role of the interactions between 5-HT2A receptors and PDZ proteins in the pathophysiological pathways of

  10. Allosteric signaling through an mGlu2 and 5-HT2A heteromeric receptor complex and its potential contribution to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; García-Bea, Aintzane; Younkin, Jason; Cui, Meng; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Ben-Ezra, Ariel; Voloudakis, Georgios; Fakira, Amanda K; Baki, Lia; Ge, Yongchao; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Morón, José A; Milligan, Graeme; López-Giménez, Juan F; Robakis, Nikolaos K; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Meana, J Javier; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-12

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can form multiprotein complexes (heteromers), which can alter the pharmacology and functions of the constituent receptors. Previous findings demonstrated that the Gq/11-coupled serotonin 5-HT2A receptor and the Gi/o-coupled metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor-GPCRs that are involved in signaling alterations associated with psychosis-assemble into a heteromeric complex in the mammalian brain. In single-cell experiments with various mutant versions of the mGlu2 receptor, we showed that stimulation of cells expressing mGlu2-5-HT2A heteromers with an mGlu2 agonist led to activation of Gq/11 proteins by the 5-HT2A receptors. For this crosstalk to occur, one of the mGlu2 subunits had to couple to Gi/o proteins, and we determined the relative location of the Gi/o-contacting subunit within the mGlu2 homodimer of the heteromeric complex. Additionally, mGlu2-dependent activation of Gq/11, but not Gi/o, was reduced in the frontal cortex of 5-HT2A knockout mice and was reduced in the frontal cortex of postmortem brains from schizophrenic patients. These findings offer structural insights into this important target in molecular psychiatry. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Stimulation of 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray causes anxiolytic-, but not panicolytic-like effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Soares, Vanessa; Zangrossi, Hélio

    2009-01-30

    Evidences from studies using electrical or chemical stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) suggest that whereas the dorsal PAG is critical for the regulation of panic-related defensive behaviors, the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) modulates generalized anxiety-related responses. In the present study we evaluated whether the activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) causes differential effects on an anxiety- and a panic-related defensive behavior, respectively, inhibitory avoidance and escape, in male Wistar rats submitted to the elevated T-maze. Our results showed that intra-vlPAG injection of the endogenous agonist serotonin, the 5-HT1A/7 agonist 8-OH-DPAT or 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOI impaired the acquisition of inhibitory avoidance, without interfering with escape performance. The same selective anxiolytic effect was also observed after local administration of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist midazolam. Moreover, as shown by the results of antagonism studies, 5-HT2A receptors are recruited for the anxiolysis caused by serotonin and DOI, while 5-HT1A receptors account for the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, our data show that the activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the vlPAG affects defensive responses related to generalized anxiety, but not panic disorder.

  12. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A nonlinear relationship between cerebral serotonin transporter and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding: an in vivo molecular imaging study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is involved in the regulation of physiological functions such as mood, sleep, memory, and appetite. Within the serotonin transmitter system, both the postsynaptically located serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and the presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) are sensitive...

  14. Gender and the use of hormonal contraception in women are not associated with cerebral cortical 5-HT 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, V G; Erritzoe, D; Madsen, J

    2009-01-01

    Gender influences brain function including serotonergic neurotransmission, which may play a role in the well-known gender variations in vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Even though hormonal replacement therapy in menopause is associated with globally increased cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  15. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the D-2 and 5-HT2A Receptor Occupancy of Risperidone and Paliperidone in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Vermeulen, An; Li, Cheryl; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H.

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the time course of brain concentration and dopamine D-2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor occupancy (RO) of the atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidone and paliperidone in rats. A population approach was utilized to describe the

  16. 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor pharmacology and intrinsic clearance of N-benzylphenethylamines modified at the primary site of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Petersen, Ida Nymann; Jensen, Anders A

    2016-01-01

    The toxic hallucinogen 25B-NBOMe is very rapidly degraded by human liver microsomes and has low oral bioavailability. Herein we report on the synthesis, microsomal stability and 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor profile of novel analogs of 25B-NBOMe modified at the primary site of metabolism. Although...

  17. Synergism between a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist and 5-HT2CR agonist suggests new pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn A; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Stutz, Sonja J; Bubar, Marcy J; Swinford, Sarah E; Watson, Cheryl S; Gilbertson, Scott R; Rice, Kenner C; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-01-16

    Relapse to cocaine dependence, even after extended abstinence, involves a number of liability factors including impulsivity (predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to stimuli without regard to negative consequences) and cue reactivity (sensitivity to cues associated with cocaine-taking which can promote cocaine-seeking). These factors have been mechanistically linked to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling through the 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R) and 5-HT(2C)R; either a selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist or a 5-HT(2C)R agonist suppresses impulsivity and cocaine-seeking in preclinical models. We conducted proof-of-concept analyses to evaluate whether a combination of 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus 5-HT(2C)R agonist would have synergistic effects over these liability factors for relapse as measured in a 1-choice serial reaction time task and cocaine self-administration/reinstatement assay. Combined administration of a dose of the selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist M100907 plus the 5-HT(2C)R agonist WAY163909, each ineffective alone, synergistically suppressed cocaine-induced hyperactivity, inherent and cocaine-evoked impulsive action, as well as cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. The identification of synergism between a 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus a 5-HT(2C)R agonist to attenuate these factors important in relapse indicates the promise of a bifunctional ligand as an anti-addiction pharmacotherapeutic, setting the stage to develop new ligands with improved efficacy, potency, selectivity, and in vivo profiles over the individual molecules.

  18. Activation of Akt through 5-HT2A receptor ameliorates serotonin-induced degradation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinkai; Hosaka, Toshio; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Funaki, Makoto

    2013-01-05

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) was found to be elevated in the serum of diabetic patients. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of insulin desensitization caused by 5-HT. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 5-HT treatment induced the translocation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) from low density microsome (LDM), the important intracellular compartment for its functions, to cytosol, inducing IRS-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Moreover, inhibition of 5-HT-stimulated Akt activation by either ketanserin (a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) or knocking-down the expression of 5-HT2A receptor promoted 5-HT-stimulated IRS-1 dissociation from 14-3-3β in LDM, leading to drastic ubiquitination. Interestingly, sarpogrelate, another antagonist of 5-HT2A receptor, protected IRS-1 from degradation through activation of Akt. This implicates the importance of Akt activation in extending IRS-1 life span through maintaining their optimal sub-location into adipocytes. Taken together, this study suggest that activation of Akt may be able to compensate the adverse effects of 5-HT by stabilizing IRS-1 in LDM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors at the site of inflammation inhibits activation of spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Cai, Qiaoyan; Wang, Dongmei; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-06-01

    Repeated inflammation in the periphery is a major cause of chronic inflammatory pain. We have showed that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery inhibits repeated inflammation-induced pain hypersensitivity. The present study investigated whether inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor signaling at the site of inflammation could inhibit repeated inflammation-induced neurochemical changes in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Treatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (20μg) in the hindpaw following intraplantar injection of carrageenan inhibited the increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reactivity, a marker of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in the spinal dorsal horn. Administration of formalin (1%) in the hindpaw following the carrageenan injection evoked a great increase in NADPH-d reactivity in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. These changes were abolished by the pretreatment of ketanserin (20μg). The ketanserin treatment also reduced the repeated inflammation-induced expression of protein kinase gamma (PKCγ) in the membrane of spinal dorsal horn neurons and increased PKCγ protein level in the cytosol. Following the treatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide (5mg/kg, s.c.), the administration of ketanserin failed to inhibit the repeated inflammation-induced increase in NADPH-d reactivity and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. These results suggest that 5-HT2A receptor bioactivity in the inflammatory site plays an important role in repeated inflammation-induced central sensitization. The present study supports the notion that targeting 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery can be a promising therapy for relieving chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Central 5-HT2A receptors modulate the vagal bradycardia in response to activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Futuro Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors modulates the excitability of cardiac vagal motoneurones, but the precise role of 5-HT2A/2B receptors in these phenomena is unclear. We report here the effects of intracisternal (ic administration of selective 5-HT2A/2B antagonists on the vagal bradycardia elicited by activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex with phenylbiguanide. The experiments were performed on urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats (250-270 g, N = 7-9 per group. The animals were placed in a stereotaxic frame and their atlanto-occipital membrane was exposed to allow ic injections. The rats received atenolol (1 mg/kg, iv to block the sympathetic component of the reflex bradycardia; 20-min later, the cardiopulmonary reflex was induced with phenylbiguanide (15 µg/kg, iv injected at 15-min intervals until 3 similar bradycardias were obtained. Ten minutes after the last pre-drug bradycardia, R-96544 (a 5-HT2A antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg, SB-204741 (a 5-HT2B antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg or vehicle was injected ic. The subsequent iv injections of phenylbiguanide were administered 5, 20, 35, and 50 min after the ic injection. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonism attenuated the vagal bradycardia and hypotension, with maximal effect at 35 min after the antagonist (pre-drug = -200 ± 11 bpm and -42 ± 3 mmHg; at 35 min = -84 ± 10 bpm and -33 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05. Neither the 5-HT2B receptor antagonists nor the vehicle changed the reflex. These data suggest that central 5-HT2A receptors modulate the central pathways of the parasympathetic component of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex.

  1. Pimavanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist, reverses psychosis-like behaviors in a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Diana L; Bonhaus, Douglas W; McFarland, Krista

    2012-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration in cognitive functioning. Overall, 25-50% of patients with AD also show symptoms of psychosis including hallucinations and delusions. As all available antipsychotic drugs have a 'black-box' warning for use in these patients because of increased mortality, no appropriate treatment for psychotic symptoms in AD currently exists. In the present study, we examined whether selective antagonism of 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors has antipsychotic-like activity in an animal model of AD. Mice receiving an intracerebroventricular infusion of the amyloid β(25-35) peptide fragment showed AD-like histopathology and a psychosis-related behavioral phenotype with enhanced responses to the psychostimulants 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride and amphetamine as well as disrupted prepulse inhibition. Treatment with pimavanserin, a selective serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist, prevented 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride-induced head twitches, reversed the augmented locomotor response to amphetamine, and normalized prepulse inhibition in mice with amyloid pathology. These data suggest that an infusion of amyloid β might induce alterations in serotonergic function that underlie a psychosis-like phenotype that can be normalized by treatment with a 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist. This in turn suggests that 5-HT(2A) inverse agonists, such as pimavanserin, might have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of psychosis in AD patients.

  2. Reproducibility of 5-HT2A receptor measurements and sample size estimations with [18F]altanserin PET using a bolus/infusion approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbøl, Steven; Pinborg, Lars H; Arfan, Haroon M

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility of measurements of brain 5-HT2A receptors with an [18F]altanserin PET bolus/infusion approach. Further, to estimate the sample size needed to detect regional differences between two groups and, finally, to evaluate how partial volume correction affects......% (range 5-12%), whereas in regions with a low receptor density, BP1 reproducibility was lower, with a median difference of 17% (range 11-39%). Partial volume correction reduced the variability in the sample considerably. The sample size required to detect a 20% difference in brain regions with high...... receptor density is approximately 27, whereas for low receptor binding regions the required sample size is substantially higher. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that [18F]altanserin PET with a bolus/infusion design has very low variability, particularly in larger brain regions with high 5-HT2A receptor...

  3. Molecular modelling of human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT2A) and virtual screening studies towards the identification of agonist and antagonist molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, A; Sowdhamini, R

    2016-05-01

    The serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. GPCRs have a characteristic feature of activating different signalling pathways upon ligand binding and these ligands display several efficacy levels to differentially activate the receptor. GPCRs are primary drug targets due to their central role in several signal transduction pathways. Drug design for GPCRs is also most challenging due to their inherent promiscuity in ligand recognition, which gives rise to several side effects of existing drugs. Here, we have performed the ligand interaction study using the two prominent states of GPCR, namely the active and inactive state of the 5-HT2A receptor. Active state of 5-HT2A receptor model enhances the understanding of conformational difference which influences the ligand-binding site. A 5-HT2A receptor active state model was constructed by homology modelling using active state β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR). In addition, virtual screening and docking studies with both active and inactive state models reveal potential small molecule hits which could be considered as agonist-like and antagonist-like molecules. The results from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations further confirmed that agonists and antagonists interact in different modes with the receptor.

  4. 5-HT2A receptors in the feline brain: 123I-5-I-R91150 kinetics and the influence of ketamine measured with micro-SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh; Vermeire, Simon; Dobbeleir, André; Eersels, Jos; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Audenaert, Kurt; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Subanesthetic doses of ketamine can be used as a rapid-acting antidepressant in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the brain kinetics of (123)I-5-I-R91150 (4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide) and the influence of ketamine on the postsynaptic serotonin-2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine-2A, or 5-HT2A) status were investigated in cats using micro-SPECT. This study was conducted on 6 cats using the radioligand (123)I-5-I-R91150, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as the imaging probe. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with a continuous-rate infusion of propofol (8.4 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.22 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) 75 min after tracer administration, and acquisition of the first image began 15 min after induction of anesthesia. After this first acquisition, propofol (0.22 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) was combined with ketamine (5 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.023 mg kg(-1) min(-1)), and the second acquisition began 15 min later. Semiquantification, with the cerebellum as a reference region, was performed to calculate the 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (parameter for available receptor density) in the frontal and temporal cortices. The binding indices were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed ranks statistics. The addition of ketamine to the propofol continuous-rate infusion resulted in decreased binding indices in the right frontal cortex (1.25 ± 0.22 vs. 1.45 ± 0.16; P = 0.028), left frontal cortex (1.34 ± 0.15 vs. 1.49 ± 0.10; P = 0.028), right temporal cortex (1.30 ± 0.17 vs. 1.45 ± 0.09; P = 0.046), and left temporal cortex (1.41 ± 0.20 vs. 1.52 ± 0.20; P = 0.046). This study showed that cats can be used as an animal model for studying alterations of the 5-HT2A receptor status with (123)I-5-I-R91150 micro-SPECT. Furthermore, an interaction between ketamine and the 5-HT2A receptors resulting in decreased binding of (123)I-5-I-R91150 in the frontal and temporal cortices was demonstrated. Whether the

  5. Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, R M M; Giovenardi, M; da Silva, S P; de Oliveira, V P; Stein, D J

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) and the medial septal (MS) area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C) or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9), 0.5 (N = 10), and 1.0 microg/0.2 microl (N = 9), and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 microg/0.2 microl (N = 9). The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS) at 0.2 (N = 9), 0.5 (N = 7), and 1.0 microg/0.2 microl (N = 6) and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 microg/0.2 microl (N = 5). For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7) and the MS (N = 12). Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking) and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture), attacks (frontal and lateral), and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder) after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 microg/0.2 microl (1.6 +/- 0.7 and 0.9 +/- 0.3) into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 +/- 1.1). There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 microg/0.2 microl

  6. Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida R.M.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG and the medial septal (MS area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 10, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9, and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9. The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 7, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 6 and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 5. For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7 and the MS (N = 12. Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (1.6 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.3 into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 ± 1.1. There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 µg/0.2 µl decreased locomotion when microinjected

  7. Risperidone and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907 improve probabilistic reversal learning in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Jones, Joshua H.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Lay Abstract Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors in autism can lead to an ‘insistence on sameness’ for routines and decision-making. The ability to adapt choice patterns when external contingencies change is commonly referred to as cognitive flexibility. To date, there are limited options for treating cognitive inflexibility in autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is approved to treat irritability in autism, but less is known of whether it is effective in treating cognitive inflexibility. Risperidone acts at multiple receptors although only actions at a subset of these receptors may be beneficial for cognitive flexibility. 5HT2A receptor blockade represents one pharmacological action of risperidone. Rodent studies have shown that 5HT2A receptor antagonists improve attention and cognitive flexibility. The present studies investigated whether risperidone and/or M100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, improved cognitive flexibility in the BTBR mouse model of autism. The BTBR mouse compared to C57BL/6J (B6) mice exhibit a deficit in reversing learned choice patterns comparable to that in individuals with autism. The present experiments used a two-choice probabilistic reversal learning test in which the ‘correct’ choice was reinforced on 80% of trials and the ‘incorrect’ choice reinforced on 20% of trials. After initial acquisition, the contingencies were reversed. Both risperidone and M100907 improved probabilistic reversal learning performance in BTBR mice. The same treatments did not improve reversal learning in B6 mice. Because risperidone can often lead to unwanted side effects, treatment with a 5HT2A receptor antagonist may offer an alternative for improving cognitive flexibility in individuals with autism. Scientific Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions with restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). RRBs can severely limit daily living and

  8. Development of a Multiplex Assay for Studying Functional Selectivity of Human Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors and Identification of Active Compounds by High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alba; Lage, Sonia; Cadavid, Maria Isabel; Loza, Maria Isabel; Brea, José

    2016-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exist as collections of conformations in equilibrium, and the efficacy of drugs has been proposed to be associated with their absolute and relative affinities for these different conformations. The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor regulates multiple physiological functions, is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and serves as an important target of atypical antipsychotic drugs. This receptor was one of the first GPCRs for which the functional selectivity phenomenon was observed, with its various ligands exerting differential effects on the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. We aimed to develop a multiplex functional assay in 96-well plates for the simultaneous measurement of the PLA2 and PLC pathways coupled to 5-HT2A receptors; this approach enables the detection of either functional selectivity or cooperativity phenomena in early drug screening stages. The suitability of the method for running screening campaigns was tested using the Prestwick Chemical Library, and 22 confirmed hits with activities of more than 90% were identified; 11 of these hits produced statistically significant differences between the two effector pathways. Thus, we have developed a miniaturized multiplex assay in 96-well plates to measure functional selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors in the early stages of the drug discovery process. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. MDMA-induced loss of parvalbumin interneurons within the dentate gyrus is mediated by 5HT2A and NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stuart A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-08-15

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes a rapid and robust release of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Recently, it was shown that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dorsal hippocampus, which is dependent on serotonin release and 5HT2A/2C receptor activation. The increased extracellular glutamate concentration coincides with a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons of the dentate gyrus region. Given the known susceptibility of PV interneurons to excitotoxicity, we examined whether MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate in the dentate gyrus are necessary for the loss of PV cells in rats. Extracellular glutamate concentrations increased in the dentate gyrus during systemic and local administration of MDMA. Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during systemic injections of MDMA, prevented the loss of PV-IR interneurons seen 10 days after MDMA exposure. Local administration of MDL100907, a selective 5HT2A receptor antagonist, prevented the increases in glutamate caused by reverse dialysis of MDMA directly into the dentate gyrus and prevented the reduction of PV-IR. These findings provide evidence that MDMA causes decreases in PV within the dentate gyrus through a 5HT2A receptor-mediated increase in glutamate and subsequent NMDA receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor control of a panic-like defensive response in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, Valquíria Camin; Yamashita, Paula Shimene de Melo; Zangrossi, Hélio

    2013-12-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) has long been implicated in the genesis/regulation of escape, a panic-related defensive behavior. In the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), another key panic-associated area, serotonin, through the activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, exerts an inhibitory role on escape expression. This panicolytic-like effect is facilitated by chronic treatment with clinically effective antipanic drugs such as fluoxetine and imipramine. It is still unclear whether serotonin within the DMH plays a similar regulatory action. The results showed that intra-DMH injection of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT, the preferential 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI, but not the 5-HT2C agonist MK-212, inhibited the escape reaction of male Wistar rats evoked by electrical stimulation of the DMH. Local microinjection of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 or the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin was ineffective. Whereas chronic (21 days) systemic treatment with imipramine potentiated the anti-escape effect of both 8-OH-DPAT and DOI, repeated administration of fluoxetine enhanced the effect of the latter agonist. The results indicate that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors within the DMH play a phasic inhibitory role upon escape expression, as previously reported in the dPAG. Facilitation of 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission in the DMH may be implicated in the mode of action of antipanic drugs.

  11. Direct comparison of [18F]MH.MZ and [18F]altanserin for 5-HT2A receptor imaging with PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Demant; Ettrup, Anders; Herth, Matthias Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Imaging the cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A) ) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) has been carried out in humans with [(11) C]MDL 100907 and [(18) F]altanserin. Recently, the MDL 100907 analogue [(18) F]MH.MZ was developed combining the selectivity profile of MDL 100907...... and the favourable radiophysical properties of fluorine-18. Here, we present a direct comparison of [(18) F]altanserin and [(18) F]MH.MZ. 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in pig cortex and cerebellum was investigated by autoradiography with [(3) H]MDL 100907, [(18) F]MH.MZ, and [(18) F]altanserin. [(18) F]MH.MZ and [(18) F...... in cortical regions with both [(18) F]MH.MZ and [(18) F]altanserin. Significant 5-HT(2A) receptor binding was also found in the pig cerebellum, thus making this region unsuitable as a reference region for in vivo data analysis in this species. The cortical binding of [(18) F]MH.MZ and [(18) F...

  12. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of [18F]FECIMBI-36: A potential agonist PET ligand for 5-HT2A/2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Jaya; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, J S Dileep; Simpson, Norman R; Kassir, Suham A; Bakalian, Mihran J; Mann, J John; Arango, Victoria

    2015-09-15

    Radiosynthesis and in vitro evaluation of [(18)F]-2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)ethanamine, ([(18)F]FECIMBI-36) or ([(18)F]1), a potential agonist PET imaging agent for 5-HT2A/2C receptors is described. Syntheses of reference standard 1 and the corresponding des-fluoroethyl radiolabeling precursor (2) were achieved with 75% and 65% yields, respectively. In vitro pharmacology assay of FECIMBI-36 by [(3)H]-ketanserin competition binding assay obtained from NIMH-PDSP showed high affinities to 5-HT2AR (Ki = 1nM) and 5-HT2CR (Ki=1.7 nM). Radiolabeling of FECIMBI-36 was achieved from the boc-protected precursor 2 using [(18)F]-fluoroethyltosylate in presence of Cs2CO3 in DMSO followed by removal of the protective group. [(18)F]1 was isolated using RP-HPLC in 25 ± 5% yield, purity > 95% and specific activity 1-2Ci/μmol (N = 6). In vitro autoradiography studies demonstrate that [(18)F]1 selectively label 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in slide-mounted sections of postmortem human brain using phosphor imaging. Our results indicate the potential of [(18)F]1 for imaging 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the high affinity state in vivo using PET imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  14. Cannabinoid Agonists Increase the Interaction between β-Arrestin 2 and ERK1/2 and Upregulate β-Arrestin 2 and 5-HT2A Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jade M.; Vasiljevik, Tamara; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that selective cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonists upregulate 5-HT2A receptors by enhancing ERK1/2 signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Increased activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Here we examine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced ERK1/2 activation in rat PFCx and in a neuronal cell model. Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist (CP55940, 50 μg/kg, 7 days, i.p.) showed enhanced co-immunoprecipitation of β-Arrestin 2 and ERK1/2, enhanced pERK protein levels, and enhanced expression of β-Arrestin 2 mRNA and protein levels in PFCx. In a neuronal cell line, we found that selective CB2 receptor agonists upregulate β-Arrestin 2, an effect that was prevented by selective CB2 receptor antagonist JTE-907 and CB2 shRNA lentiviral particles. Additionally, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, ERK1/2, and the AP-1 transcription factor also prevented the cannabinoid receptor-induced upregulation of β-Arrestin 2. Our results suggest that sustained activation of CB2 receptors would enhance β-Arrestin 2 expression possibly contributing to its increased interaction with ERK1/2 thereby driving the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors. The CB2 receptor-mediated upregulation of β-Arrestin 2 would be mediated, at least in part, by an ERK1/2-dependent activation of AP-1. These data could provide the rationale for some of the adverse effects associated with repeated cannabinoid exposure and shed light on some CB2 receptor agonists that could represent an alternative therapeutic because of their minimal effect on serotonergic neurotransmission. PMID:23174265

  15. [The effect of central administration of the neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF on the functional activity and expression of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in mice genetically predisposed to depressive-like behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybko, A S; Il'chibaeva, T V; Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Naumenko, V S

    2014-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) system plays an important role in the control of normal and pathological behavior. 5-HT2A receptors are widely implicated in the regulation both normal functions and psychopathologies, especially schizophrenia and depression. Here, we investigated implication of 5-HT2A receptor in mechanisms of neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF action. We found that the acute intracerebroventricular injection of BDNF produced considerable increase in 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in ASC mice. Moreover, BDNF injection led to the increasing of 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus and its decrease in the frontal cortex without any effects in the midbrain. On the contrary, GDNF injection failed to alter 5-HT2A receptor functional activity, but increased the 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the frontal cortex without any effects in the hippocampus and midbrain. Thus, an effect of the central administration of the neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF on the 5-HT2A receptor functional activity and gene expression was shown. The results indicate the implication of 5-HT2A receptor in the mechanisms of BDNF and GDNF action.

  16. Membrane cholesterol effect on the 5-HT2A receptor: Insights into the lipid-induced modulation of an antipsychotic drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anguita, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Espigares, Ismael; Guixà-González, Ramon; Bruno, Agostino; Torrens-Fontanals, Mariona; Varela-Rial, Alejandro; Selent, Jana

    2018-01-01

    The serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT 2A ) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) relevant for the treatment of CNS disorders. In this regard, neuronal membrane composition in the brain plays a crucial role in the modulation of the receptor functioning. Since cholesterol is an essential component of neuronal membranes, we have studied its effect on the 5-HT 2A receptor dynamics through all-atom MD simulations. We find that the presence of cholesterol in the membrane increases receptor conformational variability in most receptor segments. Importantly, detailed structural analysis indicates that conformational variability goes along with the destabilization of hydrogen bonding networks not only within the receptor but also between receptor and lipids. In addition to increased conformational variability, we also find receptor segments with reduced variability. Our analysis suggests that this increased stabilization is the result of stabilizing effects of tightly bound cholesterol molecules to the receptor surface. Our finding contributes to a better understanding of membrane-induced alterations of receptor dynamics and points to cholesterol-induced stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the conformational variability of GPCRs. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Interaction of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in R(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-elicited head twitch behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantegrossi, W E; Simoneau, J; Cohen, M S; Zimmerman, S M; Henson, C M; Rice, K C; Woods, J H

    2010-12-01

    Drug-elicited head-twitch behavior is a useful model for studying hallucinogen activity at 5-HT(2A) receptors in the mouse. Chemically diverse compounds active in this assay yield biphasic dose-effect curves, but there is no compelling explanation for the "descending" portion of these functions. A set of experiments was designed to test the hypothesis that the induction of head-twitch behavior is mediated by agonist actions at 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas the inhibition of head-twitch behavior observed at higher doses results from competing agonist activity at 5-HT(2C) receptors. The effects of the phenethylamine hallucinogen R(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on head-twitch behavior were studied over a range of doses in the mouse, generating a characteristic biphasic dose-response curve. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist (+)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907) shifted only the ascending limb of the DOI dose-effect function, whereas pretreatment with the nonselective 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist 3-{2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl}quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (ketanserin) produced a parallel shift to the right in the DOI dose-response curve. Administration of the 5-HT(2C) agonist S-2-(chloro-5-fluoro-indol-l-yl)-1-methylethylamine (Ro 60-0175) noncompetitively inhibited DOI-elicited head-twitch behavior across the entire dose-effect function. Finally, pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(2C) antagonists 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-[(2-[2-methylpyrid-3-yloxy]pyrid-5yl)carbamoyl]indoline (SB242084) or 8-[5-(2,4-dimethoxy-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulfonamido)phenyl-5-oxopentyl]-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decane-2,4-dione hydrochloride (RS 102221) did not alter DOI-elicited head-twitch behavior on the ascending limb of the dose-response curve but shifted the descending limb of the DOI dose-response function to the right. The results of these experiments provide strong evidence that DOI-elicited head

  18. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Brudek, Tomasz; Adamsen, Dea; Rio-Alamos, Cristobal; Saunders, Justin; Klein, Anders Bue; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernandez-Teruel, Albert; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Aznar, Susana

    2018-03-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT 2A ) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT 2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included in the analysis. 5-HT 2A , 5-HT 1A , and mGlu2 mRNA and [ 3 H]ketanserin binding levels were measured in brain homogenates. As expected, 5-HT 2A binding was significantly increased in PFC in the RHA-I rats, while no difference in binding was observed in STR. Surprisingly, 5-HT 2A gene expression was unchanged in PFC but significantly decreased in STR. mGlu2 receptor gene expression was significantly decreased in both PFC and STR. No differences were observed for the 5-HT 1A receptor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed increased trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the promoter region of the HTR2A gene in the STR. We further looked at the Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway, a downstream point of convergence of the serotonin and glutamate system, and found increased phosphorylation levels of GSK3β at tyrosine 216 and increased β-catenin levels in the PFC of the RHA-I rats. These results reveal region-specific regulation of the 5-HT 2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways.

  19. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Xie, Qin; Lundberg, Louise; Sharp, Trevor; Anthony, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS.

  20. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Couch

    Full Text Available It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS, which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg i.p., at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS.

  1. Multiple conformations of 5-HT2A and 5-HT 2C receptors in rat brain: an autoradiographic study with [125I](±)DOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giménez, Juan F; Vilaró, M Teresa; Palacios, José M; Mengod, Guadalupe

    2013-10-01

    Earlier autoradiographic studies with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist [(125)I](±)DOI in human brain showed unexpected biphasic competition curves for various 5-HT2A antagonists. We have performed similar studies in rat brain regions with selective 5-HT2A (M100907) and 5-HT2C (SB242084) antagonists together with ketanserin and mesulergine. The effect of GTP analogues on antagonist competition was also studied. Increasing concentrations of Gpp(NH)p or GTPγS resulted in a maximal inhibition of [(125)I](±)DOI-specific binding of approximately 50 %. M100907 competed biphasically in all regions. In the presence of 100 μM Gpp(NH)p, M100907 still displaced biphasically the remaining [(125)I](±)DOI binding. Ketanserin showed biphasic curves in some regions and monophasic curves in others. In the latter, Gpp(NH)p evidenced an additional high-affinity site. SB242084 competed biphasically in brainstem nuclei and monophasically in the other regions. In most areas, SB242084 affinities were not notably altered by Gpp(NH)p. Mesulergine competed monophasically in all regions without alteration by Gpp(NH)p. These results conform with the extended ternary complex model of receptor action: receptor exists as an equilibrium of multiple conformations, i.e. ground (R), partly activated (R*) and activated G-protein-coupled (R*G) conformation/s. Thus, [(125)I](±)DOI would label multiple conformations of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in rat brain, and M100907 and ketanserin would recognise these conformations with different affinities.

  2. The antipsychotic trifluoperazine reduces marble-burying behavior in mice via D2 and 5-HT2A receptors: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Kubota, Naoki; Goto, Yu; Watanabe, Takuya; Kubota, Kaori; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Trifluoperazine, a typical antipsychotic drug, not only antagonizes dopamine D 2 receptors but also enhances serotonin 5-HT 2 receptor-mediated behavior. Moreover, trifluoperazine suppresses human purinergic receptor P2X7 responses and calmodulin. However, the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior, which has been considered an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has not been studied. Here, we examined the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior in mice. Oral administration of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, significantly reduced marble-burying behavior without affecting total locomotor activity. Similar results were obtained for trifluoperazine (3mg/kg). The D 2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.03mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), and 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), significantly counteracted this reduction of marble-burying behavior by trifluoperazine. These results show that trifluoperazine reduces marble-burying behavior via D 2 and 5-HT 2A receptors, and may be a useful drug for the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of inverse agonist action of sarpogrelate at the constitutively active mutant of human 5-HT2A receptor revealed by molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Murad; Muntasir, Habib Abul; Ishiguro, Masaji; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Rashid, Mamunur; Sugihara, Takumichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT2A antagonist, showed a potent inverse agonist activity to constitutively active mutant (C322K) of human 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR). However, it remains to be unknown about the actual mechanism of this mutant for its constitutive activation as well as inverse agonist activity of sarpogrelate. Our model shows that mutation (C322K) of 5-HT2AR causes electronic repulsion between positively charged Arg173(3.50) and Lys322(6.34) residues resulting outward movement of the C-terminus of transmembrane helix (TMH) III. This motion of TMH III leads to a partially active structure of the receptor, which may be a key step in receptor activation. The structural model of the partially active receptor also indicates that the binding of sarpogrelate to the constitutively active receptor causes an inward swing of TMH III to an inactive receptor structure. Therefore, the present study may suggest that the electronic repulsion causing outward movement of the C-terminus of TMH III may be the key step for constitutive activation of mutant C322K of 5-HT2AR and the inward movement of TMH III causes the inverse agonist activity of sarpogrelate.

  4. A 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, mitigates developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol to serotonergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tsukasa; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the reduction of serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei. In the present study, we examined whether an activation of signaling via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors during the fetal period is able to prevent the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a liquid diet containing 2.5 to 5.0% (w/v) ethanol on gestational days (GDs) 10 to 20 (Et). As a pair-fed control, other pregnant rats were fed the same liquid diet except that the ethanol was replaced by isocaloric sucrose (Pf). Each Et and Pf group was subdivided into two groups; one of the groups was treated with 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), an agonist for 5-HT2A/2C receptors, during GDs 13 to 19 (Et-DOI or Pf-DOI), and another was injected with saline vehicle only (Et-Sal or Pf-Sal). Their fetuses were removed by cesarean section on GD 19 or 20, and fetal brains were collected. An immunohistological examination of 5-HTergic neurons in the fetuses on embryonic day 20 using an antibody against tryptophan hydroxylase revealed that the number of 5-HTergic neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei was significantly reduced in the Et-Sal fetuses compared to that of the Pf-Sal and Pf-DOI fetuses, whereas there were no significant differences between Et-DOI and each Pf control. Thus, we concluded that the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons that resulted in prenatal ethanol exposure could be alleviated by the enhancement of signaling via 5-HT2A/2C receptors during the fetal period. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor regulation in rat prefrontal cortex: interaction of a phenethylamine hallucinogen and the metabotropic glutamate2/3 receptor agonist LY354740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J; Wright, Rebecca A; Schoepp, Darryle D

    2006-08-07

    5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor regulation is atypical compared to most other monoaminergic receptors in that chronic administration of both antagonists and agonists results in down-regulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptor number and the functional in vitro and in vivo effects. We have recently found that midline thalamic lesions, which appeared to block glutamate release induced by activation of 5-HT2A receptors, also increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in layers I and Va of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These layers contain the highest density of both 5-HT2A receptors and thalamocortical terminals from the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. These findings suggest the hypothesis that excitatory amino acid release plays a role in regulation of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors, and that down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors by 5-HT2A agonists may not be attributed only to simple occupancy of the receptor by direct agonists. Therefore, we examined the effect of a single 30 min pretreatment with the metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist (1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate (LY354740; 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the second of three consecutive days of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI) treatment (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.). The subchronic DOI administration significantly decreased binding of [125I]DOI to 5-HT2A receptors in layers I and Va of the mPFC by approximately 25%. In contrast, a single dose of LY354740 on Day 2 of this regimen completely blocked the DOI-induced down-regulation. Thus, a presumed hypoglutamatergic state secondary to thalamic lesions and increased glutamate release induced by a subchronic regimen of a 5-HT2A agonist (and hallucinogenic drug) differentially regulate prefrontal cortical 5-HT2A receptor binding.

  6. Proof of concept study for designed multiple ligands targeting the dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2A, and muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Monika; Lim, Herman D; Herenbrink, Carmen Klein; Christopoulos, Arthur; Lane, J Robert; Capuano, Ben

    2015-02-12

    Herein we describe the hybridization of a benzoxazinone M1 scaffold with D2 privileged structures derived from putative and clinically relevant antipsychotics to develop designed multiple ligands. The M1 mAChR is an attractive target for the cognitive deficits in key CNS disorders. Moreover, activity at D2 and 5-HT2A receptors has proven useful for antipsychotic efficacy. We identified 9 which retained functional activity at the target M1 mAChR and D2R and demonstrated high affinity for the 5-HT2AR.

  7. Nest building is impaired in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome and rescued by blocking 5HT2a receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, H Craig; Salehi, Ahmad; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Das, Devsmita; Lin, Bill; Moghadam, Sarah; Garner, Craig C; Colas, Damien

    2014-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) has an incidence of about 1/700 births, and is therefore the most common cause of cognitive and behavioral impairments in children. Recent studies on mouse models of DS indicate that a number of pharmacotherapies could be beneficial for restoring cognitive abilities in individuals with DS. Attention deficits that are present in DS account in part for learning and memory deficiencies yet have been scarcely studied in corresponding models. Investigations of this relevant group of behaviors is more difficult in mouse models because of the difficulty in homologizing mouse and human behaviors and because standard laboratory environments do not always elicit behaviors of interest. Here we characterize nest building as a goal-directed behavior that is seriously impaired in young Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. We believe this impairment may reflect in part attention deficits, and we investigate the physiological, genetic, and pharmacological factors influencing its expression. Nesting behavior in young Ts65Dn mice was severely impaired when the animals were placed in a novel environment. But this context-dependent impairment was transient and reversible. The genetic determinants of this deficiency are restricted to a ∼100 gene segment on the murine chromosome 16. Nest building behavior is a highly integrated phenotypic trait that relies in part on limbic circuitry and on the frontal cortex in relation to cognitive and attention processes. We show that both serotonin content and 5HT2a receptors are increased in the frontal cortex of Ts65Dn mice and that pharmacological blockage of 5HT2a receptors in Ts65Dn mice rescues their context dependent nest building impairment. We propose that the nest-building trait could represent a marker of attention related deficits in DS models and could be of value in designing pharmacotherapies for this specific aspect of DS. 5HT2a modulation may improve goal-directed behavior in DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  8. The effect of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI on micturition in rats with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Gu, Baojun; Wu, Gang; Tu, Hongjian; Si, Jieming; Xu, Yuemin; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-05-01

    We examined the effects of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI on micturition in chronic spinal cord injured rats. Female Sprague-Dawley® rats were used. Spinal cord injury was produced by transection at the T10 level. A cystometric study was performed 8 to 12 weeks after transection. Cystometrograms were done using urethane anesthesia in all rats. The selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin was administered after each DOI dose-response curve. All drugs were administered intravenously. Compared to controls, spinal cord injured rats had higher bladder capacity and post-void residual urine volume, and lower voiding efficiency. In spinal cord injured rats DOI (0.01 to 0.3 mg/kg) induced significant dose dependent increases in micturition volume and decreases in residual volume, resulting in increased voiding efficiency. Cystometrogram measurements showed a dose dependent increase in high frequency oscillation activity, evident as an increased number of small oscillation per voiding. This correlated with the improved voiding efficiency. Ketanserin (0.1 mg/kg) partially or completely reversed the DOI induced changes. High frequency oscillation seems to reflect external urethral sphincter burst activity during voiding. Bladder voiding efficiency and high frequency oscillation activity were decreased in spinal cord injured rats. High frequency oscillation activity can be enhanced by 5-HT2A receptor agonism, improving voiding efficiency. To our knowledge it remains to be studied whether these results may have implications for the future treatment of voiding dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diltiazem potentiates pentobarbital-induced hypnosis via 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors: role for dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zi-Jun; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yong-He

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that the sedative component of pentobarbital is mediated by GABA receptors in an endogenous sleep pathway and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)-tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) or VLPO-dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neural circuit is important in the sedative response to pentobarbital. Our previous findings indicated that the VLPO-TMN neuronal circuit may play crucial part in the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital sleep and the serotonergic system may be involved. This study was designed to investigate the role of DRN and the serotonergic receptors 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) in the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in rats. The results showed that diltiazem (5mg/kg, i.g.) significantly reversed pentobarbital-induced (35 mg/kg, i.p.) reduction of c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons of DRNV (at -7.5mm Bregma), DRND, DRNVL and MRN (at -8.0mm Bregma). However it did not influence this reducing effect of pentobarbital on non-5-HT neurons either in DRN or in MRN. Moreover, the effect of diltiazem (1 or 2mg/kg, i.g.) on pentobarbital-induced (35 mg/kg, i.p.) hypnosis was significantly inhibited by 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist DOI (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), and potentiated by 5-HT(1A) antagonist p-MPPI (2mg/kg, i.p.) and 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist ritanserin (2mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. From these results, it should be presumed that the augmentative effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be related to 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors, and DRN may be involved. In addition, it also suggested that the DRN may play a multi-modulating role in sleep-wake regulation rather than being recognized simply as arousal nuclei. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario

    2018-01-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putativ...

  11. Role for serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and 2C (5-HT2C) receptors in experimental absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzi, Marcello; David, François; Bellet, Joachim; Cavaccini, Anna; Bombardi, Cristiano; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Absence seizures (ASs) are the hallmark of childhood/juvenile absence epilepsy. Monotherapy with first-line anti-absence drugs only controls ASs in 50% of patients, indicating the need for novel therapeutic targets. Since serotonin family-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) are known to modulate neuronal activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop, the main network involved in AS generation, we investigated the effect of selective 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands on ASs in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well established polygenic rat model of these non-convulsive seizures. GAERS rats were implanted with fronto-parietal EEG electrodes under general anesthesia, and their ASs were later recorded under freely moving conditions before and after intraperitoneal administration of various 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2 dose-dependently decreased the total time spent in ASs, an effect that was blocked by the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL11,939. Both MDL11,939 and another selective 5-HT2A antagonist (M100,907) increased the length of individual seizures when injected alone. The 5-HT2C agonists lorcaserin and CP-809,101 dose-dependently suppressed ASs, an effect blocked by the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242984. In summary, 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs negatively control the expression of experimental ASs, indicating that selective agonists at these 5-HT2R subtypes might be potential novel anti-absence drugs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of [O-methyl-11C](2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-[2-[2-[2-(3-methoxy)phenyl]ethyl]phenoxy] ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidine as a 5-HT2A receptor PET ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.S. Dileep; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Erlandsson, Kjell; Majo, Vattoly J.; Simpson, Norman R.; Pratap, Mali; Heertum, Ronald L. van; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2006-01-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT 2A ) receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders, and in vivo studies of this receptor would be of value in studying the pathophysiology of these disorders and in measuring the relationship of clinical response to receptor occupancy for 5-HT 2A antagonists such as atypical antipsychotics. Therefore, (2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-[2-[2-[2-(3-methoxy)-phenyl]ethyl] phenoxy]ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidine (MPM) (13), a selective and high-affinity (K i =0.79 nM) 5HT 2A antagonist, has been radiolabeled with carbon-11 by O-methylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue (2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-[2-[2-[2-(3-hydroxy)phenyl]ethyl]phenoxy] ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidine (12) with [ 11 C]methyltriflate in order to determine the suitability of [ 11 C]MPM to quantify 5-HT 2A in living brain using PET. Desmethyl-MPM 12 and standard MPM were prepared, starting from 3-hydroxymethylphenol (2), in excellent yield. The yield obtained for radiolabeling was 40±5% (EOB), and the total synthesis time was 30 min at EOS. PET studies with [ 11 C]MPM in baboon showed a distribution in the brain consistent with the known distribution of 5-HT 2A receptors. The time-activity curves for the high-binding regions peaked at ∼45 min after injection. Blocking studies with M100907 demonstrated not only 38-57% blocking of tracer binding in brain regions known to have 5-HT 2A receptors but also 38% blocking in cerebellum, which has a low 5-HT 2A receptor concentration. Although [ 11 C]MPM exhibits appropriate kinetics in baboon for imaging 5-HT 2A receptors, its specific binding in cerebellum and higher proportion of nonspecific binding limit its usefulness for the in vivo quantification of 5-HT 2A receptors with PET

  13. The Influence of Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis and Hyperglycemia on the 5-HT2A Receptor-mediated Wet-dog Shake Responses in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Umeda, Yuichi; Amano, Manabu; Suemaru, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Gomita, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis induces hyperglycemia and serotonin (5-HT)2A receptor supersensitivity. In the present study, to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on the function of 5-HT2A receptors, we compared the 5-HT2A receptor-mediated wet-dog shake responses in rats treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dexamethasone and streptozotocin. ACTH (100 μg/rat per day, s.c.), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg per day, s.c.) and streptozotocin (60 mg/kg...

  14. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [11C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas; Visnapuu, Tanel; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne D; Baandrup, Anders O; Andersen, Flemming L; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Thomsen, Carsten; Jespersen, Bo; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT 2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [ 11 C]Cimbi-36, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5-HT levels to 2-11 times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of 5-HT release, and induced a varying degree of decline in [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 binding in the brain, consistent with the occupancy competition model. The observed correlation between changes in the extracellular 5-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT 2A receptor occupancy indicates that [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5-HT release is sufficiently high.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled 5-HT2A receptor agonists as PET ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias M; Petersen, Ida Nymann; Hansen, Hanne Demant

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is the most abundant excitatory 5-HT receptor in the human brain and implicated in various brain disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to image specific proteins...... and processes in the human brain and several 5-HT2AR PET antagonist radioligands are available. In contrast to an antagonist radioligand, an agonist radioligand should be able to image the population of functional receptors, i.e., those capable of inducing neuroreceptor signaling. Recently, we successfully...... in bone was also observed. No blocking effect was detected during a competition experiment with a 5-HT2AR selective antagonist. [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 showed very low brain uptake. CONCLUSION: None of the investigated (18)F-labeled Cimbi-36 derivatives [(18)F]1, [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 show suitable tracer...

  16. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive fun...

  17. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of pimavanserin as a 5-HT2A receptor PET-radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M

    2015-01-01

    Pimavanserin is a selective serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) inverse agonist that has shown promise for treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we detail the (11)C-labeling and subsequently evaluate pimavanserin as a PET-radioligand in pigs. [(11)C]Pimavanserin ...

  18. Fenfluramine Reduces [11C]Cimbi-36 Binding to the 5-HT2A Receptor in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Kai-Chun; Stepanov, Vladimir; Martinsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background: [11C]Cimbi-36 is a serotonin 2A receptor agonist positron emission tomography radioligand that has recently been examined in humans. The binding of agonist radioligand is expected to be more sensitive to endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations than antagonist radioligands. In the c...

  19. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT2A receptor agonists suppress lipolysis in primary rat adipose cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Medina, Anya; Fryklund, Claes; Fex, Malin; Stenkula, Karin G

    2016-05-27

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that functions both as a neurotransmitter and a circulating hormone. Recently, the metabolic effects of 5-HT have gained interest and peripheral 5-HT has been proposed to influence lipid metabolism in various ways. Here, we investigated the metabolic effects of 5-HT in isolated, primary rat adipose cells. Incubation with 5-HT suppressed β-adrenergically stimulated glycerol release and decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent substrates, hormone sensitive lipase (Ser563) and perilipin (Ser522). The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on lipolysis enhanced the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin, but sustained in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, OPC3911 and isobuthylmethylxanthine (IBMX). The relative expression of 5-HT1A, -2B and -4 receptor class family were significantly higher in adipose tissue compared to adipose cells, whereas 5-HT1D, -2A and -7 were highly expressed in isolated adipose cells. Similar to 5-HT, 5-HT2 receptor agonists reduced lipolysis while 5-HT1 receptor agonists rather decreased non-stimulated and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Together, these data provide evidence of a direct effect of 5-HT on adipose cells, where 5-HT suppresses lipolysis and glucose uptake, which could contribute to altered systemic lipid- and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association analysis between the C516T polymorphism in the 5-HT2A receptor gene and schizophrenia Análise de associação entre o polimorfismo C516T do gene do receptor 5-HT2A e esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Bertola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetics is an important risk factor for schizophrenia. Disturbances of serotonergic brain pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Some studies have suggested that the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics on schizophrenia treatment may be related to the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A, and that serotonergic drugs may induce psychotic symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the C516T polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian population composed by 246 patients and 315 healthy matched controls in a case-control approach. No statistically differences were observed in allelic (chi2=1.77, 1d.f., p=0.18 or genotypic (chi2=1.69, 2d.f., p=0.42 distributions between cases and controls. The results suggest that the C516T polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene is not related to the susceptibility for schizophrenia in our Brazilian sample.Estudos epidemiológicos têm demonstrado que o componente genético é importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia. Alterações nas vias cerebrais serotonérgicas têm sido relacionadas à fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia. Algumas investigações têm sugerido que a eficácia de antipsicóticos atípicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia pode estar relacionada com sua ação no receptor de serotonina subtipo 2A (5-HT2A, e que drogas serotonérgicas podem provocar sintomas psicóticos. Assim, o objetivo desta investigação foi examinar a associação entre o polimorfismo C516T do gene do receptor 5-HT2A e esquizofrenia em uma amostra brasileira composta por 246 pacientes e 315 controles saudáveis e pareados em um estudo tipo caso-controle. Não foram observadas diferenças na distribuição alélica (chi2=1,77, 1d.f., p=0,18, 1d.f. e genotípica (chi2=1,69, 2d.f., p=0,42 entre os grupos de pacientes e controles. Os resultados sugerem que o polimorfismo C516T gene do

  1. Serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe nucleus recruits in situ 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors to modulate the post-ictal antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2008-10-01

    The post-ictal immobility syndrome is followed by a significant increase in the nociceptive thresholds in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the post-ictal antinociception. The second aim was to study the role of serotonergic intrinsic mechanisms of the DRN in this hypo-algesic phenomenon. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), an ionophore GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonist, was peripherally used to induce tonic-clonic seizures in Wistar rats. The nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail-flick test. Neurochemical lesions of the DRN, performed with microinjection of ibotenic acid (1.0 microg/0.2 microL), caused a significant decrease of tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception, suggesting the involvement of this nucleus in this antinociceptive process. Microinjections of methysergide (1.0 and 5.0 microg/0.2 microL), a non-selective serotonergic receptor antagonist, into DRN caused a significant decrease in the post-ictal antinociception in seizing animals, compared to controls, in all post-ictal periods presently studied. These findings were corroborated by microinjections of ketanserin (at 1.0 and 5.0 microg/0.2 microL) into DRN. Ketanserin is an antagonist with large affinity for 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptors, which, in this case, caused a significant decrease in the tail-flick latencies in seizing animals, compared to controls after the first 20 min following tonic-clonic convulsive reactions. These results indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission of the DRN neuronal clusters is involved in the organization of the post-ictal hypo-algesia. The 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors of DRN neurons seem to be critically involved in the increase of nociceptive thresholds following tonic-clonic seizures.

  2. In Vivo Quantification of 5-HT2A Brain Receptors in Mdr1a KO Rats with 123I-R91150 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Dumas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify suitable image quantification methods to image 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A receptors in vivo in Mdr1a knockout (KO rats (i.e., P-glycoprotein KO using 123I-R91150 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. The 123I-R91150 binding parameters estimated with different reference tissue models (simplified reference tissue model [SRTM], Logan reference tissue model, and tissue ratio [TR] method were compared to the estimates obtained with a comprehensive three-tissue/seven-parameter (3T/7k-based model. The SRTM and Logan reference tissue model estimates of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND correlated well with the absolute receptor density measured with the 3T/7k gold standard (r > .89. Quantification of 5-HT2AR using the Logan reference tissue model required at least 90 minutes of scanning, whereas the SRTM required at least 110 minutes. The TR method estimates were also highly correlated to the 5-HT2AR density (r > .91 and only required a single 20-minute scan between 100 and 120 minutes postinjection. However, a systematic overestimation of the BPND values was observed. The Logan reference tissue method is more convenient than the SRTM for the quantification of 5-HT2AR in Mdr1a KO rats using 123I-R91150 SPECT. The TR method is an interesting and simple alternative, despite its bias, as it still provides a valid index of 5-HT2AR density.

  3. I. In vivo evidence for partial agonist effects of (-)-OSU6162 and (+)-OSU6162 on 5-HT2A serotonin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Maria L; Burstein, Ethan S; Kloberg, Angélica; Hansson, Sarah; Schedwin, Arja; Nilsson, Marie; Rung, Johan P; Carlsson, Arvid

    2011-11-01

    The locomotor effects of (-)- and (+)-OSU6162 were evaluated in 'low activity' animals (reserpinized mice and habituated rats) and 'high activity' animals (drug-naive mice and non-habituated rats). Both enantiomers of OSU6162 had dual effects on behavior, stimulating locomotor activity in 'low activity' animals and inhibiting locomotor activity in 'high activity' animals. There were also certain differences between the two enantiomers in their behavioral profiles. The stimulatory effects of both enantiomers in reserpinized mice were blocked by the 5-HT2A selective antagonist M100907, but not by the D2-selective antagonists haloperidol or raclopride, or by the D1-selective antagonists SCH23390 or SCH39166. The stimulatory effect in mice was more pronounced for (+)- than for (-)-OSU6162. In drug-naive mice, both enantiomers of OSU6162 produced head twitches, albeit to a much lesser extent than DOI, and both enantiomers inhibited DOI-induced head twitches, the (-)-form more effectively so than the (+)-form. These results suggest that (-)- and (+)-OSU6162 are partial agonists on 5-HT2A receptors and that the (+)-form has a higher intrinsic activity than the (-)-form. At high doses, both enantiomers inhibited locomotor activity in drug-naive mice, with (-)-OSU6162 being more potent than (+)-OSU6162. Similarly, in high-active rats, both enantiomers inhibited locomotor activity, with the (-)-enantiomer being more potent than the (+)-enantiomer. Conversely, in habituated rats, both enantiomers stimulated locomotor activity, and here, as opposed to the case in low-active mice, (-)-OSU6162 was more effective than (+)-OSU6162. The stimulatory effects in habituated rats of both enantiomers could be antagonized with either haloperidol or M100907. Overall, these results indicate that the dual effects on behavior of (-)- and (+)-OSU6162 are mediated through D2 and 5-HT2A receptors, consistent with their in vitro functional selectivity profiles (see Burstein et al., accompanying

  4. Deficits in LTP induction by 5-HT2A receptor antagonist in a mouse model for fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-hui Xu

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is a common inherited form of mental retardation caused by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP because of Fmr1 gene silencing. Serotonin (5-HT is significantly increased in the null mutants of Drosophila Fmr1, and elevated 5-HT brain levels result in cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients. The serotonin type 2A receptor (5-HT2AR is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex; it acts on pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to modulate cortical functions. 5-HT2AR and FMRP both regulate synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the lack of FMRP may affect serotoninergic activity. In this study, we determined the involvement of FMRP in the 5-HT modulation of synaptic potentiation with the use of primary cortical neuron culture and brain slice recording. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT2AR by R-96544 or ketanserin facilitated long-term potentiation (LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC of WT mice. The prefrontal LTP induction was dependent on the activation of NMDARs and elevation of postsynaptic Ca(2+ concentrations. By contrast, inhibition of 5-HT2AR could not restore the induction of LTP in the ACC of Fmr1 knock-out mice. Furthermore, 5-HT2AR inhibition induced AMPA receptor GluR1 subtype surface insertion in the cultured ACC neurons of Fmr1 WT mice, however, GluR1 surface insertion by inhibition of 5-HT2AR was impaired in the neurons of Fmr1KO mice. These findings suggested that FMRP was involved in serotonin receptor signaling and contributed in GluR1 surface expression induced by 5-HT2AR inactivation.

  5. Altered 5-HT2A Receptor Binding after Recovery from Bulimia-Type Anorexia Nervosa: Relationships to Harm Avoidance and Drive for Thinness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474

  6. Gpm6b deficiency impairs sensorimotor gating and modulates the behavioral response to a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Winkler, Daniela; Ritter, Caroline; Ronnenberg, Anja; Poggi, Giulia; Patzig, Julia; Gernert, Manuela; Müller, Christian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Werner, Hauke B

    2015-01-15

    The neuronal tetraspan proteins, M6A (Gpm6a) and M6B (Gpm6b), belong to the family of proteolipids that are widely expressed in the brain. We recently reported Gpm6a deficiency as a monogenetic cause of claustrophobia in mice. Its homolog proteolipid, Gpm6b, is ubiquitously expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Gpm6b is involved in neuronal differentiation and myelination. It interacts with the N-terminal domain of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and decreases cell-surface expression of SERT. In the present study, we employed Gpm6b null mutant mice (Gpm6b(-/-)) to search for behavioral functions of Gpm6b. We studied male and female Gpm6b(-/-) mice and their wild-type (WT, Gpm6b(+/+)) littermates in an extensive behavioral test battery. Additionally, we investigated whether Gpm6b(-/-) mice exhibit changes in the behavioral response to a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. We found that Gpm6b(-/-) mice display completely normal sensory and motor functions, cognition, as well as social and emotionality-like (anxiety, depression) behaviors. On top of this inconspicuous behavioral profile, Gpm6b(-/-) mice of both genders exhibit a selective impairment in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice that show the typical locomotion suppression and increase in grooming activity after intraperitoneal administration of DOI [(±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride], Gpm6b(-/-) mice demonstrate a blunted behavioral response to this 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. To conclude, Gpm6b deficiency impairs sensorimotor gating and modulates the behavioral response to a serotonergic challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata S. Martin-Gronert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC. We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist.

  8. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Stocker, Claire J; Wargent, Edward T; Cripps, Roselle L; Garfield, Alastair S; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S H; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan R S; Heisler, Lora K; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus ofin uterogrowth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. 16p11.2 deletion syndrome mice perseverate with active coping response to acute stress - rescue by blocking 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzini, Chris M; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Alchahin, Adele M; Guo, Yueping; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-12-01

    In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). As ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin. Del mice perseverated with active coping (swimming) in the forced swim test and failed to adopt passive coping strategies with time as did their wild-type littermates. Analysis of monoamine content by HPLC provided evidence for altered endogenous serotonin neurotransmission in Del mice while there was no effect of genotype on any other monoamine. Moreover, we found that Del mice were highly sensitive to the 5-HT2A antagonists M100907, which at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg normalized their level of active coping and restored the gradual shift to passive coping in the forced swim test. Supporting evidence for altered endogenous serotonin signaling was provided by observations of additional ligand effects including altered forebrain Fos expression. Taken together, these observations indicate notable changes in endogenous serotonin signaling in 16p11.2 deletion mice and support the therapeutic utility of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. QSAR–CoMSIA applied to antipsychotic drugs with their dopamine D2 and serotonine 5HT2A membrane receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPERANTA AVRAM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs are psychiatric medication primarily used to manage psychosis (e.g., delusions or hallucinations, particularly in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. First and second generations of antipshychotics tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways, but antipsychotic drugs encompass a wide range of receptor targets. The inhibition constant, Ki, at the level of membrane receptors is a major determinant of their pharmacokinetic behavior and, consequently, it can affect their antipsychotic activity. Here, predicted inhibition constants, Ki for 71 antipsychotics, already approved for clinical treatment, as well as representative new chemical structures which exhibit antipsychotic activity, were evaluated using 3D-QSAR–CoMSIA models. Significant values of the cross-validated correlation q2 (higher than 0.70 and the fitted correlation r2 (higher than 0.80 revealed that these models have reasonable power to predict the biological affinity of the 15 new risperidone and 12 new olanzapine derivatives in interactions with dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors; these compounds are suggested for further studies.

  11. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity.

  12. Holographic Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships of Tryptamine Derivatives at NMDA, 5HT1A and 5HT2A Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolschann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tryptamine derivatives (Ts were found to inhibit the binding of [3H]MK-801, [3H]ketanserin and [3H]8-OH-DPAT to rat brain membranes. [3H]MK-801 labels the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, a ionotropic glutamate receptor which controls synaptic plasticity and memory function in the brain, whereas [3H]ketanserin and [3H]8-OH-DPAT label 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors, respectively. The inhibitory potencies of 64 Ts (as given by IC50 values were correlated with their structural properties by using the Holographic QSAR procedure (HQSAR. This method uses structural fragments and connectivities as descriptors which were encoded in a hologram thus avoiding the usual problems with conformation and alignment of the structures. Four correlation equations with high predictive ability and appropriate statistical test values could be established. The results are visualized by generation of maps reflecting the contribution of individual structural parts to the biological activities.

  13. (1R, 3S)-(-)-trans-PAT: a novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Raymond G; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-08-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C) G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G alpha(q) to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT(2C) receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT(2C) agonists that do not also activate 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT(2) subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT(2) receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (-)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT(2C) receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2B) inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The K(i) of (-)-trans-PAT at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C) receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[(3)H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT(2) receptors. At 5-HT(2C) receptors, (-)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC(50) = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors, (-)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC(50) = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (K(B) = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (-)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, but, not with 5-HT(2B) receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT(2) receptor structure and function, (-)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT(2C) agonist/5-HT(2A) inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. (1R, 3S)-(−)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through Gαq to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(−)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (−)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (−)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (−)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (−)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  15. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñals, Xavier; Moreno, Estefanía; Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  16. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Viñals

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  17. Possible involvement of CA1 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Jamshidi-Mehr, Mehdi; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effects of the serotonergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, CP94253 (5 ng/mouse), 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (0.05 and 0.5 ng/mouse), 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist, α-methyl 5-HT (0.5 ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinancerine (0.5 ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition, but did not affect locomotor activity and tail flick. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold dose of CP94253 (0.05 ng/mouse) or GR127935 (0.005 ng/mouse) reversed impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.). However, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of subthreshold dose of α-methyl 5-HT (0.005 ng/mouse) or cinancerine (0.005 ng/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) heighten impairment of memory acquisition. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 serotonergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Effects of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammatory site on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic hyperalgesia and neuropeptide Y expression in the spinal dorsal horn in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Qing; Wu, Bing; Hong, Yanguo; Hu, Wei

    2015-10-25

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released in inflammatory tissues plays a pivotal role in pain hypersensitivity. However, it is not clear whether 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues mediate this effect. The present study investigated the contribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery to chronic inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected subcutaneously in the hindpaw of rats. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin was given in the inflamed site. Paw withdrawal latency responding to heat or mechanical stimuli was measured. Expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was assayed using immunohistochemistry technique. The results showed that ketanserin administered in the inflamed site inhibited thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner (20, 40 and 80 µg) induced by the intraplantar injection of CFA. Ketanserin given once per day at a dose of 80 µg abolished heat hyperalgesia and also attenuated mechanical allodynia on the third day. CFA injection increased the expression of NPY in superficial laminae of the spinal cord, but not in the DRG. The local treatment of ketanserin completely inhibited CFA-induced increase in NPY expression in superficial laminae of the spinal cord. These results indicated that activation of 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues was involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pain and the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery could relieve pain hypersensitivity and normalize the cellular disorder in the spinal dorsal horn associated with pathological pain. The present study suggests that the peripheral 5-HT2A receptors can be a promising target for pharmaceutical therapy to treat chronic inflammatory pain without central nervous system side effects.

  19. The role of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) and dopamine receptors in the behavioral actions of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist, DOI, and putative 5-HT2C inverse agonist, SR46349B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlota, Laura C; Harvey, John A; Aloyo, Vincent J

    2011-02-01

    Atypical antipsychotic efficacy is often attributed to actions at serotonin-2 (5-HT(2)) and dopamine receptors, indicating a potential benefit of understanding the interplay between these systems. Currently, it is known that 5-HT(2) receptors modulate dopamine release, although the role of specific dopamine receptors in 5-HT(2)-mediated behavior is not well understood. We examined the role of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), and dopamine (D1 and D2) receptors in the behavioral response to a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist (DOI) and 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist (SR46349B). Effects were assessed by measuring rabbit head bobs (previously characterized as 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated) and body shakes (5-HT(2C)-mediated). As expected, DOI produced head bobs and body shakes, and these DOI-elicited behaviors were attenuated by the SR46349B pretreatment. Unexpectedly, SR46349B also induced head bobs when administered alone. However, SR46349B-elicited head bobs are distinguishable from those produced by DOI since the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, ketanserin, only attenuated DOI-elicited head bobs. Conversely, 5-HT(2C) ligands (SB242084 and SB206553) inhibited SR46349B but not DOI-induced head bobs. Furthermore, when administered alone, SB206553 (a 5-HT(2C) inverse agonist) produced head bobs, indicating the behavior can be either 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) mediated. Next, it was revealed that D1 and D2 receptors play a role in DOI-elicited head bobs, but only D1 receptors are required for SR46349B-elicited head bobs. 5-HT(2A) receptor agonism and 5-HT(2C) inverse agonism produce the same behavior, likely due to similar downstream actions at D1 receptors. Consequently, 5-HT(2C) agonism or D1 agonism may be effective therapies for disorders, such as schizophrenia, currently being treated with 5-HT(2A) antagonists.

  20. Characterization of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 as an agonist PET radioligand for the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the nonhuman primate brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Stepanov, Vladimir; Ettrup, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Only recently the first successful serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist PET radioligands have been described, with [(11)C]Cimbi-36 reported as the most promising in the pig brain so far. Agonist radioligands may target specifically the G protein-coupled state of the receptors and thereby provid...

  1. Elevated expression of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the rat ventral tegmental area enhances vulnerability to the behavioral effects of cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Herin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine mesocorticoaccumbens pathway which originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and projects to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex is a circuit important in mediating the actions of psychostimulants. The function of this circuit is modulated by the actions of serotonin (5-HT at 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR localized to the VTA. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that virally-mediated overexpression of 5-HT2AR in the VTA would increase cocaine-evoked locomotor activity in the absence of alterations in basal locomotor activity. A plasmid containing the gene for the 5-HT2AR linked to a synthetic marker peptide (Flag was created and the construct was packaged in an adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV-5-HT2AR-Flag. This viral vector (2 µl; 109-10 transducing units/ml was unilaterally infused into the VTA of male rats, while control animals received an intra-VTA infusion of Ringer’s solution. Virus-pretreated rats exhibited normal spontaneous locomotor activity measured in a modified open-field apparatus at 7, 14, and 21 days following infusion. After an injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip, both horizontal hyperactivity and rearing were significantly enhanced in virus-treated rats (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed expression of Flag and overexpression of the 5-HT2AR protein. These data indicate that the vulnerability of adult male rats to hyperactivity induced by cocaine is enhanced following increased levels of expression of the 5-HT2AR in the VTA and suggest that the 5-HT2AR receptor in the VTA plays a role in regulation of responsiveness to cocaine.

  2. A PET [18F]altanserin study of 5-HT2A receptor binding in the human brain and responses to painful heat stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ronny Clement Florent; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Naert, Arne

    2009-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence that serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] plays an important role in the transmission and regulation of pain. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) to study the relationship between baseline 5-HT(2A) binding in the brain and responses to noxious heat...

  3. 5-HT2A receptor -1438 G/A polymorphism and serotonergic antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in male patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Chiang, Kuo-Tung; Su, Hsuan-Chi

    2012-08-01

    To date, few studies have specifically investigated the genetic determinants of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (SD). The aim of this prospective study was to examine whether the 5-HT2A receptor -1438 G/A polymorphism has functional consequences on sexual well-being in young adult men presenting with their first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) after serotonergic antidepressant treatment. Between May 2010 and June 2011, a total of 56 drug-naïve patients presenting with their first episode of MDD were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and received either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or venlafaxine monotherapy; the patients were then genotyped. Over the course of antidepressant treatment, the population was divided into a SD group (N=16) and a non-SD group (N=29) based on the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). Participants who did not achieve a significant improvement, as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), were excluded from the final data analysis. The primary outcome measures were the differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies between groups. In the SD group, the AA genotype was significantly overrepresented (P=0.004), and the mean baseline HAMD-17 score, the mean baseline ASEX score, and the mean end-point ASEX score were significantly higher than those in the non-SD group (P=0.026, P=0.004, and P<0.001, respectively). The mean end-point HAMD-17 score (P=0.115) did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggest that the AA genotype may be a genetic trait offering an opportunity to strengthen early detection of serotonergic antidepressant-induced SD in young adult male patients with MDD, whereas the G allele is protective against SD in this population. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Examination of the hippocampal contribution to serotonin 5-HT2A receptor-mediated facilitation of object memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gongliang; Cinalli, David; Cohen, Sarah J; Knapp, Kristina D; Rios, Lisa M; Martínez-Hernández, José; Luján, Rafael; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    The rodent hippocampus supports non-spatial object memory. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) are widely expressed throughout the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated that the activation of 5-HT2ARs enhanced the strength of object memory assessed 24 h after a limited (i.e., weak memory) training procedure. Here, we examined the subcellular distribution of 5-HT2ARs in the hippocampal CA1 region and underlying mechanisms of 5-HT2AR-mediated object memory consolidation. Analyses with immuno-electron microscopy revealed the presence of 5-HT2ARs on the dendritic spines and shafts of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and presynaptic terminals in the CA1 region. In an object recognition memory procedure that places higher demand on the hippocampus, only post-training systemic or intrahippocampal administration of the 5-HT2AR agonist TCB-2 enhanced object memory. Object memory enhancement by TCB-2 was blocked by the 5-HT2AR antagonist, MDL 11,937. The memory-enhancing dose of systemic TCB-2 increased extracellular glutamate levels in hippocampal dialysate samples, and increased the mean in vivo firing rate of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In summary, these data indicate a pre- and post-synaptic distribution of 5-HT2ARs, and activation of 5-HT2ARs selectively enhanced the consolidation of object memory, without affecting encoding or retrieval. The 5-HT2AR-mediated facilitation of hippocampal memory may be associated with an increase in hippocampal neuronal firing and glutamate efflux during a post-training time window in which recently encoded memories undergo consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment on serotonin transporter, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor binding density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2013-12-02

    Olanzapine is widely used in treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms but induces serious metabolic side-effects. Recent evidence has showed that co-treatment of betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity, however it is not clear whether this co-treatment affects on the primary therapeutic receptor binding sites of olanzapine such as serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2R). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of this co-treatment on 5-HT2AR, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D2R bindings in various brain regions involved in antipsychotic efficacy. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered orally (t.i.d.) with either olanzapine (1mg/kg), betahistine (2.7 mg/kg), olanzapine plus betahistine (O+B), or vehicle (control) for 2 weeks. Quantitative autoradiography was used to detect the density of [(3)H]ketanserin, [(3)H]paroxetine and [(3)H]raclopride binding site to 5-HT2AR, 5-HTT and D2R. Compared to the controls, olanzapine significantly decreased [(3)H]ketanserin bindings to 5-HT2AR in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Similar changes in 5-HT2AR bindings in these nuclei were also observed in the O+B co-treatment group. Olanzapine also significantly decreased [(3)H]paroxetine binding to 5-HTT in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, however, both olanzapine only and O+B co-treatment did not affect [(3)H]raclopride binding to D2R. The results confirmed the important role of 5-HT2AR in the efficacy of olanzapine, which is not influenced by the O+B co-treatment. Therefore, betahistine co-treatment would be an effective combination therapy to reduce olanzapine-induced weight gain side-effects without affecting olanzapine's actions on 5-HT2AR transmissions. © 2013.

  6. 5-HT2A/C receptors do not mediate the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP in the quinpirole sensitization rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Wong, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

    2015-02-15

    There is emerging evidence for a dopamine (DA)-serotonin (5-HT) interaction underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the quinpirole sensitization rat model of OCD, compulsive checking is induced by chronic treatment with the DA agonist quinpirole, and is attenuated by the 5-HT agonist drug mCPP. However, mCPP has affinity for a number of 5-HT receptor subtypes, and it is unknown by which receptors mCPP exerts its effects on quinpirole-treated animals. The present study tested in rats whether mCPP activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors mediates the attenuation of compulsive checking in quinpirole-treated animals. Rats were chronically treated with quinpirole on the open field for the induction of compulsive checking. Following the induction phase, animals were treated with mCPP (1.25 mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) to test whether blockade of 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits attenuation of checking by mCPP. Results showed that as expected, quinpirole induced compulsive checking, and mCPP reduced its performance. However, 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade by ritanserin did not inhibit the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP. These results suggest that the reduction in compulsive checking by mCPP is not mediated by activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors, but by another receptor subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular pharmacology and ligand docking studies reveal a single amino acid difference between mouse and human serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that impacts behavioral translation of novel 4-phenyl-2-dimethylaminotetralin ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Cordova-Sintjago, Tania; Liu, Yue; Kim, Myong S; Morgan, Drake; Booth, Raymond G

    2013-12-01

    During translational studies to develop 4-phenyl-2-dimethylaminotetralin (PAT) compounds for neuropsychiatric disorders, the (2R,4S)-trans-(+)- and (2S,4R)-trans-(-)-enantiomers of the analog 6-hydroxy-7-chloro-PAT (6-OH-7-Cl-PAT) demonstrated unusual pharmacology at serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The enantiomers had similar affinities (Ki) at human (h) 5-HT2A receptors (≈ 70 nM). In an in vivo mouse model of 5-HT2A receptor activation [(±)-(2,5)-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-elicited head twitch], however, (-)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT was about 5-fold more potent than the (+)-enantiomer at attenuating the DOI-elicited response. It was discovered that (+)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT (only) had ≈ 40-fold-lower affinity at mouse (m) compared with h5-HT2A receptors. Molecular modeling and computational ligand docking studies indicated that the 6-OH moiety of (+)- but not (-)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT could form a hydrogen bond with serine residue 5.46 of the h5-HT2A receptor. The m5-HT2A as well as m5-HT2B, h5-HT2B, m5-HT2C, and h5-HT2C receptors have alanine at position 5.46, obviating this interaction; (+)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT also showed ≈ 50-fold lower affinity than (-)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT at m5-HT2C and h5-HT2C receptors. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that 5-HT2A S5.46 is critical for (+)- but not (-)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT binding, as well as function. The (+)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT enantiomer showed partial agonist effects at h5-HT2A wild-type (WT) and m5-HT2A A5.46S point-mutated receptors but did not activate m5-HT2A WT and h5-HT2A S5.46A point-mutated receptors, or h5-HT2B, h5-HT2C, and m5-HT2C receptors; (-)-6-OH-7-Cl-PAT did not activate any of the 5-HT2 receptors. Experiments also included the (2R,4S)-trans-(+)- and (2S,4R)-trans-(-)-enantiomers of 6-methoxy-7-chloro-PAT to validate hydrogen bonding interactions proposed for the corresponding 6-OH analogs. Results indicate that PAT ligand three-dimensional structure impacts target receptor binding and translational outcomes

  8. Estimates of regional cerebral blood flow and 5-HT2A receptor density in impulsive, aggressive dogs with 99mTc-ECD and 123I-5-I-R91150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremans, Kathelijne; Coopman, Frank; Verschooten, Francis; Bree, Henri van; Audenaert, Kurt; Heeringen, Kees van; Blanckaert, Peter; Slegers, Guido; Jacobs, Filip; Otte, Andreas; Dierckx, Rudi; Mertens, John

    2003-01-01

    Impulsive aggression in dogs has an important impact on human public health. Better insight into the pathophysiology of this phenomenon could lead to more adequate diagnosis and treatment. Indirect in vivo research on peripheral body fluids and post-mortem studies in impulsive animals and humans indicate a deficient serotonergic system in general and disturbances in the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor in particular. In this study, brain perfusion and the 5-HT2A receptors were examined in impulsive, aggressive dogs, in comparison with a group of normally behaving animals. In order to decide which dogs to include in this study, owners were asked to describe the general behaviour of the dogs, the circumstances in which aggression occurred and their conduct during aggressive acts. Finally, 19 dogs were retained for this study, showing, according to different behavioural specialists, disinhibited dominance aggression. Functional imaging studies were performed on all these dogs. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) was used to measure regional brain perfusion using technetium-99m labelled ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). The 5-HT2A receptor binding properties were investigated using the selective radioligand iodine-123 labelled 5-I-R91150. A significant increase in uptake of the 5-HT2A radioligand was noted in all cortical areas. No significant alterations were found in regional cortical perfusion, indicating that the increased binding index was not a consequence of increased tracer delivery. This study supports a role for the serotonergic system in canine impulsive aggression. (orig.)

  9. 123I-5-I-R91150, a new single-photon emission tomography ligand for 5-HT2A receptors: influence of age and gender in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeken, C.; D'haenen, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Chavatte, K.; Boumon, R.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 2A receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the therapeutic effect of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a new radioiodinated ligand with high affinity and selectivity for serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors, 123 iodinated 4-amino-N-1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150), has been developed and has been shown to be suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. In this study the influence of age and gender on the ligand binding was investigated in normal volunteers. One hundred and fifty MBq of 123 I-5-I-R91150 was administered to 26 normal volunteers (13 females and 13 males) with an age range of 23-60 years. SPET imaging was performed with a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative analysis, ratios of ligand binding in different regions of interest to the binding in the cerebellum were calculated. Mean ratios of 1.7 were obtained. No gender difference was demonstrated. 5-HT 2A binding was shown to decline with age. Over an age range of 40 years a reduction in ligand binding of 42%±7% was found. These results are in agreement with in vitro and positron emission tomography findings of a decline in 5-HT 2A receptor binding with age. The findings confirm the suitability of 123 I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies. (orig.)

  10. Extended characterisation of the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor-selective PET radiotracer 11C-MDL100907 in humans: quantitative analysis, test-retest reproducibility, and vulnerability to endogenous 5-HT tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Scher, Erica; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc

    2012-01-02

    Scanning properties and analytic methodology of the 5-HT2A receptor-selective positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 11C-MDL100907 have been partially characterised in previous reports. We present an extended characterisation in healthy human subjects. 64 11C-MDL100907 PET scans with metabolite-corrected arterial input function were performed in 39 healthy adults (18-55 years). 12 subjects were scanned twice (duration 150 min) to provide data on plasma analysis, model order estimation, and stability and test-retest characteristics of outcome measures. All other scans were 90 min duration. 3 subjects completed scanning at baseline and following 5-HT2A receptor antagonist medication (risperidone or ciproheptadine) to provide definitive data on the suitability of the cerebellum as reference region. 10 subjects were scanned under reduced 5-HT and control conditions using rapid tryptophan depletion to investigate vulnerability to competition with endogenous 5-HT. 13 subjects were scanned as controls in clinical protocols. Pooled data were used to analyse the relationship between tracer injected mass and receptor occupancy, and age-related decline in 5-HT2A receptors. Optimum analytic method was a 2-tissue compartment model with arterial input function. However, basis function implementation of SRTM may be suitable for measuring between-group differences non-invasively and warrants further investigation. Scan duration of 90 min achieved stable outcome measures in all cortical regions except orbitofrontal which required 120 min. Binding potential (BPP and BPND) test-retest variability was very good (7-11%) in neocortical regions other than orbitofrontal, and moderately good (14-20%) in orbitofrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Saturation occupancy of 5-HT2A receptors by risperidone validates the use of the cerebellum as a region devoid of specific binding for the purposes of PET. We advocate a mass limit of 4.6 μg to remain below 5% receptor occupancy. 11C

  11. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  12. New 8-aminoalkyl derivatives of purine-2,6-dione with arylalkyl, allyl or propynyl substituents in position 7, their 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT7 receptor affinity and pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zmudzki, Paweł; Satała, Grzegorz; Duszyńska, Beata; Partyka, Anna; Wróbel, Dagmara; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Wesołowska, Anna; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Pawłowski, Maciej; Zajdel, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies in a group of arylpiperazine derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-diones, aimed at chemical diversification of the purine-2,6-dione by introduction of hydrophobic substituent in a 7- or 8- position or elongation of the linker length between arylpiperazine and purine core, allowed a selection of potent 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands displaying anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Continuing our research in this field, in the present studies we designed a new series of 8-aminoalkylamino (15-35) and 8-arylpiperazinylpropoxy (36-42) derivatives of 7-substituted 1,3-dimethyl-3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione as potential 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands with potential psychotropic activity. Radioligand binding assays were employed for determining the affinity and the selectivity profile of the synthesized compounds for native 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and cloned 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors. The functional activity of the selected compounds at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors was tested in the commonly used in vivo models. Antidepressant and anxiolytic properties were evaluated in the forced swim (FST) and the four-plate test (FPT) in mice, respectively. Among the evaluated series, selected 7-benzyl-8-((4-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)amino)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione (21), a mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2A/5-HT7 receptor ligand, produced an antidepressant-like effect in FST, and exerted anxiolytic-like activity in FPT. Another pharmacologically evaluated compound 42 (a mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT7 ligand) slightly, but non-significantly attenuated the immobility time of mice in FST and was devoid of activity in FPT. Study revealed advantage of mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2A/5-HT7 receptor ligands over 5-HT1A/5-HT7 agents to display antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. Modification of arylalkyl/allyl substituent in position 7 of purine-2,6-dione opens possibility for designing new 5-HT ligands with preserved p electron system and lower

  13. Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussac, Didier; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Ailhaud, Marie-Christine; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Martel, Jean-Claude; Danty, Nathalie; Rauly-Lestienne, Isabelle

    2008-10-10

    Several examples of agonist-directed trafficking of receptor signalling at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have been reported that involve independent downstream transduction pathways. We now report the functional selectivity of a series of chemically diverse agonists at human (h)5-HT2A, h5-HT2B and h5-HT2C-VSV by examining two related responses, the upstream activation of Gq/11 proteins in comparison with its associated cascade of calcium mobilisation. At the h5-HT2A receptor, d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the antiparkinsonian agents lisuride, bromocriptine and pergolide exhibit a higher potency for Gq/11 activation than calcium release in contrast with all the other tested ligands such as 5-HT, mCPP and BW723C86, that show an opposite preference of signalling pathway. Comparable observations are made at h5-HT2B and h5-HT2C-VSV receptors, suggesting a similar mechanism of functional selectivity for the three serotonin receptors. Interestingly, the non-hallucinogenic compound lisuride behaves as a partial agonist for both Gq/11 activation and calcium release at the three 5-HT2 receptors, in contrast with DOI, LSD, pergolide and bromocriptine, which are known to provoke hallucinations, and behave as more efficacious agonists. Hence, a functional selectivity for Gq/11 activation together with a threshold of efficacy at h5-HT2A (and possibly h5-HT2B and/or h5-HT2C-VSV) may contribute to hallucinogenic liability. Thus, our results extend the notion of agonist-directed trafficking of receptor signalling to all the 5-HT2-receptor family and indicate that measures of Gq/11 activation versus calcium release may be useful to identify more effective therapeutic drugs with limited side effects.

  14. Serotonin 5-HT2A but not 5-HT2C receptor antagonism reduces hyperlocomotor activity induced in dopamine-depleted rats by striatal administration of the D1 agonist SKF 82958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christopher; Daut, Gregory S; Walker, Paul D

    2005-09-01

    While recent work has indicated that D1 receptor agonist-induced hyperlocomotion in DA-depleted rats is reduced by striatal 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, the 5-HT receptor(s) subtypes mediating these effects are not yet known. In the present study, we examined the influence(s) of striatal 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on locomotor behavior induced by D1 agonism in neonatal DA-depleted rats. On postnatal day 3, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=68) were treated with either vehicle or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 60 microg) which produced >98% DA depletion. Sixty days later, all rats were fitted with bilateral striatal cannulae. A subset of control and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats (n=20) was tested for locomotor responses to striatal infusion of the D1 agonist SKF 82958 (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 microg/side). The remaining rats (n=48) were tested for locomotor responses to intrastriatal SKF 82958 (2.0 microg/side) alone or in combination with the 5-HT2A- or 5-HT2C-preferring antagonists M100907 or RS102221 (0.1 or 1.0 microg/side), respectively. Intrastriatal SKF 82958 dose-dependently increased measures of motor activity within DA-depleted rats. This hyperlocomotor activity was suppressed by co-infusion of M100907, but not RS102221. These results indicate that DA depletion strengthens striatal 5-HT2A/D1 receptor interactions and suggest that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may prove useful in reducing D1-related movements.

  15. Changes in the 5-HT2A receptor system in the pre-mammillary hypothalamus of the ewe are related to regulation of LH pulsatile secretion by an endogenous circannual rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsch Fred J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to determine if changes in the expression of serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2A receptor gene in the premammillary hypothalamus are associated with changes in reproductive neuroendocrine status. Thus, we compared 2 groups of ovariectomized-estradiol-treated ewes that expressed high vs low LH pulsatility in two different paradigms (2 groups per paradigm: (a refractoriness (low LH secretion or not (high LH secretion to short days in pineal-intact Ile-de-France ewes (RSD and (b endogenous circannual rhythm (ECR in free-running pinealectomized Suffolk ewes in the active or inactive stage of their reproductive rhythm. Results In RSD ewes, density of 5HT2A receptor mRNA (by in situ hybridization was significantly higher in the high LH group (25.3 ± 1.4 vs 21.4 ± 1.5 grains/neuron, P 3H-Ketanserin binding (a specific radioligand of the median part of the premammillary hypothalamus tended to be higher in the high group (29.1 ± 4.0 vs 24.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mg tissu-equivalent; P A receptor mRNA and 3H-Ketanserin binding were both significantly higher in the high LH group (20.8 ± 1.6 vs 17.0 ± 1.5 grains/neuron, P Conclusions We conclude that these higher 5HT2A receptor gene expression and binding activity of 5HT2A receptor in the premammillary hypothalamus are associated with stimulation of LH pulsatility expressed before the development of refractoriness to short days and prior to the decline of reproductive neuroendocrine activity during expression of the endogenous circannual rhythm.

  16. Effects of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul J; Rizos, Zoë; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Silenieks, Leo B; Lê, Anh Dzung; Higgins, Guy A

    2012-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated in part by brain dopamine systems. Serotonin, acting via 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, modulates dopamine function. In these experiments we examined the effects of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907, volinanserin) on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Male Long-Evans rats self-administered nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, IV) on either a FR5 or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Ro60-0175 reduced responding for nicotine on both schedules. While Ro60-0175 also reduced responding for food reinforcement, response rates under drug treatment were several-fold higher than in animals responding for nicotine. M100907 did not alter responding for nicotine, or food, on either schedule. In tests of reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, rats were first trained to lever press for IV infusions of nicotine; each infusion was also accompanied by a compound cue consisting of a light and tone. This response was then extinguished over multiple sessions. Injecting rats with a nicotine prime (0.15 mg/kg) reinstated responding; reinstatement was also observed when responses were accompanied by the nicotine associated cue. Ro60-0175 attenuated reinstatement of responding induced by nicotine and by the cue. The effects of Ro60-0175 on both forms of reinstatement were blocked by the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242084. M100907 also reduced reinstatement induced by either the nicotine prime or by the nicotine associated cue. The results indicate that 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(2A) receptors may be potential targets for therapies to treat some aspects of nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Traumatic Stress on Multiple Aminergic Systems in the Basolateral Amygdala and Hypothalamus: Specific Impairment of Serotonin 5 HT2A Receptor Signaling and its Pathophysiological Role in an Animal Model of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-27

    Barbarich NC, Kaye WH (2004) Altered 5-HT(2A) receptor binding after recovery from bulimia -type anorexia nervosa: relationships to harm avoidance and...women with childhood sexual abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 192:643-649. 159 Bremner JD, Vermetten E, Schmahl C...Serotonin alterations in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: New insights from imaging studies. Physiology & Behavior 85:73-81. Kaye WH, Frank GK, Meltzer CC

  18. The effect of 5-HT2a/2c receptor agonist microinjected into central amygdaloid nucleus and median preoptic area on maternal aggressive behavior in rats Efeito sobre o comportamento materno agressivo de ratos da microinjeção do agonista seletivo de receptores 5-HT2a/2c no núcleo central da amígdala e na área pré-óptica medial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Much evidence supports the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT activation is related to the inhibition of aggression. We examined potentially pro- and anti-aggressive effects of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist on specific brain sites. METHOD: Female Wistar rats on the 7th day postpartum were microinjected with the selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (0.2 to 1.0 µg/0.2 µl into the central amygdaloid nucleus and median preoptic nucleus. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors: locomotion, social investigation, lateral threat, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were compared among the various treatments by an Analysis of Variance, followed when appropriate, by Tukey's test. RESULTS: Microinjection of the selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, a-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate into central amygdaloid nucleus increased maternal aggression in the absence of concurrent changes in non-aggressive behavior. By contrast, microinjection of the selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist at several dilutions into the median preoptic nucleusdid not alter aggressive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The current and earlier data with pro- and anti-aggressive effects of the 5-HT2a/2c receptor agonist, when microinjected into the median preoptic nucleus relative to the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial septum and periaqueductal grey area in female rats point to functionally separate serotonin receptor populations in the amygdaloid-septal-hypothalamic and periaqueductal gray matter areas controlling aggressive behavior. It is possible that amygdaloid 5-HT2a/2c receptors may increase aggressive behavior in lactating females as a result of changes in fear.OBJETIVO: Resultados de muitos estudos sustentam a hipótese de que a serotonina (5-HT está relacionada com a inibição do comportamento agressivo. Foram examinados os efeitos potenciais pró e anti-agressivos do agonista de

  19. Assessment of the roles of serines 5.43(239) and 5.46(242) for binding and potency of agonist ligands at the human serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Michael R; Nichols, David E

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the relative importance of two serine residues located near the top of transmembrane helix 5 of the human 5-HT(2A) receptor, comparing the wild type with S5.43(239)A or S5.46(242)A mutations. Using the ergoline lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and a series of substituted tryptamine and phenethylamine 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists, we found that Ser5.43(239) is more critical for agonist binding and function than Ser5.46(242). Ser5.43(239) seems to engage oxygen substituents at either the 4- or 5-position of tryptamine ligands and the 5-position of phenylalkylamine ligands. Even when a direct binding interaction cannot occur, our data suggest that Ser5.43(239) is still important for receptor activation. Polar ring-substituted tryptamine ligands also seem to engage Ser5.46(242), but tryptamines lacking such a substituent may adopt an alternate binding orientation that does not engage this residue. Our results are consistent with the role of Ser5.43(239) as a hydrogen bond donor, whereas Ser5.46(242) seems to serve as a hydrogen bond acceptor. These results are consistent with the functional topography and utility of our in silico-activated homology model of the h5-HT(2A) receptor. In addition, being more distal from the absolutely conserved Pro5.50, a strong interaction with Ser5.43(239) may be more effective in straightening the kink in helix 5, a feature that is possibly common to all type A GPCRs that have polar residues at position 5.43.

  20. The serotonin hallucinogen 5-MeO-DMT alters cortico-thalamic activity in freely moving mice: Regionally-selective involvement of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maurizio S; Lladó-Pelfort, Laia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2017-12-06

    5-MeO-DMT is a natural hallucinogen acting as serotonin 5-HT 1A /5-HT 2A receptor agonist. Its ability to evoke hallucinations could be used to study the neurobiology of psychotic symptoms and to identify new treatment targets. Moreover, recent studies revealed the therapeutic potential of serotonin hallucinogens in treating mood and anxiety disorders. Our previous results in anesthetized animals show that 5-MeO-DMT alters cortical activity via 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptors. Here, we examined 5-MeO-DMT effects on oscillatory activity in prefrontal (PFC) and visual (V1) cortices, and in mediodorsal thalamus (MD) of freely-moving wild-type (WT) and 5-HT 2A -R knockout (KO2A) mice. We performed local field potential multi-recordings evaluating the power at different frequency bands and coherence between areas. We also examined the prevention of 5-MeO-DMT effects by the 5-HT 1A -R antagonist WAY-100635. 5-MeO-DMT affected oscillatory activity more in cortical than in thalamic areas. More marked effects were observed in delta power in V1 of KO2A mice. 5-MeO-DMT increased beta band coherence between all examined areas. In KO2A mice, WAY100635 prevented most of 5-MeO-DMT effects on oscillatory activity. The present results indicate that hallucinatory activity of 5-MeO-DMT is likely mediated by simultaneous alteration of prefrontal and visual activities. The prevention of these effects by WAY-100635 in KO2A mice supports the potential usefulness of 5-HT 1A receptor antagonists to treat visual hallucinations. 5-MeO-DMT effects on PFC theta activity and cortico-thalamic coherence may be related to its antidepressant activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 5-HT2A receptor SPECT imaging with [123I]R91150 under P-gp inhibition with tariquidar: More is better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Tournier, Benjamin B.; Huynh-Gatz, Trinh; Dumas, Noé; Ginovart, Nathalie; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Millet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacological P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition with tariquidar (TQD) is considered a promising strategy for the augmentation of radiotracer brain uptake. However, a region-dependent effect may compromise the robustness of quantitative studies. For this reason, we studied the effect of a TQD pretreatment on 5-HT2A imaging with [ 123 I]R91150 and compared results with those obtained in Mdr1a knock-out (KO) rats. Methods: Ex vivo autoradiography was performed in TQD (15 mg/kg) pretreated wild-type (WT-TQD), Mdr1a knock-out (KO) and untreated WT rats for Specific Binding Ratio (SBR) estimation. In vivo dynamic SPECT imaging with serial arterial blood sampling was performed in the former two groups of rats and kinetic analysis was performed with a one tissue-compartment (1TC) model and the Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR). Results were analyzed statistically using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: SBR values differed between WT-TQD, Mdr1a KO and WT rats in a region-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). In vivo brain uptake of radiotracer did not differ between groups. Similarly, kinetic analysis provided distribution volume (V T ) values that did not differ significantly between groups. SUR binding potential (BP ND ) values from both groups highly correlated with corresponding V T (r = 0.970, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.962, p < 0.0001, respectively). However, SUR measured over averaged images between 100 and 120 min, using cerebellum as reference region, demonstrated values that were, by average, 2.99 ± 0.53 times higher in the WT-TQD group, with the difference between groups being region-dependent (p < 0.001). In addition, coefficient of variation of the SUR BP ND values across brain regions was significantly higher in the WT-TQD rats (41.25% ± 9.63% versus 11.13% ± 5.59%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: P-gp inhibition with TQD leads to region-dependent effect in the rat brain, with probably sub-optimal effect in cerebellum. This warrants attention when it is used as a

  2. Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States: A Pharmacological fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Schilbach, Leonhard; Pokorny, Thomas; Flemming, Jan; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2018-04-04

    Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study 24 healthy human participants (18 males and 6 females) received either (1) placebo + placebo, (2) placebo + lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; 100 μg, p.o.), or (3) ketanserin (40 mg, p.o.) + LSD (100 μg, p.o.) on three different occasions. Participants took part in an interactive task using eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging completing trials of self- and other-initiated joint and non-joint attention. Results demonstrate first, that LSD reduced activity in brain areas important for self-processing, but also social cognition; second, that change in brain activity was linked to subjective experience; and third, that LSD decreased the efficiency of establishing joint attention. Furthermore, LSD-induced effects were blocked by the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) antagonist ketanserin, indicating that effects of LSD are attributable to 5-HT 2A R stimulation. The current results demonstrate that activity in areas of the "social brain" can be modulated via the 5-HT 2A R thereby pointing toward this system as a potential target for the treatment of social impairments associated with psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Distortions of self-representation and, potentially related to this, dysfunctional social cognition are central hallmarks of various psychiatric disorders and critically impact disease development, progression, treatment, as well as real-world functioning. However, these deficits are insufficiently targeted by current treatment

  3. Position 5.46 of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor contributes to a species-dependent variation for the 5-HT2C agonist (R)-9-ethyl-1,3,4,10b-tetrahydro-7-trifluoromethylpyrazino[2,1-a]isoindol-6(2H)-one: impact on selectivity and toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith J; Wu, Ginger Y; Varnes, Jeffrey G; Levesque, Paul; Li, Julia; Li, Danshi; Robl, Jeffrey A; Rossi, Karen A; Wacker, Dean A

    2009-12-01

    Successful development of 5-HT(2C) agonists requires selectivity versus the highly homologous 5-HT(2A) receptor, because agonism at this receptor can result in significant adverse events. (R)-9-Ethyl-1,3,4,10b-tetrahydro-7-trifluoromethylpyrazino[2,1-a]isoindol-6(2H)-one (compound 1) is a potent 5-HT(2C) agonist exhibiting selectivity over the human 5-HT(2A) receptor. Evaluation of the compound at the rat 5-HT(2A) receptor, however, revealed potent binding and agonist functional activity. The physiological consequence of this higher potency was the observation of a significant increase in blood pressure in conscious telemeterized rats that could be prevented by ketanserin. Docking of compound 1 in a homology model of the 5-HT(2A) receptor indicated a possible binding mode in which the ethyl group at the 9-position of the molecule was oriented toward position 5.46 of the 5-HT(2A) receptor. Within the human 5-HT(2A) receptor, position 5.46 is Ser242; however, in the rat 5-HT(2A) receptor, it is Ala242, suggesting that the potent functional activity in this species resulted from the absence of the steric bulk provided by the -OH moiety of the Ser in the human isoform. We confirmed this hypothesis using site-directed mutagenesis through the mutation of both the human receptor Ser242 to Ala and the rat receptor Ala242 to Ser, followed by radioligand binding and second messenger studies. In addition, we attempted to define the space allowed by the alanine by evaluating compounds with larger substitutions at the 9-position. The data indicate that position 5.46 contributed to the species difference in 5-HT(2A) receptor potency observed for a pyrazinoisoindolone compound, resulting in the observation of a significant cardiovascular safety signal.

  4. Complex interaction of ergovaline with 5-HT2A, 5-HT1B/1D, and alpha1 receptors in isolated arteries of rat and guinea pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schöning, C.; Flieger, Miroslav; Pertz, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 79, - (2001), s. 2202-2209 ISSN 0021-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : adrenergic receptors * arteries * ergot alkaloids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2001

  5. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  6. A novel aminotetralin-type serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor-specific agonist and 5-HT2A competitive antagonist/5-HT2B inverse agonist with preclinical efficacy for psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G

    2014-05-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (-)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3'[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (-)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (-)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (-)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (-)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (-)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (-)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders.

  7. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  8. 5-HT2A-mGlu2/3 receptor complex in rat spinal cord glutamatergic nerve endings: A 5-HT2Ato mGlu2/3 signalling to amplify presynaptic mechanism of auto-control of glutamate exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Guendalina; Grilli, Massimo; Vergassola, Matteo; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Padolecchia, Cristina; Garrone, Beatrice; Di Giorgio, Francesco Paolo; Tongiani, Serena; Usai, Cesare; Marchi, Mario; Pittaluga, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Presynaptic mGlu2/3 autoreceptors exist in rat spinal cord nerve terminals as suggested by the finding that LY379268 inhibited the 15 mM KCl-evoked release of [ 3 H]D-aspartate ([ 3 H]D-Asp) in a LY341495-sensitive manner. Spinal cord glutamatergic nerve terminals also possess presynaptic release-regulating 5-HT 2A heteroreceptors. Actually, the 15 mM KCl-evoked [ 3 H]D-Asp exocytosis from spinal cord synaptosomes was reduced by the 5-HT 2A agonist (±)DOI, an effect reversed by the 5-HT 2A antagonists MDL11,939, MDL100907, ketanserin and trazodone (TZD). We investigated whether mGlu2/3 and 5-HT 2A receptors colocalize and cross-talk in these terminals and if 5-HT 2A ligands modulate the mGlu2/3-mediated control of glutamate exocytosis. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy highlighted the presence of mGlu2/3 and 5-HT 2A receptor proteins in spinal cord VGLUT1 positive synaptosomes, where mGlu2/3 and 5-HT 2A receptor immunoreactivities largely colocalize. Furthermore, mGlu2/3 immunoprecipitates from spinal cord synaptosomes were also 5-HT 2A immunopositive. Interestingly, the 100 pM LY379268-induced reduction of the 15 mM KCl-evoked [ 3 H]D-Asp overflow as well as its inhibition by 100 nM (±)DOI became undetectable when the two agonists were concomitantly added. Conversely, 5-HT 2A antagonists (MDL11,939, MDL100907, ketanserin and TZD) reinforced the release-regulating activity of mGlu2/3 autoreceptors. Increased expression of mGlu2/3 receptor proteins in synaptosomal plasmamembranes paralleled the gain of function of the mGlu2/3 autoreceptors elicited by 5-HT 2A antagonists. Based on these results, we propose that in spinal cord glutamatergic terminals i) mGlu2/3 and 5-HT 2A receptors colocalize and interact one each other in an antagonist-like manner, ii) 5-HT 2A antagonists are indirect positive allosteric modulator of mGlu2/3 autoreceptors controlling glutamate exocytosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. D-serine deficiency attenuates the behavioral and cellular effects induced by the hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist DOI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin A; Balu, Darrick T; Puhl, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Both the serotonin and glutamate systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, as well as in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. Psychedelic drugs act through the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR), and elicit a head-twitch response (HTR) in mice, which directly c...

  10. Plaque deposition dependent decrease in 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 amyloid overexpressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders B

    2010-01-01

    -HT2A receptor regulation in double transgenic AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 mice which display excess production of Abeta and age-dependent increase in amyloid plaques. Three different age-groups, 4-month-old, 8- month-old, and 11-month-old were included in the study. [3H]-MDL100907, [3H]-escitalopram, and [11C...

  11. TCB-2 [(7R)-3-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxy-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-7-yl]methanamine]: A hallucinogenic drug, a selective 5-HT2A receptor pharmacological tool, or none of the above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2017-10-04

    The development of 5-HT 2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT 2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT 2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT 2A receptors in various CNS diseases. (7R)-3-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxy-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-7-yl]methanamine (TCB-2) which was synthetized in 2006 presents a high affinity with human and rat 5-HT 2A receptors. Its main feature of interest is that it preferentially stimulates the phospholipase C and not phospholipase A2 pathway, which is at variance with several hallucinogenic drugs. Preference for TCB-2 has increased in preclinical studies and it exhibits subtle differences compared to DOI or LSD in some molecular, cellular and behavioral studies. The purpose of this review is to take a position on the use of TCB-2 as a pharmacological tool. A careful reading of the literature has revealed that the suspected hallucinogenic properties of TCB-2 cannot firmly be ascertained while its pharmacological profile is unknown and likely not selective at 5-HT 2A receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of central activation of serotonin 5-HT2A/2C or dopamine D 2/3 receptors on the acute and repeated effects of clozapine in the conditioned avoidance response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Gao, Jun; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Acute administration of clozapine (a gold standard of atypical antipsychotics) disrupts avoidance response in rodents, while repeated administration often causes a tolerance effect. The present study investigated the neuroanatomical basis and receptor mechanisms of acute and repeated effects of clozapine treatment in the conditioned avoidance response test in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine (DOI, a preferential 5-HT2A/2C agonist) or quinpirole (a preferential dopamine D2/3 agonist) was microinjected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens shell (NAs), and their effects on the acute and long-term avoidance disruptive effect of clozapine were tested. Intra-mPFC microinjection of quinpirole enhanced the acute avoidance disruptive effect of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc), while DOI microinjections reduced it marginally. Repeated administration of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc) daily for 5 days caused a progressive decrease in its inhibition of avoidance responding, indicating tolerance development. Intra-mPFC microinjection of DOI at 25.0 (but not 5.0) μg/side during this period completely abolished the expression of clozapine tolerance. This was indicated by the finding that clozapine-treated rats centrally infused with 25.0 μg/side DOI did not show higher levels of avoidance responses than the vehicle-treated rats in the clozapine challenge test. Microinjection of DOI into the mPFC immediately before the challenge test also decreased the expression of clozapine tolerance. Acute behavioral effect of clozapine can be enhanced by activation of the D2/3 receptors in the mPFC. Clozapine tolerance expression relies on the neuroplasticity initiated by its antagonist action against 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the mPFC.

  13. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.14–0.76. The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23. These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  15. Relationship between Occupational Stress, 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms and Mental Health in Petroleum Workers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Ge, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Rong; Han, Rui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-04-10

    At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29%) in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR) = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI): = 0.269-0.771, odds ratio (OR) = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.716). AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR) 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.433-5.195; odds ratio (OR) 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.221-5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.

  16. Relationship between Occupational Stress, 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms and Mental Health in Petroleum Workers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29% in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI: = 0.269–0.771, odds ratio (OR = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.162–0.716. AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.433–5.195; odds ratio (OR 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.221–5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.

  17. Regulatory mechanism of CCN2 production by serotonin (5-HT via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Hori

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development and regeneration. Our previous data indicated that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF plays a central role in cartilage development and regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-HT on the production of CCN2 in chondrocytes. Firstly, we showed that the mRNAs of 5-HT2R subtypes 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2BR, were expressed in a human chondrocytic cell line, HCS-2/8; however, 5-HT2CR mRNA was not detected. In addition, exogenously added 5-HT did not affect the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2BR expressions. Next, we demonstrated that CCN2 production was increased by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist and the combination of 5-HT and 5-HT2BR antagonist. In contrast, treatment with a 5-HT2BR agonist and the combination of 5-HT and 5-HT2AR antagonist decreased CCN2 production. Furthermore, we showed that phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK were increased by treatment with 5-HT2AR agonist, and that phosphorylation of PKCε, PKCζ, ERK1/2 and JNK were increased by treatment with 5-HT2BR agonist. Finally, we found that 5-HT2AR was localized in the growth plate, whereas 5-HT2BR was localized in the articular cartilage. These findings suggest that 5-HT promotes CCN2 production through the 5-HT2AR in growth plates, and that it represses CCN2 production through the 5-HT2BR in articular cartilage for harmonized development of long bones.

  18. Regulatory mechanism of CCN2 production by serotonin (5-HT) via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ayaka; Nishida, Takashi; Takashiba, Shogo; Kubota, Satoshi; Takigawa, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development and regeneration. Our previous data indicated that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) plays a central role in cartilage development and regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-HT on the production of CCN2 in chondrocytes. Firstly, we showed that the mRNAs of 5-HT2R subtypes 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2BR, were expressed in a human chondrocytic cell line, HCS-2/8; however, 5-HT2CR mRNA was not detected. In addition, exogenously added 5-HT did not affect the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2BR expressions. Next, we demonstrated that CCN2 production was increased by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist and the combination of 5-HT and 5-HT2BR antagonist. In contrast, treatment with a 5-HT2BR agonist and the combination of 5-HT and 5-HT2AR antagonist decreased CCN2 production. Furthermore, we showed that phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK were increased by treatment with 5-HT2AR agonist, and that phosphorylation of PKCε, PKCζ, ERK1/2 and JNK were increased by treatment with 5-HT2BR agonist. Finally, we found that 5-HT2AR was localized in the growth plate, whereas 5-HT2BR was localized in the articular cartilage. These findings suggest that 5-HT promotes CCN2 production through the 5-HT2AR in growth plates, and that it represses CCN2 production through the 5-HT2BR in articular cartilage for harmonized development of long bones.

  19. Detailed characterization of the in vitro pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine (25CN-NBOH), a highly selective and brain-penetrant 5-HT2A receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A; McCorvy, John D; Petersen, Sebastian Leth

    2017-01-01

    ]ketanserin/[3H]mesulergine, [3H]LSD and [3H]Cimbi-36 binding assays (Ki 2C/Ki 2A ratio range 52-81, Ki 2B/Ki 2A ratio 37). Moreover, in inositol phosphate and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization assays 25CN-NBOH exhibited 30- to 180-fold 5-HT2A/5-HT2C selectivities and 54-fold 5-HT2A/5-HT2B selectivity as measured...

  20. The role of 5-HT2A, 5-HT 2C and mGlu2 receptors in the behavioral effects of tryptamine hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Theresa M; Eshleman, Amy J; Forster, Michael J; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Gatch, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors are thought to be the primary pharmacological mechanisms for serotonin-mediated hallucinogenic drugs, but recently there has been interest in metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2) receptors as contributors to the mechanism of hallucinogens. The present study assesses the role of these 5-HT and glutamate receptors as molecular targets for two tryptamine hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT). Drug discrimination, head twitch, and radioligand binding assays were used. A 5-HT2AR inverse agonist (MDL100907), 5-HT2CR antagonist (SB242084), and mGluR2/3 agonist (LY379268) were tested for their ability to attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT and DiPT; an mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495) was tested for potentiation. MDL100907 was used to attenuate head twitches induced by DMT and DiPT. Radioligand binding studies and inosital-1-phosphate (IP-1) accumulation were performed at the 5-HT2CR for DiPT. MDL100907 fully blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT, but only partially blocked DiPT. SB242084 partially attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT, but produced minimal attenuation of DMT's effects. LY379268 produced potent, but only partial blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT. LY341495 facilitated DMT- and DiPT-like effects. Both compounds elicited head twitches (DiPT>DMT) which were blocked by MDL1000907. DiPT was a low-potency full agonist at 5-HT2CR in vitro. The 5-HT2AR likely plays a major role in mediating the effects of both compounds. 5-HT2C and mGluR2 receptors likely modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of both compounds to some degree.

  1. Rational Design, Pharmacomodulation, and Synthesis of Dual 5-Hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7)/5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Antagonists and Evaluation by [(18)F]-PET Imaging in a Primate Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deau, Emmanuel; Robin, Elodie; Voinea, Raluca; Percina, Nathalie; Satała, Grzegorz; Finaru, Adriana-Luminita; Chartier, Agnès; Tamagnan, Gilles; Alagille, David; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Morisset-Lopez, Séverine; Suzenet, Franck; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2015-10-22

    We report the synthesis of 46 tertiary amine-bearing N-alkylated benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones, imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-ones, imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-2(3H)-ones, benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-ones, oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-ones and N,N'-dialkylated benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. These compounds were evaluated against 5-HT7R, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT1AR, and 5-HT6R as potent dual 5-HT7/5-HT2A serotonin receptors ligands. A thorough study of the structure-activity relationship of the aromatic rings and their substituents, the alkyl chain length and the tertiary amine was conducted. 1-(4-(4-(4-Fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl)butyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (79) and 1-(6-(4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl)hexyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (81) were identified as full antagonist ligands on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, KB = 4.9 and 5.9 nM, respectively) and inositol monophosphate (IP1, KB = 0.6 and 16 nM, respectively) signaling pathways of 5-HT7R and 5-HT2AR. Both antagonists crossed the blood-brain barrier as evaluated with [(18)F] radiolabeled compounds [(18)F]79 and [(18)F]81 in a primate's central nervous system using positron emission tomography. Both radioligands showed standard uptake values ranging from 0.8 to 1.1, a good plasmatic stability, and a distribution consistent with 5-HT7R and 5-HT2AR in the CNS.

  2. Extending David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia: overactivity of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) in the brain is caused by overdrive of coupled serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2012-12-01

    David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia has held up well over time because his therapeutic prediction that dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) would have a therapeutic effect has been partially verified and undergoes continued testing. In the final version of his theory, he hypothesized that there was hyperactivity of phosphoslipase A(2) (PLA(2)) or a related enzyme but did not explain how the hyperactivity came about. It is known that serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors are coupled to PLA(2), which hydrolyzes both arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA from diacylglycerides at the sn-2 position. In this paper, Horrobin's theory is combined with a previously published theory of chronic stress in which it was hypothesized that a disinhibited dorsal raphe nucleus, the principal nucleus of the serotonergic system, can organize the neuropathology of diseases such as migraine, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome. The new or combined theory is that schizophrenia is a disease of chronic stress in which a disinhibited DRN causes widespread serotonergic overdrive in the cerebral cortex. This in turn causes overdrive of cPLA(2) and both central and peripheral depletion of AA and EPA. Because EPA is present in smaller amounts, it falls below threshold for maintaining an intracellular balance between AA-derived and EPA-derived second messenger cascades, which leads to abnormal patterns of neuronal firing. There are two causes of neuronal dysfunction: the disinhibited DRN and EPA depletion. Schizophrenia is statistically associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and migraine because they form a cluster of diseases with similar pathophysiology. The theory provides an explanation for both the central and peripheral phospholipid abnormalities in schizophrenia. It also explains the role of stress in schizophrenia, elevated serum PLA(2) activity in schizophrenia, the relationship between untreated schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome

  3. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT (2A) agonist PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Martin; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT(2A) receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [(11)C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET trace...

  4. The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maurizio S; Bortolozzi, Analia; Campa, Letizia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2016-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural hallucinogen, acting as a non-selective serotonin 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A)-R agonist. Psychotomimetic agents such as the non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine and serotonergic hallucinogens (DOI and 5-MeO-DMT) disrupt cortical synchrony in the low frequency range (<4 Hz) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), an effect reversed by antipsychotic drugs. Here we extend these observations by examining the effect of 5-MeO-DMT on low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO, <4 Hz) in PFC, visual (V1), somatosensory (S1) and auditory (Au1) cortices, as well as the dependence of these effects on 5-HT(1A)-R and 5-HT(2A)-R, using wild type (WT) and 5-HT(2A)-R knockout (KO2A) anesthetized mice. 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in the PFC of WT and KO2A mice. The effect in KO2A mice was fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist WAY-100635. Systemic and local 5-MeO-DMT reduced 5-HT release in PFC mainly via 5-HT(1A)-R. Moreover, 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in S1, Au1 and V1 of WT mice and only in V1 of KO2A mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(1A)-R activation in the 5-MeO-DMT-induced disruption of V1 activity. In addition, antipsychotic drugs reversed 5-MeO-DMT effects in WT mice. The present results suggest that the hallucinogen action of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by simultaneous alterations of the activity of sensory (S1, Au1, V1) and associative (PFC) cortical areas, also supporting a role of 5-HT(1A)-R stimulation in V1 and PFC, in addition to the well-known action on 5-HT(2A)-R. Moreover, the reversal by antipsychotic drugs of 5-MeO-DMT effects adds to previous literature supporting the usefulness of the present model in antipsychotic drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional activation of Gαq via serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors assessed by guanosine-5׳-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding/immunoprecipitation in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Masakazu; Toyoshima, Ryoichi

    2014-03-05

    Functional coupling between serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors and Gαq proteins in native brain membranes has been sparsely reported thus far. In the present study, the guanosine-5׳-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding assay combined with immunoprecipitation using magnetic beads (Dynabeads Protein A) coated with anti-Gαq antibody was developed. Under experimental conditions optimised for assay constituents (GDP, MgCl2, and NaCl), for contents of membrane protein, anti-Gαq antibody, and Dynabeads Protein A, and for the incubation period, 5-HT stimulated specific [35S]GTPγS binding to Gαq in rat cerebral cortical membranes in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner, with a signal/noise ratio that was sufficiently high for further detailed pharmacological characterisation. This characterisation revealed an involvement of 5-HT2A receptors. Activation of Gαq proteins was also detectable by the addition of carbachol via muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors, (-)-epinephrine, and dopamine, but not by L-glutamate or (±)-baclofen. When 5-HT2A receptors and M1 receptors were stimulated simultaneously, there were non-additive effects, indicating that the two receptors were coupled to the same components of Gαq proteins in the rat cerebral cortex. This method will serve as an efficacious strategy for neurobiological investigations aimed at elucidating the physiological and pathological implications of signal transduction systems mediated via Gαq proteins coupled with 5-HT2A receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors.

  6. The 5-HT1A receptor full agonist, 8-OH-DPAT inhibits ACTH-induced 5-HT2A receptor hyperfunction in rats: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the DOI-induced wet-dog shakes in ACTH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kitagawa, Kouhei; Fujitani, Yoshika; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Araki, Hiroaki; Sendou, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    We examined the influence of 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor full agonist, on the wet-dog shake response induced by the (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats. Chronic ACTH (100 microg/rat, s.c.) treatment for 14 d increased the wet-dog shake response induced DOI. The 8-OH-DPAT inhibited the wet-dog shake response induced by DOI in rats with ACTH for 14 d. On the other hand, the 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia and flat body posture were inhibited when ACTH was administered for 14 d. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with ACTH decreased the sensitivity of the 5-HT1A receptor system; however, the inhibitory effects from the 5-HT1A receptors to the 5-HT2A receptor system is not inhibited in ACTH-treated rats.

  7. Radiosynthesis, evaluation and preclinical studies of a new 5HT2A radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Baeken, C.; D'Haenan, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Leysen, J.

    1998-01-01

    123 I-5-I-R91150, a radioiodinated analogue of R91150 (a ligand (antagonist) of Janssen Research Foundation), showing high affinity and selectivity for 5HT 2A receptors, was developed as a potential in vivo 5HT 2A receptor tracer for SPECT. The applied radiochemistry, whereby the radioiodine was substituted on the 5 - position of the benzamide ring, allowed to obtain the tracer with high specific activity and high purity. In vitro and in vivo rat studies revealed that the new tracer bound reversibly with the required high affinity (Kd=0.1 nM) and high selectivity (a factor ranging from 10000 to at least 50 vis a vis other receptors) to 5HT 2A receptors. In young normal subjects the major part of the 123 I-5-I-R91150 radioactivity in the brain is present in cortical areas. Cortical area to cerebellum activity ratio reaches an equilibrium value of about 1.8 around 90 min. till 4 hours p.i.. This binding was specific and reversible. The cortical activity reflects a distribution in the brain similar to that of the mapping of 5HT 2A receptors from post mortem studies. These findings suggested that 123 I-5-I-R91150 allows imaging and quantitative estimation with SPECT and could be used for further clinical studies. The radiobromine analogue was synthetised as a potential PET tracer. (author)

  8. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:24397362

  9. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Martin; Phonekeo, Karina; Paine, James S; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Begtrup, Mikael; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2014-03-19

    N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor.

  10. Investigation of 5-HT2A gene expression in PBMCs of patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Koochak, Somayeh Emadi; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disorder in which different immune cells in the blood and lungs play a fundamental role. In asthma condition, the airway inflammation accompanied by bronchial smooth muscle spasm cause airway obstruction. A study showed that high concentration of blood serotonin is associated with the intensity and exacerbation of asthma disease. Other studies showed that a subtype of serotonin receptor called 5-Hydroxytriptamine 2A receptor (5- HT2A) can enhance T-cell blastogenesis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ. The objective of this study was to assess the level of 5-HT2A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patients. PBMCs were extracted from blood of 30 patients with asthma and 30 normal people. After synthesizing cDNAs from total mRNAs, real-time PCR was performed to amplify 5-HT2A and β-actin (as an internal control). The expression ratios were analyzed in patients with asthma in comparison with normal group. The results indicated that gene expression is significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthma patients in comparison with normal group (P = 0.003). The results of this study can suggest designing a protocol by using of the 5-HT2A receptor expression in PBMCs as a biomarker of asthma, but this requires further studies on a larger number of patients. In addition, the potential role of this receptor in bronchoconstriction can lead us to use its antagonists as a new treatment in asthma.

  11. Discovery of a new class of potential multifunctional atypical antipsychotic agents targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors: design, synthesis, and effects on behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butini, Stefania; Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    with a low affinity for dopamine D(2) receptors (to minimize extrapyramidal side effects), serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors (to reduce the risk of obesity under chronic treatment), and for hERG channels (to reduce incidence of torsade des pointes). Pharmacological and biochemical data, including specific c...

  12. Repressive Epigenetic Changes at the mGlu2 Promoter in Frontal Cortex of 5-HT2A Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Mitsumasa; Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Mocci, Giuseppe; García-Bea, Aintzane; Hanks, James B.; Neve, Rachael; Nestler, Eric J.; Russo, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are G protein–coupled receptors suspected in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Previous findings demonstrate that mGlu2 mRNA expression is down-regulated in brain cortical regions of 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this alteration remains unknown. We show here repressive epigenetic changes at the promoter region of the mGlu2 gene in frontal cortex of 5-HT2A-KO mice. Disruption of 5-HT2A receptor-dependent signaling in mice was associated with decreased acetylation of histone H3 (H3ac) and H4 (H4ac) and increased tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the mGlu2 promoter, epigenetic changes that correlate with transcriptional repression. Neither methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1/2/3) nor tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) was affected. We found that Egr1, a transcription factor in which promoter activity was positively regulated by the 5-HT2A receptor agonist 4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine hydrobromide, binds less to the mGlu2 promoter in frontal cortex of 5-HT2A-KO, compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, expression of mGlu2 was increased by viral-mediated gene transfer of FLAG-tagged Egr1 in mouse frontal cortex. Together, these observations suggest that 5-HT2A receptor–dependent signaling epigenetically affects mGlu2 transcription in mouse frontal cortex. PMID:23508685

  13. The influence of 5-HT(2A) activity on a 5-HT(2C) specific in vivo assay used for early identification of multiple acting SERT and 5-HT(2C) receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éliás, Olivér; Nógrádi, Katalin; Domány, György; Szakács, Zoltán; Kóti, János; Szántay, Csaba; Tarcsay, Ákos; Keserű, György M; Gere, Anikó; Kiss, Béla; Kurkó, Dalma; Kolok, Sándor; Némethy, Zsolt; Kapui, Zoltán; Hellinger, Éva; Vastag, Mónika; Sághy, Katalin; Kedves, Rita; Gyertyán, István

    2016-02-01

    As a result of our exploratory programme aimed at elaborating dually acting compounds towards the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and the 5-HT2C receptor a novel series of 3-amino-1-phenylpropoxy substituted diphenylureas was identified. From that collection two promising compounds (2 and 3) exhibiting highest 5-HT2C receptor affinity strongly inhibited the 5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) induced hypomotility in mice. In further pursuance of that objective (2-aminoethyl)(benzyl)sulfamoyl diphenylureas and diphenylpiperazines have also been elaborated. Herein we report the synthesis of potent multiple-acting compounds from this new class. However, when two optimized representatives (6 and 14) possessing the desired in vitro profile were tested neither reduced the motor activity of mCPP treated animals. Comparative albeit limited in vitro structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and detailed in vivo studies are discussed and explanation for their intricate behaviour is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 18F-labeling and evaluation of novel MDL 100907 derivatives as potential 5-HT2A antagonists for molecular imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Fabian; Herth, Matthias Manfred; Piel, Markus

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The serotonergic system, especially the 5-HT2A receptor, is involved in various diseases and conditions. It is a very interesting target for medicinal applications. METHODS: Two novel 5-HT2A tracers, namely, [(18)F]DD-1 and the enantiomeric pure (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ, were radiolabeled b...

  15. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of N-benzyl substituted 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C partial agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Plunkett, Shane

    2015-01-01

    N-Benzyl substitution of phenethylamine 5-HT2A receptor agonists has dramatic effects on binding affinity, receptor selectivity and agonist activity. In this paper we examine how affinity for the 5-HT2A/2C receptors are influenced by N-benzyl substitution of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine......-affinity ligands were identified and assayed for functional activity at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor, and they were generally found to be less efficacious agonists than previously reported N-benzyl phenethylamines....

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Phonekeo, Karina; Paine, James S

    2014-01-01

    N-benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a se...

  17. Behavioral effects of dipropyltryptamine in rats: evidence for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; Rice, Kenner C; France, Charles P

    2007-07-01

    These studies investigated the role of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) and 5-HT2A receptors in the behavioral effects of dipropyltryptamine (DPT). Eight rats discriminated 0.56 mg/kg 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) from saline and responded under a fixed ratio 5 schedule of food presentation; 12 other rats were used for observational studies. DOM and DPT increased responding on the DOM lever with 3.2 mg/kg DPT producing greater than 95% responding on the DOM lever; this effect of DPT was antagonized by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907. In another study, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT produced lower-lip retraction and, at larger doses, flat body posture; DPT alone produced flat body posture and not lower-lip retraction; MDL100907 alone did not produce either effect. Pretreatment with DPT blocked 8-OH-DPAT-elicited lower-lip retraction, suggesting antagonist activity of DPT at 5-HT1A receptors; however, in the presence of MDL100907 DPT produced not only flat body posture but also lower-lip retraction, suggesting that agonist activity of DPT at 5-HT2A receptors masked agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors. Lower-lip retraction and flat body posture by DPT in the presence of MDL100907 were attenuated by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. These findings suggest that DPT has agonist activity at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and that effects at 5-HT2A receptors mask effects at 5-HT1A receptors.

  18. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT (2A) agonist PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Martin; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT(2A) receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [(11)C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracer....... In an attempt to further optimize the target-to-background binding ratio, we modified the chemical structure of the phenethylamine backbone and carbon-11 labelling site of [(11)C]Cimbi-5 in different ways. Here, we present the in vivo validation of nine novel 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracers in the pig...

  19. The 5-HT2A/1A agonist psilocybin disrupts modal object completion associated with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Cahn, B Rael; Andel, David; Carter, Olivia L; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Recent findings suggest that the serotonergic system and particularly the 5-HT2A/1A receptors are implicated in visual processing and possibly the pathophysiology of visual disturbances including hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. To investigate the role of 5-HT2A/1A receptors in visual processing the effect of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist psilocybin (125 and 250 μg/kg vs. placebo) on the spatiotemporal dynamics of modal object completion was assessed in normal volunteers (n = 17) using visual evoked potential recordings in conjunction with topographic-mapping and source analysis. These effects were then considered in relation to the subjective intensity of psilocybin-induced visual hallucinations quantified by psychometric measurement. Psilocybin dose-dependently decreased the N170 and, in contrast, slightly enhanced the P1 component selectively over occipital electrode sites. The decrease of the N170 was most apparent during the processing of incomplete object figures. Moreover, during the time period of the N170, the overall reduction of the activation in the right extrastriate and posterior parietal areas correlated positively with the intensity of visual hallucinations. These results suggest a central role of the 5-HT2A/1A-receptors in the modulation of visual processing. Specifically, a reduced N170 component was identified as potentially reflecting a key process of 5-HT2A/1A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations and aberrant modal object completion potential. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance and Tachyphylaxis to Head Twitches Induced by the 5-HT2A Agonist 25CN-NBOH in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Lyons, Taylor; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor is the primary molecular target of serotonergic hallucinogens, which trigger large-scale perturbations of the cortex. Our understanding of how 5-HT 2A activation may cause the effects of hallucinogens has been hampered by the receptor unselectivity of most of the drugs of this class. Here we used 25CN-NBOH (N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine), a newly developed selective 5-HT 2A agonist, and tested it with regard to the head-twitch-response (HTR) model of 5-HT 2A activity and effects on locomotion. 25CN-NBOH evoked HTRs with an inverted u-shape-like dose-response curve and highest efficacy at 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. HTR occurrence peaked within 5 min after agonist injection, and exponentially decreased to half-maximal frequency at ~11 min. Thorough habituation to the experimental procedures (including handling, saline injection, and exposure to the observational boxes 1 day before the experiment) facilitated the animals' response to 25CN-NBOH. 25CN-NBOH (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced HTRs were blocked by the 5-HT 2A antagonist ketanserin (0.75 mg/kg, 30 min pre), but not by the 5-HT 2C antagonist SB-242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min pre). SB-242084 instead slightly increased the number of HTRs occurring at a 3.0-mg/kg dose of the agonist. Apart from HTR induction, 25CN-NBOH also modestly increased locomotor activity of the mice. Repeated once-per-day injections (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) led to reduced occurrence of 25CN-NBOH induced HTRs. This intermediate tolerance was augmented when a second (higher) dose of the drug (3.0 mg/kg) was interspersed. Short-interval tolerance (i.e., tachyphylaxis) was observed when the drug was injected twice at intervals of 1.0 and 1.5 h at either dose tested (1.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg, respectively). Inducing ketanserin-sensitive HTRs, which are dependent on environmental valences and which show signs of tachyphylaxis and tolerance, 25CN-NBOH shares striking features common to serotonergic

  1. Tolerance and Tachyphylaxis to Head Twitches Induced by the 5-HT2A Agonist 25CN-NBOH in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Buchborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT 2A receptor is the primary molecular target of serotonergic hallucinogens, which trigger large-scale perturbations of the cortex. Our understanding of how 5-HT2A activation may cause the effects of hallucinogens has been hampered by the receptor unselectivity of most of the drugs of this class. Here we used 25CN-NBOH (N-(2-hydroxybenzyl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine, a newly developed selective 5-HT2A agonist, and tested it with regard to the head-twitch-response (HTR model of 5-HT2A activity and effects on locomotion. 25CN-NBOH evoked HTRs with an inverted u-shape-like dose-response curve and highest efficacy at 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. HTR occurrence peaked within 5 min after agonist injection, and exponentially decreased to half-maximal frequency at ~11 min. Thorough habituation to the experimental procedures (including handling, saline injection, and exposure to the observational boxes 1 day before the experiment facilitated the animals' response to 25CN-NBOH. 25CN-NBOH (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. induced HTRs were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (0.75 mg/kg, 30 min pre, but not by the 5-HT2C antagonist SB-242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min pre. SB-242084 instead slightly increased the number of HTRs occurring at a 3.0-mg/kg dose of the agonist. Apart from HTR induction, 25CN-NBOH also modestly increased locomotor activity of the mice. Repeated once-per-day injections (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. led to reduced occurrence of 25CN-NBOH induced HTRs. This intermediate tolerance was augmented when a second (higher dose of the drug (3.0 mg/kg was interspersed. Short-interval tolerance (i.e., tachyphylaxis was observed when the drug was injected twice at intervals of 1.0 and 1.5 h at either dose tested (1.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg, respectively. Inducing ketanserin-sensitive HTRs, which are dependent on environmental valences and which show signs of tachyphylaxis and tolerance, 25CN-NBOH shares striking features common to serotonergic

  2. Obesitas dan hubungannya dengan polimorfisme gena promoter 5-HT2A, tekanan darah, profil lipid, kadar glukosa, dan malondialdehid

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    Pramudji Hastuti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity among adults has risen significantly in the world-cutting across all ages, racial and ethnic groups and gender. The 5-HT 2A receptor is crucially involved in regulation of body weight and the appetite. Disturbances in the distribution and or gene regulation of the postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in the pathophysiology of conditions such as obesity, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke dan some cancers. Objective: To test the association between obesity with polymorphism of promoter -1438G→A 5-HT2A receptors gene, blood pressure, lipid profiles, levels of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA. Method: This cross-sectional study included thirty six unrelated obese young people (BMI ≥ 30 recruited from populations in Yogyakarta and 36 controls with age matched with BMI ≤ 25. Statistical differences between blood pressure, lipid profiles, glucose and MDA levels were assessed by t-test and genotypes by Chi square test. Results: There were no significant difference in blood pressure lipid profile, level of glucose and MDA in obese group compared with control (p>0,05. Allele A and G frequency in obese group 25% and 75% respectively, and controls 22.2% and 77.8% respectively, and no significant difference in all two groups, but G allele had higher risk to obese than A allele. Conclusion: These data indicated G allele was mild risk factor for obesity.

  3. Neurotensin agonists block the prepulse inhibition deficits produced by a 5-HT2A and an alpha1 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, P D; Melendez, G; Priebe, K; Richelson, E; Feifel, D

    2004-09-01

    Neurotensin (NT) agonists have been proposed as potential antipsychotics based exclusively upon their ability to inhibit dopamine-2 (D2) receptor transmission. Several other pharmacological mechanisms have been implicated in enhancing the antipsychotic profile produced by D2 inhibition alone. These include inhibition of 5-HT2A and alpha1-adrenoceptors. Recently, we reported that systemic administration of the neurotensin agonist PD149163 blocks deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex produced by the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. This suggested that NT agonists could inhibit 5-HT2A modulation of neurotransmission. To determine if other peripherally administered NT agonists shared this effect, we examined the effects of NT69L, another NT agonist, on DOI-induced PPI deficits. In addition, to determine if NT agonists also inhibit alpha1-adrenoceptor neurotransmission, we examined the effects of PD149163 and NT69L on PPI deficits induced by the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist, cirazoline. In the NT69L/DOI study, rats received subcutaneous (SC) injections of NT69L (0, 0.1, 1, or 2 mg/kg) followed 30 min later by SC saline or DOI (0.5 mg/kg). In the NT agonist/cirazoline studies, animals received SC injections of either PD149163 (0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg) or NT69L (0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg) followed 30 min later by SC saline or cirazoline (0.7 mg/kg). Animals were tested in startle chambers 20 min later. In all three experiments the PPI disruption produced by DOI and cirazoline was blocked by the NT agonists. These findings provide strong evidence that NT agonists inhibit 5-HT2A and alpha1-adrenoceptor modulation of neurotransmission, pharmacological effects that, in conjunction with their known inhibition of dopamine transmission, strengthen the antipsychotic potential of NT agonists.

  4. Generation of neural cells using iPSCs from sleep bruxism patients with 5-HT2A polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yurie; Okamoto, Satoshi; Abe, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Junichi; Yoshida, Yuya; Imaizumi, Kent; Mishima, Kenji; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is classified as a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth during sleep, which is responsible for a variety of clinical problems such as abnormal tooth attrition and fracture of teeth or roots. Little is known about the etiology of SB. Our previous study identified a genomic association of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs6313 C>T, with SB, where the C allele carrier is associated with a 4.25-fold increased risk of SB. Based on this finding, the aim of this study was to generate of neural cells using SB patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Two SB patients with C/C genotype of rs6313 and two controls with T/T genotype were screened by laboratory-based polysomnographic recordings and the TaqMan genotyping assay. Four lines of iPSCs, two from SB patients and two from controls, were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by introduction of reprogramming factors. We performed quality control assays on iPSCs using expression of markers for undifferentiated pluripotent cells, immunostaining for pluripotency markers, a three-germ layer assay, and karyotype analysis. The established iPSCs were differentiated into neurons using the neurosphere culture system. 5-HT2A gene expression in these neurons was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Patient-specific iPSCs were successfully differentiated into neurons expressing 5-HT2A. This report is the first successful generation of neural cells using iPSCs from sleep bruxism patients with 5-HT2A polymorphism, which has the potential to elucidate the etiology and underlying mechanism of SB. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atypical antipsychotic properties of blonanserin, a novel dopamine D2 and 5-HT2A antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yukihiro; Okano, Motoki; Imaki, Junta; Tatara, Ayaka; Okumura, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki

    2010-08-01

    Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic agent that preferentially interacts with dopamine D(2) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. To assess the atypical properties of blonanserin, we evaluated its propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and to enhance forebrain Fos expression in mice. The actions of AD-6048, a primary metabolite of blonanserin, in modulating haloperidol-induced EPS were also examined. Blonanserin (0.3-10mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly alter the pole-descending behavior of mice in the pole test or increase the catalepsy time, while haloperidol (0.3-3mg/kg, p.o.) caused pronounced bradykinesia and catalepsy. Blonanserin and haloperidol at the above doses significantly enhanced Fos expression in the shell (AcS) region of the nucleus accumbens and dorsolateral striatum (dlST). The extent of blonanserin-induced Fos expression in the AcS was comparable to that induced by haloperidol. However, the striatal Fos expression by blonanserin was less prominent as compared to haloperidol. Furthermore, combined treatment of AD-6048 (0.1-3mg/kg, s.c.) with haloperidol (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated haloperidol-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy. The present results show that blonanserin behaves as an atypical antipsychotic both in inducing EPS and enhancing forebrain Fos expression. In addition, AD-6048 seems to contribute at least partly to the atypical properties of blonanserin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  7. Repeated adolescent MDMA ("Ecstasy") exposure in rats increases behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to a 5-HT2A/2C agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biezonski, Dominik K; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Hong, Sang B; Piper, Brian J; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-02-03

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a popular recreational drug among adolescents. The present study aimed to determine the effects of repeated intermittent administration of 10 mg/kg MDMA during adolescence on behavioral (Experiment 1) and neuroendocrine (Experiment 2) responses of rats to the 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and on [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the first experiment, MDMA pretreatment increased the frequency of head twitches and back muscle contractions, but not wet-dog shakes, to a high-dose DOI challenge. In the second experiment, both the prolactin and corticosterone responses to DOI were potentiated in MDMA-pretreated animals. No changes were found in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in the hypothalamus or other forebrain areas that were examined. These results indicate that intermittent adolescent MDMA exposure enhances sensitivity of 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors in the CNS, possibly through changes in downstream signaling mechanisms.

  8. 1,4-Disubstituted aromatic piperazines with high 5-HT2A/D2 selectivity: Quantitative structure-selectivity investigations, docking, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Dorothee; Salama, Ismail; Kling, Ralf C; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Simultaneous targeting of dopamine D2 and 5-HT2A receptors for the treatment of schizophrenia is one key feature of typical and atypical antipsychotics. In most of the top-selling antipsychotic drugs like aripiprazole and risperidone, high affinity to both receptors can be attributed to the presence of 1,4-disubstituted aromatic piperazines or piperidines as primary receptor recognition elements. Taking advantage of our in-house library of phenylpiperazine-derived dopamine receptor ligands and experimental data, we established highly significant CoMFA and CoMSIA models for the prediction of 5-HT2A over D2 selectivity. Subsequently, the models were applied to identify the selective candidates 55-57 from our newly synthesized library of GPCR ligands comprising a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine head group and a 1,2,3-triazole based linker unit. The test compound 57 showed subnanomolar a Ki value (0.64 nM) for 5-HT2A and more than 10- and 30-fold selectivity over the dopamine receptor isoforms D2S and D2L, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlating the Metabolic Stability of Psychedelic 5-HT2A Agonists with Anecdotal Reports of Human Oral Bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Hansen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines and their N-benzylated derivatives are potent 5-HT2A agonists with psychedelic effects in humans. The N-benzylated derivatives are among the most selective 5-HT2A agonists currently available and their usage as biochemical and brain imaging tools is increasing, yet ve...

  10. In vivo evaluation of [18F]FECIMBI-36, an agonist 5-HT2A/2Creceptor PET radioligand in nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Jaya; Solingapuram Sai, Kiran Kumar; Zanderigo, Francesca; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Tooke, Katharine I; Mintz, Akiva; Mann, J John; Kumar, J S Dileep

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported the radiosynthesis and in vitro evaluation of [ 18 F]-2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)ethanamine, ([ 18 F]FECIMBI-36) or ([ 18 F]1), an agonist radioligand for 5HT 2A/2C receptors in postmortem samples of human brain. Herein we describe the in vivo evaluation of [ 18 F]FECIMBI-36 in vervet/African green monkeys by PET imaging. PET images show that [ 18 F]FECIMBI-36 penetrates the blood-brain barrier and a low retention of radioactivity is observed in monkey brain. Although the time activity curves indicate a somehow heterogeneous distribution of the radioligand in the brain, the low level of [ 18 F]FECIMBI-36 in brain may limit the use of this tracer for quantification of 5-HT 2A/2C receptors by PET. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sedative effect of Clozapine is a function of 5-HT2A and environmental novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Radhika S; Quadros, Rolen; Drumm, Michael; Ain, Rupasri; Panicker, Mitradas M

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, antipsychotics often exhibit sedation or activity suppression among many other side effects, and the factors that influence them remain poorly understood. We now show, using a 5-HT 2A knockout (Htr2a -/- ) mouse, that environmental circumstances can affect suppression of activity induced by the atypical antipsychotic- Clozapine. We observed that Htr2a -/- mice were more resistant to Clozapine-induced suppression of activity (CISA) and this behaviour was dependent on the environment being 'novel'. In their 'home' environment, at identical doses the mice exhibited CISA. Interestingly, the effect of genotype and environmental novelty on CISA could not be extended to the other antipsychotics that were tested, i.e. Haloperidol and Risperidone. Haloperidol-induced activity suppression was independent of context and genotype. Whereas context affected Risperidone-induced activity suppression only in the Htr2a +/+ mice. Furthermore, we observed that caffeine, a stimulant, elicited resistance to CISA similar to that seen in the 'novel' context. Our study establishes a previously unknown interaction between the environmental context, 5-HT 2A and CISA and emphasises the role of non-pharmacological factors such as environment on the effects of the drug, which seem antipsychotic-specific. Our findings should advance the understanding of the side effects of individual antipsychotics and the role of environment to overcome side effects such as sedation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Abeta(1-42) injection causes memory impairment, lowered cortical and serum BDNF levels, and decreased hippocampal 5-HT(2A) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    been reported but it is unknown how these changes are related to beta-amyloid accumulation. In this study we examined in rats the effect of intrahippocampal injections of aggregated Abeta(1-42) (1 microg/microl) on serum and brain BDNF or 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. A social recognition test paradigm...... was used to monitor Abeta(1-42) induced memory impairment. Memory impairment was seen 22 days after injection of Abeta(1-42) in the experimental group and until termination of the experiments. In the Abeta(1-42) injected animals we saw an abolished increase in serum BDNF levels that was accompanied...... by significant lower BDNF levels in frontal cortex and by an 8.5% reduction in hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. A tendency towards lowered cortical 5-HT(2A) was also observed. These results indicate that the Abeta(1-42) associated memory deficit is associated with an impaired BDNF regulation, which...

  14. Behavioral Effects of Systemic, Infralimbic and Prelimbic Injections of a Serotonin 5-HT2A Antagonist in Carioca High- and Low-Conditioned Freezing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. León

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] and 5-HT2A receptors in anxiety has been extensively studied, mostly without considering individual differences in trait anxiety. Our laboratory developed two lines of animals that are bred for high and low freezing responses to contextual cues that are previously associated with footshock (Carioca High-conditioned Freezing [CHF] and Carioca Low-conditioned Freezing [CLF]. The present study investigated whether ketanserin, a preferential 5-HT2A receptor blocker, exerts distinct anxiety-like profiles in these two lines of animals. In the first experiment, the animals received a systemic injection of ketanserin and were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM. In the second experiment, these two lines of animals received microinjections of ketanserin in the infralimbic (IL and prelimbic (PL cortices and were exposed to either the EPM or a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The two rat lines exhibited bidirectional effects on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and opposite responses to ketanserin. Both systemic and intra-IL cortex injections of ketanserin exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but anxiogenic-like effects in CLF rats. Microinjections of ketanserin in the PL cortex also exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but had no effect in CLF rats. These results suggest that the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonism might depend on genetic variability associated with baseline reactions to threatening situations and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the IL and PL cortices.Highlights-CHF and CLF rats are two bidirectional lines that are based on contextual fear conditioning.-CHF rats have a more “anxious” phenotype than CLF rats in the EPM.-The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin had opposite behavioral effects in CHF and CLF rats.-Systemic and IL injections either decreased (CHF or increased (CLF anxiety-like behavior.-PL injections either decreased (CHF anxiety

  15. The Association between 5HT2A T102C and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

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    Liang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2A has been reported to be a susceptible factor in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, previous results were conflicting. We aim to investigate the association of 5-HT2A T102C with BPSD in AD using a meta-analysis. Studies were collected using PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library databases, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Embase. Pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess associations. Nine studies with 1899 AD patients with/without BPSD were included in this meta-analysis. The 102C and CC genotypes were associated with psychosis in AD (102C: p0.05. Thus, the 5HT2A T102C might be a susceptible factor for hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and psychosis in AD. The potential mechanism of this polymorphism in BPSD in AD requires further exploration.

  16. 5-HT2A Agonists: A Novel Therapy for Functional Neurological Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alexander; Carter, Olivia; Norman, Trevor; Kanaan, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Functional neurological disorders are frequently encountered in clinical practice. They have a poor prognosis and treatment options are limited. Their etiology is unknown, but leading theories propose a disturbance of somatic self-representation: the mind perceives dysfunction of a body region despite intact motor and sensory pathways. Central to this model is the concept of an abnormal top-down cognitive influence upon sensorimotor function. There is growing interest in the use of 5-HT2A agonists in the management of neuropsychiatric conditions. Recent studies have shown that these agents induce changes in neural activity that disrupt hierarchical brain dynamics and modulate networks subserving self-related processing. Converging evidence suggests they may hold unique therapeutic potential in functional neurological disorders. This is of importance given the considerable personal and societal burden of this condition and we argue a clinical trial to test this hypothesis is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. 5-HT2A/5-HT2CReceptor Pharmacology and Intrinsic Clearance of N-Benzylphenethylamines Modified at the Primary Site of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Petersen, Ida N; Jensen, Anders A; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Bæk, Mathias; Kehler, Jan; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2016-11-16

    The toxic hallucinogen 25B-NBOMe is very rapidly degraded by human liver microsomes and has low oral bioavailability. Herein we report on the synthesis, microsomal stability, and 5-HT 2A /5-HT 2C receptor profile of novel analogues of 25B-NBOMe modified at the primary site of metabolism. Although microsomal stability could be increased while maintaining potent 5-HT 2 receptor agonist properties, all analogues had an intrinsic clearance above 1.3 L/kg/h predictive of high first-pass metabolism.

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Characterization of N- and O-Substituted 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-4H-isoxazolo[4,5-d]azepin-3-ol Analogues: Novel 5-HT2A/5-HT2C Receptor Agonists with Pro-Cognitive Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Plath, Niels; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2013-01-01

    to be selective for the two receptors. Administration of 3d substantially improved the cognitive performance of mice in a place recognition Y-maze model, an effect fully reversible by coadministration of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. In conclusion, as novel bioavailable cognitive enhancers that most...

  19. Association between 5-HT2A, TPH1 and GNB3 genotypes and response to typical neuroleptics: a serotonergic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampman Olli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disease affecting about 1% of population. One major problem in the treatment is finding the right the drug for the right patients. However, pharmacogenetic results in psychiatry can seldom be replicated. Methods We selected three candidate genes associated with serotonergic neurotransmission for the study: serotonin 2A (5-HT2A receptor gene, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1 gene, and G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNB3 gene. We recruited 94 schizophrenia patients representing extremes in treatment response to typical neuroleptics: 43 were good responders and 51 were poor responders. The control group consisted of 392 healthy blood donors. Results We do, in part, replicate the association between 5-HT2A T102C polymorphism and response to typical neuroleptics. In female patients, C/C genotype was significantly more common in non-responders than in responders [OR = 6.04 (95% Cl 1.67–21.93, p = 0.005] or in the control population [OR = 4.16 (95% CI 1.46–11.84, p = 0.005]. TPH1 A779C C/A genotype was inversely associated with good treatment response when compared with non-responders [OR = 0.59 (95% Cl 0.36–0.98, p = 0.030] or with the controls [OR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.23–0.86, p = 0.016], and GNB3 C825T C/T genotype showed a trend-like positive association among the male patients with a good response compared with non-responders [OR = 3.48 (95% Cl 0.92–13.25, p = 0.061], and a clearer association when compared with the controls [OR = 4.95 (95% CI 1.56–15.70, p = 0.004]. Conclusion More findings on the consequences of functional polymorphisms for the role of serotonin in the development of brain and serotonergic neurotransmission are needed before more detailed hypotheses regarding susceptibility and outcome in schizophrenia can be formulated. The present results may highlight some of the biological mechanisms in different courses of schizophrenia between men and women.

  20. Pimavanserin, a 5-HT2A inverse agonist, reverses psychosis-like behaviors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Krista; Price, Diana L; Bonhaus, Douglas W

    2011-10-01

    Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is a condition for which a safe, tolerated, and effective therapy is lacking. Treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotics may be contraindicated in patients with PDP because of the potential for aggravating motor symptoms. This study used a novel animal model with features of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychosis to examine a potential mechanism for reversing PDP. Animals with bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra displayed motoric impairments characteristic of humans with PD. In addition, they displayed augmented head twitches, augmented amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, and disrupted prepulse inhibition compared with sham controls, behavioral indices frequently used to assess antipsychotic activity in animal models. Pimavanserin, a selective 5-HT2A antagonist/inverse agonist, reversed the psychotic-like behavioral deficits, suggesting that nigrostriatal (6-hydroxydopamine) lesions induced alterations in 5-HT2A-mediated signaling. The selective 5-HT2A inverse agonist M100907, but not the selective 5-HT2C inverse agonist SB 252084 paralleled the effects of pimavanserin. Of note, the reversal of psychotic-like behaviors produced by 5-HT2A inverse agonists occurred without disrupting motor behaviors in lesioned subjects, suggesting that 5HT2A antagonism/inverse agonism may be beneficial in the treatment of PDP.

  1. [Other Possible Clinical Applications of Drugs with 5HT2A effect in Liaison Psychiatry: Cases Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Catalina Ayala; Castillo, Carolina Solís

    2012-03-01

    In liaison psychiatry it is possible to get an integral view of patient's treatment and needs, paying special attention to pharmacological interactions and contraindications. Some particular cases motivated the description, report and review about other possible applications of 5HT2A and 5HT3 antagonist, particularly Mirtazapine and Olanzapine, in hyperalgesia syndrome, tinnitus and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy by JC virus. Cases report. We describe 3 cases of patients in which Mirtazapine and Olanzapine were necessary not only to control psychiatric symptoms (affective / behavioral symptoms and insomnia) but to act as adjuvant therapy in axis III diseases. The use of any drug in psychiatry must take in to account the context of the patient, the presence of comorbidity, contraindications and pharmacological interactions so as to grant a positive outcome also promoting the multidisciplinary work between specialists. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Association study of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A polymorphisms with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bi, Yan; Niu, Weibo; Huang, Xiaoye; Chen, Shiqing; Li, Xingwang; Wu, Xi; Cao, Yanfei; Yang, Fengping; Wang, Lu; Li, Weidong; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Yu, Tao; He, Guang

    2016-12-02

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are two common severe mental disorders that have arisen to public awareness in recent years. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders especially in MDD and SZ. The aim of this study is to explore whether the variants in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A gene are susceptible to SZ or MDD in the Chinese Han population. Five SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) (rs1364043, rs10042486, rs6313, rs6311, rs17289304) in these genes were genotyped from 752 SZ patients, 568 MDD patients, and 846 normal controls of Chinese Han origin. The results showed that the 5-HT1A rs10042486 was significantly associated with SZ (P allele =0.0369, P genotype =0.0098). Moreover, the haplotype (C-T) composed of rs10042486 and rs1364043 showed significant difference between SZ cases and healthy controls (P=0.0302) while another haplotype (T-G) was significant for MDD (P=0.0247). Our study is the first to suggest a positive association of the 5-HT1A gene with SZ in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT 2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT 2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT 2C receptor activation nor 5-HT 2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT 2C agonists and 5-HT 2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  4. The relationship between the daily dose, the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-dopamine D2 and anti-serotonin 5-HT2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2010-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) possesses anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity in addition to anti-dopamine D(2) activity, which is characteristic of second-generation antipsychotics, little information is available on its pharmacologic profile in vivo. We investigated the BNS daily dose, plasma concentration, plasma anti-D(2) activity, and plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity in schizophrenia in a total of 14 subjects. Blood samples were taken 14 days after the BNS dose was fixed, and the plasma concentration was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. In addition, the plasma anti-D(2) activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity were measured by means of radioreceptor assays in which [(3)H]-spiperone and [(3)H]-ketanserin were used. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the daily dose and the plasma concentration (p = 0.04). Statistically significant correlations were also observed between the plasma concentration and the anti-D(2) activity and between the plasma concentration and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity (p = 0.003 and 0.04). It is therefore believed that both the anti-D(2) activity in plasma and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity in plasma are regulated almost solely by the unchanged principal. Moreover, the mean plasma serotonin/dopamine (S/D) ratio was 0.9 and BNS exhibited both anti-D(2) activity and also anti-5-HT(2A) activity in vivo, as well, so it was clear that the in vitro pharmacological profile was retained in vivo.

  5. Comparative effect of lurasidone and blonanserin on cortical glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine efflux: role of relative serotonin (5-HT)2A and DA D2 antagonism and 5-HT1A partial agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Panos, John J; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2014-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have been suggested to be more effective in improving cognitive impairment in schizophrenia than typical APDs, a conclusion supported by differences in receptor affinities and neurotransmitter efflux in the cortex and the hippocampus. More potent serotonin (5-HT)2A than dopamine (DA) D2 receptors antagonism, and direct or indirect 5-HT1A agonism, characterize almost all AAPDs. Blonanserin, an AAPD, has slightly greater affinity for D2 than 5-HT2A receptors. Using microdialysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we compared the abilities of the typical APD, haloperidol, three AAPDs, blonanserin, lurasidone, and olanzapine, and a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone, and all, except haloperidol, were found to ameliorate the cognitive deficits produced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, phencyclidine, altering the efflux of neurotransmitters and metabolites in the rat cortex and nucleus accumbens. Blonanserin, lurasidone, olanzapine, and tandospirone, but not haloperidol, increased the efflux of cortical DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Olanzapine and lurasidone increased the efflux of acetylcholine; lurasidone increased glutamate as well. None of the compounds significantly altered the efflux of 5-HT or its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or GABA, serine, and glycine. The ability to increase cortical DA efflux was the only shared effect of the compounds which ameliorates the deficit in cognition in rodents following phencyclidine. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Targeting Dopamine D3 and Serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptors for Developing Effective Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania; Franceschini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    of extrapyramidal symptoms liability, sedation, and catalepsy. The potential atypical antipsychotic 5bb was selected for further pharmacological investigation. The distribution of c-fos positive cells in the ventral striatum confirmed the atypical antipsychotic profile of 5bb in agreement with behavioral rodent...... studies. 5bb administered orally demonstrated a biphasic effect on the MK801-induced hyperactivity at dose levels not able to induce sedation, catalepsy, or learning impairment in passive avoidance. In microdialysis studies, 5bb increased the dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, 5bb...

  7. The association of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Baodong; Sun, Zhen; Liang, Yan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhong, Renqian

    2014-01-01

    A consensus has not been reached regarding the association of several different gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We performed a meta-analysis to better evaluate the associations between 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms, and OSAS. 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms and OSAS were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. The pooled odd rates (ORs) with 95%CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effect models. The associations between these polymorphisms and OSAS risk were assessed using dominant, recessive and additive models. Twelve publications were included in this study. The -1438 "A" allele of 5-HT2A was identified as a candidate genetic risk factor for OSAS (OR: 2.33, 95%CI 1.49-3.66). Individuals carrying the -1438 "G" allele had a nearly 70% reduced risk of OSAS when compared with AA homozygotes (OR: 0.30, 95%CI 0.23-0.40). There was no significant association between 5-HT2A 102C/T and OSAS risk, using any model. The "S" allele of 5-HTTLPR conferred protection against OSAS (OR: 0.80, 95%CI 0.67-0.95), while the "10" allele of 5-HTTVNTR contributed to the risk of OSAS (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.58-2.73). The "GG" genotype of LEPR was associated with a reduced risk of OSAS (OR: 0.39, 95%CI 0.17-0.88). The meta-analysis demonstrated that 5-HTR-1438 "A" and 5-HTTVNTR "10" alleles were significantly associated with OSAS. The "S" allele of 5-HTTLPR and the "GG" genotype of LEPR conferred protection against OSAS. Further studies, such as Genome-Wide Association study (GWAS), should be conducted in a large cohort of OSAS patients to confirm our findings.

  8. The association of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Qin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A consensus has not been reached regarding the association of several different gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. We performed a meta-analysis to better evaluate the associations between 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms, and OSAS. METHOD: 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, and LEPR polymorphisms and OSAS were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. The pooled odd rates (ORs with 95%CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effect models. The associations between these polymorphisms and OSAS risk were assessed using dominant, recessive and additive models. RESULTS: Twelve publications were included in this study. The -1438 "A" allele of 5-HT2A was identified as a candidate genetic risk factor for OSAS (OR: 2.33, 95%CI 1.49-3.66. Individuals carrying the -1438 "G" allele had a nearly 70% reduced risk of OSAS when compared with AA homozygotes (OR: 0.30, 95%CI 0.23-0.40. There was no significant association between 5-HT2A 102C/T and OSAS risk, using any model. The "S" allele of 5-HTTLPR conferred protection against OSAS (OR: 0.80, 95%CI 0.67-0.95, while the "10" allele of 5-HTTVNTR contributed to the risk of OSAS (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.58-2.73. The "GG" genotype of LEPR was associated with a reduced risk of OSAS (OR: 0.39, 95%CI 0.17-0.88. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis demonstrated that 5-HTR-1438 "A" and 5-HTTVNTR "10" alleles were significantly associated with OSAS. The "S" allele of 5-HTTLPR and the "GG" genotype of LEPR conferred protection against OSAS. Further studies, such as Genome-Wide Association study (GWAS, should be conducted in a large cohort of OSAS patients to confirm our findings.

  9. The use of an antagonist 5-HT2a/c for depression and motor function in Parkinson' disease Uso de um antagonista 5-HT2a/c na depressão e na função motora de pacientes com doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz dos Santos Werneck

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the ability of a 5HT2a/c (trazodone antagonist, to improve depression and motor function in Parkinson' disease (PD. METHOD: Twenty PD patients with and without depression were randomly assigned to receive trazodone (group 1 or not (group 2. They were evaluated through UPDRS and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. RESULTS: For the UPDRS the mean score of group 2 was 33.1 ± 19.7 and 37.1 ± 18.0 at the end. For the group 1, the corresponding scores were 31.4 ± 11.3 and 25.9 ± 13.7. The variations in the Mann-Whitney test were 0.734 at the initial moment and 0.208 at the final moment. The variation in the comparison of the initial moment with the final moment was 0.005 providing statistical significance. For the HAM-D, the mean score went up 4 points in group 2, contrary to a 5.5 points decrease in group 1. CONCLUSION: Data analysis shows that this agent significantly improves depression, but the motor function improved only in the depressed patients. Because of the known anti-dopaminergic property of the 5-HT2c receptors, a possible approach for depression in PD could be the use of 5-HT2c antagonists, similarly to the use of atypical neuroleptics in case of psychotic symptoms.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de um antagonista 5-HT2a/c (trazodona na depressão e na função motora de pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP. MÉTODO: Vinte pacientes com DP com e sem depressão foram randomizados e divididos em 2 grupos com e sem a trazodona (grupos 1 e 2. Foram avaliados pela escala UPDRS e a de depressão de Hamilton (EDH. RESULTADOS: A média inicial do grupo 2 na UPDRS foi 33,1 ± 19,7 no momento inicial e 37,1 ± 18,0 no final. Para o grupo 1 as médias correspondentes foram 31,4 ± 11,3 e 25,9 ± 13,7. As variações no teste de Mann-Whitney foram 0,734 no momento inicial e de 0,208 no final. A variação na comparação entre o momento inicial e o final foi 0,005, caracterizando significância estatística. Para a EDH a

  10. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxyphenyl-methanamine compounds with 5HT2A, SERT, and hERG activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Gallaschun, Randall; Schmidt, Anne; Lebel, Lorrie; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Fliri, Anton

    2008-12-01

    QSAR models have been used to evaluate activities for compounds in the phenoxyphenyl-methanamine (PPMA) class of compounds. These models utilize Hammett-type donating-withdrawing substituent values as well as simple parameters to describe substituent size and elucidate the SAR of the 'A' and 'B' rings. Using this methodology, intuitive QSAR relationships were found for the three biological activities with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.45, and 0.58 for 5HT(2A), SerT, and hERG activities.

  11. Direct and Indirect Drug Design Approaches for the Development of Novel Tricyclic Antipsychotics: Potential 5-HT2A Antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh Namdev Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a mental disorder manifested largely by disintegration of thought processes and emotional responsiveness. Given the therapeutic and toxic limitations of clinically available drugs, it is clear that there is still a need for the development of new generation antipsychotic agents with an improved clinical profile. Development of novel hybrid atypical tricyclic antipsychotic pharmacophore was achieved using direct (by measuring docking score of designed molecules on modelled 5- receptor and indirect (current, clinically available therapeutic agents’ data drug design approaches.

  12. Serotonin 2A receptor antagonists for treatment of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Rasmussen, Hans; Arnt, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    : Preclinical, clinical and post-mortem studies of the serotonin 5-HT2A system in schizophrenia are reviewed. The implications of a combined D2 and 5-HT2A receptor blockade, which is obtained by several current antipsychotic drugs, are discussed, and the rationale for the development of more selective 5-HT2A...

  13. Chronic myoclonia of subcortical origin with antiglutamate receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Muneaki; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Taniguchi, Kazuto; Sasaki, Kazuya; Hamasaki, Yuhei

    2007-12-01

    We report a 10-year-old girl with chronic nonprogressive continuous myoclonia with mild muscle weakness and dissociated sensory impairment of the ipsilateral side of myoclonic jerks. Irregular myoclonic jerks continuously appeared in the right upper limb. The jerk-locked back averaging of electroencephalographic activity failed to show any activity preceded by the muscle contraction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine revealed no abnormal findings. Single photon emission computed tomography showed an increased blood perfusion in the left thalamus. (18)F-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) also showed a slight high density in the posterior region of the left thalamus. Antiglutamate receptor epsilon2 and delta2 antibodies were detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient's symptoms have now been stable with clonazepam treatment for 2 years. The left thalamus was suspected to have been the region at least partly responsible for the patient's symptoms.

  14. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermor...

  15. Pergolide, Terguride and N,N - spacer - linked Oligomers of Both Interact with 5-HT2a Receptors of Rat Tail Artery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Eich, E.; Pertz, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2004), s. 35-43 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pergolide * terguriede * oligomers of pergolide and terguride Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  16. The relationship between the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity/anti-dopamine D₂ activity ratio and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2012-03-01

     Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic that was developed in Japan. We investigated the relationships between plasma concentration, the plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity/anti-D₂ activity (S/D) ratio and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in blonanserin dosing.  The subjects were 29 outpatients with schizophrenia. We assessed EPS using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). The plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, and the plasma anti-D₂ and anti-5-HT(2A) activities were measured by [³H]-spiperone and [³H]-ketanserin radioreceptor assays. The results revealed that there were significant correlations between both the plasma concentration and the DIEPSS total score (Pblonanserin is mainly determined by plasma concentration, but the incidence of EPS may be inhibited when anti-5HT(2A) activity is predominant over anti-D₂ activity. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases cerebral metabolic responses to the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-N-propylamino)tetralin and increases those to the 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane and to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freo, Ulderico; Merico, Antonio; Ermani, Mario; Ori, Carlo

    2010-06-04

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor that, when given chronically, alters different neurotransmitter systems. To assess functional changes occurring in the 5-HT and dopaminergic systems, we investigated the effects of 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), of the 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and of the dopamine D(1/2) agonist apomorphine (APO) on behavior and on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) in rats pretreated for 3weeks with saline or fluoxetine (8mg/kg/day). Behavioral effects were assessed for 8-OH-DPAT by scoring the 5-HT syndrome, for DOI by counting head shakes and for APO with an activity monitor. rCMRglc were measured with quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique in 60 brain regions at 10min after acute administration of 8-OH-DPAT 1mg/kg, at 30min after DOI 5mg/kg or at 10min after APO 1mg/kg. Chronic fluoxetine did not alter the 5-HT syndrome by 8-OH-DPAT, decreased head shakes by DOI and enhanced hyperlocomotion by APO. 8-OH-DPAT produced rCMRglc increases in sensorimotor regions that were unaffected by fluoxetine pretreatment and diffuse metabolic decrements that were attenuated by fluoxetine in limbic and raphe areas (17% and 4% mean decreases, respectively, in saline control and fluoxetine-pretreated rats). DOI produced widespread rCMRglc declines that were intensified by fluoxetine (14% and 20% decreases, in control and fluoxetine rats). APO caused rCMRglc increases in 22 brain regions that were potentiated by fluoxetine in dopaminergic motor areas (10% and 25% increases, in control and fluoxetine rats). In conclusion, fluoxetine enhances 5-HT neurotransmission by blunting responsivity of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors and increasing that of 5-HT(2A/2C) postsynaptic receptors and enhances dopaminergic D(1/2) receptor neurotransmission. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabotrobic Glutamate Receptor mGluR4 as a Novel Target for Parkinson’s Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    mGIu RECEPTOR AGONISTS G.J. Marek, Dept. of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06508. Serotonin (5-HT), via 5- HT2A receptors...atypical antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs block 5- HT2A receptors, group II and/or HI metabotropic agonists have a potentially promising

  19. Cannabinoid 2 Receptor- and Beta Arrestin 2-Dependent Upregulation of Serotonin 2A Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.M.; Vasiljevik, T.; Prisinzano, T.E.; Carrasco, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission in the brain, although no molecular mechanism has been identified. Here, we present experimental evidence that sustained treatment with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist (CP 55,940) or selective CB2 receptor agonists (JWH 133 or GP 1a) upregulate 5-HT2A receptors in a neuronal cell line. Furthermore, this cannabinoid receptor agonist-induced upregulation of 5-HT2A recept...

  20. Loss of serotonin 2A receptors exceeds loss of serotonergic projections in early Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Frøkjær, Vibe; Kalbitzer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), postmortem and imaging studies have revealed early and prominent reductions in cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. To establish if this was due to a selective disease process of the serotonin system, we investigated the cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  1. Neuro-imaging the serotonin 2A receptor as a valid biomarker for canine behavioural disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, S.; Audenaert, K.; Vandermeulen, E.; Waelbers, T.; De Meester, R.; Eersels, J.L.H.; Dobbeleir, A.; Peremans, K.

    2011-01-01

    The serotonergic system is disturbed in different mood and affective disorders, with especially the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor involved in impulsive aggressiveness and anxiety. The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of the brain 5-HT 2A receptor in dogs with different behavioural

  2. Acute serotonin 2A receptor blocking alters the processing of fearful faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor has been implicated in neural-processing of emotionally salient information. To elucidate its role in processing of fear and anger, healthy individuals were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after 5-HT2A receptor blockade, while...... judging the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. Methods: 5-HT2A receptors were blocked with ketanserin to a variable degree across subjects by adjusting the time between ketanserin-infusion and onset of the fMRI protocol. Neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in terms of the binding potential (BPp...... ) was assessed prior to fMRI with (18)F-altanserin positron emission tomography (PET) and subsequently integrated in the fMRI data analysis. Also functional connectivity analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of ketanserin blocking on connectivity. Results: Compared to a control session, 5-HT2A receptor...

  3. Diminution of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in cortical and subcortical areas of WAG/Rij rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Jafarian, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Maliheh; Kazemi, Hadi; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Gorji, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Modulation of glutamatergic NMDA receptors affects the synchronization of spike discharges in in WAG/Rij rats, a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. In this study, we describe the alteration of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors expression in WAG/Rij rats in different somatosensory cortical layers and in hippocampal CA1 area. Experimental groups were divided into four groups of six rats of both WAG/Rij and Wistar strains with 2 and 6 months of age. The distribution of NR2B receptors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in WAG/Rij and compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The expression of NR2B subunit was significantly decreased in different somatosensory cortical layers in 2- and 6-month-old WAG/Rij rats. In addition, the distribution of NR2B in hippocampal CA1 area was lower in 6-month-old WAG/Rij compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The reduction of NR2B receptors in different brain areas points to disturbance of glutamate receptors expression in cortical and subcortical areas in WAG/Rij rats. An altered subunit assembly of NMDA receptors may underlie cortical hyperexcitability in absence epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. OCD is associated with an altered association between sensorimotor gating and cortical and subcortical 5-HT1b receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher; Adams, Thomas G; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Crowley, Michael J; Nabulsi, Nabeel; James Ropchan; Gao, Hong; Kichuk, Stephen A; Simpson, Ryan; Billingslea, Eileen; Hannestad, Jonas; Bloch, Michael; Mayes, Linda; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Carson, Richard E

    2016-05-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by impaired sensorimotor gating, as measured using prepulse inhibition (PPI). This effect may be related to abnormalities in the serotonin (5-HT) system. 5-HT1B agonists can impair PPI, produce OCD-like behaviors in animals, and exacerbate OCD symptoms in humans. We measured 5-HT1B receptor availability using (11)C-P943 positron emission tomography (PET) in unmedicated, non-depressed OCD patients (n=12) and matched healthy controls (HC; n=12). Usable PPI data were obtained from 20 of these subjects (10 from each group). There were no significant main effects of OCD diagnosis on 5-HT1B receptor availability ((11)C-P943 BPND); however, the relationship between PPI and (11)C-P943 BPND differed dramatically and significantly between groups. 5-HT1B receptor availability in the basal ganglia and thalamus correlated positively with PPI in controls; these correlations were lost or even reversed in the OCD group. In cortical regions there were no significant correlations with PPI in controls, but widespread positive correlations in OCD patients. Positive correlations between 5-HT1B receptor availability and PPI were consistent across diagnostic groups only in two structures, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Differential associations of 5-HT1B receptor availability with PPI in patients suggest functionally important alterations in the serotonergic regulation of cortical/subcortical balance in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis concomitant with multifocal subcortical white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Jin; Chen, Bu-Dong; Qi, Dong

    2015-07-08

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a severe autoimmune disorder characterized by severe psychiatric symptoms, seizures, decreased consciousness, autonomic dysregulation, and dyskinesias. Multifocal subcortical white matter lesions on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffuse weighted images have rarely been reported in previous literature, and serial magnetic resonance imaging changes after plasma exchange have not been presented before. A previously healthy 24-year-old Chinese woman presented with acute psychiatric symptoms characterized by fear and agitation followed by decreased consciousness, dyskinesias, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense lesions on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffuse weighted images in bilateral subcortical white matter. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a mild pleocytosis with lymphocytic predominance. Protein and glucose levels were normal. Aquaporin-4 antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were negative. Identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. She was initially treated with combined intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone without improvement. Plasma exchange was then initiated with good response; the patient made a full recovery after several cycles of plasma exchange. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 month after plasma exchange showed partial resolution of the hyperintense lesions in bilateral subcortical white matter, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 2 months after plasma exchange showed complete resolution. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis may be concomitant with multifocal subcortical white matter lesions. Such lesions may resolve after appropriate immunotherapy.

  6. Hallucinogen-like effects of 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl) ethylamino]methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH), a novel N-benzylphenethylamine with 100-fold selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors, in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantegrossi, William E; Gray, Bradley W; Bailey, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    , and 25CN-NBOH was tested for generalization. RESULTS: 25CN-NBOH induced a head twitch response in the mouse that was lower in magnitude than that of DOI, blocked by M100907, but not altered by RS102221. DOI-elicited head twitch was dose-dependently attenuated by 25CN-NBOH pretreatment. 25CN-NBOH produced...

  7. Changes of Serotonin (5-HT, 5-HT2A Receptor, and 5-HT Transporter in the Sprague-Dawley Rats of Depression, Myocardial Infarction and Myocardial Infarction Co-exist with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of 5-HT2AR in platelet lysate and SERT in serum and platelet may be involved in the pathway of MI with depression. Further studies should examine whether elevated 5-HT2AR and SERT may contribute to the biomarker in MI patients with depression.

  8. Frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: role of the dopamine D1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olver, J.S.; Reutens, D.C.; Maruff, P.; Burrows, G.D.; Norman, T.R.; Ellen, S.R.; Pantelis, C.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Ackermann, U.; Stekelenberg, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder which is increasingly being recognised as a neurobiological disorder. While serotonergic mechanisms have been proposed, the major competing theory in the pathophysiology of OCD involves the neurotransmitter dopamine. The Dopamine D1 receptor is implicated in OCD following the finding of specific spatial working memory abnormalities in a series of neuropsychological studies. Spatial working memory is known to depend on the integrity of D1 receptor function in the Dorso-lateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) of primates. This study aims to examine the role of dopamine in patients with OCD and in particular to test the hypothesis that there is an upregulation of dopamine D1 receptors in the DLPFC which correlates with spatial working memory deficits in OCD. Three OCD patients and three normal controls underwent Positron Emission Tomography (PET) following intravenous injection of the D1 antagonist PET ligand SCH23390. Reconstructed PET images were co registered with subject Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and regions of interest drawn manually. We will present the analysis of the Binding Potentials of SCH23390 in the regions of interest of the first three OCD patients and compare them with three normal control patients. In conclusion Dopamine-Serotonergic interactions are involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Serotonin 2A receptor, serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter alterations in dogs with compulsive behaviour as a promising model for human obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Simon; Audenaert, Kurt; De Meester, Rudy; Vandermeulen, Eva; Waelbers, Tim; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Eersels, Jos; Dobbeleir, André; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2012-01-30

    Neuro-imaging studies have shown altered, yet often inconsistent, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We investigated both serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in 9 drug-naïve dogs with compulsive behaviour, as a potential model for human OCD. Single photon emission computed tomography was used with (123)I-R91150 and (123)I-FP-CIT, in combination with (99m)Tc-ECD brain perfusion co-registration, to measure the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. Fifteen normally behaving dogs were used as reference group. Significantly lower 5-HT2A receptor radioligand availability in frontal and temporal cortices (bilateral) was observed. Further, in 78% of the compulsive dogs abnormal DAT ratios in left and right striatum were demonstrated. Interestingly, both increased and decreased DAT ratios were observed. Finally, significantly lower subcortical perfusion and (hypo)thalamic SERT availability were observed in the compulsive dogs. This study provides evidence for imbalanced serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways in the pathophysiology of compulsions in dogs. The similarities with the altered neurotransmission in human OCD provide construct validity for this non-induced, natural canine model, suggesting its usefulness for future investigations of the pathophysiology of human OCD as well as the effectiveness of psychopharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ontogeny of serotonin and serotonin2A receptors in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Abbas, Atheir I; O'Donohue, Heather; Lauder, Jean M; Roth, Bryan L; Walker, Paul D; Manis, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    Maturation of the mammalian cerebral cortex is, in part, dependent upon multiple coordinated afferent neurotransmitter systems and receptor-mediated cellular linkages during early postnatal development. Given that serotonin (5-HT) is one such system, the present study was designed to specifically evaluate 5-HT tissue content as well as 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels within the developing auditory cortex (AC). Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 5-HT and the metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), was measured in isolated AC, which demonstrated a developmental dynamic, reaching young adult levels early during the second week of postnatal development. Radioligand binding of 5-HT(2A) receptors with the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, (125)I-DOI ((+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl; in the presence of SB206553, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, also demonstrated a developmental trend, whereby receptor protein levels reached young adult levels at the end of the first postnatal week (P8), significantly increased at P10 and at P17, and decreased back to levels not significantly different from P8 thereafter. Immunocytochemical labeling of 5-HT(2A) receptors and confocal microscopy revealed that 5-HT(2A) receptors are largely localized on layer II/III pyramidal cell bodies and apical dendrites within AC. When considered together, the results of the present study suggest that 5-HT, likely through 5-HT(2A) receptors, may play an important role in early postnatal AC development.

  11. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of 11C-CIMBI-5 as a 5-HT2A receptor agonist radioligand for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Palner, Mikael; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    PET brain imaging of the serotonin 2A (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A, or 5-HT(2A)) receptor has been widely used in clinical studies, and currently, several well-validated radiolabeled antagonist tracers are used for in vivo imaging of the cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor. Access to 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist...... PET tracers would, however, enable imaging of the active, high-affinity state of receptors, which may provide a more meaningful assessment of membrane-bound receptors. In this study, we radiolabel the high-affinity 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[(11)C-OCH(3...

  13. Serotonin 2a Receptor and serotonin 1a receptor interact within the medial prefrontal cortex during recognition memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Facundo Morici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a -/- with wild type (htr2a+/+ littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  14. Cannabinoid-induced upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and anxiety-like behaviors in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Jade M.; Mathew, Matt; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral reports suggest that repeated exposure to cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid agonists is linked with mental disorders associated with dysfunction of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission such as anxiety and depression. Here, we studied the effect of a nonselective cannabinoid agonist, CP55940, on the activity of 5-HT2A receptors in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We detected that repeated exposure to CP55940 enhanced the prolactin and corticosterone ne...

  15. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in coping style emerge as a function of underlying variability in the activation of a mesocorticolimbic brain circuitry. Particularly serotonin seems to play an important role. For this reason, we assessed serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT2A R) binding in the brain of rats...... with different coping styles. We compared proactive and reactive males of two rat strains, Wild-type Groningen (WTG) and Roman high- and low avoidance (RHA, RLA). 5-HT2A R binding in (pre)frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus was investigated using a radiolabeled antagonist ([(3) H]MDL-100907) and agonist ([(3) H......]Cimbi-36) in binding assays. No differences in 5-HT2A R binding were observed in male animals with different coping styles. [(3) H]MDL-100907 displayed a higher specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio than [(3) H]Cimbi-36. Our findings suggest that in these particular rat strains, 5-HT2A R binding...

  16. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Marta; Ana Elda, Maqueda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan Arbós, Rosa Maria; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Ángel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus ß-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimental...

  17. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Unravels Biased Phosphorylation of Serotonin 2A Receptor at Ser280 by Hallucinogenic versus Nonhallucinogenic Agonists*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J.; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT2A receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT2A receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser280) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT2A receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser280 by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors at Ser280 in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser280 to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased phosphorylation of

  18. Presynaptic serotonin 2A receptors modulate thalamocortical plasticity and associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Alexander; Berthoux, Coralie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Valjent, Emmanuel; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Bécamel, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level cognitive processes strongly depend on a complex interplay between mediodorsal thalamus nuclei and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Alteration of thalamofrontal connectivity has been involved in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Prefrontal serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors play an essential role in cortical network activity, but the mechanism underlying their modulation of glutamatergic transmission and plasticity at thalamocortical synapses remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that 5-HT2A receptor activation enhances NMDA transmission and gates the induction of temporal-dependent plasticity mediated by NMDA receptors at thalamocortical synapses in acute PFC slices. Expressing 5-HT2A receptors in the mediodorsal thalamus (presynaptic site) of 5-HT2A receptor-deficient mice, but not in the PFC (postsynaptic site), using a viral gene-delivery approach, rescued the otherwise absent potentiation of NMDA transmission, induction of temporal plasticity, and deficit in associative memory. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first physiological evidence of a role of presynaptic 5-HT2A receptors located at thalamocortical synapses in the control of thalamofrontal connectivity and the associated cognitive functions. PMID:26903620

  19. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by cognitive and emotional alterations that are related to abnormal function of the frontal cortex (FC). FC is involved in working memory and decision making and is activated following exposure to a novel environment. The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A......)R) is highly expressed in the FC where its activation induces hallucinations, while blockade of 5-HT(2A)Rs contributes to the therapeutic effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT(2A)R in FC activation following exposure to a novel...... environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (∼160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  20. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by cognitive and emotional alterations that are related to abnormal function of the frontal cortex (FC). FC is involved in working memory and decision making and is activated following exposure to a novel environment. The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A......)R) is highly expressed in the FC where its activation induces hallucinations, while blockade of 5-HT(2A)Rs contributes to the therapeutic effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT(2A)R in FC activation following exposure to a novel...... environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (~160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  1. G-protein Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates the Cannabinoid Receptor 2-induced Up-regulation of Serotonin 2A Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cannabinoid agonists can up-regulate and enhance the activity of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Increased expression and activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Here we report that repeated CP55940 exposure selectively up-regulates GRK5 proteins in rat PFCx and in a neuronal cell culture model. We sought to examine the mechanism underlying the regulation of GRK5 and to identify the role of GRK5 in the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced activity of 5-HT2A receptors. Interestingly, we found that cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5 involves CB2 receptors, β-arrestin 2, and ERK1/2 signaling because treatment with CB2 shRNA lentiviral particles, β-arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles, or ERK1/2 inhibitor prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5. Most importantly, we found that GRK5 shRNA lentiviral particle treatment prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced 5-HT2A receptor-mediated calcium release. Repeated cannabinoid exposure was also associated with enhanced phosphorylation of CB2 receptors and increased interaction between β-arrestin 2 and ERK1/2. These latter phenomena were also significantly inhibited by GRK5 shRNA lentiviral treatment. Our results suggest that sustained activation of CB2 receptors, which up-regulates 5-HT2A receptor signaling, enhances GRK5 expression; the phosphorylation of CB2 receptors; and the β-arrestin 2/ERK interactions. These data could provide a rationale for some of the adverse effects associated with repeated cannabinoid agonist exposure. PMID:23592773

  2. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  3. The time course of serotonin 2C receptor expression after spinal transection of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Li-Qun; Wienecke, Jacob; Chen, Meng

    2013-01-01

    In the spinal cord 5-HT systems modulate the spinal network via various 5-HT receptors. 5-HT2A and 2C receptors are likely the most important 5-HT receptors for enhancing the motoneuron excitability by facilitating the persistent inward current, and thus play an important role for the pathogenesi...

  4. Serotonin 2A receptors contribute to the regulation of risk-averse decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    balanced in terms of expected utility and potential loss. Acute blockade of the 5-HT2A receptors with ketanserin made participants more risk-averse. Ketanserin selectively reduced the neural response of the frontopolar cortex to negative outcomes that were caused by low-risk choices and were associated...... in processing negative outcomes and regulating risk-averse behavior. During fMRI, twenty healthy volunteers performed a gambling task under two conditions: with or without blocking the 5-HT2A receptors. The volunteers repeatedly chose between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards. Choices were...... with large missed rewards. In the context of normal 5-HT2A receptor function, ventral striatum displayed a stronger response to low-risk negative outcomes in risk-taking as opposed to risk-averse individuals. This (negative) correlation between the striatal response to low-risk negative outcomes and risk-averse...

  5. Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Preller, Katrin H; Herdener, Marcus; Janata, Petr; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-09-28

    Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing. This suggests a critical role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in supporting the neural tracking of dynamic tonal structure in music, as well as in supporting the associated increases in emotionality, connectedness, and meaningfulness in response to music that are commonly observed after the administration of LSD and other psychedelics. Together, these findings inform the neuropsychopharmacology of music perception and cognition, meaningful music listening experiences, and altered perception of music during psychedelic experiences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Endogenous plasma estradiol in healthy men is positively correlated with cerebral cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    levels affect serotonergic neurotransmission. This study was undertaken to examine if baseline levels of endogenous sex hormones are associated with cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor binding in men. Methods: In a group of 72 healthy men (mean age 37.5 years ±17.4 SD, range 19.6–81.7) we studied...... the effect of plasma sex hormone levels on neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding as imaged with [18F]altanserin PET. The effect of endogenous sex-hormone levels was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Mean neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding was positively correlated with estradiol (p...... = 0.0001), whereas no independent effects of testosterone could be demonstrated. Correction for other factors of importance for 5-HT2A receptor binding did not change the result. A voxel-based analysis suggested that there were no regional differences in the estradiol effect on cortical 5-HT2A...

  7. Interleukin-6 Attenuates Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling by Activating the JAK-STAT Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Jennifer J.; Patton, Michael S.; Chavera, Teresa S.; Berg, Kelly A.; Morilak, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), have both been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated that these molecules both facilitate cognitive flexibility, a prefrontal cortex-mediated executive function impaired in multiple mental illnesses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-6 influences 5-HT2A receptor signaling, providing a potential mechanism by which this cytokine may influence behavior. We first demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptors and IL-6–mediated STAT3 phosphorylation colocalize in cells of the prefrontal cortex, providing the neuroanatomical substrate for a potential interaction. In the neuronally derived A1A1 cell line, which expresses both IL-6 and 5-HT2A receptors, we found that IL-6 attenuates inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation in response to the 5-HT2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), suggesting that IL-6 can regulate 5-HT2A receptor function. To identify the signaling pathway(s) that mediate this effect, we measured DOI-mediated IP accumulation in the presence of IL-6 and either the JAK-STAT inhibitor 124 [(9β,10α,16α,23E)-2,16,20,25-tetrahydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanosta-1,5,23-triene-3,11,22-trione], JSI-124, or the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD-98059). The IL-6 effect was blocked by JSI-124 but not PD-98059. Furthermore, silencing RNA knockdown of either JAK or STAT blocked the IL-6 effect, suggesting that IL-6–induced JAK-STAT activation can regulate 5-HT2A receptor signaling. Finally, to determine if IL-6 specifically regulates the 5-HT2A receptor system, we measured IP production mediated by another Gq-coupled receptor, bradykinin B2. IL-6 had no effect on bradykinin-mediated IP accumulation, suggesting that regulation may occur at the 5-HT2A receptor. These results may provide clues to the pathologic mechanisms underlying certain psychiatric disorders and may

  8. Distribution of serotonin 2A and 2C receptor mRNA expression in the cervical ventral horn and phrenic motoneurons following spinal cord hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Zhou, S Y; Walker, P D; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury leads to a disruption of bulbospinal innervation from medullary respiratory centers to phrenic motoneurons. Animal models utilizing cervical hemisection result in inhibition of ipsilateral phrenic nerve activity, leading to paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. We have previously demonstrated a role for serotonin (5-HT) as one potential modulator of respiratory recovery following cervical hemisection, a mechanism that likely occurs via 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2C receptors. The present study was designed to specifically examine if 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2C receptors are colocalized with phrenic motoneurons in both intact and spinal-hemisected rats. Adult female rats (250-350 g; n = 6 per group) received a left cervical (C2) hemisection and were injected with the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold into the left hemidiaphragm. Twenty-four hours later, animals were killed and spinal cords processed for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Using (35)S-labeled cRNA probes, cervical spinal cords were probed for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression and double-labeled using an antibody to Fluorogold to detect phrenic motoneurons. Expression of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA was detected in motoneurons of the cervical ventral horn. Despite positive expression of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA-hybridization signal over phrenic motoneurons, only 5-HT2A silver grains achieved a signal-to-noise ratio representative of colocalization. 5-HT2A mRNA levels in identified phrenic motoneurons were not significantly altered following cervical hemisection compared to sham-operated controls. Selective colocalization of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA with phrenic motoneurons may have implications for recently observed 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation of respiratory activity and/or recovery in both intact and injury-compromised states. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Endogenous plasma estradiol in healthy men is positively correlated with cerebral cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Erritzoe, David; Juul, Anders; Nielsen, Finn Arup; Holst, Klaus; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Jacob; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-10-01

    Sex-hormones influence brain function and are likely to play a role in the gender predisposition to mood and anxiety disorders. Acute fluctuations of sex-hormone levels including hormonal replacement therapy appear to affect serotonergic neurotransmission, but it is unknown if baseline levels affect serotonergic neurotransmission. This study was undertaken to examine if baseline levels of endogenous sex hormones are associated with cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor binding in men. In a group of 72 healthy men (mean age 37.5 years ±17.4 SD, range 19.6-81.7) we studied the effect of plasma sex hormone levels on neocortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding as imaged with [(18)F]altanserin PET. The effect of endogenous sex-hormone levels was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. Mean neocortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding was positively correlated with estradiol (p=0.0001), whereas no independent effects of testosterone could be demonstrated. Correction for other factors of importance for 5-HT(2A) receptor binding did not change the result. A voxel-based analysis suggested that there were no regional differences in the estradiol effect on cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. Our data show a positive correlation between endogenous plasma estradiol levels and cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in healthy men, whereas, no independent effect of testosterone was demonstrated. We speculate that this association could be mediated through effects on gene transcription. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serotonin 2A Receptors, Citalopram and Tryptophan-Depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    in serotonergic regulation of response inhibition. In 24 healthy adults, we used (18)F-altanserin positron emission tomography to assess cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptors, which have been related to impulsivity. We then investigated the impact of two acute manipulations of brain serotonin levels on behavioral...

  11. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  12. Serotonin 2A receptor regulation of striatal neuropeptide gene expression is selective for tachykinin, but not enkephalin neurons following dopamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2001-08-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor-mediated regulation of striatal preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNAs was studied in adult rodents that had been subjected to near-total dopamine (DA) depletion as neonates. Two months following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, PPT mRNA levels decreased 59-73% across dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum while PPE transcripts increased 61-94%. Four hours after a single injection of the serotonin 2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 1 mg/kg), PPT mRNA expression was significantly increased in DA-depleted rats across all dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-treated animals alone. In the intact rat, DOI did not influence PPT mRNA levels in the rostral striatum, but did raise expression in the caudal striatum where 5-HT2A receptors are prominent. DOI did not regulate PPE mRNA levels in any striatal sub-region of the intact or DA-depleted rat. Prior administration of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin (1 mg/kg) or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (1 mg/kg) completely blocked the DOI-induced increases in striatal PPT mRNA in both lesioned and intact animals. The ability of ketanserin to produce identical results as ritanserin suggests that 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation is selectively strengthened within tachykinin neurons of the rostral striatum which are suppressed by DA depletion. The selectivity suggests that 5-HT2A receptor upregulation following DA depletion is capable of regulating tachykinin biosynthesis without influencing enkephalin expression in striatal output neurons.

  13. Pharmacologic assessment of bovine ruminal and mesenteric vascular serotonin receptor populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior work using a contractility bioassay determined that the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT2A is present in bovine lateral saphenous veins and plays a role in ergot alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in steers grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundina...

  14. Sleep deprivation increases cerebral serotonin 2A receptor binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, David; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Bauer, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin and its cerebral receptors play an important role in sleep-wake regulation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of 24-h total sleep deprivation on the apparent serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) binding capacity in the human brain to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation induces global molecular alterations in the cortical serotonergic receptor system. Volunteers were tested twice with the subtype-selective radiotracer [(18)F]altanserin and positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging of 5-HT(2A)Rs at baseline and after 24 h of sleep deprivation. [(18)F]Altanserin binding potentials were analyzed in 13 neocortical regions of interest. The efficacy of sleep deprivation was assessed by questionnaires, waking electroencephalography, and cognitive performance measurements. Sleep laboratory and neuroimaging center. Eighteen healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation. A total of 24 hours of sleep deprivation led to a 9.6% increase of [(18)F]altanserin binding on neocortical 5-HT(2A) receptors. Significant region-specific increases were found in the medial inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and anterior cingulate, parietal, sensomotoric, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. This study demonstrates that a single night of total sleep deprivation causes significant increases of 5-HT(2A)R binding potentials in a variety of cortical regions although the increase declines as sleep deprivation continued. It provides in vivo evidence that total sleep deprivation induces adaptive processes in the serotonergic system of the human brain.

  15. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field...... of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5 mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time...... spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin...

  16. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kraehenmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects.Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally. The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI, a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC rating scale.Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p < 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected. The LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected, and blissful state (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected on the 5D-ASC. Both LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin.Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and

  17. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer L.; Wills, Lauren P.; McOmish, Caitlin E.; Demireva, Elena Y.; Gingrich, Jay A.; Beeson, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1–10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1–100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor

  18. Serotonin 2A receptor mRNA levels in the neonatal dopamine-depleted rat striatum remain upregulated following suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-08-05

    Sixty days after bilateral dopamine (DA) depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in neonatal rats, serotonin (5-HT) content doubled and 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression rose 54% within the rostral striatum. To determine if striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA upregulation is dependent on increased 5-HT levels following DA depletion, neonatal rats received dual injections of 6-OHDA and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) which suppressed 5-HT content by approximately 90%. In these 6-OHDA/5,7-DHT-treated rats, striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression was still elevated (87% above vehicle controls). Comparative analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression yielded no significant changes in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor biosynthesis in the DA-depleted rat is not dependent on subsequent 5-HT hyperinnervation. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  20. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  1. A Single Dose of LSD Does Not Alter Gene Expression of the Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene (HTR2A) or Early Growth Response Genes (EGR1-3) in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C.; Grünblatt, Edna; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Renewed interest has been seen in the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in psychiatric research and practice. The repeated use of LSD leads to tolerance that is believed to result from serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A receptor downregulation. In rats, daily LSD administration for 4 days decreased frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding. Additionally, a single dose of LSD acutely increased expression of the early growth response genes EGR1 and EGR2 in rat and mouse brains through 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. No human data on the effects of LSD on gene expression has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of single-dose LSD administration on the expression of the 5-HT2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and EGR1-3 genes. Methods: mRNA expression levels were analyzed in whole blood as a peripheral biomarker in 15 healthy subjects before and 1.5 and 24 h after the administration of LSD (100 μg) and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Results: LSD did not alter the expression of the HTR2A or EGR1-3 genes 1.5 and 24 h after administration compared with placebo. Conclusion: No changes were observed in the gene expression of LSD’s primary target receptor gene or genes that are implicated in its downstream effects. Remaining unclear is whether chronic LSD administration alters gene expression in humans. PMID:28701958

  2. Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, J V

    2009-01-01

    While the endogenous hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, have been acknowledged as naturally occurring components of the mammalian body for decades, their biological function remains as elusive now as it was at the time of their discovery. The recent discovery of the trace amine associated receptors and the activity of DMT and other hallucinogenic compounds at these receptor sites leads to the hypothesis that the endogenous hallucinogens act as neurotransmitters of a subclass of these trace amine receptors. Additionally, while activity at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as being responsible for the hallucinogenic affects of administered hallucinogens, in their natural setting the 5-HT2A receptor may not interact with the endogenous hallucinogens at all. Additionally 5-HT2A agonist activity is unable to account for the visual altering effects of many of the administered hallucinogens; these effects may be mediated by one of the endogenous hallucinogen trace amine receptors rather than the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Therefore, activity at the trace amine receptors, in addition to serotonin receptors, may play a large role in the sensory altering effects of administered hallucinogens and the trace amine receptors along with their endogenous hallucinogen ligands may serve an endogenous role in mediating sensory perception in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus the theory proposed states that these compounds act as true endogenous hallucinogenic transmitters acting in regions of the central nervous system involved in sensory perception.

  3. Pregnancy Specific Glycoprotein 17 Binds to the Extracellular Loop 2 of Its Receptor, CD9, and Induces the Secretion of IL-10, IL-6, PGE2, and TGFBeta1 in Murine Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    selective inhibitor, KT5720, significantly reduced the secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Recently, Baker provided evidence that a weak agonist of G-protein...Hypertension, 2003. 42(3): p. 335-41. 244. Grewal, J.S., et al., Serotonin 5- HT2A receptor induces TGF-beta1 expression in mesangial cells via ERK

  4. The flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic model of depression, show abnormal serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the brain that is reversed by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, M K; Overstreet, D H; Hurd, Y L

    1999-12-10

    The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in several limbic-related areas of ovariectomized FSL and FRL rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (0.15 microg/g) or vehicle. The FSL animals were shown to express significantly lower levels of the 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in the perirhinal cortex, piriform cortex, and medial anterodorsal amygdala and higher levels in the CA 2-3 region of the hippocampus. The only significant difference between the rat lines in ER mRNA expression was found in the medial posterodorsal amygdala, where the FSL rats showed lower ERalpha expression levels. Overall, estradiol treatment increased 5-HT(2A) and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in several of the examined regions of both lines. Thus, in many areas, estradiol was found to regulate the 5-HT receptor mRNA expression in the opposite direction to the alterations found in the FSL rats. These findings further support the implication of 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT(2A) subtype, in the etiology of affective disorders. Moreover, the ability of estradiol to regulate the expression of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes might account for the reported influence of gonadal hormones in mood and depression.

  5. Serotonin 2A and 2B receptor-induced phrenic motor facilitation: differential requirement for spinal NADPH oxidase activity

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, P.M.; Vinit, S.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) facilitates phrenic motor output by a mechanism that requires spinal serotonin (type 2) receptor activation, NADPH oxidase activity and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Episodic spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptor activation alone, without changes in oxygenation, is sufficient to elicit NADPH oxidase-dependent phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Here we investigated: 1) whether serotonin 2A and/or 2B (5-HT2a/b) receptors are expressed in identified phren...

  6. Serotonin 2A receptor agonist binding in the human brain with [(11)C]Cimbi-36: Test-retest reproducibility and head-to-head comparison with the antagonist [(18)F]altanserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettrup, Anders; Svarer, Claus; McMahon, Brenda; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Lehel, Szabolcs; Møller, Kirsten; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Ganz, Melanie; Beliveau, Vincent; Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Gillings, Nic; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-15

    [(11)C]Cimbi-36 is a recently developed serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand that has been successfully applied for human neuroimaging. Here, we investigate the test-retest variability of cerebral [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET and compare [(11)C]Cimbi-36 and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist [(18)F]altanserin. Sixteen healthy volunteers (mean age 23.9 ± 6.4years, 6 males) were scanned twice with a high resolution research tomography PET scanner. All subjects were scanned after a bolus of [(11)C]Cimbi-36; eight were scanned twice to determine test-retest variability in [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding measures, and another eight were scanned after a bolus plus constant infusion with [(18)F]altanserin. Regional differences in the brain distribution of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 and [(18)F]altanserin were assessed with a correlation of regional binding measures and with voxel-based analysis. Test-retest variability of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) was consistently test-retest reproducibility highlights the potential of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 for PET imaging of 5-HT2A receptor agonist binding in vivo. Our data suggest that Cimbi-36 and altanserin both bind to 5-HT2A receptors, but in regions with high 5-HT2C receptor density, choroid plexus and hippocampus, the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding likely represents binding to both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of serotonin 2A receptor as a novel HCV entry factor by a chemical biology strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin; Chen, Jizheng; Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Yuting; Qing, Jie; Rao, Zihe; Chen, Xinwen; Lou, Zhiyong

    2018-03-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy. The silencing of 5-HT 2A R and clinically available 5-HT 2A R antagonist suppress cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) in different liver cells and primary human hepatocytes at late endocytosis process. The mechanism is related to regulate the correct plasma membrane localization of claudin 1 (CLDN1). Moreover, phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), an FDA-approved 5-HT 2A R antagonist, inhibits all major HCV genotypes in vitro and displays synergy in combination with clinical used anti-HCV drugs. The impact of PBZ on HCV genotype 2a is documented in immune-competent humanized transgenic mice. Our results not only expand the understanding of HCV entry, but also present a promising target for the invention of HCV entry inhibitor.

  8. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Dreamlike effects of LSD on waking imagery in humans depend on serotonin 2A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Pokorny, Dan; Vollenweider, Leonie; Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the mixed serotonin and dopamine receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces an altered state of consciousness that resembles dreaming. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD produces dreamlike waking imagery and that this imagery depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audiorecorded guided mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally). Cognitive bizarreness of guided mental imagery reports was quantified as a standardised formal measure of dream mentation. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) questionnaire. LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased cognitive bizarreness (p LSD-induced increase in cognitive bizarreness was positively correlated with the LSD-induced loss of self-boundaries and cognitive control (p LSD-induced increases in cognitive bizarreness and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin. LSD produced mental imagery similar to dreaming, primarily via activation of the 5-HT2A receptor and in relation to loss of self-boundaries and cognitive control. Future psychopharmacological studies should assess the differential contribution of the D2/D1 and 5-HT1A receptors to cognitive bizarreness.

  10. Aromatic interactions impact ligand binding and function at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics results validated by experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Villa, Nancy; Fang, Lijuan; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family consists of types 2A, 2B, and 2C that share ∼75% transmembrane (TM) sequence identity. Agonists for 5-HT2C receptors are under development for psychoses; whereas, at 5-HT2A receptors, antipsychotic effects are associated with antagonists - in fact, 5-HT2A agonists can cause hallucinations and 5-HT2B agonists cause cardiotoxicity. It is known that 5-HT2A TM6 residues W6.48, F6.51, and F6.52 impact ligand binding and function; however, ligand interactions with these residues at the 5-HT2C receptor have not been reported. To predict and validate molecular determinants for 5-HT2C-specific activation, results from receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were compared with experimental results for ligand binding and function at wild type and W6.48A, F6.51A, and F6.52A point-mutated 5-HT2C receptors.

  11. Brain serotonin 2A receptor binding: Relations to body mass index, tobacco and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, D.; Frokjaer, V. G.; Haugbol, S.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulations of the serotonin levels in the brain can affect impulsive behavior and influence our reactivity to conditioned reinforcers. Eating, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption are reinforcers that are influenced by serotonergic neurotransmission; serotonergic hypofunction leads...... to increased food and alcohol intake, and conversely, stimulation of the serotonergic system induces weight reduction and decreased food/alcohol intake as well as tobacco smoking. To investigate whether body weight, alcohol intake and tobacco smoking were related to the regulation of the cerebral serotonin 2A...... receptor (5-HT(2A)) in humans, we tested in 136 healthy human subjects if body mass index (BMI), degree of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking was associated to the cerebral in vivo 5-HT(2A) receptor binding as measured with (18)F-altanserin PET. The subjects' BMI's ranged from 18.4 to 42.8 (25...

  12. 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D

    2014-01-01

    of serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding using highly specific radioligands ((3)H-escitalopram, (3)H-MDL100907 and (3)H-WAY100635) and mGlu2/3 receptor binding ((3)H-LY341495) using receptor autoradiography in fronto-cortical sections from RLA-I (n=8) and RHA-I (n=8) male rats...

  13. Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, decreases head-twitch behaviors and serotonin 2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex of isolation-stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Nishi, Akinori; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-05-26

    Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has recently been used to treat the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), including aggressiveness, excitability, and hallucination. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of yokukansan on BPSD using animals exhibiting hallucination-like behaviors. For this purpose, we initially examined whether chronic isolation stress increases the frequency of hallucination in response to a psychedelic drug. Using this animal model, we next examined the effects of yokukansan on drug-induced hallucination-like behaviors. Finally, we examined the density and mRNA levels of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors. Male mice were subjected to isolation stress for six weeks. Yokukansan was incorporated into food pellets, and administered to the mice for six weeks. In some experiments, yokukansan and each of seven constituent herbs were administered orally to the mice for the last two weeks during the six-week period of isolation stress. A 5-HT2A receptor agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, 2.5mg/kg), was injected into the mice, and head-twitch behaviors were quantified. The binding sites of 5-HT2A receptors on the plasma membrane of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were assessed by a receptor-binding assay using tritium-labeled ketanserin, and the density and affinity were calculated from a Scatchard plot. The level of mRNAs was measured by PCR analyses. Isolation stress enhanced the frequency of the DOI-induced head-twitch response, and yokukansan treatment by feeding significantly reduced this enhancement. Isolation stress significantly increased the 5-HT2A receptor density in the PFC, and yokukansan treatment by feeding as well as administration significantly down-regulated this increase. Isolation stress and yokukansan did not affect the affinity. Among seven constituent herbs, Bupleurum Root, Uncaria Hook, Japanese Angelica Root, and Glycyrrhiza down

  14. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-05-03

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses.

  15. Differential contributions of serotonin receptors to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Koedood, Liselore; Powell, Susan B; Geyer, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogen that acts as an agonist at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin, a hallucinogen that is currently being investigated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent. In the present investigation, we used a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches to identify the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes responsible for mediating the effects of psilocin on head twitch response (HTR) and the behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) in C57BL/6J mice. We also compared the effects of psilocin with those of the putative 5-HT(2C) receptor-selective agonist 1-methylpsilocin and the hallucinogen and non-selective serotonin receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). Psilocin, 1-methylpsilocin, and 5-MeO-DMT induced the HTR, effects that were absent in mice lacking the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene. When tested in the BPM, psilocin decreased locomotor activity, holepoking, and time spent in the center of the chamber, effects that were blocked by the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 but were not altered by the selective 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB 242,084 or by 5-HT(2A) receptor gene deletion. 5-MeO-DMT produced similar effects when tested in the BPM, and the action of 5-MeO-DMT was significantly attenuated by WAY-100635. Psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT also decreased the linearity of locomotor paths, effects that were mediated by 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1A) receptors, respectively. In contrast to psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT, 1-methylpsilocin (0.6-9.6 mg/kg) was completely inactive in the BPM. These findings confirm that psilocin acts as an agonist at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors in mice, whereas the behavioral effects of 1-methylpsilocin indicate that this compound is acting at 5-HT(2A) sites but is inactive at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. The fact that 1-methylpsilocin displays greater pharmacological selectivity than psilocin indicates that 1-methylpsilocin

  16. Receptor binding profiles and behavioral pharmacology of ring-substituted N,N-diallyltryptamine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Landon M; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Daley, Paul F; Brandt, Simon D; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2018-02-27

    Substantial effort has been devoted toward understanding the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamine hallucinogens, which are thought to be mediated by activation of 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 1A receptors. Recently, several psychoactive tryptamines based on the N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) scaffold have been encountered as recreational drugs. Despite the apparent widespread use of DALT derivatives in humans, little is known about their pharmacological properties. We compared the binding affinities of DALT and its 2-phenyl-, 4-acetoxy-, 4-hydroxy-, 5-methoxy-, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-, 5-bromo-, and 7-ethyl-derivatives at 45 receptor and transporter binding sites. Additionally, studies in C57BL/6 J mice examined whether these substances induce the head twitch response (HTR), a 5-HT 2A receptor-mediated response that is widely used as a behavioral proxy for hallucinogen effects in humans. Most of the test drugs bound to serotonin receptors, σ sites, α 2 -adrenoceptors, dopaminergic D 3 receptors, histaminergic H 1 receptors, and the serotonin transporter. DALT and several of the ring-substituted derivatives were active in the HTR assay with the following rank order of potency: 4-acetoxy-DALT > 5-fluoro-DALT > 5-methoxy-DALT > 4-hydroxy-DALT > DALT > 5-bromo-DALT. 2-Phenyl-DALT, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-DALT, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-DALT, and 7-ethyl-DALT did not induce the HTR. HTR potency was not correlated with either 5-HT 1A or 5-HT 2A receptor binding affinity, but a multiple regression analysis indicated that 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 1A receptors make positive and negative contributions, respectively, to HTR potency (R 2  = 0.8729). In addition to supporting the established role of 5-HT 2A receptors in the HTR, these findings are consistent with evidence that 5-HT 1A activation by tryptamine hallucinogens buffers their effects on HTR. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro an...

  18. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabotropic Glutamate2 Receptors Play a Key Role in Modulating Head Twitches Induced by a Serotonergic Hallucinogen in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Benvenga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that glutamate can modulate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A receptor activation through stimulation of metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Here we show that constitutive deletion of the mGlu2 gene profoundly attenuates an effect of 5-HT2A receptor activation using the mouse head twitch response (HTR. MGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor knockout (KO as well as age-matched ICR (CD-1 wild type (WT mice were administered (±1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI and observed for head twitch activity. DOI failed to produce significant head twitches in mGlu2 receptor KO mice at a dose 10-fold higher than the peak effective dose in WT or mGlu3 receptor KO mice. In addition, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268, and the mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM CBiPES, potently blocked the HTR to DOI in WT and mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Conversely, the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 (10 mg/kg increased the HTR produced by DOI (3 mg/kg in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Finally, the mGlu2 receptor potentiator CBiPES was able to attenuate the increase in the HTR produced by LY341495 in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Taken together, all of these results are consistent with the hypothesis that that DOI-induced head twitches are modulated by mGlu2 receptor activation. These results also are in keeping with a critical autoreceptor function for mGlu2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex with differential effects of acute vs. chronic perturbation (e.g., constitutive mGlu2 receptor KO mice. The robust attenuation of DOI-induced head twitches in the mGlu2 receptor KO mice appears to reflect the critical role of glutamate in ongoing regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Future experiments with inducible knockouts for the mGlu2 receptor and/or selective mGlu3 receptor agonists/PAMs/antagonists could provide an important tools in understanding glutamatergic modulation of

  20. The Effects of Repeated Low-Level Sarin Exposure on Muscarinic M1 Receptor Binding, Amyloid Precursor Protein Levels and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the subsequent accumulation of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh). Likewise, exposure to the potent cholinergic agonist BM 123...Rev. 1997; 21(5): 559-579. 25. Muller DM, Mendla K, Farber SA and Nitsch RM. Muscarinic M1 receptor agonists increase the secretion of the amyloid...precursor protein ectodomain. Life Sciences. 1997; 60:985-991. 26. Nitsch RM, Deng M, Growdon JH and Wurtman RJ. Serotonin 5- HT2a and 5-HT2c

  1. Suppression of piriform cortex activity in rat by corticotropin-releasing factor 1 and serotonin 2A/C receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi eNarla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The piriform cortex (PC is richly innervated by Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and Serotonin (5-HT containing axons arising from central amygdala and Raphe nucleus. CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/2CRs have been shown to interact in manner where CRFR activation subsequently potentiates the activity of 5-HT2A/2CRs. The purpose of this study was to determine how the activation of CRFR1 and/or 5-HT2Rs modulates PC activity at both the circuit and cellular level. Voltage sensitive dye imaging showed that CRF acting through CRFR1 dampened activation of the layer II of PC and interneurons of endopiriform nucleus. Application of the selective 5-HT2A/CR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI following CRFR1 activation potentiated this effect. Blocking the interaction between CRFR1 and 5-HT2R with a Tat-CRFR1-CT peptide abolished this potentiation. Application of forskolin did not mimic CRFR1 activity but instead blocked it, while a protein kinase A antagonist had no effect. However, activation and antagonism of protein kinase C (PKC either mimicked or blocked CRF modulation respectively. DOI had no effect when applied alone indicating that the prior activation of CRFR1 receptors was critical for DOI to show significant effects similar to CRF. Patch clamp recordings showed that both CRF and DOI reduced the synaptic responsiveness of layer II pyramidal neurons. CRF had highly variable effects on interneurons within layer III, both increasing and decreasing their excitability, but DOI had no effect on the excitability of this group of neurons. These data show that CRF and serotonin, acting through both CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/CRs, reduce the activation of the PC. This modulation may be an important blunting mechanism of stressor behaviours mediated through the olfactory cortex.

  2. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  3. Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Booth, Raymond G.; Morgan, Drake

    2013-01-01

    There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion, and the PATs did not alter locomotion. In vitro molecular pharmacology studies showed that 5-HT2C agonists potent for attenuating the DOI-elicited-HTR also reduced the efficacy of DOI to activate mouse 5-HT2C receptor-mediated PLC signaling in HEK cells. Although there were differences in affinities of a few compounds at mouse compared to human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, all compounds tested retained their selectivity for either receptor, regardless of receptor species. Results indicate that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in C57Bl/6J mice, and suggest that structurally diverse 5-HT2C ligands result in different 5-HT2C receptor signaling outcomes compared to DOI. PMID:23353901

  4. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes enhancing inhibitory transmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Du-Jie; Uta, Daisuke; Feng, Peng-Yu; Wakita, Masahito; Shin, Min-Chul; Furue, Hidemasa; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2012-08-20

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Bath applied 5-HT (50 μM) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5 μM) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba(2+) (1 mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT(2A) receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) agonists. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT(2B

  5. Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Increase Extracellular Histamine Levels in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Contribution of Histamine H1 Receptor Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell A Svensson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been shown to enhance histamine turnover and this effect has been hypothesized to contribute to their improved therapeutic profile compared to typical antipsychotics. In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs on histamine (HA efflux in the mPFC of the rat by means of in vivo microdialysis and sought to differentiate the receptor mechanisms which underlie such effects. Olanzapine and clozapine increased mPFC HA efflux in a dose related manner. Increased HA efflux was also observed after quetiapine, chlorpromazine and perphenazine treatment. We found no effect of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907, 5-HT2c antagonist SB242084 or the 5-HT6 antagonist Ro 04-6790 on mPFC HA efflux. HA efflux was increased following treatment with selective H1 receptor antagonists pyrilamine, diphenhydramine and triprolidine, the H3 receptor antagonist ciproxifan and the mixed 5HT2A/H1 receptor antagonist ketanserin. The potential novel antipsychotic drug FMPD, which has a lower affinity at H1 receptors than olanzapine, did not affect HA efflux. Similarly, other antipsychotics with lower H1 receptor affinity (risperidone, aripiprazole and haloperidol were also without effect on HA efflux. Perfusion of clozapine and pyrilamine into the TMN, but not the mPFC, increased local HA efflux. Finally, HA efflux after antipsychotic treatment was significantly correlated with affinity at H1 receptors whereas 9 other receptors, including 5-HT2A, were not. These results demonstrate that both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase mPFC histamine efflux and this effect may be mediated via antagonism of histamine H1 receptors.

  6. Possible involvement of 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptors in acceleration of gastrointestinal transit by escin Ib in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2000-01-01

    We have reported previously that escin Ib accelerated gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in mice, and that its effect may be mediated by the release of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the possible involvement of 5-HT and 5-HT receptors in the GIT acceleration of escin Ib was investigated in mice. The acceleration of GIT by escin Ib (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was attenuated by pretreatment with ritanserin (0.5-5 mg/kg, s.c., a 5-HT(2A/2C/2B) receptor antagonist), but not with MDL 72222 (1 and 5 mg/kg, s.c.) and metoclopramide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) (5-HT3 receptor antagonists) or tropisetron (1 and 10 mg/kg, s.c., a 5-HT(3/4) receptor antagonist). Furthermore, pretreatment with ketanserin (0.05-5 mg/kg, s.c.), haloperidol (1-5 mg/kg, s.c.) and spiperone (0.5-5 mg/kg, s.c.) (5-HT2A receptor antagonists), as well as a bolus of dl-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 1000 mg/kg, p.o., 1, 6 or 24 h before administration of the sample) (an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase) and reserpine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) (a 5-HT depletor), but not 6-hydroxydopamine (80 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine depletor) or repeated PCPA (300 mg/kg x2, p.o., 72 and 48 h before administration of the sample), also attenuated the effects of escin Ib. It is postulated that escin Ib accelerates GIT, at least in part, by stimulating the synthesis of 5-HT to act through 5-HT2, possibly 5-HT2A receptors, which in turn causes the release of NO and PGs.

  7. A case of 25I-NBOMe (25-I) intoxication: a new potent 5-HT2A agonist designer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S Rutherfoord; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2013-03-01

    Abuse of synthetic stimulant compounds resulting in significant toxicity is being increasingly reported by poison centers. Toxicologic assessment is complicated by inconsistent manufacturing processes and limited laboratory testing. We describe a case of self-reported exposure to 25-I (25I-NBOMe), a novel phenethylamine derivative, with subsequent quantification in serum. An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with severe agitation and hallucinations after jumping out of a moving car. He was tachycardiac (150-160 bpm) and hypertensive (150-170 mm Hg systolic and 110 mg Hg diastolic), and required physical restraints and treatment with intravenous lorazepam administration. His symptoms gradually improved and vital signs returned to normal over 48 h, though he continued to have episodes of aggressiveness. An assay was developed by our analytical toxicology laboratory for 25-I, and serum obtained during ED evaluation and treatment was found to contain 0.76 ng/ml of 25-I. Case discussion. For 25I-NBOMe, 25-I is a common abbreviation for 25I-NBOMe, which is a (n-benzyl) phenethylamine in the 2C "family."Initially synthesized for research, cases of self-reported use of 25-I have recently appeared in the literature, some of which contain qualitative urine confirmation. There are no commercially available quantitative assays, and no previous reports have published serum concentrations. 25-I is a potent new synthetic drug with apparent significant behavioral toxicity that can be detected and quantified in serum.

  8. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two cases of mild serotonin toxicity via 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama H

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hiroto Nakayama,1,* Sumiyo Umeda,2,* Masashi Nibuya,3 Takeshi Terao,4 Koichi Nisijima,5 Soichiro Nomura3 1Yamaguchi Prefecture Mental Health Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Jichi University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We propose the possibility of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A receptor involvement in mild serotonin toxicity. A 64-year-old woman who experienced hallucinations was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day. She also complained of depressed mood and was prescribed paroxetine (10 mg/day. She exhibited finger tremors, sweating, coarse shivering, hyperactive knee jerks, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, and psychomotor agitation. After the discontinuation of paroxetine and perospirone, the symptoms disappeared. Another 81-year-old woman, who experienced delusions, was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day. Depressive symptoms appeared and paroxetine (10 mg/day was added. She exhibited tachycardia, finger tremors, anxiety, agitation, and hyperactive knee jerks. The symptoms disappeared after the cessation of paroxetine and perospirone. Recently, the effectiveness of coadministrating 5-HT1A agonistic psychotropics with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs has been reported, and SSRIs with 5-HT1A agonistic activity have been newly approved in the treatment of depression. Perospirone is a serotonin–dopamine antagonist and agonistic on the 5-HT1A receptors. Animal studies have indicated that mild serotonin excess induces low body temperature through 5-HT1A, whereas severe serotonin excess induces high body temperature through 5-HT2A activation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that mild serotonin excess induces side effects

  10. Serotonin(2) receptors mediate respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord hemisection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Y; Basura, G J; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to specifically investigate the involvement of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(2))] receptors in 5-HT-mediated respiratory recovery after cervical hemisection. Experiments were conducted on C(2) spinal cord-hemisected, anesthetized (chloral hydrate, 400 mg/kg ip), vagotomized, pancuronium- paralyzed, and artificially ventilated female Sprague-Dawley rats in which CO(2) levels were monitored and maintained. Twenty-four hours after spinal hemisection, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve displayed no respiratory-related activity indicative of a functionally complete hemisection. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C)-receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) induced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection under conditions in which CO(2) was maintained at constant levels and augmented the activity induced under conditions of hypercapnia. The eff